WorldWideScience

Sample records for generalized relaxation behavior

  1. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Applied Relaxation for Adults With Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dugas, Michel J.; Brillon, Pascale; Savard, Pierre; Turcotte, Julie; Gaudet, Adrienne; Ladouceur,Robert; Leblanc, Renée; Gervais, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), applied relaxation (AR), and wait-list control (WL) in a sample of 65 adults with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The CBT condition was based on the intolerance of uncertainty model of GAD, whereas the AR condition was based on general theories of anxiety. Both manualized treatments were administered over 12 weekly 1-hour sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report questionnaire...

  2. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and applied relaxation for adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michel J; Brillon, Pascale; Savard, Pierre; Turcotte, Julie; Gaudet, Adrienne; Ladouceur, Robert; Leblanc, Renée; Gervais, Nicole J

    2010-03-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), applied relaxation (AR), and wait-list control (WL) in a sample of 65 adults with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The CBT condition was based on the intolerance of uncertainty model of GAD, whereas the AR condition was based on general theories of anxiety. Both manualized treatments were administered over 12 weekly 1-hour sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report questionnaires were used to assess GAD and related symptoms at pretest, posttest, and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-ups. At posttest, CBT was clearly superior to WL, AR was marginally superior to WL, and CBT was marginally superior to AR. Over follow-up, CBT and AR were equivalent, but only CBT led to continued improvement. Thus, direct comparisons of CBT and AR indicated that the treatments were comparable; however, comparisons of each treatment with another point of reference (either waiting list or no change over follow-up) provided greater support for the efficacy of CBT than AR. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  4. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Comparison of Symptom Change in Adults Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Applied Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…

  5. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R M Pickup; R Cywinski; C Pappas; P Fouquet; B Farago; P Falus

    2008-11-01

    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. A global and unified approach to non-exponentiality was first achieved by Weron and was further generalized by Brouers and Sotolongo-Costa, who applied the concept of non-extensive entropy introduced by Tsallis to the relaxation of disordered systems. These concepts are now confronted with experimental results on the classical metallic spin glasses CuMn, AuFe and the insulating system EuSrS. The revisited data have also be complemented by new results on several compositions of the classical CuMn spin glass and on systems, like CoGa and CuCo, the magnetic behaviour of which is believed to arise from magnetic clusters and should be characteristic for superparamagnetism.

  6. A generalized Cauchy process and its application to relaxation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Li Ming [School of Information Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200026 (China)

    2006-03-24

    We study some of the basic properties of a generalized Cauchy process indexed by two parameters. The application of the Lamperti transformation to the generalized Cauchy process leads to a self-similar process which preserves the long-range dependence. The asymptotic properties of spectral density of the process are derived. Possible application of this process to model relaxation phenomena is considered.

  7. Inversion of generalized relaxation time distributions with optimized damping parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsch, Nicolas; Revil, André; Camerlynck, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Retrieving the Relaxation Time Distribution (RDT), the Grains Size Distribution (GSD) or the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) from low-frequency impedance spectra is a major goal in geophysics. The “Generalized RTD” generalizes parametric models like Cole-Cole and many others, but remains tricky to invert since this inverse problem is ill-posed. We propose to use generalized relaxation basis function (for instance by decomposing the spectra on basis of generalized Cole-Cole relaxation elements instead of the classical Debye basis) and to use the L-curve approach to optimize the damping parameter required to get smooth and realistic inverse solutions. We apply our algorithm to three examples, one synthetic and two real data sets, and the program includes the possibility of converting the RTD into GSD or PSD by choosing the value of the constant connecting the relaxation time to the characteristic polarization size of interest. A high frequencies (typically above 1 kHz), a dielectric term in taken into account in the model. The code is provided as an open Matlab source as a supplementary file associated with this paper.

  8. Reductions in experiential avoidance as a mediator of change in symptom outcome and quality of life in acceptance-based behavior therapy and applied relaxation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Elizabeth H; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    As a field, we lack information about specific mechanisms that are responsible for changes that occur over the course of treatments for anxiety disorders (Kazdin, 2007). Identifying these mechanisms would help streamline evidence-based approaches, increase treatment response rates, and aid in the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based approaches in diverse contexts. The current study examined reductions in experiential avoidance (EA; Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996), attempts to control or eliminate distressing internal experiences, regardless of behavioral consequences, as a potential mechanism of change in participants with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) receiving either acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) or applied relaxation (AR). Participants' EA scores across treatment on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) were used to calculate slopes, which were used as predictors in a series of linear regressions. Greater change in EA across treatment significantly predicted change in worry (PSWQ) and quality of life (QOLI) across both treatments. These results contribute to the body of literature on common mechanisms of change across traditional CBTs and mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches.

  9. Relaxation of polymers modeled by generalized Husimi cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiceanu, M.

    2010-07-01

    We focus on the generalized Husimi cacti, which are dual structures to the dendrimers but, distinct from the latter, contain loops. We determine their complete spectra by making use of the normal mode analysis. These spectra have been used in computing some physical quantities, such as the averaged monomer displacement and the mechanical relaxation moduli with its two components: the storage and the loss modulus. We also study the dynamics of Husimi cacti in solutions, introducing the hydrodynamic interactions in a preaveraged Oseen fashion, the so-called Zimm model. We observe that the relaxation quantities mentioned above do not scale, in the presence or in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions. Our results show that all the relaxation forms depend on the number of monomers in the networks in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions (Rouse model), while by taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions the results do not vary too much.

  10. Relaxation of polymers modeled by generalized Husimi cacti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiceanu, M, E-mail: mircea@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-07-30

    We focus on the generalized Husimi cacti, which are dual structures to the dendrimers but, distinct from the latter, contain loops. We determine their complete spectra by making use of the normal mode analysis. These spectra have been used in computing some physical quantities, such as the averaged monomer displacement and the mechanical relaxation moduli with its two components: the storage and the loss modulus. We also study the dynamics of Husimi cacti in solutions, introducing the hydrodynamic interactions in a preaveraged Oseen fashion, the so-called Zimm model. We observe that the relaxation quantities mentioned above do not scale, in the presence or in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions. Our results show that all the relaxation forms depend on the number of monomers in the networks in the absence of the hydrodynamic interactions (Rouse model), while by taking into account the hydrodynamic interactions the results do not vary too much.

  11. Shear stress relaxation of dental ceramics determined from creep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that shear stress relaxation functions of dental ceramics can be determined from creep functions measured in a beam-bending viscometer. Stress relaxation behavior was determined from creep data for the following materials: (1) a veneering ceramic-IPS Empress2 body ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental veneering ceramic (EXV); (3) a low expansion body porcelain-Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain (VB); (4) a high expansion body porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic body porcelain (WCB); (5) a medium expansion opaque porcelain-Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) a high expansion opaque porcelain-Will Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain (WCO). Laplace transform techniques were used to relate shear stress relaxation functions to creep functions for an eight-parameter, discrete viscoelastic model. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to fit a four-term exponential relaxation function for each material at each temperature. The relaxation functions were utilized in the ANSYS finite element program to simulate creep behavior in three-point bending for each material at each temperature. Shear stress relaxation times at 575 degrees C ranged from 0.03 s for EXV to 195 s for WCO. Knowledge of the shear relaxation functions for dental ceramics at high temperatures is required input for the viscoelastic element in the ANSYS finite element program, which can used to determine transient and residual stresses in dental prostheses during fabrication.

  12. Strain aging and load relaxation behavior of type 316 stainless steel at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, S. P.; Korhonen, M. A.; Li, C. Y.

    1986-10-01

    The strain aging and load relaxation behavior of type 316 stainless steel (SS) at room temperature were studied. It is shown that rapid aging occurs in 316 SS at room temperature to an extent that affects the load relaxation behavior of the material. Qualitatively, the aging behavior was found to agree with those reported earlier for Fe-Ni-C-alloys, and the observed aging characteristics could be explained by using an earlier proposed vacancy-interstitial mechanism. The load relaxation behavior is analyzed in terms of Hart’s state variable model. Effects of strain aging and strain hardening on the load relaxation behavior and the scaling of the relaxation curves are determined. It is shown that aging can be accounted for by a time-dependent change in a model parameter, which is dependent on the mobile dislocation density and the dislocation mobility. In addition, a dependency on plastic state of the same parameter previously held constant was found. It is concluded that this phenomenon, which in 316 SS could be rationalized in terms of increasing forest dislocation density, is likely to be more general, and a provision for it should be made in the state variable theory.

  13. Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Yin, Shuai; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M0. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M0 under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M0 previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.

  14. Convex Relaxations for a Generalized Chan-Vese Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Egil

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the Chan-Vese model of image segmentation with a focus on the encoding with several integer-valued labeling functions. We relate several representations with varying amount of complexity and demonstrate the connection to recent relaxations for product sets and to dual maxflow-based formulations. For some special cases, it can be shown that it is possible to guarantee binary minimizers. While this is not true in general, we show how to derive a convex approximation of the combinatorial problem for more than 4 phases. We also provide a method to avoid overcounting of boundaries in the original Chan-Vese model without departing from the efficient product-set representation. Finally, we derive an algorithm to solve the associated discretized problem, and demonstrate that it allows to obtain good approximations for the segmentation problem with various number of regions. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Modeling of stress relaxation of a semi-crystalline multiblock copolymer and its deformation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wan; Fang, Liang; Heuchel, Matthias; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Stress relaxation can strongly influence the shape-memory capability of polymers. Recently a modified Maxwell-Wiechert model comprising two Maxwell units and a single spring unit in parallel has been introduced to successfully describe the shape recovery characteristics of amorphous polyether urethanes. In this work we explored whether such a modified Maxwell-Wiechert model is capable to describe the stress relaxation behavior of a semi-crystalline multiblock copolymer named PCL-PIBMD, which consists of crystallizable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) segments and crystallizable poly(3S-isobutylmorpholine-2,5-dione) (PIBMD) segments. The stress relaxation behavior of PCL-PIBMD was explored after uniaxial deformation to different strains ranging from 50 to 900% with various strain rates of 1 or 10 or 50 mm·min -1. The modeling results indicated that under the assumption that in PCL-PIBMD both PCL and PIBMD blocks have narrow molecular weight distributions and are arranged in sequence, the two relaxation processes can be related to the amorphous PCL and PIBMD domains and the spring element can be associated to the PIBMD crystalline domains. The first Maxwell unit representing the faster relaxation process characterized by the modulus E1 and the relaxation time τ1 is related to the amorphous PCL domains (which are in the rubbery state), while the second Maxwell unit (E2 ; τ2) represents the behavior of the amorphous PIBMD domains, which are in the glassy state at 50 °C. Increasing strain rates resulted in an increase of E1 and a significant reduction in τ1, whereas the elastic modulus as well as the relaxation time related to the amorphous PIBMD domains remained almost constant. When a higher deformation was applied (ɛ ≥ 200% ) lower values for the elastic moduli of the three model elements were obtained. In general the applied model was also capable to describe the relaxation behavior of PCL-PIBMD at a deformation temperature of 20 °C, where additional crystalline

  16. Stress relaxation behavior of dental porcelains at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, P H; Vontivillu, S B; Wang, Z; Anusavice, K J

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the stress relaxation behavior at elevated temperatures of three experimental opaque porcelains and three experimental body porcelains. Feldspathic porcelain formulations covering a range of thermal contraction coefficients were supplied by a dental ceramics manufacturer. Six specimens, 11 mm in diameter by 22 mm long, were fabricated for each porcelain. The specimens were tested in compression at five temperatures controlled to +/- 1 degree C in a hot stage furnace attached to a screw-type uni-axial testing machine. Mean values of relaxation time, tau u, and the b function were determined by a regression fit to the relation: psi (t) = exp [-(t/tau u)b]. Values of b ranged from 0.23 to 0.53 for opaque porcelain and 0.47 to 0.64 for body porcelain. Relaxation times ranged from 2.6 s to 4 x 10(4) s for the opaque porcelains and 1.5 s to 5.5 x 10(2) s for the body porcelains. A statistically significant variation of b with temperature for three of the experimental porcelains is an indication that these porcelains do not satisfy the theoretical requirements for the porcelains to be classified as thermorheologically simple. A knowledge of the relaxation behavior of dental porcelains is necessary so that dental researchers can identify metal/porcelain combinations that will result in low stress values and, therefore, reduce the potential for failure from thermally induced stresses. These properties can be used in the optimization of prosthesis design to reduce the destruction of healthy tissue to accommodate the placement of the dental prosthesis.

  17. Dielectric relaxation behavior of Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock: A hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Bore, Thierry; Robinet, Jean-Charles; Coelho, Daniel; Taillade, Frederic; Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Water content is a key parameter to monitor in nuclear waste repositories such as the planed underground repository in Bure, France, in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay formation. High-frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques, i.e., time or frequency domain reflectometry, offer useful tools for quantitative estimation of water content in porous media. However, despite the efficiency of HF-EM methods, the relationship between water content and dielectric material properties needs to be characterized. Moreover, the high amount of swelling clay in the COx clay leads to dielectric relaxation effects which induce strong dispersion coupled with high absorption of EM waves. Against this background, the dielectric relaxation behavior of the clay rock was studied at frequencies from 1 MHz to 10 GHz with network analyzer technique in combination with coaxial transmission line cells. For this purpose, undisturbed and disturbed clay rock samples were conditioned to achieve a water saturation range from 0.16 to nearly saturation. The relaxation behavior was quantified based on a generalized fractional relaxation model under consideration of an apparent direct current conductivity assuming three relaxation processes: a high-frequency water process and two interface processes which are related to interactions between the aqueous pore solution and mineral particles (adsorbed/hydrated water relaxation, counter ion relaxation and Maxwell-Wagner effects). The frequency-dependent HF-EM properties were further modeled based on a novel hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach developed for soils. The results show the potential of HF-EM techniques for quantitative monitoring of the hydraulic state in underground repositories in clay formations.

  18. Stress Relaxation Behavior and Springback Equation of 7050 Aluminum Alloys During Age-forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REN Wei-wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stress relaxation behavior and springback equation of 7050 aluminum alloys during the age-forming process were studied through self-designed uniaxial tension device. The results show that in traditional aging temperature, the stress relaxation curve of 7050 aluminum alloys exhibits a classical logarithmic decrement curve. The stress relaxation process can be divided into three stages, which are the initial stress decayed fast stage, the subsequent stress slowly decayed stage and the stress constantly maintained stage, respectively. Stress relaxation limit of 7050 aluminum alloys decreases with increasing aging temperature. The threshold stress presents during the stress relaxation process due to the interaction between precipitation behavior and dislocation creep of 7050 aluminum alloys. The stress relaxation equation of 7050 aluminum alloys is obtained through resolving the feature and Taylor equation of relaxation process, and using the stress relaxation equation can precisely predict the springback of workpiece after age-forming.

  19. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: Multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia...... per unit mass. In the regime of large moment of inertia the fast relaxation is wave-vector independent and dominated by the coupling between spin and the fluid streaming velocity, whereas for small inertia the relaxation is slow and spin diffusion plays a significant role. The fast wave...

  20. Variability in the relaxation behavior of glass: Impact of thermal history fluctuations and fragility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2017-02-01

    Glasses are nonequilibrium materials that continuously relax toward the metastable supercooled liquid state. As such, the properties of a glass depend on both its composition and thermal history. When an initially cooled glass is subjected to additional thermal cycles, relaxation during the heat treatment is accelerated, leading to changes in the macroscopic properties of the glass. This relaxation behavior is intrinsic to the glassy state and of critical interest to the high-tech glass industry. In many practical cases, the magnitude of the relaxation is less important than the variability of the relaxation effects due to slight variations in the thermal history experienced by the glass. These fluctuations in thermal history can occur either during the initial glass formation or during the subsequent heat treatment cycle(s). Here we calculate the variation in relaxation behavior using a detailed enthalpy landscape model, showing that the relaxation variability can be reduced dramatically by increasing the fragility of the system.

  1. The Elliott-Yafet theory of spin relaxation generalized for large spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Annamária; Szolnoki, Lénard; Simon, Ferenc

    2016-03-01

    We generalize the Elliott-Yafet (EY) theory of spin relaxation in metals with inversion symmetry for the case of large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The EY theory treats the SOC to the lowest order but this approach breaks down for metals of heavy elements (such as e.g. caesium or gold), where the SOC energy is comparable to the relevant band-band separation energies. The generalized theory is presented for a four-band model system without band dispersion, where analytic formulae are attainable for arbitrary SOC for the relation between the momentum- and spin-relaxation rates. As an extended description, we also consider an empirical pseudopotential approximation where SOC is deduced from the band potential (apart from an empirical scaling constant) and the spin-relaxation rate can be obtained numerically. Both approaches recover the usual EY theory for weak SOC and give that the spin-relaxation rate approaches the momentum-relaxation rate in the limit of strong SOC. We argue that this limit is realized in gold by analyzing spin relaxation data. A calculation of the g-factor shows that the empirical Elliott-relation, which links the g-factor and spin-relaxation rate, is retained even for strong SOC.

  2. STUDY ON INTERMITTENT SHEAR FLOW AND RELAXATION BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Bing Yu; Chi-Xing Zhou; Wei Yu

    2005-01-01

    Intermittent shear flow including start-up flow and small oscillatory amplitude time sweep or stress relaxation after cessation of shear flow was used to study the rheological behavior and internal structure of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP). There are two kinds of intermittent shear flow: all start-up flows are in the same direction (intermittent flow forward: IFF) and start-up flows change their directions alternately (intermittent flow reversal: IFR). The results show that the stress of start-up flow of IFF and IFR in the test process is not superposed, indicating different changes of internal structure of thermotropic LCP (TLCP). Two main factors affect structure changes in the experimental time scale. One relates to long-term texture relaxation process, the other is an interchain reaction that becomes important after 30 min. The two factors raise the stress of IFF, but express complex effects for the stress of IFR. The latter factor becomes very important at long time annealing process. The relaxation behavior was also studied by the application of wide range relaxation spectrum calculated from the combined dynamic modulus, which gave three characteristic relaxation times (0.3, 10 and 600 s)ascribable to the relaxations of less-phase orientation, domain orientation, and domain deformation, respectively. The result also shows that the domain coalescence (texture relaxation), a long relaxation time, is a much slow process and lasts beyond 2400 s of the test time.

  3. Novel collective magnetic relaxation phenomena in manganites: a spin-glass behavior?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: farivas@usc.es; Rivadulla, F. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Quintela, M.A. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2004-12-31

    Here we address many of the fundamental open questions regarding the glassy behavior of the magnetic/electronic phase segregated state in rare earth perovskites. Magnetic relaxation (AC/DC) support a scenario in which collective effects (memory, ageing, etc.) can be understood as due to intercluster interactions. We propose that the phase segregated state (PSS) constitutes a sort of self-generated assembly of magnetic clusters in which the magnetic interaction introduces collectivity among them. The strength of the interactions can be tuned by composition and/or magnetic field, through the control of the size and concentration of the magnetic clusters. These results are general, applicable to other systems close to a localized to itinerant transition, like cobaltates, cuprates, etc.

  4. Novel collective magnetic relaxation phenomena in manganites: a spin-glass behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J.; Rivadulla, F.; López-Quintela, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Here we address many of the fundamental open questions regarding the glassy behavior of the magnetic/electronic phase segregated state in rare earth perovskites. Magnetic relaxation (AC/DC) support a scenario in which collective effects (memory, ageing, etc.) can be understood as due to intercluster interactions. We propose that the phase segregated state (PSS) constitutes a sort of self-generated assembly of magnetic clusters in which the magnetic interaction introduces collectivity among them. The strength of the interactions can be tuned by composition and/or magnetic field, through the control of the size and concentration of the magnetic clusters. These results are general, applicable to other systems close to a localized to itinerant transition, like cobaltates, cuprates, etc.

  5. Uniqueness of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation behaviors for soft clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱启银; 尹振宇; 徐长节; 殷建华; 夏小和

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the uniqueness of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation behaviors for soft clays under one-dimensional condition. An elasto-viscoplastic model is briefly introduced based on the rate-dependency of preconsolidation pressure. By comparing the rate-dependency formulation with the creep based formulation, the relationship between rate-dependency and creep behaviors is firstly described. The rate-dependency based formulation is then extended to derive an analytical solution for the stress relaxation behavior with defining a stress relaxation coefficient. Based on this, the relationship between the rate-dependency coefficient and the stress relaxation coefficient is derived. Therefore, the uniqueness between behaviors of rate-dependency, creep and stress relaxation with their key parameters is obtained. The uniqueness is finally validated by comparing the simulated rate-dependency of preconsolidation pressure, the estimated values of secondary compression coefficient and simulations of stress relaxation tests with test results on both reconstituted Illite and Berthierville clay.

  6. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  7. Single-exponential activation behavior behind the super-Arrhenius relaxations in glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen; Li, Jiangong; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2010-11-17

    The reported relaxation time for several typical glass-forming liquids was analyzed by using a kinetic model for liquids which invoked a new kind of atomic cooperativity--thermodynamic cooperativity. The broadly studied 'cooperative length' was recognized as the kinetic cooperativity. Both cooperativities were conveniently quantified from the measured relaxation data. A single-exponential activation behavior was uncovered behind the super-Arrhenius relaxations for the liquids investigated. Hence the mesostructure of these liquids and the atomic mechanism of the glass transition became clearer.

  8. The generalized Phillips-Twomey method for NMR relaxation time inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Xiao, Lizhi; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Qingming

    2016-10-01

    The inversion of NMR relaxation time involves the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Due to its ill-posedness, numerical solutions to this type of equations are often found much less accurate and bear little resemblance to the true solution. There has been a strong interest in finding a well-posed method for this ill-posed problem since 1950s. In this paper, we prove the existence, the uniqueness, the stability and the convergence of the generalized Phillips-Twomey regularization method for solving this type of equations. Numerical simulations and core analyses arising from NMR transverse relaxation time inversion are conducted to show the effectiveness of the generalized Phillips-Twomey method. Both the simulation results and the core analyses agree well with the model and the realities.

  9. Equivalence of LP Relaxation and Max-Product for Weighted Matching in General Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghavi, Sujay

    2007-01-01

    Max-product belief propagation is a local, iterative algorithm to find the mode/MAP estimate of a probability distribution. While it has been successfully employed in a wide variety of applications, there are relatively few theoretical guarantees of convergence and correctness for general loopy graphs that may have many short cycles. Of these, even fewer provide exact ``necessary and sufficient'' characterizations. In this paper we investigate the problem of using max-product to find the maximum weight matching in an arbitrary graph with edge weights. This is done by first constructing a probability distribution whose mode corresponds to the optimal matching, and then running max-product. Weighted matching can also be posed as an integer program, for which there is an LP relaxation. This relaxation is not always tight. In this paper we show that \\begin{enumerate} \\item If the LP relaxation is tight, then max-product always converges, and that too to the correct answer. \\item If the LP relaxation is loose, the...

  10. Adverse reactions to suxamethonium and other muscle relaxants under general anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervloet, D.; Nizankowska, E.; Arnaud, A.; Senft, M.; Alazia, M.; Charpin, J.

    1983-06-01

    The mechanisms of anaphylactic reactions to muscle relaxants under general anesthesia are not completely understood. Extending an earlier study, we report 41 cases of anaphylactic shock investigated by intradermal skin tests with muscle relaxants (suxamethonium, pancuronium, gallamine, nortoxiferine), in vitro leukocyte histamine release, and Prausnitz-Kuestner tests. Intradermal tests were significantly positive at concentrations ranging from 10 to 10(5) times less than those in controls. Reproducibility tested for suxamethonium at a 1-year interval in five patients was good. Histamine release induced by muscle relaxants in Tris-albumin-Ca++-Mg++ buffer showed positive results in 8/25 instances and was inhibited by antigen excess in seven cases. Addition of 50% deuterium oxide (D2O) caused significant increase of histamine release in positive cases and induced release in all five negative cases studied. Muscle relaxant-induced histamine release was inhibited by in vitro anti-IgE leukocyte desensitization. The mean maximal histamine release dropped from 58.2% +/- 9.7 to 5.8% +/- 2 (p less than 0.01). Similarly, leukocyte desensitization also inhibited histamine release induced by anti-IgE but not by formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine or poly-L-arginine. Prausnitz-Kuestner tests were positive in five out of 21 cases studied and became negative after heat inactivation. These results confirm the usefulness of intradermal skin tests in diagnosis of patients' reaction to muscle relaxants and suggest an IgE-mediated rather than an idiosyncratic mechanism.

  11. Behavioral Relaxation Training for Parkinson's Disease Related Dyskinesia and Comorbid Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of brief Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) on anxiety and dyskinesia of a 57-year-old female, with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 18-months post-deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, were evaluated. Multiple process and outcome measures were used including the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS),…

  12. Linear viscoelastic behavior of enzymatically modified guar gum solutions: structure, relaxations and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, R.H.W.; Duits, M.H.G.; Bakker, J.W.P.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Mellema, J.

    2001-01-01

    To gain more insight into the mechanisms of stress relaxation in aqueous guar gum solutions, we investigated the effect of chemical modifications of the polymer and of the solvent on the linear viscoelastic behavior in different regions of the frequency domain. Interchain bonding could be ruled out

  13. A Fresh Look at Potential Mechanisms of Change in Applied Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Usmani, Aisha; Lee, Jonathan K.; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Applied relaxation (AR), which involves noticing early signs of anxiety and responding with a relaxation response, is an empirically supported treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, research on hypothesized mechanisms of AR (e.g., reduced muscle tension) has been mixed, making it likely that additional mechanisms are…

  14. Molecular relaxation behavior and isothermal crystallization above glass transition temperature of amorphous hesperetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relaxation behavior of amorphous hesperetin (HRN), using dielectric spectroscopy, and assessment of its crystallization kinetics above glass transition temperature (Tg ). Amorphous HRN exhibited both local (β-) and global (α-) relaxations. β-Relaxation was observed below Tg , whereas α-relaxation prominently emerged above Tg . β-Relaxation was found to be of Johari-Goldstein type and was correlated with α-process by coupling model. Secondly, isothermal crystallization experiments were performed at 363 K (Tg + 16.5 K), 373 K (Tg + 26.5 K), and 383 K (Tg + 36.5 K). The kinetics of crystallization, obtained from the normalized dielectric strength, was modeled using the Avrami model. Havriliak-Negami (HN) shape parameters, αHN and αHN .βHN , were analyzed during the course of crystallization to understand the dynamics of amorphous phase during the emergence of crystallites. HN shape parameters indicated that long range (α-like) were motions affected to a greater extent than short range (β-like) motions during isothermal crystallization studies at all temperature conditions. The variable behavior of α-like motions at different isothermal crystallization temperatures was attributed to evolving crystallites with time and increase in electrical conductivity with temperature.

  15. Effect Of Relaxation Education, Based on Theory of planned behavior On students’ painful dismenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common problems in females. “Theory of Planned Behavior” is one of the important theories that explains the main process of adopting health behaviors. The present study assessed applying “ the Theory of Planned Behavior in relaxation training regarding the  severity and duration of painful dysmenorrhea in Mashhad girl students. Materials and Methods: In this Semi-experimental study, 160  first year intermediate students of Mashhad city w...

  16. Generalized effective medium theory and dielectric relaxation in particle-filled polymeric resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Christian

    2002-03-01

    Dielectric relaxation in disordered solids continue to be in the focus due to the important technological applications in the context of microwave and optical remote sensing and communication. The pragmatic philosophy of the present article is to use a combination of Jonscher's phenomenological equations with a generalized effective medium equation, due to McLachlan, to study the microwave relaxation dynamics in a technologically interesting system, i.e., a particle-filled polymeric resin. The introduction of a small number of parameters (critical exponents s and t, conductivity threshold φc) into the standard Bruggeman effective medium equation dramatically improves its predictive power. This approach, termed the McLachlan-Jonscher model, has the potential to be quite flexible and is very sensitive to the values of the critical exponents s, t and of the conductivity threshold φc. Furthermore, a comparison of the calculated complex effective permittivity for a series of carbon black-filled polymers with experimental results shows that it can accurately describe the microwave response over a broad range of volume fraction of carbon black. These considerations illustrate the potential for using this coarse grained model to help understand the dielectric relaxation of particle dispersions in polymeric matrixes.

  17. Analysis of pulse and relaxation behavior in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Dawn M.; Go, Joo-Young

    A mathematical model of a lithium-ion cell is used to analyze pulse and relaxation behavior in cells designed for hybrid-electric-vehicle propulsion. Predictions of cell voltage show good agreement with experimental results. Model results indicate the ohmic voltage loss in the positive electrode is the dominant contributor to cell overvoltage in the first instances of a pulse. The concentration overvoltage associated with the reduced lithium in the solid phase of the positive is of secondary importance through pulse duration, but dominates after current interruption. Effects of anisotropy in the particle diffusion coefficient are also studied. Heaviside mollification functions are utilized to describe the thermodynamic open-circuit voltage of lithiated graphite, and the "pleated-layer model" is extended to realize the phase behavior of primary-particle aggregates during cell operation. The negative electrode contributes little to the cell overvoltage, and two-phase behavior results in a reaction front within the electrode. No voltage relaxation is associated with the negative electrode, and after full relaxation, a stable composition gradient of lithium exists throughout the solid phase. Internal galvanic coupling removes the composition gradients in the positive electrode during relaxation.

  18. Stress Relaxation Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Composites at Elevated Temperature and Analysis Using Viscoplasticity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masamichi; Kazama, Takeshi; Masuko, Yoichi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Jun; Kemmochi, Kiyoshi

    Off-axis stress relaxation behavior of unidirectional T800H/3631 carbon/epoxy composite exposed to high temperature is examined at relatively high tensile strain levels, and a phenomenological viscoplasticity model is tested on the capability to describe the time-dependent response observed. First, stress relaxation tests are performed at 100°C on plain coupon specimens with different fiber orientations, θ=0, 10, 30, 45, and 90°. For each of the fiber orientations, in principle, stress relaxation tests are carried out at three different strain levels. The relaxation of axial stress in the unidirectional composite is clearly observed, regardless of the fiber orientation. Just after the total strain hold, the axial stress quickly relaxes with time in a short period. The stress relaxation rate of the composite tends to become zero, irrespective of the fiber orientation. The associated relaxation modulus depends on the level of strain. The entire process of the prior instantaneous tensile response and the subsequent off-axis stress relaxation behavior is simulated using a macromechanical viscoplasticity model based on an overstress concept. It is demonstrated that the model succeeds in adequately reproducing the off-axis stress relaxation behavior of the unidirectional composite laminate.

  19. Correlating the stretched-exponential and super-Arrhenius behaviors in the structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen; Li, Jiangong; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2011-04-20

    Following the report of a single-exponential activation behavior behind the super-Arrhenius structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids in our preceding paper, we find that the non-exponentiality in the structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids is straightforwardly determined by the relaxation time, and could be calculated from the measured relaxation data. Comparisons between the calculated and measured non-exponentialities for typical glass-forming liquids, from fragile to intermediate, convincingly support the present analysis. Hence the origin of the non-exponentiality and its correlation with liquid fragility become clearer.

  20. Adsorbate-induced lifting of substrate relaxation is a general mechanism governing titania surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, David; Kowalski, Piotr M; Traeger, Franziska; Buchholz, Maria; Bebensee, Fabian; Meyer, Bernd; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-30

    Under ambient conditions, almost all metals are coated by an oxide. These coatings, the result of a chemical reaction, are not passive. Many of them bind, activate and modify adsorbed molecules, processes that are exploited, for example, in heterogeneous catalysis and photochemistry. Here we report an effect of general importance that governs the bonding, structure formation and dissociation of molecules on oxidic substrates. For a specific example, methanol adsorbed on the rutile TiO2(110) single crystal surface, we demonstrate by using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques that strongly bonding adsorbates can lift surface relaxations beyond their adsorption site, which leads to a significant substrate-mediated interaction between adsorbates. The result is a complex superstructure consisting of pairs of methanol molecules and unoccupied adsorption sites. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the paired methanol molecules remain intact and do not deprotonate on the defect-free terraces of the rutile TiO2(110) surface.

  1. Effects of the Loading and Unloading Conditions on the Stress Relaxation Behavior of Pre-cracked Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2017-05-01

    The relaxation behavior plays an important role in evaluating the long-term safety of the surrounding rock mass. Normally, the characters of the stress relaxation behavior of a rock mass can be described as the time-dependent rheological crack propagation features. Based on the subcritical crack growth parameters obtained in the double-torsion experiment, the stress relaxation behavior of pre-cracked granite column specimens is presented. The results of the stress relaxation tests indicate that for a certain confining pressure level, the increase in the uniaxial strain contributes to the propagation of the rheological cracks. For stress relaxation tests conducted under different confining pressure conditions, the propagation of the rheological cracks depends mainly on the D value of the axial and confining pressures. Specifically, the rheological cracks tend to propagate more sufficiently with a higher D value. The experimental results are in good agreement with the analytical solution, in accordance with the Burgers model. Furthermore, the results of the stress relaxation tests conducted under different unloading rates show that the relaxation behavior of the studied material tends to be more obvious for a relatively lower unloading rate of the confining pressure. Finally, the failure patterns obtained under stress relaxation and traditional tests are compared. In detail, for the specimens in the traditional triaxial compression test, the fracture is caused by the abrupt coalescence of the wing cracks and the failure is tensile-shear mixed mode, whereas during the stress relaxation test, the failure is transformed into the smooth coalescence of the tensile rheological cracks. The present research can increase the understanding of the relaxation behavior of hard rock under different engineering environments.

  2. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  3. The effects of frontal EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation upon hyperactivity and its behavioral concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, L W

    1978-03-01

    Hyperactive children (N = 15) and nonhyperactive children (N = 15) were compared. Hyperactive children were found to possess significantly higher (p less than .002) muscular tension levels and, in addition, presented more behavioral problems and had lower test scores. Both electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback and progressive relaxation exercises were successful in the significant reduction of muscular tension, hyperactivity, distractability, irritability, impulsivity, explosiveness, aggressivity, and emotionality in hyperactive children. The greatest improvement was seen in the area of "emotionality-aggression" (irritability, explosiveness, impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, aggresion). No differences were seen in the EMG improvement of drug and nondrug hyperactive children; both made progress under these self-control techniques. However, nondrug children made greater improvements in the behavioral area. Both EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation resulted in improvements on the test scores of hyperactive subjects (Bender-Gestalt, Visual Sequential Memory, Digit Span, Coding). The therapy would appear to be improved by the inclusion of mental relaxation, concentration, meditation, and mind-blanking exercises for mental control.

  4. The universal trend of the non-exponential Rouse mode relaxation in polymer systems: a theoretical interpretation based on a generalized Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J

    2015-07-28

    We show that the universal behavior of the Rouse-mode relaxation in polymer systems - which has been recently reported from experimental data [S. Arrese-Igor, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 078302] - can be quantitatively explained in the framework of a theoretical approach based on: (i) a generalized Langevin equation formalism and (ii) a memory function which takes into account the coupling between intra-chain dynamics and collective dynamics. This approach opens the way for generalizing the magnitudes probing chain dynamics in polymer systems.

  5. Dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity behavior of carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/poly (vinyl alcohol) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrin, Sayed; Deshpande, V. D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the dielectric relaxation and ac conductivity behavior of MWCNT-COOH/Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite films in the temperature (T) range 303-423 K and in the frequency (f) range 0.1 Hz-1 MHz. The dielectric constant increases with an increase in temperature and also with an increase in MWCNT-COOH loading into the polymer matrix, as a result of interfacial polarization. The permittivity data were found to fit well with the modified Cole-Cole equation. Temperature dependent values of the relaxation times, free charge carrier conductivity and space charge carrier conductivity were extracted from the equation. An observed increment in the ac conductivity for the nanocomposites was analysed by a Jonscher power law which suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the dominant charge transport mechanism for the nanocomposite films. The electric modulus study revealed deviations from ideal Debye-type behavior which are explained by considering a generalized susceptibility function. XRD and DSC results show an increase in the degree of crystallinity.

  6. Understanding generalized inversions of nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ant_e^k (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.

  7. Understanding generalized inversions of nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J., E-mail: JMitchell16@slb.com [Schlumberger Gould Research, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EL (United Kingdom); Chandrasekera, T. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-14

    The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T{sub 2}, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T{sub 2} provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T{sub 2} distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T{sub 2} is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form −ant{sub e}{sup k} (where n is the number and t{sub e} the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T{sub 2} distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.

  8. Effect Of Relaxation Education, Based on Theory of planned behavior On students’ painful dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Jalambadani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common problems in females. “Theory of Planned Behavior” is one of the important theories that explains the main process of adopting health behaviors. The present study assessed applying “ the Theory of Planned Behavior in relaxation training regarding the  severity and duration of painful dysmenorrhea in Mashhad girl students. Materials and Methods: In this Semi-experimental study, 160  first year intermediate students of Mashhad city who suffered from dysmenorrhea were assessed.They had been randomly selected from 5 girl high- schools in the 6th educational district. They were divided into equal groups  “case” and “control”. Intervention was made in four sessions. The requisite  data was gathered by means of  a researcher designed questionnaire before  and 3 months after the education of the students. Finally, the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (v:16 using statistical  tests including   Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Independent T-test, Paired T and X2. Results: After educational intervention, mean level of knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and willed performance of relaxation techniques significantly increased  in the case group (P<0.05. These changes were not significant in the control group. Besides, no statistically significant difference in subjective norms was observed between the two groups after intervention. Meditation education group was increased significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education of relaxation base on the Theory of Planned Behavior is effective in reduced pain intensity and its duration.

  9. Near-oscillatory relaxation behavior of levitation force in infiltration and growth processed bulk YBCO/Ag superconducting composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Lakshmi, M.M. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Seshubai, V., E-mail: drseshubai@yahoo.co.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Magnetic relaxation of superconductor using levitation force measurements. Observed oscillatory behavior of relaxation rate. Bistable equilibrium theory and model proposed for the current structure in the superconductor. Experimental verification of magnetization of permanent magnet by the superconductor. Time relaxation behavior of levitation force has been studied in IGP bulk YBCO/Ag superconductor using levitation force measurements as these measurements throw light on the magnetic relaxation in superconductors and the underlying vortex dynamics, pinning mechanisms and the nature of pinning forces. The measurements have revealed a hitherto unknown near-oscillatory relaxation of the levitation force with varying magnetic field. This kind of behavior is found to be more pronounced at smaller gap distances between the permanent magnet and the superconductor. A switch-type polarity bistable equilibrium model for the supercurrent structure has been proposed based on the understanding that even the permanent magnet gets magnetized in the presence of the superconductor, which has also been verified and reported here. This model satisfactorily explains the observed oscillatory behavior of relaxation rates.

  10. Anxiety Management Training and Relaxation as Self-Control in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety in Medical Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Mary K.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Anxiety Management Training (AMT) and Relaxation as Self-Control (RSC) in reducing stress in 55 anxious medical outpatients. At posttreatment and follow-up assessments, both AMT and RSC groups reported significantly less anxiety, stress reactivity, general physiological arousal, depression, and anger than controls. (JAC)

  11. General order parameter based correlation analysis of protein backbone motions between experimental NMR relaxation measurements and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qing; Shi, Chaowei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at The Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Yu, Lu [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at The Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhang, Longhua [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at The Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong73@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at The Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Tian, Changlin, E-mail: cltian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at The Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2015-02-13

    Internal backbone dynamic motions are essential for different protein functions and occur on a wide range of time scales, from femtoseconds to seconds. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin relaxation measurements are valuable tools to gain access to fast (nanosecond) internal motions. However, there exist few reports on correlation analysis between MD and NMR relaxation data. Here, backbone relaxation measurements of {sup 15}N-labeled SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins in aqueous buffer were used to generate general order parameters (S{sup 2}) using a model-free approach. Simultaneously, 80 ns MD simulations of SH3 domain proteins in a defined hydrated box at neutral pH were conducted and the general order parameters (S{sup 2}) were derived from the MD trajectory. Correlation analysis using the Gromos force field indicated that S{sup 2} values from NMR relaxation measurements and MD simulations were significantly different. MD simulations were performed on models with different charge states for three histidine residues, and with different water models, which were SPC (simple point charge) water model and SPC/E (extended simple point charge) water model. S{sup 2} parameters from MD simulations with charges for all three histidines and with the SPC/E water model correlated well with S{sup 2} calculated from the experimental NMR relaxation measurements, in a site-specific manner. - Highlights: • Correlation analysis between NMR relaxation measurements and MD simulations. • General order parameter (S{sup 2}) as common reference between the two methods. • Different protein dynamics with different Histidine charge states in neutral pH. • Different protein dynamics with different water models.

  12. General Solution to Gradient Induced Transverse and Longitudinal Relaxation of Spins Undergoing Restricted Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, W; Liu, J -G; Zhang, Y; Ye, Q; Swank, C; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053411

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach, by calculating the autocorrelation function of spins, to derive the magnetic field gradient induced transverse ($T_2$) relaxation of spins undergoing restricted diffusion. This approach is an extension to the method adopted by McGregor. McGregor's approach solves the problem only in the fast diffusion limit; however, our approach yields a single analytical solution suitable in all diffusion regimes, including the intermediate regime. This establishes a direct connection between the well-known Torrey's slow diffusion result and the fast diffusion result. We also perform free induction decay measurements on spin-exchange optically polarized $^3$He gas with different diffusion constants. The transverse relaxation profiles are compared with the theory and satisfactory agreement has been found throughout all diffusion regimes. In addition to the transverse relaxation, this approach is also applicable to solving the longitudinal relaxation ($T_1$) regardless of the diffusion limits. It turns...

  13. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Sb2S3 Bulk Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, K. F.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Qashou, Saleem I.; Hanafy, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Sb2S3 bulk material was used for next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Alternative current (AC) conductivity, dielectric properties and electric modulus of Sb2S3 have been investigated. The measurements were carried out in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 5 MHz and temperature range from 293 K to 453 K. The direct current (DC) conductivity, σ DC, shows an activated behavior and the calculated activation energy is 0.50 eV. The AC conductivity, σ AC, was found to increase with the increase of temperature and frequency. The conduction mechanism of σ AC was controlled by the correlated barrier hopping model. The behavior of the dielectric constant, ɛ', and dielectric loss index, ɛ'', reveal that the polarization process of Sb2S3 is dipolar in nature. The behavior of both ɛ' and ɛ'' reveals that bulk Sb2S3 has no ferroelectric or piezoelectric phase transition. The dielectric modulus, M, gives a simple method for evaluating the activation energy of the dielectric relaxation. The calculated activation energy from M is 0.045 eV.

  14. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  15. Selective reversal of muscle relaxation in general anesthesia: focus on sugammadex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin J Brull

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorin J Brull1, Mohamed Naguib21Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center,  Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.Keywords: selective reversal agents, cysteine, plasma cholinesterases, sugammadex

  16. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  17. Controlled Comparison of Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Psychoeducation/Relaxation Training for Child Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J.; McCracken, James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: A total of 71…

  18. Slow-Motion Theory of Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Paramagnetic Low-Symmetry Complexes: A Generalization to High Electron Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, T.; Kowalewski, J.

    2000-10-01

    The slow-motion theory of nuclear spin relaxation in paramagnetic low-symmetry complexes is generalized to comprise arbitrary values of S. We describe the effects of rhombic symmetry in the static zero-field splitting (ZFS) and allow the principal axis system of the static ZFS tensor to deviate from the molecule-fixed frame of the nuclear-electron dipole-dipole tensor. We show nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles for different illustrative cases, ranging from within the Redfield limit into the slow-motion regime with respect to the electron spin dynamics. We focus on S = 3/2 and compare the effects of symmetry-breaking properties on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in this case with that of S = 1, which we have treated in a previous paper. We also discuss cases of S = 2, 5/2, 3, and 7/2. One of the main objectives of this investigation, together with the previous papers, is to provide a set of standard calculations using the general slow-motion theory, against which simplified models may be tested.

  19. Generalized Radon--Nikodym Spectral Approach. Application to Power and Energy Relaxation Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bobyl, Aleksandr Vasilievich; Kompan, Mikhail Evgenievich; Malyshkin, Vladislav Gennadievich; Novikova, Olga Valentinovna; Terukova, Ekaterina Evgenievna; Agafonov, Dmitry Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Radon--Nikodym approach to relaxation dynamics, where probability density is built first and then used to calculate observable dynamic characteristic is developed. In contrast with $L^2$ norm approaches, such as Fourier or least squares, this new approach does not use a norm, the problem is reduced to finding the spectrum of an operator (virtual Hamiltonian), which is built in a way that eigenvalues represent the dynamic characteristic of interest and eigenvectors represent probability density. The problems of interpolation and obtaining the distribution of relaxation time from timeserie are considered. Application of the theory is demonstrated on a number of model and experimentally measured (Li-Ion degradation, supercapacitors charge/discharge, etc.) timeseries. Software product, implementing the theory is developed.

  20. Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert - A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Suarez, Max J.

    1992-01-01

    A simple implementation of the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) cumulus parameterization is presented. The major simplification made is to 'relax' the state toward equilibrium each time the parameterization is invoked, rather than requiring that the final state be balanced, as in the original Arakawa-Schubert implementation. This relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme is evaluated in off-line tests using the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) Phase III data. The results show that RAS is equivalent to the standard implementation of Arakawa-Schubert but is more economical and simpler to code. RAS also avoids the ill-posed problem that occurs in Arakawa-Schubert as a result of having to solve for a balanced state.

  1. Crystallization Behavior and Relaxation Dynamics of Supercooled S‑Ketoprofen and the Racemic Mixture along an Isochrone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Kaminski, Kamil; Paluch, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study crystallization behavior and molecular dynamics in the supercooled liquid state of the pharmaceutically important compound ketoprofen at various thermodynamic conditions. Dielectric relaxation for a racemic mixture was investigated in a wide range of temperatures and press......In this paper, we study crystallization behavior and molecular dynamics in the supercooled liquid state of the pharmaceutically important compound ketoprofen at various thermodynamic conditions. Dielectric relaxation for a racemic mixture was investigated in a wide range of temperatures...... of pure enantiomers and their 50–50 equimolar mixture in the metastable supercooled liquid state. Crystallization kinetic studies revealed that at the same isochronal conditions the behavior of the S-enantiomer and R,S-racemic mixture of ketoprofen is entirely different. This was examined in the context...

  2. Electron delocalization and relaxation behavior in Cu-doped B i2S e3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingze; Wang, Zhenhua; Yang, Liang; Li, Da; Yao, Q. R.; Rao, G. H.; Gao, Xuan P. A.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-08-01

    C uxB i2S e3 is known for superconductivity due to Cu intercalation in the van der Waals gaps between the quintuple layers of B i2S e3 at x >0.10 . Here we report the synthesis and transport properties of Cu-doped C uxB i2S e3 films prepared by the chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method with 0.11 ≥x ≥0 . It is found that the insulatinglike temperature-dependent resistivity of polycrystalline C uxB i2S e3 films exhibits a marked metallic downturn and an increase of carrier concentration below ˜37 K. There is also a time-dependent slow relaxation behavior in the resistance at low temperature. These effects might be related to the strong hybridization between C u+ and C u2 + conduction bands from the intercalated C u+ and substituted C u2 + sites in B i2S e3 films. The findings here have important implications for the understanding and development of doping-induced superconductivity in topological insulators.

  3. Sugammadex for the reversal of muscle relaxation in general anaesthesia: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D; Paulden, M; Paton, F; Heirs, M; Duffy, S; Craig, D; Hunter, J; Wilson, J; Sculpher, M; Woolacott, N

    2010-07-01

    Sugammadex (Bridion) is a newly developed agent for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium or vecuronium. Sugammadex can reverse profound blockade and can be given for immediate reversal and its use would avoid the potentially serious adverse effects of the currently used agent, succinylcholine. Also, sugammadex can reverse NMB more quickly and predictably than existing agents. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sugammadex for the reversal of muscle relaxation after general anaesthesia in UK practice following routine or rapid induction of NMB. Medical databases [including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), conference proceedings, internet sites and clinical trials registers] were searched to identify published and unpublished studies. The main searches were carried out in May 2008 and supplemented by current awareness updates up until November 2008. For the clinical effectiveness review, randomised controlled trials of sugammadex against placebo or an active comparator (neostigmine + glycopyrrolate) for the reversal of moderate or profound NMB and for immediate reversal (spontaneous recovery from succinylcholine-induced blockade) were included. The primary effectiveness outcome was speed of recovery from NMB, as measured by objective monitoring of neuromuscular function. For the cost-effectiveness review, a de novo economic assessment considered the routine induction of NMB and the rapid induction and/or reversal of NMB, and threshold analyses were carried out on a series of pairwise comparisons to establish how effective sugammadex needs to be to justify its cost. The review of clinical effectiveness included four randomised active-control trials of sugammadex, nine randomised placebo-controlled trials and five studies in special populations. A total of 2132 titles and abstracts and 265 full-text publications were screened

  4. Venlafaxine versus applied relaxation for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled study on clinical and electrophysiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullino, Daniele; Chatton, Anne; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Stankovic, Miroslava; Bondolfi, Guido; Borgeat, François; Khazaal, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Some components of generalized anxiety disorder, such as physical symptoms, are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system arousal. This study primarily assessed the relationships between psychophysiological and clinical measures using venlafaxine extended release or applied relaxation, and secondarily, the impact of combination treatment in patients not remitting after 8 weeks. Fifty-eight patients were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with either venlafaxine or applied relaxation (Phase I). Non-remitted patients received combination treatment for an additional 8 weeks (Phase II). Assessments included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Beck Depression Inventory, Penn State Worry Questionnaire and the Stroop Color-Word Task coupled with electrophysiological measures (skin conductance and frontalis electromyography (EMG)). In Phase 1, a time effect was found for the clinical and skin conductance measures. Thirteen patients from each group were in remission. In Phase 2, seven additional patients remitted. Baseline psychophysiological measures were not associated with baseline clinical variables or with clinical outcomes. Independently of treatment allocation, a reduction in frontal EMG values at week 4 was significantly associated with a decrease in HAM-A scores at week 8. At week 4, responders from the applied relaxation group had lower electrophysiological activity than the venlafaxine group. Baseline psychophysiological measures were not linked with clinical measures at study inclusion or with treatment response. Frontal EMG response at week 4 is a possible predictor of treatment response. Treatment combination enhances treatment response after initial failure.

  5. Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet-Filled EPDM Vulcanizates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Bikash Kumar; Achary, P. Ganga Raju; Nayak, Nimai C.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the dielectric relaxation and mechanical behavior of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (XgnP)-filled ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) vulcanizates with variation in frequency, temperature and xGnP loading. The samples were prepared by a solution-cast method using toluene as the solvent followed by compression molding. The enhanced permittivity and ac conductivity which sharply changes above 20 wt.% of xGnP loading shows the conducting behavior of the composites. The real parts of the impedance for the vulcanizates were continuously decreased up to 40 wt.% whereas the complex part shows an increasing tendency at the same loading expressing the increase in the conductivity of the vulcanizates. The percolation threshold of the xGnP-loaded EPDM vulcanizates was at 25 wt.% of xGnP loading. A more prominent effect of temperature on dielectric loss tangent is observed at 85°C, and 100°C. The ac conductivity increases with the rise in temperature. The Nyquist plots of xGnP-reinforced EPDM show the small intercepts on the Z' axis at 85°C, and 100°C for the 40 wt.% loading. The experimental complex impedance plots were in good agreement with the model-fitted plots. The tensile strength of 15 wt.% xGnP-filled vulcanizate increases up to 12 times more than the unfilled EPDM whereas the elongation at break (%) increases up to 700% at the same loading of xGnP. Young's modulus has been doubled and quadrupled for the vulcanizates with 20 and 40 wt.% of xGnPs, respectively, compared to the pure EPDM samples. The results indicate that the xGnP-EPDM conductive composite can find applications in the area of antistatic material, electrostatic discharge gaskets, etc.

  6. Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet-Filled EPDM Vulcanizates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Bikash Kumar; Achary, P. Ganga Raju; Nayak, Nimai C.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigates the dielectric relaxation and mechanical behavior of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (XgnP)-filled ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) vulcanizates with variation in frequency, temperature and xGnP loading. The samples were prepared by a solution-cast method using toluene as the solvent followed by compression molding. The enhanced permittivity and ac conductivity which sharply changes above 20 wt.% of xGnP loading shows the conducting behavior of the composites. The real parts of the impedance for the vulcanizates were continuously decreased up to 40 wt.% whereas the complex part shows an increasing tendency at the same loading expressing the increase in the conductivity of the vulcanizates. The percolation threshold of the xGnP-loaded EPDM vulcanizates was at 25 wt.% of xGnP loading. A more prominent effect of temperature on dielectric loss tangent is observed at 85°C, and 100°C. The ac conductivity increases with the rise in temperature. The Nyquist plots of xGnP-reinforced EPDM show the small intercepts on the Z' axis at 85°C, and 100°C for the 40 wt.% loading. The experimental complex impedance plots were in good agreement with the model-fitted plots. The tensile strength of 15 wt.% xGnP-filled vulcanizate increases up to 12 times more than the unfilled EPDM whereas the elongation at break (%) increases up to 700% at the same loading of xGnP. Young's modulus has been doubled and quadrupled for the vulcanizates with 20 and 40 wt.% of xGnPs, respectively, compared to the pure EPDM samples. The results indicate that the xGnP-EPDM conductive composite can find applications in the area of antistatic material, electrostatic discharge gaskets, etc.

  7. Avoidance, Safety Behavior, And Reassurance Seeking In Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesdo-Baum, K.; Jenjahn, E.; Höfler, M.; Lüken, U.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavioral symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are not well characterized. This study examines behavioral symptoms in patients with GAD compared to healthy participants, their change during behavioral therapy, and their role for predicting short- and long-term outcome. Meth

  8. Prescribing behavior of general practitioners : Competition matters!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.

    Background General Practitioners (GP) have limited means to compete. As quality is hard to observe by patients, GPs have incentives to signal quality by using instruments patients perceive as quality. Objectives I investigate whether GPs prescribe more units when confronted with more competition. As

  9. Non-Fermi liquid behavior of thermal relaxation time in degenerate electron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sreemoyee

    2012-01-01

    The thermal relaxation time ($\\tau_{\\kappa_{ee}}$) for the degenerate electron plasma has been calculated by incorporating non-Fermi liquid (NFL) corrections both for the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. Perturbative results are presented by making expansion in $T/m_D$ with next to leading order corrections. It is seen that unlike the normal Fermi liquid (FL) result where $\\tau_{\\kappa_{ee}}\\propto 1/T^2$, NFL corrections in leading order (LO) changes the temperature dependence of $\\tau_{\\kappa_{ee}}$ to 1/T. Incorporation of the phase space correction driven by the medium modified Fermion dispersion relation increases the relaxation time further.

  10. The electrical properties and relaxation behavior of AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K. Ganga; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 powder was prepared by solid state reaction method. Preliminary x-ray diffractogram analysis of some aspects of crystal structure showed that a single phase compound formed exhibiting a monoclinic system. Impedance spectroscopy showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The relaxation behavior was studied by fitting electric modulus with Bergman function confirms us the existence of non-Debye type of relaxation the material. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed Funke's double power law and fitting in results, the hopping parameters n1,n2 were indicating the existence of small and large range polaron hopping in the material. The band gap of the material 3.02 eV measured by using UV visible spectroscopy.

  11. General expressions for R1ρ relaxation for N-site chemical exchange and the special case of linear chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Hans; Rance, Mark; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of dynamic processes in proteins and nucleic acids by spin-locking NMR experiments has been facilitated by the development of theoretical expressions for the R1ρ relaxation rate constant covering a variety of kinetic situations. Herein, we present a generalized approximation to the chemical exchange, Rex, component of R1ρ for arbitrary kinetic schemes, assuming the presence of a dominant major site population, derived from the negative reciprocal trace of the inverse Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. This approximation is equivalent to first-order truncation of the characteristic polynomial derived from the Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix. For three- and four-site chemical exchange, the first-order approximations are sufficient to distinguish different kinetic schemes. We also introduce an approach to calculate R1ρ for linear N-site schemes, using the matrix determinant lemma to reduce the corresponding 3N × 3N Bloch-McConnell evolution matrix to a 3 × 3 matrix. The first- and second order-expansions of the determinant of this 3 × 3 matrix are closely related to previously derived equations for two-site exchange. The second-order approximations for linear N-site schemes can be used to obtain more accurate approximations for non-linear N-site schemes, such as triangular three-site or star four-site topologies. The expressions presented herein provide powerful means for the estimation of Rex contributions for both low (CEST-limit) and high (R1ρ-limit) radiofrequency field strengths, provided that the population of one state is dominant. The general nature of the new expressions allows for consideration of complex kinetic situations in the analysis of NMR spin relaxation data.

  12. Understanding the ion dynamics and relaxation behavior from impedance spectroscopy of NaI doped Zwitterionic polymer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manindra; Tiwari, Tuhina; Chauhan, Jagdish Kumar; Srivastava, Neelam

    2014-12-01

    The ion dynamics and relaxation behavior of a novel polymer electrolyte system is studied by presenting impedance spectroscopy data in a different formalism. The prepared system has conductivity of the order of 10-3 Scm-1 at 303 K, and the RH % = 55. Depressed Nyquist plots and broadened M˝ curves (as a function of ω) indicated the distribution of the relaxation time, which is further confirmed by the fractional value of the Kohlrausch-William-Watts (KWW) function (β ˜ 0.75). The hopping and caged movement of the ions are observed in the experimental frequency range (˜MHz), which is confirmed by the conductivity and dielectric representations. The scaling of the conductivity data, with reference to salt concentration and temperature, are successfully observed by fitting the conductivity data exclusively in the Jonscher Power Law (JPL) region. An inverse relation between τcon and σ indicated a strong correlation between the ion and polymer segment motion. An additional high frequency relaxation phenomenon is observed at 50% of the salt concentration, which is correlated with the self-diffusion of the ion and proposed that such phenomenon is observed when ions have multiplet forming tendency.

  13. Solvent dynamical behavior in an organogel phase as studied by NMR relaxation and diffusion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemloul, Mehdi; Steiner, Emilie; Robert, Anthony; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Allix, Florent; Jamart-Grégoire, Brigitte; Canet, Daniel

    2011-03-24

    An organogelation process depends on the gelator-solvent pair. This study deals with the solvent dynamics once the gelation process is completed. The first approach used is relaxometry, i.e., the measurement of toluene proton longitudinal relaxation time T(1) as a function of the proton NMR resonance frequency (here in the 5 kHz to 400 MHz range). Pure toluene exhibits an unexpected T(1) variation, which has been identified as paramagnetic relaxation resulting from an interaction of toluene with dissolved oxygen. In the gel phase, this contribution is retrieved with, in addition, a strong decay at low frequencies assigned to toluene molecules within the gel fibers. Comparison of dispersion curves of pure toluene and toluene in the gel phase leads to an estimate of the proportion of toluene embedded within the organogel (found around 40%). The second approach is based on carbon-13 T(1) and nuclear Overhauser effect measurements, the combination of these two parameters providing direct information about the reorientation of C-H bonds. It appears clearly that reorientation of toluene is the same in pure liquid and in the gel phase. The only noticeable changes in carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation times are due to the so-called chemical shift anisotropy (csa) mechanism and reflect slight modifications of the toluene electronic distribution in the gel phase. NMR diffusion measurements by the pulse gradient spin-echo (PGSE) method allow us to determine the diffusion coefficient of toluene inside the organogel. It is roughly two-thirds of the one in pure toluene, thus indicating that self-diffusion is the only dynamical parameter to be slightly affected when the solvent is inside the gel structure. The whole set of experimental observations leads to the conclusion that, once the gel is formed, the solvent becomes essentially passive, although an important fraction is located within the gel structure.

  14. On the Temperature Behavior of Pulse Propagation and Relaxation in Worms, Nerves and Gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fillafer

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on pulse propagation in biological systems has been an important field of research. Environmental temperature not only affects a host of physiological processes e.g. in poikilotherms but also provides an experimental means to investigate the thermodynamic phenomenology of nerves and muscle. In the present work, the temperature dependence of blood vessel pulsation velocity and frequency was studied in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus. The pulse velocity was found to vary linearily between 0°C and 30°C. In contrast, the pulse frequency increased non-linearly in the same temperature range. A heat block ultimately resulted in complete cessation of vessel pulsations at 37.2±2.7°C (lowest: 33°C, highest: 43°C. However, quick cooling of the animal led to restoration of regularly propagating pulses. This experimentally observed phenomenology of pulse propagation and frequency is interpreted without any assumptions about molecules in the excitable membrane (e.g. ion channels or their temperature-dependent behaviour. By following Einstein's approach to thermodynamics and diffusion, a relation between relaxation time τ and compressibility κ of the excitable medium is derived that can be tested experimentally (for κT ∼ κS. Without fitting parameters this theory predicts the temperature dependence of the limiting (i.e. highest pulse frequency in good agreement with experimental data. The thermodynamic approach presented herein is neither limited to temperature nor to worms nor to living systems. It describes the coupling between pulse propagation and relaxation equally well in nerves and gels. The inherent consistency and universality of the concept underline its potential to explain the dependence of pulse propagation and relaxation on any thermodynamic observable.

  15. Generalized Elliott-Yafet theory of electron spin relaxation in metals: origin of the anomalous electron spin lifetime in MgB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F; Dóra, B; Murányi, F; Jánossy, A; Garaj, S; Forró, L; Bud'ko, S; Petrovic, C; Canfield, P C

    2008-10-24

    The temperature dependence of the electron-spin relaxation time in MgB2 is anomalous as it does not follow the resistivity above 150 K; it has a maximum around 400 K and decreases for higher temperatures. This violates the well established Elliot-Yafet theory of spin relaxation in metals. The anomaly occurs when the quasiparticle scattering rate (in energy units) is comparable to the energy difference between the conduction and a neighboring bands. The anomalous behavior is related to the unique band structure of MgB2 and the large electron-phonon coupling. The saturating spin relaxation is the spin transport analogue of the Ioffe-Regel criterion of electron transport.

  16. Electrical Properties and Dipole Relaxation Behavior of Zinc-Substituted Cobalt Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Sweety; Kumar, Sunil; Kar, Manoranjan

    2017-08-01

    Co1-x Zn x Fe2O4 ceramics with x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 were synthesized by a modified citric acid sol-gel method. The crystalline phase of the samples was characterized by the powder x-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and the Rietveld analysis of the XRD patterns. The morphology and particle size were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies were consistent with the XRD results. The impedance measurements were carried out from 100 Hz to 10 MHz at different temperatures from 40°C to 300°C. The frequency dispersion of dielectric was analyzed with a modified Debye equation. The activation energy derived from the dielectric constant and the impedance follows the Arrhenius law and are comparable with each other. The dielectric relaxation and impedance relaxation are correlated in terms of activation energy, show a good temperature stability of the dielectrics and are useful for their applications in microelectronic devices such as filters, capacitors, resonators, etc.

  17. EUROPEAN VOLCANOES' NIGHT: building a link between general public and volcanologists in a relaxed and welcoming setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David; González-Cárdenas, María E.; Baldrich, Laura; Solana, Carmen; Nave, Rosella; Calvari, Sonia; Harangi, Szabolcs; Chouraqui, Floriane; Dionis, Samara; Silva, Sonia V.; Forjaz, Victor H.; D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    European Volcanoes' Night (www.volcanoesnight.com) is a "volcanic eruption" of art, culture, music, gastronomy, school activities, geotourism, exhibitions and scientific debates. The event aims to bring together members of the general public with scientists who work on the study of volcanoes, in order to meet and ask questions in a relaxed and welcoming setting. It is open to both locals and tourists who appreciate the beauty and power of this natural phenomena. This celebration gives attendees, and in particular young people, the opportunity to meet researchers in a relaxed and festive setting, which will feature many activities and which will be used to highlight the attractiveness of a career research on one of the most attractive natural phenomena; volcanoes. The 2016 European Volcanoes' Night was held at 16 different municipalities of Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Cape Verde on September 30, 2016, coinciding with the celebration of "European Researchers' Night" held annually throughout Europe and neighbouring countries the last Friday of September. The spirit of the European VolcanoeśNight fits perfectly in the aim of the ERN, trying to close the gap between the scientific community and the rest of the society. In this case, volcanoes are the driving force of this event, celebrating the singularity of living on volcanoes, and how these affect our daily lives, our culture and our heritage. European VolcanoeśNight also celebrates volcano science, with avantgarde talks and presentations on different volcanic topics and becomes a meeting point for children discovering volcanoes as a pastime or a leisure topic, making this event a must for tourists and locals wherever has been held. At the end of 2016 European VolcanoeśNight, almost 150 activities were performed for thousands of spectators, a big success that confirms something as crucial as science as a communication issue, and as a tool to strengthen the ties between researchers

  18. Critical behavior of the absorbing state transition in the contact process with relaxing immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Lyra, M. L.; Fulco, U. L.; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a model for the Contact Process with relaxing immunization CPRI. In this model, local memory is introduced by a time and space dependence of the contamination probability. The model has two parameters: a typical immunization time τ and a maximum contamination probability a. The system presents an absorbing state phase transition whenever the contamination probability a is above a minimum threshold. For short immunization times, the system evolves to a statistically stationary active state. Above τc(a), immunization predominates and the system evolves to the absorbing vacuum state. We employ a finite-size scaling analysis to show that the transition belongs to the standard directed percolation universality class. The critical immunization time diverges in the limit of a→1. In this regime, the density of active sites decays exponentially as τ increases, but never reaches the vacuum state in the thermodynamic limit.

  19. Dielectric relaxation behavior of nematic liquid crystal cell using β-cyclodextrin as an alignment layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Sahraoui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we report the dielectric properties of a symmetric Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC cell using Beta Cyclodextrins (β-CD as alignment layers. These layers were deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO surface by thermal evaporation and then characterized using contact angle measurement. This revealed a hydrophilic character attributed to the presence of hydroxyl groups. Morphological study was carried out by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. The dynamic impedance study of the Liquid Crystal (LC cell in a wide frequency range from 1mHz to 13MHz was reported. It was found that the β-CD alignment layer had a blocking effect on the NLC cell at a high frequency range. We also report the relaxation mechanism of NLC cell which is modeled by an appropriate equivalent circuit in order to understand the electrical properties of the liquid crystal cell and to investigate the processes taking place at different interfaces. 

  20. Relaxation behavior and nonlinear properties of thermally stable polymers based on glycidyl derivatives of quercetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishurov, Dmytro; Voronkin, Andrii; Roshal, Alexander; Brovko, Oleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Cross-linked polymers on the basis of di-, tri and tetraglycidyl ethers of quercetin (3,3‧,4‧,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) were synthesized, and then, poled in electrical field of corona discharge. Investigations of structural, thermal and optical parameters of the polymer films were carried out. It was found that the polymers obtained from di- and triglycidyl quercetin ethers had high values of macroscopic quadratic susceptibilities and substantial stability of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties after the poling. Tetraglycidyl ether of quercetin forms the polymer of lower quadratic susceptibility, which demonstrates noticeable relaxation process resulting in decrease of the NLO effect. It is supposed that the difference of the NLO properties is due to peculiarities of physical network of the polymers, namely to the ratio between numbers of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl groups of chromophore fragments and by the ones of interfragmental parts of the polymeric chains.

  1. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A relaxed fusion of information from real and synthetic images to predict complex behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Benjamin, D. Paul

    2011-05-01

    An important component of cognitive robotics is the ability to mentally simulate physical processes and to compare the expected results with the information reported by a robot's sensors. In previous work, we have proposed an approach that integrates a 3D game-engine simulation into the robot control architecture. A key part of that architecture is the Match-Mediated Difference (MMD) operation, an approach to fusing sensory data and synthetic predictions at the image level. The MMD operation insists that simulated and predicted scenes are similar in terms of the appearance of the objects in the scene. This is an overly restrictive constraint on the simulation since parts of the predicted scene may not have been previously viewed by the robot. In this paper we propose an extended MMD operation that relaxes the constraint and allows the real and synthetic scenes to differ in some features but not in (selected) other features. Image difference operations that allow a real image and synthetic image generated from an arbitrarily colored graphical model of a scene to be compared. Scenes with the same content show a zero difference. Scenes with varying foreground objects can be controlled to compare the color, size and shape of the foreground.

  3. Fear Generalization and Anxiety: Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Paz, Rony

    2015-09-01

    Fear can be an adaptive emotion that helps defend against potential danger. Classical conditioning models elegantly describe how animals learn which stimuli in the environment signal danger, but understanding how this learning is generalized to other stimuli that resemble aspects of a learned threat remains a challenge. Critically, the overgeneralization of fear to harmless stimuli or situations is a burden to daily life and characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Here, we review emerging evidence on behavioral and neural mechanisms of generalization of emotional learning with the goal of encouraging further research on generalization in anxiety disorders. We begin by placing research on fear generalization in a rich historical context of stimulus generalization dating back to Pavlov, which lays the foundation for theoretical and experimental approaches used today. We then transition to contemporary behavioral and neurobiological research on generalization of emotional learning in humans and nonhuman animals and discuss the factors that promote generalization on the one hand from discrimination on the other hand.

  4. The Worry Behaviors Inventory : Assessing the behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has implications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization, and clinical management of the disorder. This study describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-re

  5. Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard

    1952-01-01

    An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.

  6. Behavior Assessment in Children Following Hospital-Based General Anesthesia versus Office-Based General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaQuia A. Vinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in behavior exist following dental treatment under hospital-based general anesthesia (HBGA or office-based general anesthesia (OBGA in the percentage of patients exhibiting positive behavior and in the mean Frankl scores at recall visits. This retrospective study examined records of a pediatric dental office over a 4 year period. Patients presenting before 48 months of age for an initial exam who were diagnosed with early childhood caries were included in the study. Following an initial exam, patients were treated under HBGA or OBGA. Patients were followed to determine their behavior at 6-, 12- and 18-month recall appointments. Fifty-four patients received treatment under HBGA and 26 were treated under OBGA. OBGA patients were significantly more likely to exhibit positive behavior at the 6- and 12-month recall visits p = 0.038 & p = 0.029. Clinicians should consider future behavior when determining general anesthesia treatment modalities in children with early childhood caries presenting to their office.

  7. Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Vostal, Brooks; Lylo, Brooke; Hua, Youjia

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends toward the inclusion of students with disabilities mean that a majority of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) now spend at least 40% of their day in general education settings. With this change in location, teachers in general education settings are now asked to perform tasks that were not given much emphasis…

  8. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  9. Relaxing moral reasoning to win: How organizational identification relates to unethical pro-organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Chen, Chao C; Sheldon, Oliver J

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and social-cognitive theory, we hypothesize that organizational identification predicts unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) through the mediation of moral disengagement. We further propose that competitive interorganizational relations enhance the hypothesized relationships. Three studies conducted in China and the United States using both survey and vignette methodologies provided convergent support for our model. Study 1 revealed that higher organizational identifiers engaged in more UPB, and that this effect was mediated by moral disengagement. Study 2 found that organizational identification once again predicted UPB through the mediation of moral disengagement, and that the mediation relationship was stronger when employees perceived a higher level of industry competition. Finally, Study 3 replicated the above findings using a vignette experiment to provide stronger evidence of causality. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Effect of annealing and cobalt content on relaxation and crystallization behavior of zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Wunderlich, Rainer; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2017-08-01

    The effects of annealing and cobalt content on relaxation and the crystallization process of Zr64Ni10Al7Cu19 bulk metallic glasses were investigated. β-relaxation occurs during annealing, leading to increased endotherm before crystallization. α-relaxation during high temperature annealing (higher than Tg) affects the crystallization process. The introduction of cobalt leads to an inhomogeneous amorphous structure and two-step crystallization due to the positive mixing enthalpy between cobalt and copper. Non-affine thermal strain arising from low temperature annealing of heterogeneous structure leads to a reduced endotherm phenomenon during relaxation on the DSC curves and a reduction in hardness.

  11. Prosocial Conformity: Prosocial Norms Generalize Across Behavior and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Ong, Desmond C; Morelli, Sylvia A; Mitchell, Jason P; Zaki, Jamil

    2016-08-01

    Generosity is contagious: People imitate others' prosocial behaviors. However, research on such prosocial conformity focuses on cases in which people merely reproduce others' positive actions. Hence, we know little about the breadth of prosocial conformity. Can prosocial conformity cross behavior types or even jump from behavior to affect? Five studies address these questions. In Studies 1 to 3, participants decided how much to donate to charities before learning that others donated generously or stingily. Participants who observed generous donations donated more than those who observed stingy donations (Studies 1 and 2). Crucially, this generalized across behaviors: Participants who observed generous donations later wrote more supportive notes to another participant (Study 3). In Studies 4 and 5, participants observed empathic or non-empathic group responses to vignettes. Group empathy ratings not only shifted participants' own empathic feelings (Study 4), but they also influenced participants' donations to a homeless shelter (Study 5). These findings reveal the remarkable breadth of prosocial conformity. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Comparison of hypnosis with conventional relaxation for antenatal and intrapartum use: a feasibility study in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Les R.; Guzvica, Sally A.

    1987-01-01

    A hypnosis programme for antenatal and intrapartum use has been developed and successfully introduced into a practice as an alternative to conventional relaxation training. Of 96 women from the practice who delivered during the 10-month period of the study 51 opted for the psychoprophylaxis and 45 for the hypnosis. Details of the pregnancy, labour and postnatal period were collected for both groups, together with a subjective assessment of their satisfaction with labour. Disparity between the ages and parity of the two groups made comparisons difficult. The duration of the first stage of labour was markedly reduced in the hypnosis group by 98 minutes for primiparas and 40 minutes for multiparas. A small (five minutes) increase in the length of the second stage may have been a result of the hypnotic relaxation. The verbalization has been amended accordingly. The hypnosis group were more satisfied with labour than the psychoprophylaxis group (mean satisfaction score 7.4 versus 5.6) and they reported other benefits of hypnosis, for example, reduction in anxiety and help with getting to sleep.Further studies are planned. PMID:3333169

  13. A System of Mixed Equilibrium Problems, a General System of Variational Inequality Problems for Relaxed Cocoercive, and Fixed Point Problems for Nonexpansive Semigroup and Strictly Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poom Kumam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a system of mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of a general system of variational inequalities for Lipschitz continuous and relaxed cocoercive mappings, the set of common fixed points for nonexpansive semigroups, and the set of common fixed points for an infinite family of strictly pseudocontractive mappings in Hilbert spaces. Furthermore, we prove a strong convergence theorem of the iterative sequence generated by the proposed iterative algorithm under some suitable conditions which solves some optimization problems. Our results extend and improve the recent results of Chang et al. (2010 and many others.

  14. Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist's risky driving behavior and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2012-11-01

    While many studies examine the mean score differences of psychological determinants between heterogeneous driver groups, this study reveals a structural discrepancy in a causal behavioral framework. Using young motorcyclists (ages 18-28) as subjects, this study investigates the various roles of key influential factors in determining risky driving behavior. Multi-group analysis of structural equation modeling shows that age and gender are two factors that can effectively distinguish heterogeneous driver groups exhibiting different decision-making mechanisms in shaping their risky driving behaviors. When encountering undesirable traffic conditions, road rage can immediately increase male motorcyclists' intentions to engage in risky driving behaviors; on the other hand, young female motorcyclists further calculate their perceived risk to determine whether to engage in risky driving behaviors. This result shows that there is a significant link between risk perception and traffic condition awareness for experienced drivers (ages 25-28), but not for younger drivers (ages 18-24). This finding shows that while well-developed theories such as planned behavior and risk homeostasis provide general frameworks to explain risky driving behavior, heterogeneous driver groups may exhibit structural discrepancies that reflect their various decision-making mechanisms. This suggests that, in addition to mean differences, understanding structural discrepancies among heterogeneous groups could help researchers identify effective intervention strategies.

  15. Generalized behavioral framework for choice models of social influence: Behavioral and data concerns in travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maness, M.; Cirillo, C.; Dugundji, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, transportation has begun a shift from an individual focus to a social focus. Accordingly, discrete choice models have begun to integrate social context into its framework. Social influence, the process of having one’s behavior be affected by others, has been one approach t

  16. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F. T.; Vieira, V. N.; Garcia, E. L.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E.; Gouvêa, C. P.; Schaf, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Roa, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  17. Dynamic behavior of a nonlinear rational difference equation and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Qihong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned about the dynamic behavior for the following high order nonlinear difference equation x n = (x n-k + x n-m + x n-l /(x n-k x n-m + x n-m x n-l +1 with the initial data { x - l , x - l + 1 , … , x - 1 } ∈ ℝ + l and 1 ≤ k ≤ m ≤ l. The convergence of solution to this equation is investigated by introducing a new sequence, which extends and includes corresponding results obtained in the references (Li in J Math Anal Appl 312:103-111, 2005; Berenhaut et al. Appl. Math. Lett. 20:54-58, 2007; Papaschinopoulos and Schinas J Math Anal Appl 294:614-620, 2004 to a large extent. In addition, some propositions for generalized equations are reported.

  18. Cognitive behavioral treatment for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. A therapist manual for primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Melinda A; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Hopko, Derek R

    2004-01-01

    At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project suggested the potential benefits of a new version of CBT for GAD among older patients in primary care. The manual developed and tested in this pilot project is presented here. Treatment components include motivation and education, relaxation skills, cognitive therapy, problem-solving-skills training, exposure exercises, and sleep-management-skills training. Procedures are designed to be administered flexibly to maximize attention to individual patient needs. Examples of session summaries, patient handouts, and homework forms are provided.

  19. Anisotropic relaxation behavior of InGaAs/GaAs selectively grown in narrow trenches on (001) Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W.; Mols, Y.; Belz, J.; Beyer, A.; Volz, K.; Schulze, A.; Langer, R.; Kunert, B.

    2017-07-01

    Selective area growth of InGaAs inside highly confined trenches on a pre-patterned (001) Si substrate has the potential of achieving a high III-V crystal quality due to high aspect ratio trapping for improved device functionalities in Si microelectronics. If the trench width is in the range of the hetero-layer thickness, the relaxation mechanism of the mismatched III-V layer is no longer isotropic, which has a strong impact on the device fabrication and performance if not controlled well. The hetero-epitaxial nucleation of InxGa1-xAs on Si can be simplified by using a binary nucleation buffer such as GaAs. A pronounced anisotropy in strain release was observed for the growth of InxGa1-xAs on a fully relaxed GaAs buffer with a (001) surface inside 20 and 100 nm wide trenches, exploring the full composition range from GaAs to InAs. Perpendicular to the trench orientation (direction of high confinement), the strain release in InxGa1-xAs is very efficiently caused by elastic relaxation without defect formation, although a small compressive force is still induced by the trench side walls. In contrast, the strain release along the trenches is governed by plastic relaxation once the vertical film thickness has clearly exceeded the critical layer thickness. On the other hand, the monolithic deposition of mismatched InxGa1-xAs directly into a V-shaped trench bottom with {111} Si planes leads instantly to a pronounced nucleation of misfit dislocations along the {111} Si/III-V interfaces. In this case, elastic relaxation no longer plays a role as the strain release is ensured by plastic relaxation in both directions. Hence, using a ternary seed layer facilitates the integration of InxGa1-xAs covering the full composition range.

  20. The electrical properties and relaxation behavior of AgNb{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, K.Ganga, E-mail: kotagirigangaprasad@gmail.com; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline AgNb{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} powder was prepared by solid state reaction method. Preliminary x-ray diffractogram analysis of some aspects of crystal structure showed that a single phase compound formed exhibiting a monoclinic system. Impedance spectroscopy showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The relaxation behavior was studied by fitting electric modulus with Bergman function confirms us the existence of non-Debye type of relaxation the material. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed Funke's double power law and fitting in results, the hopping parameters n{sub 1},n{sub 2} were indicating the existence of small and large range polaron hopping in the material. The band gap of the material 3.02 eV measured by using UV visible spectroscopy.

  1. Indentation load relaxation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  2. Belief Revision, Minimal Change and Relaxation: A General Framework based on Satisfaction Systems, and Applications to Description Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Aiguier, Marc; Atif, Jamal; Bloch, Isabelle; Hudelot, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Belief revision of knowledge bases represented by a set of sentences in a given logic has been extensively studied but for specific logics, mainly propositional, and also recently Horn and description logics. Here, we propose to generalize this operation from a model-theoretic point of view, by defining revision in an abstract model theory known under the name of satisfaction systems. In this framework, we generalize to any satisfaction systems the characterization of the well known AGM postu...

  3. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  4. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Details Content Last Updated: ... Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS You’ve been to the doctor ...

  5. Differences in patellar cartilage thickness, transverse relaxation time, and deformational behavior: a comparison of young women with and without patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2011-02-01

    The origin of patellofemoral pain (PFP) may be associated with the inability of the patellofemoral joint cartilage to absorb and distribute patellofemoral joint forces. When compared with a pain-free control group, young active women with PFP will demonstrate differences in their baseline patellar cartilage thickness and transverse (T2) relaxation time, as well as a less adaptive response to an acute bout of joint loading. Controlled laboratory study; Level of evidence, 3. Ten women between the ages of 23 to 37 years with PFP and 10 sex-, age-, and activity-matched pain-free controls participated. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the patellofemoral joint was performed at baseline and after participants performed 50 deep knee bends. Differences in baseline cartilage thickness and T2 relaxation time, as well as the postexercise change in patellar cartilage thickness and T2 relaxation time, were compared between groups. Individuals with PFP demonstrated reductions in baseline cartilage thickness of 14.0% and 14.1% for the lateral patellar facet and total patellar cartilage, respectively. Similarly, individuals with PFP exhibited significantly lower postexercise cartilage thickness change for the lateral patellar facet (2.1% vs 8.9%) and the total patellar cartilage (4.4% vs 10.0%) when compared with the control group. No group differences in baseline or postexercise change in T2 relaxation time were found. The findings suggest that a baseline reduction in patellar cartilage thickness and a reduced deformational behavior of patellar cartilage following an acute bout of loading are associated with presence of PFP symptoms.

  6. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  7. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Biye; Zhu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a) the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b) reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c) larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  8. Aggregation behavior and electrical properties of amphiphilic pyrrole-tailed ionic liquids in water, from the viewpoint of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Kongshuang

    2014-05-14

    The self-aggregation behavior of amphiphilic pyrrole-tailed imidazolium ionic liquids (Py(CH₂)₁₂mim⁺Br⁻: Py = pyrrole, mim = methylimidazolium) in water is investigated by dielectric spectroscopy from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. Dielectric determination shows that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 8.5 mM, which is lower than that for traditional ionic surfactants. The thermodynamic parameter of the micellization, the Gibbs free energy ΔG, was calculated for Py(CH₂)₁₂mim⁺Br⁻ and compared to those of the corresponding C(n)mim⁺Br⁻ (n = 12, 14). It was found that the main driven forces of the Py(CH₂)₁₂mim⁺Br⁻ aggregation were hydrophobic interaction and π-π interactions among the adjacent Py groups. Further, the structure of aggregation was speculated theoretically that Py groups partially insert into the alkyl chains and the staggered arrangement in micelles is formed. When the concentration of Py(CH₂)₁₂mim⁺Br⁻ is higher than CMC, two remarkable relaxations which originated from diffusion of counterions and interfacial polarization between the micelles and solution, were observed at about 1.3 MHz and 55 MHz. The relaxation parameters representing the real properties of the whole system were obtained by fitting the experimental data with Cole-Cole equation. A dielectric model characterizing the structure and electrical properties of spherical micelles was proposed by which the conductivity, permittivity and the volume fraction of micelles as well as electrical properties of solution were calculated from the relaxation parameters. An intriguingly high permittivity of about 150 for the micelle was found to be a direct consequence of the strong orientational order of water molecules inside the core of micelle, and essentially is attributed to the special structure of the micelle. Furthermore, the calculation of the interfacial electrokinetic parameters of the micelles, i.e., the surface conductivity, surface charge density

  9. Dynamics of Johari-Goldstein β relaxation and its universal relation to α relaxation in bulk metallic glasses by mechanical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuebang; Guo, Lijun; Liu, C. S.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics of the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β relaxation and the α relaxation in bulk metallic glasses (MGs) has been investigated by using mechanical spectroscopy combined with the Coupling Model. The β relaxations of MGs exhibit different behaviors such as peaks, humps, and excess wings due to the different fluctuations of the chemical interactions among the constituting atoms. A universal correlation between the β relaxation and the α relaxation is generally found by their activation energies and relaxation times as well as the non-exponentiality parameter of the α relaxation, which can be predicted quantitatively from the Coupling Model. Based on the quasi-point defects theory, a correlation factor χ shows a broad peak along with the β relaxation, suggesting that the concentration and the correlation degree of the string-like configurations involved in the β relaxation vary with increasing temperature, which challenges the previous view that the system is in an iso-configuration state below Tg and may shed new light on the nature of the JG β relaxation in metallic glasses.

  10. What Virtual Twins Reveal About General Intelligence and Other Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Fullerton Virtual Twin Study has been assessing the behaviors of an unusual sibship since 1982. Virtual twins (VTs) are same-age, unrelated siblings reared together since infancy. They replicate the rearing situation of twins but without the genetic link, enabling direct assessment of shared environmental effects on behavior. An updated analysis of IQ data, based on an increased sample of 142 VT pairs (7.87 years, SD=8.22), is presented. Intraclass correlations of .28 (IQ) and .11 (subtes...

  11. The Efficacy of Rational-Emotive-Behavioral versus Relaxation Group Therapies in Treatment of Aggression of Offspring of Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barekatain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in war veterans has been linked with symptoms in their children, including symptoms resembling those of the traumatized parents, especially aggression. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing aggressive behaviors of male adolescents whose fathers have war related PTSD. Method: 36 male children (aged 11 19 years whose fathers had PTSD, were randomly assigned into three groups for Rational-Emotive- Behavioral Therapy (REBT, Relaxation Therapy, and Wait-List control group. Each method had a course of ten therapeutic group sessions of 60 minutes once a week. Rates of aggression were assessed by Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ at baseline, end of intervention, and two months later. Results: The difference between AGQ scores of three groups was statistically significant. The behaviors of the three groups were not homogenous across the time (group × time interaction and showed a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: This study revealed that the intervention groups were superior to control group in reduction of aggressive behaviors in male adolescents of war veterans with PTSD. Further studies with greater sample size, prolonged duration of follow up, and multiple assessment procedures may be needed for better conclusions. Key words: Aggression, offspring, PTSD, Group Therapy

  12. Influence of compression on water sorption, glass transition, and enthalpy relaxation behavior of freeze-dried amorphous sugar matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Kagotani, Ryo; Nomura, Mayo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Kinugawa, Kohshi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2011-04-15

    An amorphous matrix comprised of sugar molecules are frequently used in the pharmaceutical industry. The compression of the amorphous sugar matrix improves the handling. Herein, the influence of compression on the water sorption of an amorphous sugar matrix was investigated. Amorphous sugar samples were prepared by freeze-drying, using several types of sugars, and compressed at 0-443 MPa. The compressed amorphous sugar samples as well as uncompressed samples were rehumidified at given RHs, and the equilibrium water content and glass transition temperature (T(g)) were then measured. Compression resulted in a decrease in the equilibrium water content of the matrix, the magnitude of which was more significant for smaller sized sugars. Diffusivity of water vapor in the sample was also decreased to one-hundredth by the compression. The T(g) value for a given RH remained unchanged, irrespective of the compression. Accordingly, the decrease in T(g) with increasing water content increased as the result of compression. The structural relaxation of the amorphous sugar matrices were also examined and found to be accelerated to the level of a non-porous amorphous sugar matrix as the result of the compression. The findings indicate that pores contained in freeze-dried sugar samples interfere with the propagation of structural relaxation.

  13. Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Bismuth Doped (Ba0.2Sr0.8 TiO3 Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista, J. L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of bismuth doped (Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 ceramics are investigated. The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss factor were measured from 102 to 106Hz in the temperature range 12-320K. As the amount of Bi increases, the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition gets diffused and relaxed. In addition to this ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition, other two sets of dielectric anomalies, located at 50-100K and 200-300K respectively, are also found. The possible relaxation mechanisms are briefly discussed.Las propiedades dieléctricas de cerámicos dopados con bismuto son investigadas. La dependencia con la temperatura de la permitividad dieléctrica y el factor de pérdidas se midieron entre 02 y 106Hz en el rango de temperatura 12-320K. Con el aumento del contenido en Bi, la transición de fase ferroeléctrica-paraléctrica se hace difusa y reloja. Junto a esta transición de fase los conjuntos de anomalías dieléctricas, localizados a 50-100k y 200-300k respectivamente, también se encontraron. Se discute brevemente los posibles mecanismos de relajación.

  14. TENSILE STRESS RELAXATION OF TURBINE BOLT STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q. Jia; H.W. Shen; Y.M. Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation behavior of two turbine bolt steels was evaluated by the manualcontrolled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) at high temperature. First, feasibility and the procedure of the manual-controlled tensile stress relaxation test (TSRT) is discussed and carried out on a general creep testing machine. And then, the experimental results from such type of test were compared to the existing data provided by certain Laboratory U.K. Overall good agreement between the results of manualcontrolled TSRT method and the existing data provides confidence in the use of the proposed method in practice. Finally, the experimental results of turbine bolt steels from TSRT were compared with that of bending test. It is observed that great difference exists between the results from two different type stress relaxation tests. It is therefore suggested that the results from TSRT method be adopted in turbine bolt design in engineering.

  15. What Virtual Twins Reveal About General Intelligence and Other Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; McGuire, Shirley A; Stohs, Joanne Hoven

    2012-09-01

    The Fullerton Virtual Twin Study has been assessing the behaviors of an unusual sibship since 1982. Virtual twins (VTs) are same-age, unrelated siblings reared together since infancy. They replicate the rearing situation of twins but without the genetic link, enabling direct assessment of shared environmental effects on behavior. An updated analysis of IQ data, based on an increased sample of 142 VT pairs (7.87 years, SD=8.22), is presented. Intraclass correlations of .28 (IQ) and .11 (subtest profile) indicated modest shared environmental influences on intelligence. Findings from the Twins, Adoptees, Peers and Siblings (TAPS) project that studies virtual twins and other kinships are described.

  16. Topologically general U(1) symmetric Einstein spacetimes with AVTD behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Moncrief, V

    2004-01-01

    We use Fuchsian methods to show that, for any two dimensional manifold $\\Sigma^2$, there is a large family of U(1) symmetric solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations on the manifold $\\Sigma \\times S^1 \\times \\mathbb{R}$, each of which has AVTD behavior in the neighborhood of its singularity.

  17. Behavior, Organization, Substance: Three Gestalts of General Systems Theory

    OpenAIRE

    De Florio, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The term gestalt, when used in the context of general systems theory, assumes the value of "systemic touchstone", namely a figure of reference used to categorize the properties or qualities of a set of systems. Typical gestalts used in biology are those based on anatomical or physiological characteristics, which correspond respectively to architectural and organizational design choices in natural and artificial systems. In this paper we discuss three gestalts of general systems theory: behavi...

  18. The Effects of the Good Behavior Game with General-Education High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel R.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Ford, W. Blake; Sterling, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous research by evaluating the effect of the interdependent group contingency procedure known as the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on decreasing disruptive behaviors with general-education high school students. Although many studies exist that have used the GBG to alter behaviors across ages ranging…

  19. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and

  20. Some theoretical aspects of human categorization behavior: similarity and generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jäkel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Explanations of human categorization behavior often invoke similarity. Stimuli that are similar to each other are grouped together whereas stimuli that are very different are kept separate. Despite serious problems in defining similarity, both conceptually and experimentally, this is the prevailing view of categorization in prototype models (Posner & Keele, 1968; Reed, 1972) and exemplar models (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1986). This is also the prevailing approach in machine learning ...

  1. [Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in terms of cognitive behavioral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) within life is estimated at 2.6-5.1%. Amongst etiological factors that affect the development of the disorder are: biological and psychological problems, including cognitive models. There are known several cognitive models: metacognitive, Borkovec'c model and the model developed in Quebec. Key cognitive contents that occur with generalized anxiety disorder are focused on two aspects: metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty. A primary purpose of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the modification of dysfunctional beliefs about worry. Cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing anxiety, makes it easier to operate in the professional sphere and improves the quality of life.

  2. Generalization of Adult's Stimulus Control of Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Generalization of stimulus control in different situations and with novel adults occurred with those children who were trained by contingent reinforcement, but not with those trained by both contingent and noncontingent reinforcement. This research was submitted as part of the author's dissertation. (MH)

  3. Overall conductivity and NCL-type relaxation behavior in nanocrystalline sodium peroxide Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}—Consequences for Na-oxygen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, Andreas; Sternad, Michael; Wilkening, Martin, E-mail: wilkening@tugraz.at

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} turned out to be a poor electrical conductor. • Total conductivity of nanocrystalline Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} measured slightly above room temperature is in the order of 10{sup −15} S cm{sup −1}. • Activation energies of micro- and nanocrystalline Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are in the order of 1 eV. • At low temperatures nearly constant loss behavior showed up pointing to locally restricted electrical relaxation processes. - Abstract: Metal air batteries are considered as promising candidates for room-temperature batteries with high-energy densities. On discharge, atmospheric oxygen is reduced at the positive electrode which, in the ideal case, forms the discharge products in a reversible cell reaction. In Na-O{sub 2} batteries upon discharge either sodium peroxide (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or sodium superoxide (NaO{sub 2}) is reported to be formed. So far, the charge carrier transport remains relatively unexplored but is expected to crucially determine the efficiency of such energy storage systems. Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} is predicted to be an electrical insulator wherein the transport presumably is determined by very slow hopping processes. Understanding the basic fundamental properties of the overall charge carrier transport, including also nanostructured forms of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, is key to developing high-energy metal oxygen batteries. The present study answers the question how overall, i.e., total, conductivity changes when going from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline, defect-rich Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Nanocrystalline Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} was prepared via a top-down approach, viz by high-energy ball milling. Milling does not only shrink the average crystallite diameter but also introduces a large amount of defects which are anticipated to influence total conductivity. It turned out that even after vigorous mechanical treatment the conductivity of the sample is only increased by ca. one order of magnitude. The activation energy remains almost

  4. Boundary behaviors for general off-shell amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Chen, Gang

    2013-07-01

    The boundary behavior of amplitudes—the amplitudes’ behavior under a large Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) momenta deformation for a pair of legs—in Yang-Mills theory is of great interest recently. In this article we analyze the boundary behavior of off-shell Yang-Mills amplitudes in Feynman gauge. The deformed legs can be either adjacent or nonadjacent. We find that a set of reduced vertices can be used to simplify the analysis and calculation of the boundary behavior of amplitudes. Boundary behavior for amplitudes with adjacent BCFW deformation is read off from the reduced vertices. Then we discover a relationship between a permutation sum with fixed color ordering of the legs and the improved boundary behavior for the off-shell amplitudes with a nonadjacent BCFW momenta deformation. Based on the boundary behavior, we generalize the BCFW recursion relation to calculate general tree-level off-shell amplitudes and analyze the relations between them.

  5. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  6. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Rafael E.; Aysal, Tuncer C.; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2010-12-01

    Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD) family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1) filtering for power line communications, (2) estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3) reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4) fuzzy clustering.

  7. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo RafaelE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1 filtering for power line communications, (2 estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3 reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4 fuzzy clustering.

  8. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  9. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  10. Influence of sociodemographics and environmental attitudes on general responsible environmental behavior among recreational boaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottrell, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined predictors of self-reported general responsible environmental behavior (GREB) among recreational boaters in Maryland in 1992. Findings show a relationship between cognitive (professed knowledge of environmental issues), affective (environmental concern), and conative (verbal comm

  11. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  12. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  13. Behavior of solution set for bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problems in topological vector spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁协平

    2014-01-01

    A new bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problem (BGMEP) is introduced and studied in topological vector spaces. By using a minimax inequality, the existence of solutions and the behavior of solution set for the BGMEP are studied under quite mild conditions. These results are new and generalize some recent results in this field.

  14. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  15. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.

  16. Kinetic behavior of the general modifier mechanism of Botts and Morales with non-equilibrium binding

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Chen; Qian, Min-Ping; Jiang, Da-Quan; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we thoroughly investigate the kinetic behavior of the general modifier mechanism of Botts and Morales at both equilibrium steady state assuming equilibrium substrate- and modifier-binding steps and non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) without assuming equilibrium binding steps. We introduce the net flux into discussion and propose a method which gains a strong advantage over early approaches involving King-Atman method and even the numerical computations in dealing with the cyclic reaction systems. Using this new approach, the expression of product rate at NESS gives clear biophysical significance. Moreover, we classify the kinetic behavior of the modifier into three categories, namely hyperbolic behavior, bell-shaped behavior, and switching behavior. It turns out that a modifier cannot be regarded as overall activator or inhibitor when the reaction system is not at equilibrium. The switching-behaved modifier may convert between activator and inhibitor via the general modifier mechanism when the...

  17. [Comparison of in vitro release behavior of proanthocyanidins flexible nanoliposomes and general nanoliposomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjun; Wu, Huibin; Yuan, Junlin; Shi, Lei; Jin, Rixian; Liu, Huafeng; Xiong, Weizheng; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    To prepare flexible proanthocyanidins nanoliposomes, and explore the in vitro release behavior of proanthocyanidins flexible nanoliposomes and general nanoliposomes. Flexible proanthoeyanidins nanoliposomes were prepared proanthocyanidins using a film dispersion method, characterized by transmission electron microscope, and the in vitro release action was studied in different dissolution mediums using dynamic dialyse method with the content of total phenol as index. The in vitro release of both proanthocyanidins flexible nanoliposomes and general nanoliposomes were in accordance with Weibull distribution. Proanthocyanidins flexible nanoliposomes without pressure had similar in vitro release behavior with general nanoliposomes.

  18. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  19. An Exploration of the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Noncontingent Reinforcement on Disruptive Behavior in Middle School General Education Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Melody C.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers sometimes experience problems with disruptive behavior in their classrooms. These aberrant and socially mediated behaviors can be difficult for teachers to manage without the proper research-based skills and training. This project explored the effects of training general education classroom teachers to conduct a functional behavior assessment and deliver noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) for disruptive classroom behavior(s). Participants included four middle school general education ...

  20. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  1. Beta relaxation of nonpolymeric liquids close to the glass transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric beta relaxation in a pyridine-toluene solution is studied close to the glass transition. Loss peak frequency and maximum loss both exhibit thermal hysteresis. An annealing-state-independent parameter involving loss and loss peak frequency is identified. This parameter has a simple Arrh...... Arrhenius temperature dependence. The same behavior is found for four other viscous liquids, indicating that the phenomenon is possibly general....

  2. Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lam, Christopher N.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Wang, Weiyu; Liu, Jianning; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Stanley, Christopher B.; Zhao, Zhichen; Hong, Kunlun; Wang, Yangyang

    2017-07-01

    The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.

  3. Mother's but not father's education predicts general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood: Behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Chen, Zhencai; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-11-01

    Lower parental education impairs cognitive abilities of their offspring such as general fluid intelligence dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the independent contribution of mother's and father's education is unknown. We used an individual difference approach to test whether mother's and father's education independently affected general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood at both the behavioral and neural level. Behaviorally, mother's but not father's education accounted for unique variance in general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood (assessed by the Raven's advanced progressive matrices). Neurally, the whole-brain correlation analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial PFC was related to both mother's education and general fluid intelligence but not father's education. Furthermore, after controlling for mother's education, the association between general fluid intelligence and the rGMV in medial PFC was no longer significant, indicating that mother's education plays an important role in influencing the structure of the medial PFC associated with general fluid intelligence. Taken together, our study provides the first behavioral and neural evidence that mother's education is a more important determinant of general cognitive ability in emerging adulthood than father's education.

  4. [Relationship Between General Cognitive Abilities and School Achievement: The Mediation Role of Learning Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H M; Rücker, S; Büttner, P; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    General cognitive abilities are still considered as the most important predictor of school achievement and success. Whether the high correlation (r=0.50) can be explained by other variables has not yet been studied. Learning behavior can be discussed as one factor that influences the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school achievement. This study examined the relationship between intelligence, school achievement and learning behavior. Mediator analyses were conducted to check whether learning behavior would mediate the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school grades in mathematics and German. Statistical analyses confirmed that the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school achievement was fully mediated by learning behavior for German, whereas intelligence seemed to be the only predictor for achievement in mathematics. These results could be confirmed by non-parametric bootstrapping procedures. RESULTS indicate that special training of learning behavior may have a positive impact on school success, even for children and adolescents with low IQ. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.

  6. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  7. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  8. Asymptotic Behavior of Global Solution for Nonlinear Generalized Euler-Possion-Darboux Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGBao-song; CHENZhen

    2004-01-01

    J. L Lions and W. A. Stranss [1] have proved the existence of a global solution of the initial boundary value problem for nonlinear generalized Euler-Possion-Darboux equation. In this paper we are going to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the global solution by a difference inequality.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

  10. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  11. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood : a prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Hoek, Hans W.; van Hoeken, Daphne; de Barse, Lisanne M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPicky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associations with child ment

  12. Domestically and Generally Violent Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients: Personality Traits and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsveld, Ruud H. J.; Bezuijen, Siemon; Leenaars, Ellie E. M.; Kraaimaat, Floris W.

    2008-01-01

    A group of 63 domestically violent patients and a group of 103 generally violent patients at a Dutch forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic are examined with regard to personality traits and problem behaviors to develop treatment programs for domestically violent patients. The domestically violent patients are more unstable from a psychological…

  13. GLOBAL SOLUTION AND ITS LONG TIME BEHAVIOR FOR THE GENERALIZED LONG-SHORT WAVE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ruifeng; Guo Boling

    2005-01-01

    The long time behavior of the solutions of the generalized long-short wave equations with dissipation term is studied. The existence of global attractor of the initial periodic boundary value is proved by means of a uniform a priori estimate for time. And also the dimensions of the global attractor are estimated.

  14. Modeling Answer Change Behavior: An Application of a Generalized Item Response Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul; van der Linden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel application of a generalized item response tree model to investigate test takers' answer change behavior. The model allows us to simultaneously model the observed patterns of the initial and final responses after an answer change as a function of a set of latent traits and item parameters. The proposed application is illustrated…

  15. Academic Beliefs and Behaviors in On-Campus and Online General Education Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because…

  16. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  17. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood: A prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cardona Cano; H.W. Hoek (Hans); D. Van Hoeken (Daphne); L.M. de Barse (Lisanne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Picky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associ

  18. Extended s+ scenario for the neclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in superconducting pnictides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, D.; Dolgov, O.V.; Korshunov, M.M.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Mazin, I.I.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several measurements of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 in the superconducting Fe pnictides have been reported. These measurements generally show no coherence peak below Tc and indicate a low-temperature power-law behavior, the characteristics commonly t

  19. Instructional and behavior management practices implemented by elementary general education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    This investigation examined 317 general education kindergarten through fifth-grade teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies as measured by the Classroom Strategy Scale (CSS)-Observer Form, a multidimensional tool for assessing classroom practices. The CSS generates frequency of strategy use and discrepancy scores reflecting the difference between recommended and actual frequencies of strategy use. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) suggested that teachers' grade-level assignment was related to their frequency of using instructional and behavioral management strategies: Lower grade teachers utilized more clear 1 to 2 step commands, praise statements, and behavioral corrective feedback strategies than upper grade teachers, whereas upper grade teachers utilized more academic monitoring and feedback strategies, content/concept summaries, student focused learning and engagement, and student thinking strategies than lower grade teachers. Except for the use of praise statements, teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral management strategies was not found to be related to years of teaching experience or to the interaction of years of teaching experience and grade-level assignment. HLMs suggested that teachers' grade level was related to their discrepancy scores of some instructional and behavioral management strategies: Upper grade teachers had higher discrepancy scores in academic performance feedback, behavioral feedback, and praise than lower grade teachers. Teachers' discrepancy scores of instructional and behavioral management strategies were not found to be related to years of teaching experience or to the interaction of years of teaching experience and grade-level assignment. Implications of results for school psychology practice are outlined.

  20. A general model to calculate the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time of blood, accounting for haematocrit, oxygen saturation and magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick W; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Many MRI techniques require prior knowledge of the T1-relaxation time of blood (T1bl). An assumed/fixed value is often used; however, T1bl is sensitive to magnetic field (B0), haematocrit (Hct), and oxygen saturation (Y). We aimed to combine data from previous in vitro measurements into a mathematical model, to estimate T1bl as a function of B0, Hct, and Y. The model was shown to predict T1bl from in vivo studies with a good accuracy (± 87 ms). This model allows for improved estimation of T1bl between 1.5-7.0 T while accounting for variations in Hct and Y, leading to improved accuracy of MRI-derived perfusion measurements.

  1. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  2. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Relaxation Behavior of Sol-gel BaxSr1-xTiO3 Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ala'eddin A. Saif; P. Poopalan

    2011-01-01

    BaxSr1-xTiO3 sol-gel thin films with x--0.5, 0.7 and 0.8 have been fabricated as AI/BST/Pt capacitor. The AC conductivity and dielectric properties over a frequency rang of 10 Hz and I MHz have been studied in order to explore the ion dynamics and relaxation mechanisms in the films. The frequency dependent conductivity plots show three regions of conduction processes. Dielectric results show that ε' at low frequencies increases as Sr content decreases, whereas at high frequencies, it shows opposite variation, which is attributed to the dipole dynamics. The electric modulus plots reveal the relaxation peaks which are not observed in the ε" plots and the contribution of the grains, grain boundaries and electrode to the relaxation mechanisms.

  3. Relaxor Behavior and Dielectric Relaxation in Lead-Free Solid Solutions of (1 - x)(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, P. K.; Singh, K. N.; Tamrakar, Preeti

    2016-02-01

    Lead-free compositions (1 - x) (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6) (BNT-SN) are synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route. SN diffuse in distorted perovskite BNT for low concentrations of SN ( x ≤ 0.03) and are stabilized in rhombohedral perovskite phase with experimentally observed relative density of the ceramics >92%. A temperature-dependent dielectric response exhibits a broad dielectric peak that shows frequency-dependent shifts towards higher temperatures reflecting typical relaxor behavior. Modified Curie-Weiss law and Lorentz-type empirical relationships are used to fit the dielectric data that exhibit almost complete diffuse phase transition characteristics. In addition, significant dielectric dispersion is observed in a low-frequency regime in both components of the dielectric response and a small dielectric relaxation peak is observed. Cole-Cole plots indicate the poly-dispersive nature of the dielectric relaxation.

  4. LAVENDER AROMATERAPHY AS A RELAXANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGA Prima Dewi AP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a kind of treatment that used aroma with aromatherapy essential oil. Extraction process from essential oil generally doing in three methods, there are distilling with water (boiled, distilling with water and steam, and distilling with steam. One of the most favorite aroma is lavender. The main content from lavender is linalyl acetate and linalool (C10H18O. Linalool is main active contents in lavender which can use for anti-anxiety (relaxation. Based on some research, the conclusion indicates that essential oil from lavender can give relaxation (carminative, sedative, reduce anxiety level and increasing mood.

  5. Integrated logistic support studies using behavioral Monte Carlo simulation, supported by Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, Robert; Chevalier, Marcel [Schneider Electric (France)

    2000-07-01

    Studying large and complex industrial sites, requires more and more accuracy in modeling. In particular, when considering Spares, Maintenance and Repair / Replacement processes, determining optimal Integrated Logistic Support policies requires a high level modeling formalism, in order to make the model as close as possible to the real considered processes. Generally, numerical methods are used to process this kind of study. In this paper, we propose an alternate way to process optimal Integrated Logistic Support policy determination when dealing with large, complex and distributed multi-policies industrial sites. This method is based on the use of behavioral Monte Carlo simulation, supported by Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets. (author)

  6. Application of Premack's generalization of reinforcement to modify occupational behavior in two severely retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, S

    1975-03-01

    Premack's generalization that a more probable response will reinforce a less probable one was applied to modify occupational behavior of two severly retarded individuals. When opportunity to work on a more preferred activity was made contingent upon spending some time on a less preferred activity, an increase in the amount of time spent on less preferred work occurred. As the reinforcement schedule was gradually reduced in terms of time allowed on more preferred work, time spent on the less preferred activity tended to increase. Behavior did not return to baseline levels on extinction, however. Possible reasons for these findings are outlined, together with the practical advantages of utilizing Premack's generalization as a reinforcement technique for motivating retarded individuals in rehabilitation settings.

  7. The Generalization of Attachment Representations to New Social Situations: Predicting Behavior during Initial Interactions with Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Brooke C.; Cassidy, Jude; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    The idea that attachment representations are generalized to new social situations and guide behavior with unfamiliar others is central to attachment theory. However, research regarding this important theoretical postulate has been lacking in adolescence and adulthood, as most research has focused on establishing the influence of attachment representations on close relationship dynamics. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which attachment representations are predictive of adolescents’ initial behavior when meeting and interacting with new peers. High school adolescents (N = 135) participated with unfamiliar peers from another school in two social support interactions that were videotaped and coded by independent observers. Results indicated that attachment representations (assessed through interview and self-report measures) were predictive of behaviors exhibited during the discussions. Theoretical implications of results and contributions to existing literature are discussed. PMID:19025297

  8. Relaxation Techniques for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Relaxation Techniques for Health Share: On This Page What’s the ... Bottom Line? How much do we know about relaxation techniques? A substantial amount of research has been done ...

  9. Symmetric bursting behaviors in the generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, A H; Fallah, H; Razvan, M R

    2013-08-01

    In the current paper, we have investigated the generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We have shown that symmetric bursting behaviors of different types could be observed in this model with an appropriate recovery term. A modified version of this system is used to construct bursting activities. Furthermore, we have shown some numerical examples of delayed Hopf bifurcation and canard phenomenon in the symmetric bursting of super-Hopf/homoclinic type near its super-Hopf and homoclinic bifurcations, respectively.

  10. Importance of relaxation techniques in cognitive therapy for anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alice Rodrigues Willhelm; Ilana Andretta; Mariana Steiger Ungaretti

    2015-01-01

    .... The CBT treatment for anxiety disorders suggests cognitive techniques of restructuring and cognitive flexibilization and behavioral techniques such as exposure, systematic desensitization and body relaxation techniques...

  11. Difficulties encountered by general practitioners during acute behavioral disturbances of their dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Marion; Bonin-Guillaume, Sylvie; Yagoubi, Ramzi; Berbis, Julie; Franqui, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer diseases and related disorders (ADRD) remain a major public health issue. The progression of the disease is dominated by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) which are frequent and burdensome for caregivers. The aim of our survey was to study how the general practionner managed these behavioral disturbances (particularly agitation and aggressiveness) in community living patients with ADRD and support of their main caregivers. We based our study on a medical survey sent to all general practitioners (GP) practicing in four districts in Marseille near from a secure unit. Ninety five out of 260 answered to the survey and 57 had already been exposed to patients' behavioral decompensation. For these BPSD management, atypical neuroleptics and benzodiazepines were mostly prescribed, and according to the literature and guidelines. Half of the GP's recognized the weak effectiveness of this strategy. Almost all of them are interested in having a document summarizing the main strategy to be set up or a possibility to call a specialized mobile team with doctors and professionals caregivers. A few dedicated consultations were devoted to informal caregivers whereas GP were aware of negative effects of these decompensations on them. This study point out difficulties for GP to provide appropriate management for their patients with ADRD living at home and for their informal caregivers, particularly during acute behavioral disturbance, despite their practical knowledges.

  12. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  13. Study into the correlation of dominant pore throat size and SIP relaxation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Sabine; Prinz, Carsten; Zimathies, Annett

    2016-12-01

    There is currently a debate within the SIP community about the characteristic textural length scale controlling relaxation time of consolidated porous media. One idea is that the relaxation time is dominated by the pore throat size distribution or more specifically the modal pore throat size as determined in mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests. Recently new studies on inverting pore size distributions from SIP data were published implying that the relaxation mechanisms and controlling length scale are well understood. In contrast new analytical model studies based on the Marshall-Madden membrane polarization theory suggested that two relaxation processes might compete: the one along the short narrow pore (the throat) with one across the wider pore in case the narrow pores become relatively long. This paper presents a first systematically focused study into the relationship of pore throat sizes and SIP relaxation times. The generality of predicted trends is investigated across a wide range of materials differing considerably in chemical composition, specific surface and pore space characteristics. Three different groups of relaxation behaviors can be clearly distinguished. The different behaviors are related to clay content and type, carbonate content, size of the grains and the wide pores in the samples.

  14. Band inversion amplifies (31) P-(31) P nuclear overhauser effects: Relaxation mechanism and dynamic behavior of ATP in the human brain by (31) P MRS at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jimin; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2017-04-01

    To develop an improved method to measure the (31) P nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) for evaluation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dynamics in terms of correlation time (τc ), and contribution of dipole-dipole (DD) and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) mechanisms to T1 relaxation of ATP in human brain. The NOE of ATP in human brain was evaluated by monitoring changes in magnetization in the β-ATP signal following a band inversion of all downfield (31) P resonances. The magnetization changes observed were analyzed using the Bloch-McConnell-Solomon formulation to evaluate the relaxation and motion dynamic parameters that describe interactions of ATP with cellular solids in human brain tissue. The maximal transient NOE, observed as a reduction in the β-ATP signal, was 24 ± 2% upon band inversion of γ- and α-ATP, which is 2-3-fold higher than achievable by frequency-selective inversion of either γ- or α-ATP. The rate of (31) P-(31) P cross relaxation (0.21 ± 0.02 s(-1) ) led to a τc value of (9.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-8) s for ATP in human brain. The T1 relaxation of β-ATP is dominated by CSA over the DD mechanism (60%: 40%). The band inversion method proved effective in amplifying (31) P NOE, and thus facilitating ATP τc and relaxation measurements. This technique renders ATP a potentially useful reporter molecule for cellular environments. Magn Reson Med 77:1409-1418, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. [Characteristics of health seeking behaviors for patients with psoriasis in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Luo, Dan; Qiu, Yangyang; Chen, Mingliang; Su, Juan; Yi, Mei

    2016-06-28

    To explore the characteristics of health seeking behaviors and relevant factors among the outpatients with psoriasis in a general hospital, and to provide scientific evidence to modify the inappropriate health seeking behaviors for psoriasis patients and improve the therapeutic effect. 
 Using cross-sectional study design, a dermatological clinic in a general hospital was selected for this study. Two hundred psoriasis outpatients from 1st April to 30th September in 2014 were enrolled. A series of questionnaires were used to collect information regarding the social-demographic characteristics, health seeking behaviors, knowledge on psoriasis, and depressive and anxious symptoms.
 Among 200 psoriasis outpatients, 141 patients (70.5%) experienced transfer treatment. One hundred and eighty-two patients (91.0%) went to formal hospitals in county for treatment when symptoms were firstly displayed; the other 18 patients (9.0%) went to village or community clinics, or the private clinics. Over 50% patients chose municipal hospital and 35.0% patients went to provincial hospital for medical treatment among the 182 patients. Ninety-one percent of the patients made decision for the first treatment after consulting with their spouses or relatives. According to the definition of the appropriate health seeking behavior in this study, 50 patients (25%) had inappropriate health seeking behaviors. Logistic regression analysis showed inappropriate health seeking behaviors correlated with the family whose income was less than 3 000 yuan per person per month (OR=2.232, 95%CI 1.086 to 4.585), patients who made the decision for the treatment with no discussion with other people when the symptoms appeared (OR=3.016, 95%CI 1.023 to 8.893), and the high score of the International Psoriasis Severity Index (OR=1.043, 95%CI 1.001 to 1.088). 
 The dermatological practitioner should pay more attention to the factors, such as social-demographical characteristics, especially the low level of

  16. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. Materials and Methods: A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Results: Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. Conclusion: General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  17. 喉罩联合无肌松全麻在小儿眼科手术中的应用%The application of LMA combined with general anesthesia without muscle relaxants in the pediatric department of ophthalmology operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺伟忠; 杨义; 范小丽; 李萌

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究无肌松全麻联合喉罩置入对小儿眼科手术围术期应激反应的影响。方法选择全身麻醉下小儿眼科手术患者90例,随机分为A、B两组,每组各45例。 A组使用肌松药插入气管导管,B组采用无肌松药全麻并置入喉罩。对比手术中各时间点的平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(P)、心率收缩压乘积(RPP)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)。观察两组拔管期呛咳、躁动等拔管反应,并记录拔管(喉罩)时间、麻醉药总量。结果A组麻醉诱导及拔管期血流动力学波动高于B组;A组严重呛咳、躁动例数高于B组;A组拔管时间长于B组;A组麻醉药物总量多于B组。结论喉罩联合无肌松全麻应用于小儿眼科手术安全可靠,相较气管插管围术期应激反应更低。%Objective To study without muscle relaxants combined general effect of laryngeal mask insertion on the pe-diatric department of ophthalmology operation perioperative stress responses. Methods Ninety patients with pediatric eye surgery were randomly divided into group A and group B, 45 cases in each group. Group A treated with muscle re-laxants insert the tracheal tube, group B treated with without anesthesia and muscle relaxants into the LMA. Contrast surgery mean arterial pressure at each time point (MAP), heart rate (P), rate pressure product (RPP), oxygen saturation (SpO2). Extubation were observed choking, restlessness, etc. extubation reaction, record extubation (LMA) time, total quantity of using drug. Results A induction of anesthesia and extubation hemodynamic fluctuations was higher than that of group B; Severe cough, agitation of group A were higher than that in B group; The extubation time was longer than that of group B; Drug amount was higher than that of group B. Conclusion LMA Joint no muscle relaxant used in pe-diatric anesthesia eye surgery is safe and reliable, with lower stress response.

  18. Dielectric relaxation behavior in co-precipitation derived ferrite (Zn1-xNix)Fe2O4 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. P.; Li, R.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Chen, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of nickel doping on the electrical properties and dielectric relaxation in Zn1-xNixFe2O4 (ZNFO, 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics has been investigated via the dielectric and complex impedance spectra measurements. According to the modified Curie-Weiss law, the diffusivity factor of the ZNFO ceramics from 1.69 to 2.02 with x increasing from 0.2 to 0.5, respectively. Two relaxation peaks are observed in the nickel doped samples, by employing the modified Arrhenius equation, two activation energy values of different sintering temperatures were calculated and analyzed in combination with oxygen vacancy. The Cole-Cole plots showed that the semicircular arcs which are nonideal Debye type, and the grain boundaries resistance increases with increasing Ni concentration.

  19. Generalized gradient approximation exchange energy functional with correct asymptotic behavior of the corresponding potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona-Espíndola, Javier, E-mail: jcarmona-26@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340, México (Mexico); Gázquez, José L., E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340, México (Mexico); Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360, México (Mexico); Vela, Alberto [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360, México (Mexico); Trickey, S. B. [Quantum Theory Project, Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8435 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    A new non-empirical exchange energy functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type, which gives an exchange potential with the correct asymptotic behavior, is developed and explored. In combination with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation energy functional, the new CAP-PBE (CAP stands for correct asymptotic potential) exchange-correlation functional gives heats of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, proton affinities, binding energies of weakly interacting systems, barrier heights for hydrogen and non-hydrogen transfer reactions, bond distances, and harmonic frequencies on standard test sets that are fully competitive with those obtained from other GGA-type functionals that do not have the correct asymptotic exchange potential behavior. Distinct from them, the new functional provides important improvements in quantities dependent upon response functions, e.g., static and dynamic polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. CAP combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional gives roughly equivalent results. Consideration of the computed dynamical polarizabilities in the context of the broad spectrum of other properties considered tips the balance to the non-empirical CAP-PBE combination. Intriguingly, these improvements arise primarily from improvements in the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and not from shifts in the associated eigenvalues. Those eigenvalues do not change dramatically with respect to eigenvalues from other GGA-type functionals that do not provide the correct asymptotic behavior of the potential. Unexpected behavior of the potential at intermediate distances from the nucleus explains this unexpected result and indicates a clear route for improvement.

  20. Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions to the Generalized BBM-Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-na Jiang; Yan-ling Xu

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the initial-boundary value problem for the generalized BBM-Burgers equation ut + f(u)x = uxx +uxxt on the half line with the conditions u(0, t) =u-, u(∞, t) = u+ and u- < u+, where the corresponding Cauchy problem admits the rarefaction wave as an asymptotic states. In the present problem, because of the Dirichlet boundary, the asymptotic states are divided into five cases depending on the signs of the characteristic speeds f′(u±) of boundary state u- = u(0) and the far fields states u+ = u(∞). In all cases both global existence of the solution and asymptotic behavior are shown under the smallness conditions.

  1. Effects of CMP slurry additives on the agglomeration of alumina nanoparticles 1: general aggregation rate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Neil; Talbot, Jan B

    2014-04-01

    The aggregation behavior for 150 nm alumina particles suspended in 1 mM KNO3 solutions with various additives used in chemical mechanical planarization of copper was investigated. Three behaviors were observed: no aggregation, reversible aggregation where large agglomerates formed almost instantaneously, and steady aggregation where particle sizes grew over the duration of the measurement. In general steady aggregation occurred at high pH for all suspensions, while no aggregation occurred at acidic pH, except with suspensions with sodium dodecyl sulfate, where reversible aggregation was observed. No aggregation was observed at near neutral pH for all suspensions. Zeta potential and isoelectric points for each suspension were also measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650/sup 0/C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength.

  3. Techniques and Behaviors Associated with Exemplary Inpatient General Medicine Teaching: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchens, Nathan; Harrod, Molly; Moody, Stephanie; Fowler, Karen; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-07-01

    Clinician educators face numerous obstacles to their joint mission of facilitating high-quality learning while also delivering patient-centered care. Such challenges necessitate increased attention to the work of exemplary clinician educators, their respective teaching approaches, and the experiences of their learners. To describe techniques and behaviors utilized by clinician educators to facilitate excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds. An exploratory qualitative study of inpatient teaching conducted from 2014 to 2015. Inpatient general medicine wards in 11 US hospitals, including university-affiliated hospitals and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Participants included 12 exemplary clinician educators, 57 of their current learners, and 26 of their former learners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews of exemplary clinician educators, focus group discussions with their current and former learners, and direct observations of clinical teaching during inpatient rounds. Interview data, focus group data, and observational field notes were coded and categorized into broad, overlapping themes. Each theme elucidated a series of actions, behaviors, and approaches that exemplary clinician educators consistently demonstrated during inpatient rounds: (1) they fostered positive relationships with all team members by building rapport, which in turn created a safe learning environment; (2) they facilitated patient-centered teaching points, modeled excellent clinical exam and communication techniques, and treated patients as partners in their care; and (3) they engaged in coaching and collaboration through facilitation of discussion, effective questioning strategies, and differentiation of learning among team members with varied experience levels. This study identified consistent techniques and behaviors of excellent teaching during inpatient general medicine rounds.

  4. Slow spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendac, Martin; Sedlakova, Lucia; Orendacova, Alzbeta; Vrabel, Peter; Feher, Alexander; Pajerowski, Daniel M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Meisel, Mark W.; Shirai, Masae; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2009-03-01

    Spin relaxation in dipolar spin ice Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 was investigated using the magnetocaloric effect and susceptibility. The magnetocaloric behavior of Dy2Ti2O7 at temperatures where the orientation of spins is governed by ``ice rules`` (T Tice) revealed thermally activated relaxation; however, the resulting temperature dependence of the relaxation time is more complicated than anticipated by a mere extrapolation of the corresponding high temperature data [1]. A susceptibility study of Ho2Ti2O7 was performed at T > Tice and in high magnetic fields, and the results suggest a slow relaxation of spins analogous to the behavior reported in a highly polarized cooperative paramagnet [2]. [1] J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 107201. [2] B. G. Ueland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 027216.

  5. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary r...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses.......The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...

  6. On periodic wave solutions and asymptotic behaviors to a generalized Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky-Kaup-Kupershmidt equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lian-Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Yan, Hui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a lucid and systematic approach is proposed to systematically study the periodic-wave solutions and asymptotic behaviors of a (2 + 1) -dimensional generalized Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky-Kaup-Kupershmidt (gKDKK) equation, which can be used to describe certain situations from the fluid mechanics, ocean dynamics and plasma physics. Based on Bell's polynomials, the bilinear formalism and N -soliton solution of the gKDKK equation are derived, respectively. Furthermore, based on multidimensional Riemann theta functions, the periodic-wave solutions of the equation are also constructed. Finally, an asymptotic relation between the periodic-wave solutions and soliton solutions are strictly established under a limited procedure.

  7. Dynamic Behaviors of a General Discrete Nonautonomous System of Plankton Allelopathy with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoping Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamic behaviors of a general discrete nonautonomous system of plankton allelopathy with delays. We first show that under some suitable assumption, the system is permanent. Next, by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, we obtain a set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the global attractivity of the two species. After that, by constructing an extinction-type Lyapunov functional, we show that under some suitable assumptions, one species will be driven to extinction. Finally, two examples together with their numerical simulations show the feasibility of the main results.

  8. On the spatial behavior in two-temperature generalized thermoelastic theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranville, Alain; Quintanilla, Ramon

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the spatial behavior of the solutions of two generalized thermoelastic theories with two temperatures. To be more precise, we focus on the Green-Lindsay theory with two temperatures and the Lord-Shulman theory with two temperatures. We prove that a Phragmén-Lindelöf alternative of exponential type can be obtained in both cases. We also describe how to obtain a bound on the amplitude term by means of the boundary conditions for the Green-Lindsay theory with two temperatures.

  9. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  10. Generalized system function analysis of resonant behavior of electromagnetic open systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Long; LIU Haixia; SHI Yan; LIANG Changhong

    2005-01-01

    The generalized system function, H(s), directly associated with the radiated or scattered fields is presented to effectively analyze the special resonant behavior of electromagnetic open systems in this paper, which is adaptively constructed by using the model-based parameter estimation (MBPE) technique in the complex frequency domain.By analyzing the characteristics of complex zeros, poles and residues of H(s) in a finite operational frequency band, we can effectively determine resonant frequencies and resonant intensity of electromagnetic open systems. It is known that an analysis of Q-factor of antenna and scattering systems has been an interesting and challenging problem. Based on H(s) and the complex frequency ω theories, a complex frequency method for Q-factor of electromagnetic open systems is presented in this paper. Some examples of the practical antenna arrays are given to illustrate the applications and validity of the generalized system function theory proposed by this paper.

  11. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  12. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  13. Antidepressant medication augmented with cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J; White, Kamila S; Nguyen, Hoang; Kornblith, Sander; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Generalized anxiety disorder is common among older adults and leads to diminished health and cognitive functioning. Although antidepressant medications are efficacious, many elderly individuals require augmentation treatment. Furthermore, little is known about maintenance strategies for older people. The authors examined whether sequenced treatment combining pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) boosts response and prevents relapse in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD Participants were individuals at least 60 years of age with generalized anxiety disorder (N=73) who were recruited from outpatient clinics at three sites. Participants received 12 weeks of open-label escitalopram and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 16 weeks of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) plus modular CBT, followed by 28 weeks of maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram alone, followed by maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram plus CBT, followed by pill placebo; and escitalopram alone, followed by placebo. RESULTS Escitalopram augmented with CBT increased response rates on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire but not on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale compared with escitalopram alone. Both escitalopram and CBT prevented relapse compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates effective strategies for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. The sequence of antidepressant medication augmented with CBT leads to worry reduction in the short-term. Continued medication prevents relapse, but for many individuals, CBT would allow sustained remission without requiring long-term pharmacotherapy.

  14. 1H relaxation dispersion in solutions of nitroxide radicals: Influence of electron spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, D.; Korpała, A.; Kubica, A.; Kowalewski, J.; Rössler, E. A.; Moscicki, J.

    2013-03-01

    The work presents a theory of nuclear (1H) spin-lattice relaxation dispersion for solutions of 15N and 14N radicals, including electron spin relaxation effects. The theory is a generalization of the approach presented by Kruk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044512 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4736854. The electron spin relaxation is attributed to the anisotropic part of the electron spin-nitrogen spin hyperfine interaction modulated by rotational dynamics of the paramagnetic molecule, and described by means of Redfield relaxation theory. The 1H relaxation is caused by electron spin-proton spin dipole-dipole interactions which are modulated by relative translational motion of the solvent and solute molecules. The spectral density characterizing the translational dynamics is described by the force-free-hard-sphere model. The electronic relaxation influences the 1H relaxation by contributing to the fluctuations of the inter-molecular dipolar interactions. The developed theory is tested against 1H spin-lattice relaxation dispersion data for glycerol solutions of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N and 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-14N covering the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz. The studies are carried out as a function of temperature starting at 328 K and going down to 290 K. The theory gives a consistent overall interpretation of the experimental data for both 14N and 15N systems and explains the features of 1H relaxation dispersion resulting from the electron spin relaxation.

  15. Energy-storage properties and high-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. F.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Huang, X. X.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2016-03-01

    (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x  =  0, 5, and 10 mol%) ceramics were prepared using a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction method. The low-temperature relaxor behavior of (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ceramics were examined in the temperature range from 120 to 523 K. A broad dielectric maximum that shifted to higher temperatures with increasing frequency, signified the relaxor-type behavior of these ceramics. The value of the relaxation parameter γ  =  1.61-1.94 estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law indicated the relaxor nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation phenomena were found in the temperature region 600-850 K. Energy-storage properties were also analyzed, and the energy-storage density calculated from hysteresis loops reached about 0.47 J cm-3 at room temperature.

  16. Changing Smoking Behavior of Staff at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Provincial General Hospital, Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking tobacco is a habit of individuals. Determinants of smoking behavior are multiple factors both within the individual and in the social environment around the individual. Staff smoking has been an undesirable phenomenon at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Provincial General Hospital in Banda Aceh. Health promotion efforts are a strategy that has resulted in behavioral changes with reductions in smoking by staff. This action research was designed to analyze changes in smoking behavior of hospital staff. The sample for this research was all 152 male staff who were smokers. The results of this research showed that Health Promotion Interventions (HPI consisting of personal empowerment plus social support and advocacy to improve employee knowledge and attitudes influenced staff to stop or to significantly. HPI employed included counseling programs, distribution of antismoking leaflets, putting up antismoking posters, and installation of no smoking signs. These HPI proved effective to increase knowledge and create a positive attitude to nonsmoking that resulted in major reductions in smoking by staff when offsite and complete cessation of smoking whilst in the hospital. Continuous evaluation, monitoring, and strengthening of policies banning smoking should be maintained in all hospitals.

  17. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  18. Clinical study of OSAHS surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxants%无肌松药全身麻醉用于鼾症手术的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琴; 孟凡民; 王红国; 王高宏; 栾秀坤

    2013-01-01

    目的 尝试在鼾症(OSAHS)手术全身麻醉维持中免用肌松药的可行性,探讨其临床价值.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级悬雍垂腭咽成形术(UPPP)鼾症患者180例,随机分为A、B、C三组(每组n=60),均以瑞芬太尼、丙泊酚及氯化琥珀胆碱静脉快诱导,经鼻明视或盲探气管插管,A组以瑞芬太尼、丙泊酚维持麻醉,B、C组分别在A组基础上加用阿曲库铵、维库溴铵维持麻醉.观察记录三组患者各时点循环和呼吸功能指标及术中肌松程度、体动次数、麻醉苏醒时间、拔管时间、不良反应及并发症等.结果 三组气管插管成功率100%,麻醉维持平稳,无体动反应,均顺利完成手术;A组拔管前后清醒彻底,呼吸功能和肌力正常,无麻醉并发症发生,B、C组清醒后有不同程度肌松药残余,须使用新斯的明拮抗,拔管后分泌物增多、出血、心动过缓、低氧血症、舌后坠、喉痉挛、呼吸道梗阻、支气管痉挛发生率明显高于A组(P<0.01).结论 瑞芬太尼-丙泊酚无肌松药全凭静脉麻醉维持用于鼾症手术安全有效,可明显缩短麻醉恢复时间,提高麻醉恢复质量,降低麻醉恢复期风险,减少并发症发生.%Objective To invertigate the feasibilityand clinical efficacy of OSAHS surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxants. Methods Totally 180 ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ OSAHS cases underwent UPPP surgery were randomly divided into 3groups(n =60) , general anesthesia was induced with Remifentanil, Propofol and Succinylcholine, and maintained with Propofol and Remifentanil at group A. Group B, C added atracurium, vecuronium to maintain anesthesia, on the basis of group A. Observed and recorded the three groups of patients at each time point circulatory and respiratory function parameters and the number of intraoperative muscle relaxants degree of body movement, anesthesia time, time to extubation, adverse reactions and complications. Results All patients of the

  19. TIME-ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS FOR GENERAL NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN EVEN SPACE-DIMENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hongmei

    2001-01-01

    We study the time-asymptotic behavior of solutions to general NavierStokes equations in even and higher than two space-dimensions. Through the pointwise estimates of the Green function of the linearized system, we obtain explicit expressions of the time-asymptotic behavior of the solutions. The result coincides with weak Huygan's principle.

  20. A Re-Assessment of Factors Associated with Environmental Concern and Behavior Using the 2010 General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Todd P.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The associations between social and psychological influences and environmental attitudes, intentions and behavior have generated considerable interest, both in the fields of environmental behavior and of environmental education. We use the 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) to study these associations and expand the scope of earlier studies by…

  1. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  2. [Brain activity during different stages of the relaxation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorev, A S; Kovaleva, A V; Panova, E N; Gorbacheva, A K

    2012-01-01

    A group of adults participated in experiment in which they were asked to reach relaxed state by using relaxation techniques (active relaxation) and to maintain this state without any technique (passive relaxation). Some changes of EEG-characteristics during relaxation were analyzed. This experiment includes four situations (different functional states): baselinel, active relaxation, passive relaxation, baseline2. EEG was recorded from 10 cortical leads: O1, O2, TPO (left and right), P3, P4, C3, C4, F3 and F4. A comparative EEG analysis was done for 10 frequency bands from 5 to 40 Hz. In each experimental situation we revealed general trends for EEG parameters and also some specific changes in EEG, which characterized brain organization during passive and active relaxed states.

  3. Message passing with relaxed moment matching

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Yuan; Guo, Yandong

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian learning is often hampered by large computational expense. As a powerful generalization of popular belief propagation, expectation propagation (EP) efficiently approximates the exact Bayesian computation. Nevertheless, EP can be sensitive to outliers and suffer from divergence for difficult cases. To address this issue, we propose a new approximate inference approach, relaxed expectation propagation (REP). It relaxes the moment matching requirement of expectation propagation by addin...

  4. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  5. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in a frontline service setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Shannon M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test the generalizability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a frontline service setting. Twenty-nine patients who presented to treatment clinics with problematic worry were provided CBT for GAD. Among the intent-to-treat sample, there were no significant changes in worry or depression from pre- to posttreatment. Treatment completers showed significant pre- to posttreatment reductions on measures of worry and depression. The magnitude of change was smaller than has been reported in randomized control trials (RCTs). Although the frontline service setting differed from RCT settings in multiple ways, treatment completers nonetheless achieved moderate to large decreases in self-reported worry and depression.

  6. Academic beliefs and behaviors in on-campus and online General Education biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because the growing impact of the expansion of online education on undergraduate success, particularly in science courses, has not been fully studied. The specific questions guiding the study examined: whether course delivery mode impacted individual interest in biology; whether course delivery mode impacted help-seeking beliefs and behaviors; and whether course delivery mode, individual interest, and academic self-efficacy predicted academic performance in the course. Participants (N = 183) were enrolled in either online or on-campus sections of a biology course at a large public university in California. Quantitative data for the study were collected through two online surveys in a pre- and post-test design and analyzed via Chi-square, t-tests, and regression analysis using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate that course delivery mode does not impact individual interest in biology. The data further indicate that academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors vary by course delivery mode. This study also finds that while neither self-efficacy nor individual interest predict performance in the course, course delivery mode is shown to impact performance, although the reasons for this difference are unclear. The results of the study will be useful to course designers and administrators of online education as they seek to maximize the experiences of online students.

  7. Individual differences in face-looking behavior generalize from the lab to the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew F; Lin, Jing; Zaun, Ian; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    Recent laboratory studies have found large, stable individual differences in the location people first fixate when identifying faces, ranging from the brows to the mouth. Importantly, this variation is strongly associated with differences in fixation-specific identification performance such that individuals' recognition ability is maximized when looking at their preferred location (Mehoudar, Arizpe, Baker, & Yovel, 2014; Peterson & Eckstein, 2013). This finding suggests that face representations are retinotopic and individuals enact gaze strategies that optimize identification, yet the extent to which this behavior reflects real-world gaze behavior is unknown. Here, we used mobile eye trackers to test whether individual differences in face gaze generalize from lab to real-world vision. In-lab fixations were measured with a speeded face identification task, while real-world behavior was measured as subjects freely walked around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. We found a strong correlation between the patterns of individual differences in face gaze in the lab and real-world settings. Our findings support the hypothesis that individuals optimize real-world face identification by consistently fixating the same location and thus strongly constraining the space of retinotopic input. The methods developed for this study entailed collecting a large set of high-definition, wide field-of-view natural videos from head-mounted cameras and the viewer's fixation position, allowing us to characterize subjects' actually experienced real-world retinotopic images. These images enable us to ask how vision is optimized not just for the statistics of the "natural images" found in web databases, but of the truly natural, retinotopic images that have landed on actual human retinae during real-world experience.

  8. Knowledge and risk behaviors related with HIV infect in Communitarian General Medicine students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Padrón Velázquez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The worldwide epidemic outburst cause by the HIV and lack of effective vaccines against it make of human sexual behavior the most important element to fight this disease. Objective: To identify knowledge level and risk behaviors associated with the infection with this virus in students of second year of Community General Medicine. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, epidemiological, observational study was developed from July to December 2006 including 44 Venezuelan Medicine students, from Giradot municipality, Aragua state, who referred having had sexual intercourse in the last semester of 2006. Results: Most of the students (77,3 % were females. More that half of them was between 20 and 29 years of age and 61, 4% admitting having knowledge about the different ways of infection. 255 recognized that every sexual orientation could be risky, with less percentage for females. All the surveyed persons agreed to through the test to identify the virus and only 2 of them (4, 5% referred not confidentiality. young males showed higher percentage of unprotected intercourse and couple stability. Conclusions: Results show that it is important to stress preventive activities to avoid HIV infection in male students and to raise their responsibility regarding safe sexual relations.

  9. Cardiovascular Diseases and Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Luisa Maria Roberta; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs. PMID:25699272

  10. Generalized Langevin equation with multiplicative noise: temporal behavior of the autocorrelation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R; Laas, K; Sauga, A

    2011-06-01

    The temporal behavior of the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of a particle subjected to a periodic force in a harmonic potential well is investigated for viscoelastic media using the generalized Langevin equation. The interaction with fluctuations of environmental parameters is modeled by a multiplicative white noise, by an internal Mittag-Leffler noise with a finite memory time, and by an additive external noise. It is shown that the presence of a multiplicative noise has a profound effect on the behavior of the autocorrelation functions. Particularly, for correlation functions the model predicts a crossover between two different asymptotic power-law regimes. Moreover, a dependence of the correlation function on the frequency of the external periodic forcing occurs that gives a simple criterion to discern the multiplicative noise in future experiments. It is established that additive external and internal noises cause qualitatively different dependences of the autocorrelation functions on the external forcing and also on the time lag. The influence of the memory time of the internal noise on the dynamics of the system is also discussed.

  11. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kandrup, H E

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the work summarised here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may -- or may not -- interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  12. Collisionless Relaxation of Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandrup, Henry E.

    1999-08-01

    The objective of the work summarized here has been to exploit and extend ideas from plasma physics and accelerator dynamics to formulate a unified description of collisionless relaxation of stellar systems that views violent relaxation, Landau damping, and phase mixing as (manifestations of) a single phenomenon. This approach embraces the fact that the collisionless Boltzmann equation (CBE), the basic object of the theory, is an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, with the distribution function f playing the role of the fundamental dynamical variable, and that, interpreted appropriately, an evolution described by the CBE is no different fundamentally from an evolution described by any other Hamiltonian system. Equilibrium solutions f0 correspond to extremal points of the Hamiltonian subject to the constraints associated with Liouville's Theorem. Stable equilibria correspond to energy minima. The evolution of a system out of equilibrium involves (in general nonlinear) phase space oscillations which may - or may not - interfere destructively so as to damp away.

  13. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  14. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  15. The Difference in the Online Medical Information Searching Behaviors of Hospital Patients and Their Relatives versus the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Yuan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: to explore the differences in online medical information searching behaviors, including evaluative standards and search strategies, of the general public (general group) and those of hospital patients and their relatives (hospital group); and to compare the predictive relationship between the evaluative…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Therapist Manual for Primary Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Melinda A.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Hopko, Derek R.

    2004-01-01

    At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project…

  17. Deformation and relaxation of an incompressible viscoelastic body with surface viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yu, Miao; Lin, Hao; Foty, Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    Measuring mechanical properties of cells or cell aggregates has proven to be an involved process due to their geometrical and structural complexity. Past measurements are based on material models that completely neglect the elasticity of either the surface membrane or the interior bulk. In this work, we consider general material models to account for both surface and bulk viscoelasticity. The boundary value problems are formulated for deformations and relaxations of a closed viscoelastic surface coupled with viscoelastic media inside and outside of the surface. The linearized surface elasticity models are derived for the constant surface tension model and the Helfrich-Canham bending model for coupling with the bulk viscoelasticity. For quasi-spherical surfaces, explicit solutions are obtained for the deformation, stress-strain and relaxation behaviors under a variety of loading conditions. These solutions can be applied to extract the intrinsic surface and bulk viscoelastic properties of biological cells or cell aggregates in the indentation, electro-deformation and relaxation experiments.

  18. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  19. The Stochastic Resonance Behaviors of a Generalized Harmonic Oscillator Subject to Multiplicative and Periodically Modulated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchuan Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic resonance (SR characteristics of a generalized Langevin linear system driven by a multiplicative noise and a periodically modulated noise are studied (the two noises are correlated. In this paper, we consider a generalized Langevin equation (GLE driven by an internal noise with long-memory and long-range dependence, such as fractional Gaussian noise (fGn and Mittag-Leffler noise (M-Ln. Such a model is appropriate to characterize the chemical and biological solutions as well as to some nanotechnological devices. An exact analytic expression of the output amplitude is obtained. Based on it, some characteristic features of stochastic resonance phenomenon are revealed. On the other hand, by the use of the exact expression, we obtain the phase diagram for the resonant behaviors of the output amplitude versus noise intensity under different values of system parameters. These useful results presented in this paper can give the theoretical basis for practical use and control of the SR phenomenon of this mathematical model in future works.

  20. 鼻内镜手术无肌松药全身麻醉可行性探讨%Application of general anesthesia without muscle relaxant in nasal endoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨戈雄; 袁杰; 高爽; 李滔; 滕煜; 马军令

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and feasibility of anesthesia without muscle relaxant in nasal endoscopic opera-tion.Methods 120 patients with ASAⅠ-Ⅱundergoing nasal endoscopic operation were randomly divided into normal muscle relaxant use group ( group Ⅰ) and intubation without muscle relaxant maintenance group ( groupⅡ) , 60 cases in each.GroupⅠwas treated with vecuronium 0.08-0.1 mg/kg induced, in patients with body movement or per 40min intravenous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg maintai-ning muscle relaxation;group Ⅱtracheal intubation after complex full airway surface anesthesia but without muscle relaxants mainte-nance during operation.Blood pressure ( MAP) , heart rate ( HR) , pulse oxygen saturation ( SpO2 ) , end tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure ( PetCO2 ) were recorded in each time point in the two groups before anesthesia ( T0 ) , 2 min after anesthesia induction ( T1 ) , 2 min after endotracheal intubation ( T2 ) , 2 min after the start of operation ( T3 ) , 20 min after the start of operation ( T4 ) , and 5 min after extubation ( T5) .The body movement frequency intraoperation , recovery time from anesthesia and extubation time, adverse reac-tions and complications and intraoperative additional infusion dosage of remifentanil and propofol were compared between the two groups.Results In both groups, T0 ~T4 each observation point,HR, MAP, SpO2 and PetCO2 changes were not significantly different (P>0.05).Breathing the air after 5 min(T5), SPO2 in group Ⅱwere higher than those in groupⅠ, PetCO2 in groupⅡlower than that in groupⅠ, there were significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05).In groupⅡ,anesthesia recovery time and ex-tubation time were significantly shorter than those in group Ⅰ( P <0.01).There were no adverse reaction and complication. Conclusions The effect of nasal endoscopic surgery under tracheal intubation general anesthesia without muscle relaxant is reliable, safe and feasible.%目的:探讨在无肌

  1. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  2. Microscale simulations of NMR relaxation in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnke, Oliver; Klitzsch, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    In petrophysical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the measured relaxation signals originate from the fluid filled pore space. Hence, in rocks or sediments the water content directly corresponds to the initial amplitude of the recorded NMR relaxation signals. The relaxation rate (longitudinal/transversal decay time T1, T2) is sensitive to pore sizes and physiochemical properties of rock-fluid interfaces (surface relaxivity), as well as the concentration of paramagnetic ions in the fluid phases (bulk relaxivity). In the subproject A2 of the TR32 we aim at improving the basic understanding of these processes at the pore scale and thereby advancing the interpretation of NMR data by reducing the application of restrictive approximated interpretation schemes, e.g. for deriving pore size distributions, connectivity or permeability. In this respect we numerically simulate NMR relaxation data at the micro sale to study the impact of physical and hydrological parameters such as internal field gradients or pore connectivities on NMR signals. Joint numerical simulations of the NMR relaxation behavior (Bloch equations) in the presence of internal gradients (Ampere's law) and fluid flow (Navier-Stokes) on a pore scale dimension have been implemented in a finite element (FE) model using Comsol Multiphysics. Processes governing the time and spatial behavior of the nuclear magnetization density in a porous medium are diffusion and surface interactions at the rock-fluid interface. Based on Fick's law of diffusive motion Brownstein and Tarr (1979) introduced differential equations that describe the relaxation behavior of the Spin magnetization in single isolated pores and derived analytical solutions for simple geometries, i.e. spherical, cylindrical and planar. However, by numerically solving these equations in a general way using a FE algorithm this approach can be applied to study and simulate coupled complex pore systems, e.g. derived from computer tomography (CT

  3. Plasma Relaxation Dynamics Moderated by Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Robert; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-10-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor-relaxed equilibrium model all these constraints are relaxed save for global magnetic flux and helicity. A Lagrangian is presented that leads to a new variational formulation of magnetized fluid dynamics, relaxed MHD (RxMHD), all static solutions of which are Taylor equilibrium states. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-relaxed MHD (MRxMHD), is developed. These concepts are illustrated using a simple two-region slab model similar to that proposed by Hahm and Kulsrud--the formation of an initial shielding current sheet after perturbation by boundary rippling is calculated using MRxMHD and the final island state, after the current sheet has relaxed through a reconnection sequence, is calculated using RxMHD. Australian Research Council Grant DP110102881.

  4. Effects of vitrification cryopreservation on follicular morphology and stress relaxation behaviors of human ovarian tissues: sucrose versus trehalose as the non-permeable protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ting; Zhao, Gang; Han, Dan; Zhu, Kaixuan; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wei, Zhaolian; Cao, Yunxia; Zhou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Is sucrose more effective than trehalose in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation? The effect of sucrose as a cryoprotective agent (CPA) was not significantly different from that of trehalose in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Sugars have the ability to keep the cell membrane intact and can decrease the toxicity of CPAs. Sucrose is the most commonly used non-permeable CPA, while trehalose is rarely used in human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although various methods are utilized to evaluate the efficiency of human ovarian tissue cryopreservation, few studies have evaluated the effect of cryopreservation from the viewpoint of biomechanics. A total of 15 ovarian tissue samples were collected from 15 patients (20-41 years old) with benign ovarian tumors or malignancies, and each was dissected into six slices. Two slices were taken as the fresh control group. The remaining four slices were vitrified using different vitrification protocols. After warming, samples in each group were either fixed for histological evaluation or destined for stress relaxation test. The CPA solutions for the control and vitrified groups were composed of EDS and EDT (E, ethylene glycol; D, dimethylsulphoxide; S, sucrose; T, trehalose). The stress relaxation experiments were carried out at room temperature using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Ovarian tissue samples were assessed for both their morphology and viscoelasticity. Stress relaxation data (SRD) were calculated as a percentage, representing the ability to maintain the initial stress after stretching. The percentage of morphologically normal follicles was compared between groups, which was represented by morphologic preservation ratio. The morphologic preservation ratio of the primordial follicles in the fresh control group (87.58%) was higher than that in group S (72.33%) (P = 0.000) and group T (79.56%) (P = 0.002). Although not statistically significant, compared with the S group, vitrification with T suggested a trend

  5. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  6. Relaxation Mechanisms in Glassy Dynamics: the Arrhenius and Fragile Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature, and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Ar...

  7. 水工环氧防护修补材料应力松弛性能研究%Study of stress relaxation behavior of hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 李敬玮; 鲁一晖

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study is made on the creep and stress relaxation behavior of the hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material developed in laboratory of IWHR. The material initial elastic modulus of 1. 41 Gpa is determined for the material by the testing of DMTA (Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis) and the stress relaxation function of the material is obtained through the Laplace transform based on the Kelvin model along with the double retardation time and standard linear solid model. The result shows that the result from the standard linear solid model is close to that from the Kelvin model of double retardation time under the temperature of -20 t, however, the result from the Kelvin model is even much more close to the physical character of the material within a bigger temperature scope. The test result indicates that this epoxy resin material has a better mechanical relaxation behavior under a lower temperature condition.%对实验室研制的水工环氧防护材料的蠕变和应力松弛行为进行了试验研究.采用DMTA测试确定材料的起始弹性模量为1.41 GPa,结合蠕变实验结果,采用双推迟时间Kelvin模型和标准线性固体模型,通过Laplace变换得到了材料的应力松弛函数.结果表明:在- 20℃条件下,标准线性固体模型得到的结果接近于双推迟时间的Kelvin模型结果,但较宽温度范围内Kelvin模型更接近于材料的实际物理状态.试验结果表明该环氧修补材料在低温情况下具有较好的力学松弛性能.

  8. 颗粒介质弹性的弛豫∗%Relaxation of granular elasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其诚; 刘传奇; 周公旦

    2015-01-01

    In granular materials, particles constitute a complex force chains network through contact with each other, and elastic energies are stored due to deformation of particles. This elastic behavior is macroscopic manifestation of inter-particle contacts. Elastic constants or elastic moduli are of fundamental importance for granular material. Due to the hyper-static property of inter-particle forces, the bulk elastic energy stored in the contacts is metastable in the viewpoint of energy landscape, i.e. a high energy state may approaches a more stable state (i.e. relatively lower state) under the action of external perturbations or internal stress, resulting in the elastic modulus reduction. This process is the so-called elasticity relaxation. It may be more obvious in granular materials. The time-dependent behavior of granular materials, especially the creep, has been studied in experiments and numerical simulations, while the stress relaxation has few reported investigations. Stress relaxation is defined as the process in vohich the initial strain is maintained and the stress decays with the time. From energetic viewpoint, elastic energy is stored in the deformation of particles. The granular system is in a metastable state when confined in a state easy to break the balance. Generally speaking, the shape and grading of particles, volume fraction, surface friction properties, initial structure features, ageing time, loading strain rate will all play important roles in stress relaxation. In this work, it is believed that the elastic relaxation is the only mechanism to describe the stress relaxation, and the mechanism of it is analyzed from the viewpoint of the potential energy surface. Stress relaxation is calculated by means of the so-called two-granular temperature theory (TGT) we developed previously (Sun Q et al. 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 9652). The stress decays fast at the beginning, then decreases gradually slowly to a stable value. The logarithmic fit is first proposed

  9. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Kandhadai, Adithya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  10. [Antibiotic intake and resistance development - Knowledge, experience and behavior among the German general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Salm, Florian; Schröder, Christin; Ludwig, Norman; Hanke, Regina; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-09-01

    The network project RAI (Rational Use of Antibiotics via Information and Communication) is aimed at developing tailored information and communication tools on the subject of antibiotic (AB) resistance for various stakeholder groups. During the preparation phase, a survey was performed addressing the German general population. To gain insights into the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of nonprescribers concerning AB and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). Using computer-assisted, telephone-based interviews a random sample of 1,004 persons aged 14 years and older was surveyed. Descriptive reporting of data and multivariate analysis were performed, including sociodemographic variables. Only 24 % of participants knew that bacteria (but not viruses or humans) could develop AB resistance. However, this knowledge did not influence the outcome of other questions. Regardless of knowledge, 71 % thought that the subject was important, but 58 % did not believe in the influence of their own behavior on MDRO development. When visiting a physician, patients were given an antibiotic three times as often as information on AB resistance. 17 % did not take the AB as prescribed and 20 % of all participants stated that they personally knew at least one person with MDRO problems. This personal involvement had a significant effect on the rating of self-influence, on the importance of the subject, on the interaction between patient and physician (more information, less AB), and on AB intake compliance (less frequent). We found considerable knowledge gaps, but this had no impact on the assessment of the subject. A starting point for an intervention could be patient-physician communication. This seems more effective and safer than a public campaign.

  11. 无肌松药全身麻醉下进行骨科手术的临床对照试验%Controlled clinical trials of orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成明; 李玉兰; 刘映龙; 吕兴华; 万占海

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较使用和不使用神经肌肉阻滞药全身麻醉下进行部分骨科手术的优缺点.方法 76例ASAⅠ或Ⅱ级骨科手术患者,随机分为试验组(T组)、对照组(C组)各38例.使用琥珀酰胆碱诱导后,T组只用丙泊酚、瑞芬太尼维持麻醉,C组按常规使用阿曲库铵.术中维持脑电双频指数(BIS值)在30~60之间,记录两组患者麻醉前,诱导后,切皮时,术后30、60 min和拔管后的BIS值和四个成串刺激比(T4/T1,TOFr),比较两组丙泊酚和瑞芬太尼用量、睁眼时间、拔管时间、术后20 min警觉与镇静评分(OAA/S)及不良反应,术后请外科医师评价肌松效果.结果 两组患者瑞芬太尼用量、外科肌松评价、术中体动次数、血管活性药使用次数无显著差异;T组插管后各时点TOFr均显著高于C组(P < 0.01),丙泊酚用量多于C组(P < 0.05),睁眼时间、拔管时间明显短于C组(P < 0.05),拔管后BIS值显著高于C组(P < 0.05),术后20 min OAA/S评分明显低于C 组(P < 0.05).结论 无肌松药全身麻醉下进行骨科手术比使用者呼吸恢复早,拔管快,清醒程度好,具有显著优势.%Objective To compare the efficacy of general anesthesia with and without muscle relaxant on orthopedic surgery. Methods 76 ASA I or II adults underwent elective orthopedic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: trial group (group T) and control group (group C), with 38 cases in each group. General anesthesia was induced with Midazolam, Fentanyl, Propofol and Succinylcholine, and maintained with Propofol and Remifentanil at BIS level 30 to 60. After induction, Atracurium was used in group C but not in group T. BIS and TOFr at baseline, after induction, at skin incision, 30 min and 60 min after skin incision and at extubation were recorded. The dosage of Propofol and Remifentanil, eye-opening time, extubation time and OAA/S scale 20 min after extubation and possible adverse reaction were compared. The muscle relaxation

  12. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  13. Time behavior of a Gaussian wave packet accompanying the generalized coherent state for the inverted oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Bouguerra, Yacine; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2016-06-01

    A Gaussian wave packet of the inverted oscillator is investigated using the invariant operator method together with the unitary transformation method. A simple wave packet directly derived from the eigenstates of the invariant operator of the system corresponds to a plane wave that is fully delocalized. However, we can construct a weighted wave packet in terms of such plane waves, which corresponds to a Gaussian wave. This wave packet is associated with the generalized coherent state, which can be crucially utilized for investigating the classical limit of quantum wave mechanics. Various quantum properties of the system, such as fluctuations of the canonical variables, the uncertainty product, and the motion of the wave packet or quantum particle, are analyzed by means of this wave packet. We have confirmed that the time behavior of such a wave packet is very similar to the counterpart classical state. The wave packet runs away from the origin in the positive or negative direction in the 1D coordinate depending on the condition of the initial state. We have confirmed that this wave packet not only moves acceleratively but also spreads out during its propagation.

  14. Attentional bias in older adults: effects of generalized anxiety disorder and cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Price, Rebecca B; Vietri, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Attentional biases are known to play a contributing, and perhaps even causal role in the etiology of anxiety and other negative affective states. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in the older cohort is growing, and there are both theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect that age-related factors could moderate attentional bias effects in the context of late-life anxiety. The current study included one of the most widely-used measures of attentional bias, the dot-probe task (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). Participants were older adults who were either nonanxious or diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The patient subsample also completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or an equivalent wait list condition, after which the dot probe was administered a second time. Results showed that clinical anxiety had no particular importance for the deployment of attention, casting doubt on the universality of biased attention in older anxiety patients. Although there were no maladaptive biases detected toward either threat or depression words at pretreatment, there was nevertheless a marginally significant differential reduction in bias toward threat words following CBT. This reduction did not occur among those in the wait list condition. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Success of Dental Treatments under Behavior Management, Sedation and General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Sigalit; Costa, Liora; Peretz, Benjamin

    To present comparative study aims to assist the practitioner to choose between behavior modification (BM) techniques, pharmacologic sedation (N2O-O2 alone or combined with midazolam 0.5 mg/ kg) or routine general anesthesia (GA) for the most successful approach in enabling pediatric dental care. Dental records of 56 children treated in a university dental clinic between 2006-2016 were reviewed, and data on age, gender, required treatment (amalgam restorations, composite restorations, pulpotomy, and stainless steel crowns [SSC]), treatment approaches and therapeutic success at final follow-up were retrieved. Treatment under GA had the best success rates compared to both BM and pharmacologic sedation. N2O-O2 alone had a 6.1-fold greater risk of failure compared to N2O-O2+midazolam (p- <0.008). Amalgam restorations had a 2.61-fold greater risk of failure than SSC (p- <0.008). The GA mode yielded significantly greater success than the N2O-O2 mode alone. There were no significant differences in success rates between GA and combined midazolam 0.5 mg/kg+N2O-O2. When choosing restoration material, it is important to remember the high success rate of SSC compared to amalgam restoration.

  16. The effects of cyclic tensile and stress-relaxation tests on porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remache, D; Caliez, M; Gratton, M; Dos Santos, S

    2017-09-11

    When a living tissue is subjected to cyclic stretching, the stress-strain curves show a shift down with the increase in the number of cycles until stabilization. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as a preconditioning and is performed to obtain repeatable and predictable measurements. Preconditioning has been routinely performed in skin tissue tests; however, its effects on the mechanical properties of the material such as viscoelastic response, tangent modulus, sensitivity to strain rate, the stress relaxation rate, etc….remain unclear. In addition, various physical interpretations of this phenomenon have been proposed and there is no general agreement on its origin at the microscopic or mesoscopic scales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclical stretching and the stress-relaxation tests on the mechanical properties of the porcine skin. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at large and constant strain were performed on different skin samples. The change in the reaction force, and skin's tangent modulus as a function of the number of cycles, as well as the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after cycling were investigated. Stress-relaxation tests were also performed on skin samples. The change in the reaction force as a function of relaxation time and the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after the stress-relaxation were investigated. The mechanical behavior of a skin sample under stress-relaxation test was modeled using a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity. Overall, the results showed that the mechanical behavior of the skin was strongly influenced by cycling and stress relaxation tests. Indeed, it was observed that the skin's resistance decreased by about half for two hours of cycling; the tangent modulus degraded by nearly 30% and skin samples became insensitive to the strain rates and accumulated progressively an inelastic deformation over time during

  17. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  18. “I think relax, relax and it flows a lot easier”: Exploring client-generated relax strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Cirone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some adult stroke survivors participating in Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP treatment programs self-generated relax strategies that have not been explored in previous CO-OP publications. The objective of this study was to describe the process by which adults with stroke used relax strategies and to explore the outcomes associated with their use. Methods. Secondary analysis of transcripts of intervention sessions from five participants was conducted. Results. All five participants applied relax strategies after initially observing a breakdown in performance that was attributed to increased fatigue or tension. The relax strategies used by the participants during their occupations included general relaxation, physical modifications to reduce tension, mental preparation, and pacing. The application of these strategies seemed to result in improved skill performance, reduced fatigue, and transfer to other activities. Conclusion. The relax strategy warrants further investigation as a potentially important therapeutic tool to improve occupational performance in individuals who have had a stroke.

  19. An Investigation of Response Generalization across Cleaning and Restocking Behaviors in the Context of Performance Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRiso, Anthony; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of task clarification and performance feedback on cleaning and restocking behaviors on both targeted and nontargeted behaviors was analyzed using an AB multiple baseline design across behaviors. Task clarification was presented on an enlarged poster to the serving staff at a fine dining restaurant. Group performance feedback was…

  20. Temperament Based Personality, Socialization, and Behavior in Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders and General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that examined Hans Eysenck's antisocial behavioral hypothesis (ASB). Eysenck's theory of personality has three temperament-based traits: Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E), and Neuroticism (N). His ASB hypothesis predicts that individuals high on P, E, and N with poor socialization are at the greatest…

  1. Mechanical Relaxation of Metallic Glasses: An Overview of Experimental Data and Theoretical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoren Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation phenomena in glasses are a subject of utmost interest, as they are deeply connected with their structure and dynamics. From a theoretical point of view, mechanical relaxation allows one to get insight into the different atomic-scale processes taking place in the glassy state. Focusing on their possible applications, relaxation behavior influences the mechanical properties of metallic glasses. This paper reviews the present knowledge on mechanical relaxation of metallic glasses. The features of primary and secondary relaxations are reviewed. Experimental data in the time and frequency domain is presented, as well as the different models used to describe the measured relaxation spectra. Extended attention is paid to dynamic mechanical analysis, as it is the most important technique allowing one to access the mechanical relaxation behavior. Finally, the relevance of the relaxation behavior in the mechanical properties of metallic glasses is discussed.

  2. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  3. Measurement and Analysis of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Generalized Problematic Internet Use among Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I.; Calvete, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct…

  4. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  5. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  6. Molecular Relaxation in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Biman

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together many different relaxation phenomena in liquids under a common umbrella and provides a unified view of apparently diverse phenomena. It aligns recent experimental results obtained with modern techniques with recent theoretical developments. Such close interaction between experiment and theory in this area goes back to the works of Einstein, Smoluchowski, Kramers' and de Gennes. Development of ultrafast laser spectroscopy recently allowed study of various relaxation processes directly in the time domain, with time scales going down to picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs

  7. Semiconvergence and Relaxation Parameters for Projected SIRT Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Tommy; Hansen, Per Christian; Nikazad, Touraj

    2012-01-01

    We give a detailed study of the semiconverg ence behavior of projected nonstationary simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) algorithms, including the projected Landweber algorithm. We also consider the use of a relaxation parameter strategy, proposed recently for the standard...

  8. The short-time intramolecular dynamics of solutes in liquids. II. Vibrational population relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Grant; Stratt, Richard M.

    1997-08-01

    Events such as the vibrational relaxation of a solute are often well described by writing an effective equation of motion—a generalized Langevin equation—which expresses the surrounding medium's influence on the intramolecular dynamics in terms of a friction and a fluctuating force acting on the solute. These quantities, though, can be obtained from the instantaneous normal modes (INMs) of the system when the relaxation takes place in a fluid, suggesting that we should be able to analyze in some detail the solvent motions driving the relaxation, at least for short times. In this paper we show that this promise can indeed be realized for the specific case of a vibrating diatomic molecule dissolved in an atomic solvent. Despite the relatively long times typical of vibrational population relaxation, it turns out that understanding the behavior of the vibrational friction at the short times appropriate to INMs (a few hundred femtoseconds) often suffices to predict T1 times. We use this observation to probe the dependence of these relaxation rates on thermodynamic conditions and to look at the molecular mechanisms underlying the process. We find that raising the temperature at any given density or raising the density at any given temperature will invariably increase the rate of energy relaxation. However, since these two trends may be in conflict in a typical constant-pressure laboratory experiment, we also find that it is possible to make sense of the "anomalous" inverted temperature dependence recently seen experimentally. We find, as well, that the INM theory—which has no explicit collisions built into it—predicts exactly the same density dependence as the venerable independent-binary-collision (IBC) theory (an intriguing result in view of recent claims that experimental observations of this kind of dependence provide support for the IBC theory). The actual mechanisms behind vibrational population relaxation are revealed by looking in detail at the

  9. 单次肌松药全身麻醉下进行神经外科手术的可行性%The feasibility of neurosurgery under general anesthesia with a single dose of muscle relaxant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉兰; 刘映龙; 徐成明; 吕兴华; 万占海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of neurosurgery under general anesthesia with single dose of muscle re -laxant. Methods 60 patients with ASA I - II scheduled for neurosurgery were randomly divided into Atracurium (group A) and Succinylcholine (group S), each group had 30 cases. After anesthesia induction and intubation with a single use of Atracuri -um or Succinylcholine, anesthesia was maintained with Propofol and Remifentanil at BIS level. The duration of neuromus -cular blocking, the anesthetics consumption, the presence of unwanted patient movement, the airway pressure, the extuba -tion delay and the rate of residual neuromuscular blockade of two groups were recorded. The surgical conditions were scaled by surgeons after operation. Results No patients' movement was observed during operation, there were 2 patients of control group had cough. The recovery time of muscle tone in group A was longer than group S (P 0.05). Conclusion The feasibility of neurosurgery under general anesthesia with a single dose of muscle relaxant is affirmed, but airway stimulation is not allowed in this condition.%目的 探究单次肌松药全身麻醉下进行神经外科手术的可行性.方法 选取我院ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级全身麻醉下进行神经外科手术患者60例,随机分为阿曲库铵组(A组)和琥珀酰胆碱组(S组),每组各30例.麻醉诱导后停用肌松药,全程仅用得普利麻、瑞芬太尼静脉泵注维持电脑双频指数(BIS)麻醉.观察两组麻醉药用量、肌松恢复时间、术中体动次数、气道压、拔管时间、残余肌松发生率、拔管时间及外科麻醉评分.结果 两组患者均无术中体动,S组2例发生呛咳;A组肌松恢复时间较S组长(P0.05).结论单次肌松药全身麻醉下进行神经外科手术是基本可行的,但在这种麻醉状态下不宜进行气管内操作.

  10. Development of a two-dimensional binning model for N2-N relaxation in hypersonic shock conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Li, Zheng; Levin, Deborah A.

    2016-08-01

    A high fidelity internal energy relaxation model for N2-N suitable for use in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of chemically reacting flows is proposed. A novel two-dimensional binning approach with variable bin energy resolutions in the rotational and vibrational modes is developed for treating the internal mode of N2. Both bin-to-bin and state-specific relaxation cross sections are obtained using the molecular dynamics/quasi-classical trajectory (MD/QCT) method with two potential energy surfaces as well as the state-specific database of Jaffe et al. The MD/QCT simulations of inelastic energy exchange between N2 and N show that there is a strong forward-preferential scattering behavior at high collision velocities. The 99 bin model is used in homogeneous DSMC relaxation simulations and is found to be able to recover the state-specific master equation results of Panesi et al. when the Jaffe state-specific cross sections are used. Rotational relaxation energy profiles and relaxation times obtained using the ReaxFF and Jaffe potential energy surfaces (PESs) are in general agreement but there are larger differences between the vibrational relaxation times. These differences become smaller as the translational temperature increases because the difference in the PES energy barrier becomes less important.

  11. Microscopic origin of shear relaxation in a model viscoelastic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J; Sen, Abhijit

    2015-02-01

    An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τ(M)(ex) of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γ(c) of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τ(LC) converges to τ(M)(ex) and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ≫Γ(c), i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τ(M)(ex)→τ(M) (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.

  12. Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in a Model Viscoelastic Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Sen, Abhijit

    2015-02-01

    An atomistic description of shear stress relaxation in a viscoelastic liquid is developed from first principles through accurate molecular dynamic simulations in a model Yukawa system. It is shown that the relaxation time τMex of the excess part of the shear stress autocorrelation function provides a correct measure of the relaxation process. Below a certain critical value Γc of the Coulomb coupling strength, the lifetime of local atomic connectivity τLC converges to τMex and is the microscopic origin of the relaxation. At Γ ≫Γc, i.e., in the potential energy dominated regime, τMex→τM (the Maxwell relaxation time) and can, therefore, fully account for the elastic or "solidlike" behavior. Our results can help provide a better fundamental understanding of viscoelastic behavior in a variety of strongly coupled systems such as dusty plasmas, colloids, and non-Newtonian fluids.

  13. Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celai Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Lack of habits such as effective time management, determination of priorities, and effective and productive use of time is one of several reasons for procrastination behaviors. Personality traits along with incorrect cognitive loads about the self and the environment are other reasons for procrastination behaviors. At this…

  14. Operant Principles Applied to the Acquisition and Generalization of Nonlittering Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Margaret M.

    The investigator felt that littering is a behavior contingent upon certain environmental conditions and that these conditions should be examined systematically. Specifically, this study sought to examine the effects of a behavior modification approach to littering with eight four-year-old subjects. Using token positive reinforcement, token…

  15. Relaxation dynamics of a polymer network modeled by a multihierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjiu, A; Volta, A; Beu, T

    2011-07-01

    We numerically analyze the scaling behavior of experimentally accessible dynamical relaxation forms for polymer networks modeled by a finite multihierarchical structure. In the framework of generalized Gaussian structures, by making use of the eigenvalue spectrum of the connectivity matrix, we determine the averaged monomer displacement under local external forces as well as the mechanical relaxation quantities (storage and loss moduli). Hence we generalize the known analysis for both classes of fractals to the case of multihierarchical structure, for which even though we have a mixed growth algorithm, the above cited observables still give information about the two different underlying topologies. For very large lattices, reached via an algebraic procedure that avoids the numerical diagonalizations of the corresponding connectivity matrices, we depict the scaling of both component fractals in the intermediate time (frequency) domain, which manifests two different slopes.

  16. Anomalous diffusion and dielectric relaxation in an N-fold cosine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, W T; Kalmykov, Yu P; Titov, S V

    2003-06-01

    The fractional Klein-Kramers (Fokker-Planck) equation describing the fractal time dynamics of an assembly of fixed axis dipoles rotating in an N-fold cosine potential representing the internal field due to neighboring molecules is solved using matrix continued fractions. The result can be considered as a generalization of the solution for the normal Brownian motion in a cosine periodic potential to fractional dynamics (giving rise to anomalous diffusion) and also represents a generalization of Fröhlich's model of relaxation over a potential barrier. The solution includes both inertial and strong internal field effects, which in combination produce a strong resonance peak (Poley absorption) at high frequencies due to librations of the dipoles in the potential, an anomalous relaxation band at low frequencies mainly arising from overbarrier relaxation, and a weaker relaxation band at midfrequencies due to the fast intrawell modes. The high-frequency behavior is controlled by the inertia of the dipole, so that the Gordon sum rule for dipolar absorption is satisfied, ensuring a return to optical transparency at very high frequencies. Application of the model to the broadband (0-THz) dielectric loss spectrum of a dilute solution of the probe dipolar molecule CH2Cl2 in glassy decalin is demonstrated.

  17. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  18. Relaxation dynamics of amorphous dibucaine using dielectric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahra, M.; Jumailath, K.; Thayyil, M. Shahin; Capaccioli, S.

    2015-06-01

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy the molecular mobility of dibucaine is investigated in the supercooled liquid and gassy states, over a wide temperature range for some test frequencies. Above the glass transition temperature Tg, the presence of structural α- relaxation peak was observed due to the cooperative motions of the molecule and upon cooling frozen kinetically to form the glass. The secondary relaxation process was perceivable below Tg due to localized motions. The peak loss frequency of α-relaxation process shows non-Arrhenius behavior and obeys Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation over the measured temperature range whereas the β- process shows Arrhenius behavior.

  19. Telephone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Telephone-Delivered Nondirective Supportive Therapy for Rural Older Adults With Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Lyles, Mary F; Hogan, Patricia E; Miller, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in older adults; however, access to treatment may be limited, particularly in rural areas. To examine the effects of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with telephone-delivered nondirective supportive therapy (NST) in rural older adults with GAD. Randomized clinical trial in the participants' homes of 141 adults aged 60 years and older with a principal or coprincipal diagnosis of GAD who were recruited between January 27, 2011, and October 22, 2013. Telephone-delivered CBT consisted of as many as 11 sessions (9 were required) focused on recognition of anxiety symptoms, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, the use of coping statements, problem solving, worry control, behavioral activation, exposure therapy, and relapse prevention, with optional chapters on sleep and pain. Telephone-delivered NST consisted of 10 sessions focused on providing a supportive atmosphere in which participants could share and discuss their feelings and did not provide any direct suggestions for coping. Primary outcomes included interviewer-rated anxiety severity (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) and self-reported worry severity (Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated) measured at baseline, 2 months' follow-up, and 4 months' follow-up. Mood-specific secondary outcomes included self-reported GAD symptoms (GAD Scale 7 Item) measured at baseline and 4 months' follow-up and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) measured at baseline, 2 months' follow-up, and 4 months' follow-up. Among the 141 participants, 70 were randomized to receive CBT and 71 to receive NST. At 4 months' follow-up, there was a significantly greater decline in worry severity among participants in the telephone-delivered CBT group (difference in improvement, -4.07; 95% CI, -6.26 to -1.87; P = .004) but no significant differences in general anxiety symptoms (difference in improvement, -1.52; 95% CI, -4.07 to 1.03; P = .24). At 4 months

  20. A prediction method for the general corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 steam generator tube using eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng, E-mail: dhhur@kaeri.re.kr

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A corrosion test for the tubes with different levels of eddy current noise was conducted. • A relationship between the corrosion rate and the eddy current noise of tubes was explored. • Corrosion rate was closely correlated to the tube noise of a rotating pancake probe. • Corrosion rate was not related to the tube noise measured using a bobbin probe. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to develop an eddy current testing method to predict the general corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 steam generator tubes. A corrosion test was conducted for tubes with different levels of eddy current noise in simulated primary water at 330 °C, and their corrosion behavior was correlated with the tube noise measured using bobbin and rotating probes. The corrosion behavior was closely correlated with the tube noise measured using a rotating probe. However, there was no correlation between the corrosion behavior and the tube noise measured using a bobbin probe. The tube noise value measured using a rotating pancake coil probe is suggested to be a significant parameter in estimating the general corrosion behavior of tubes.

  1. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  2. Relaxation mechanisms in glassy dynamics: the Arrhenius and fragile regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H George E; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Arrhenius and then to a super-Arrhenius behavior. A simple model is presented, based on the idea of competition between single-particle and cooperative dynamics. We argue that Arrhenius behavior can take place as long as there is enough free volume for the completion of a simple T1 relaxation process. Once free volume is absent one needs a cooperative mechanism to "collect" enough free volume. We show that this model captures all the qualitative behavior observed in simulations throughout the considered temperature range.

  3. Distraction/Suppression and Distress Endurance diminish the extent to which generalized conditioned fear is associated with maladaptive behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Christopher; Cooper, Samuel E; Hartnell, Melissa P; Lissek, Shmuel

    2017-09-01

    A central conditioning correlate of clinical anxiety is the over-generalization of Pavlovian fear to safe stimuli resembling conditioned danger cues (CS+). Though much of the pathogenic influence of such generalization may lie in the unnecessary behavioral avoidance it evokes, few studies have examined maladaptive avoidance associated with Pavlovian generalization. Lab-based assessments of this process, here referred to as instrumental avoidance from Pavlovian generalization (IAP-G), have recently begun. The current study represents a next step in this line of work by examining personality factors that may reduce maladaptive IAP-G. This is a clinically relevant effort, as such traits may reflect resilience factors, with high levels reducing the likelihood of maladaptive generalized avoidance following Pavlovian generalization. Here we focus on the effects of Distraction/Suppression (DS) and Distress Endurance (DE) on IAP-G. Results indicate that both DS and DE moderate IAP-G by weakening relations between Pavlovian generalization of fear-potentiated startle and maladaptive generalized avoidance. Further, moderating effects of DS were most pronounced for more ambiguous cues of threat (i.e., stimuli moderately resembling CS+), while moderating effects of DE were most pronounced for more certain cues of threat (i.e., stimuli highly resembling CS+, as well as the CS + itself). Results implicate DS and DE as protective factors against the maladaptive behavioral consequences of Pavlovian generalization, and further indicate that the protective influence of these traits may depend on the ambiguity of the threat at hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Health Behaviors Among Women Brothel Workers to Those of the General Population of Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Arnfred, Anders; Algren, Maria Holst;

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on behavioral risk factors for illness among sex workers has been limited and based on mixed, poorly defined groups of sex workers. Our aim was to compare the health behaviors and weight of women brothel workers with women in the general population in Denmark. We used logistic...... brothel workers compared to Danish women. These differences were significant when adjusted for age and educational level. We noted few differences regarding dietary habits and no differences regarding physical activity. Our findings suggest the need for health promotion initiatives, particularly...

  5. A generalized energy model for the behavior of single-crystal magneto-electric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Akhras, George; Flatau, Alison B.

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores a unified energy-based approach to model the non-linear behavior of both magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials. While the energy-approach developed by Armstrong has been shown to capture the magnetostrictive behavior of materials such as Terfenol-D1 and Iron-Gallium2 along different crystallographic directions, extending this approach to piezoelectric materials presents a considerable challenge. Some piezo-electric materials such as PMN-PT and BaTiO 3 may undergo phase changes under applied electric fields and stress in addition to polarization switching. A modeling approach is developed in this paper to capture these effects. Finally, it is shown that the constitutive behavior for the piezo-electric/magnetostrictive layers, coupled by a simple blocked-force approach, is likely to model the behavior of magneto-electric composites.

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. Brief cognitive behavioral therapy compared to general practitioners care for depression in primary care: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockting Claudi LH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in primary care (PC and are associated with considerable functional impairment and increased health care use. Research has shown that many patients prefer psychological treatments to pharmacotherapy, however, it remains unclear which treatment is most optimal for depressive patients in primary care. Methods/Design A randomized, multi-centre trial involving two intervention groups: one receiving brief cognitive behavioral therapy and the other receiving general practitioner care. General practitioners from 109 General Practices in Nijmegen and Amsterdam (The Netherlands will be asked to include patients aged between 18-70 years presenting with depressive symptomatology, who do not receive an active treatment for their depressive complaints. Patients will be telephonically assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I to ascertain study eligibility. Eligible patients will be randomized to one of two treatment conditions: either 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by a first line psychologist or general practitioner's care according to The Dutch College of General Practitioners Practice Guideline (NHG- standaard. Baseline and follow-up assessments are scheduled at 0, 6, 12 and 52 weeks following the start of the intervention. Primary outcome will be measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention to treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN65811640

  8. Stress relaxation analysis of single chondrocytes using porohyperelastic model based on AFM experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopytechnique, we found that the chondrocytes exhibits stress relaxation behavior. We explored the mechanism of this stress relaxation behavior and concluded that the intracellular fluid exuding out from the cells during deformation plays the most important role in the stress relaxation. We applied the inverse finite element analysis technique to determine necessary material parameters for porohyperelastic (PHE model to simulate stress relaxation behavior as this model is proven capable of capturing the non-linear behavior and the fluid-solid interaction during the stress relaxation of the single chondrocytes. It is observed that PHE model can precisely capture the stress relaxation behavior of single chondrocytes and would be a suitable model for cell biomechanics.

  9. IT and Activity Displacement: Behavioral Evidence from the U.S. General Social Survey (GSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John P.; Martin, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In order to track social change during a period of the rapid advances brought about by new information technologies (IT), a targeted module of IT-relevant and Internet questions was added to the 2000, 2002 and 2004 samples of the General Social Survey (GSS). The general issue inherent in and guiding the questions asked (as well as the analyses…

  10. Exploring college students' use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.

  11. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  12. EFFECTS OF RELAXATION THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION HEADACHE IN EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Manju

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Five executives suffering from muscular contractions (tension) headache were treated by deep muscular relaxation therapy. Individual sessions were supplemented by practice of relaxation at home, brief relaxation, and cue relaxation during office hours. The effect of therapy, was assessed, by comparing the baseline, pretreatment individual assessment of their behavioral state and self report, with the similar assessment done during and after the successful completion of therapy. The ad...

  13. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies.

  14. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  15. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin

    2005-01-01

    effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage......The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...

  16. Spectral hole lifetimes and spin population relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped yttrium orthosilicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, E. Zambrini; Tiranov, A.; Usmani, I.; Laplane, C.; Lavoie, J.; Ferrier, A.; Goldner, P.; Gisin, N.; Afzelius, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present a detailed study of the lifetime of optical spectral holes due to population storage in Zeeman sublevels of Nd3 +:Y2SiO5 . The lifetime is measured as a function of magnetic field strength and orientation, temperature, and Nd3 + doping concentration. At the lowest temperature of 3 K we find a general trend where the lifetime is short at low field strengths, then increases to a maximum lifetime at a few hundred mT, and then finally decays rapidly for high field strengths. This behavior can be modeled with a relaxation rate dominated by Nd3 +-Nd3 + cross relaxation at low fields and spin lattice relaxation at high magnetic fields. The maximum lifetime depends strongly on both the field strength and orientation, due to the competition between these processes and their different angular dependencies. The cross relaxation limits the maximum lifetime for concentrations as low as 30 ppm of Nd3 + ions. By decreasing the concentration to less than 1 ppm we could completely eliminate the cross relaxation, reaching a lifetime of 3.8 s at 3 K. At higher temperatures the spectral hole lifetime is limited by the magnetic-field-independent Raman and Orbach processes. In addition we show that the cross relaxation rate can be strongly reduced by creating spectrally large holes of the order of the optical inhomogeneous broadening. Our results are important for the development and design of new rare-earth-ion doped crystals for quantum information processing and narrow-band spectral filtering for biological tissue imaging.

  17. A class of solutions to the Einstein equations with AVTD behavior in generalized wave gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Ames, Ellery; Isenberg, James; LeFloch, Philippe G

    2016-01-01

    We establish the existence of smooth vacuum Gowdy solutions, which are asymptotically velocity term dominated (AVTD) and have T3-spatial topology, in an infinite dimensional family of generalized wave gauges. These results show that the AVTD property, which is known to hold for solutions in areal coordinates, is stable to perturbations with respect to the gauge source functions. Our proof is based on an analysis of the singular initial value problem for the Einstein vacuum equations in the generalized wave gauge formalism, and provides a framework which we anticipate to be useful for more general spacetimes.

  18. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2003-01-01

    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  19. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was conducte

  20. The Effects of "Brain Gym" as a General Education Intervention: Improving Academic Performance and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Sherri S.

    2010-01-01

    "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" ("IDEA") and "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") now mandate that all at-risk students receive empirical, scientific research-based interventions. "Brain Gym" is a movement-based program designed to address a diverse range of students' academic and behavior needs by promoting whole-brain learning. However,…

  1. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  2. Generalizations on consumer innovation adoption : A meta-analysis on drivers of intention and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Joep W. C.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that consumer intentions to adopt innovations are often poor predictors of adoption behavior. An important reason for this may be that the evaluative criteria consumers use in both stages of the adoption process weigh differently. Using construal level theory, we develop

  3. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was

  4. Generalizations on consumer innovation adoption : A meta-analysis on drivers of intention and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Joep W. C.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    Previous research has shown that consumer intentions to adopt innovations are often poor predictors of adoption behavior. An important reason for this may be that the evaluative criteria consumers use in both stages of the adoption process weigh differently. Using construal level theory, we develop

  5. General regression neural network model for behavior of Salmonella on chicken meat during cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and model the behavior of Salmonella on different types of chicken meat during frozen and refrigerated storage. Portions (0.69 to 0.83 g) of chicken meat (breast, skin, or thigh) were inoculated with a single strain (ATCC 700408) of Salmonella Typhimur...

  6. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  7. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  8. The Impact of Bound Stellar Orbits and General Relativity on the Temporal Behavior of Tidal Disruption Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of stellar debris changes qualitatively. Stellar debris travels in bound orbits, and returns to the pericenter within a short spread of time, so the fallback rate is much higher than the Eddington rate. Further if the star is disrupted very close to the hole in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and the debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal motion can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, which leads to fast dissipation of the debris binding energy. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, Lense-Thirring precession reduces the probability of such self-crossing, and circularization cannot happen in dynamical timescale. Although we have not computed the light curve using hydrodynamica...

  9. 无肌松维持全麻用于经皮肾镜碎石术的安全性和有效性%Maintenance of general anesthesia without muscle relaxant for percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨戈雄; 袁杰; 毛兰萍; 马军令; 袁超英; 高爽

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨无肌松维持全凭静脉麻醉用于经皮肾镜碎石术的安全性和有效性.[方法]将180例择期行经皮肾镜碎石术的患者随机分成插管后肌松维持组(Ⅰ组)及插管后无肌松维持组(Ⅱ组)各90例.Ⅰ组予维库溴铵0.08 ~ 0.1mg/kg诱导、在患者有体动时或每40 min静注0.05 mg/kg维持肌松;Ⅱ组予维库溴铵o.05 mg/kg诱导插管,术中无肌松维持.记录两组麻醉前、气管插管前、气管插管后、手术开始后20 min、拔管前、术后1h各时点血压、心率、sPO2等血流动力学指标并与基础值比较.并记录各组术毕恢复情况.[结果]各组气管插管均一次成功,术中麻醉平稳,无体动反应,均顺利完成手术.无肌松维持组术后苏醒各项指标显著短于对照组.术后意识完全清醒,无须拮抗肌松,无呼吸抑制及呕吐误吸、分泌物阻塞、呼吸道梗阻发生.[结论]无肌松维持下丙泊酚-瑞芬太尼全凭静脉麻醉可满足经皮肾镜碎石术的需要,降低麻醉风险.%[Objective] To investigate the safety and effectiveness! of percutaneous nephrolithotomy without muscle relaxantB to maintain total intravenous anesthesia. [Methods] A total of 180 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomly divided into muscle relaxants intubation maintenance group ( group I induced 90 cases) and intubation without muscle relaxants maintain group (group II, 90 cases). Group I induced with vecuronium 0.08 - 0.1 mg/kg, when patients moved or ever 40 min 0.05 mg/kg maintain muscle relaxation were given. Group II inducted with vecuronium bromide (0.05 mg/kg ) and tracheal intubated but without muscle relaxants maintenance during operation. Blood pressure, heart rate, sPO: and other hemodynamic parameters of two groups were recorded before anesthesia , before tracheal intubation and after tracheal intubation, 20 min after surgery, before extubation and 1h after operation, compared with basic value

  10. Dielectric loss, conductivity relaxation process and magnetic properties of Mg substituted Ni-Cu ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Khasa, Satish

    2012-08-01

    The dielectric properties, dc and ac electrical resistivities of Mg substituted Ni-Cu ferrites with general formula Ni0.5Cu0.5-xMgxFe2O4 (0.0≤x≤0.5) have been investigated as a function of frequency, temperature and composition. ac resistivity of all the samples decreases with increase in the frequency exhibiting normal ferrimagnetic behavior. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent showed a maximum in between 10 Hz and 1 kHz in all the ferrites. The conductivity relaxation of the charge carriers was examined using the electrical modulus formulism, and the results indicate the presence of the non-Debye type of relaxation in the prepared ferrites. Similar values of activation energies for dc conduction and for conductivity relaxation reveal that the mechanism of electrical conduction and dielectric polarization is the same in these ferrites. A single 'master curve' for normalized plots of all the modulus isotherms observed for a given composition indicates that the distribution of relaxation time is temperature independent. The saturation magnetization and coercivity as calculated from the hysteresis loop measurement show striking dependence on composition.

  11. Transition from stress-driven to thermally activated stress relaxation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, J. C.; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Zhao, L. Z.; Dai, L. H.; Crespo, D.; Pelletier, J. M.; Keer, L. M.; Yao, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The short-range ordered but long-range disordered structure of metallic glasses yields strong structural and dynamic heterogeneities. Stress relaxation is a technique to trace the evolution of stress in response to a fixed strain, which reflects the dynamic features phenomenologically described by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) equation. The KWW equation describes a broad distribution of relaxation times with a small number of empirical parameters, but it does not arise from a particular physically motivated mechanistic picture. Here we report an anomalous two-stage stress relaxation behavior in a Cu46Zr46Al8 metallic glass over a wide temperature range and generalize the findings in other compositions. Thermodynamic analysis identifies two categories of processes: a fast stress-driven event with large activation volume and a slow thermally activated event with small activation volume, which synthetically dominates the stress relaxation dynamics. Discrete analyses rationalize the transition mechanism induced by stress and explain the anomalous variation of the KWW characteristic time with temperature. Atomistic simulations reveal that the stress-driven event involves virtually instantaneous short-range atomic rearrangement, while the thermally activated event is the percolation of the fast event accommodated by the long-range atomic diffusion. The insights may clarify the underlying physical mechanisms behind the phenomenological description and shed light on correlating the hierarchical dynamics and structural heterogeneity of amorphous solids.

  12. The Mediating Role of Mental Health in the Relations between Dietary Behaviors and General Health: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to find a pathway to explaining the relations between dietary behaviors with mental health and psychological functioning. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study contains 4763 participants from the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, four questionnaires were administered which were provided as follows: demographic characteristics, 21-item dietary behaviors questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We started the analysis with the structural equation modeling (SEM) model with 4 unobserved latent and 16 observed variables. Results: The results show that the regression coefficient (standard error) of diet behavior on mental health and mental health on GHQ were − 1 (0.37) and 0.02 (0.01) with their P values as 0.007 and 0.01, respectively. For this model, the estimated root mean square error of approximation is 0.062 with 90% confidence interval of (0.060–0.065). In addition, the comparative fit indices (CFIs) were as 0.866 for incremental fit index and 0.866 for CFI. All these indices represent fairly good fit of the model to the data. Conclusion: We can conclude that “lower scores on diet behavior – higher scores on mental health problems” and “higher mean scores in depression and/or anxiety – higher scores in GHQ domains.” The SEM results showed that dietary behaviors have significance related to depression and/or anxiety and general health status. PMID:28349024

  13. Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nadine S; Urech, Corinne; Isabel, Fornaro; Meyer, Andrea; Hoesli, Irène; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2011-02-01

    stress during pregnancy can have adverse effects on the course of pregnancy and on fetal development. There are few studies investigating the outcome of stress reduction interventions on maternal well-being and obstetric outcome. this study aims (1) to obtain fetal behavioral states (quiet/active sleep, quiet/active wakefulness), (2) to investigate the effects of maternal relaxation on fetal behavior as well as on uterine activity, and (3) to investigate maternal physiological and endocrine parameters as potential underlying mechanisms for maternal-fetal relaxation-transferral. the behavior of 33 fetuses was analyzed during laboratory relaxation/quiet rest (control group, CG) and controlled for baseline fetal behavior. Potential associations between relaxation/quiet rest and fetal behavior (fetal heart rate (FHR), FHR variation, FHR acceleration, and body movements) and uterine activity were studied, using a computerized cardiotocogram (CTG) system. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and norepinephrine were measured. intervention (progressive muscle relaxation, PMR, and guided imagery, GI) showed changes in fetal behavior. The intervention groups had higher long-term variation during and after relaxation compared to the CG (p=.039). CG fetuses had more FHR acceleration, especially during and after quiet rest (p=.027). Women in the PMR group had significantly more uterine activity than women in the GI group (p=.011) and than CG women. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormones were not associated with fetal behavior. this study indicates that the fetus might participate in maternal relaxation and suggests that GI is superior to PMR. This could especially be true for women who tend to direct their attention to body sensations such as abdominal activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Colorectal Surgery in Patients with General Anesthesia the Incidence of Muscle Relaxant Residual after Extubation and its Countermeasures%结直肠手术患者全麻拔管后肌松残余发生率及其应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓峰; 刘学连; 王淑荣; 魏玲; 马显亮; 史学梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the patients with colorectal surgery the incidence of muscle relaxant residual after general anesthesia and its countermeasures.Methods Our hospital 100 cases of colorectal patients under general anesthesia to collate data analysis colorectal surgery, using neuromuscular monitoring and assessment of the patient monitoring NMB incidence of residual NMB and analyzing the prevention of postoperative residual NMB measures to patients.Results Postoperatively in patients with colorectal surgery anesthesia with objective evaluation method of the incidence of muscle relaxant residual after extubation was 63%, the residual group with the muscle relaxant residual muscle relaxant in patients' body quality, age, type of nondepolarizing agent has more significant difference (P<0.05); should pay attention to during the process of surgery anesthesia management, maximum limit reduce the incidence of postoperative muscle relaxant residual, prevent the occurrence of complications.Conclusion Patients with colorectal surgery anesthesia significantly higher incidence of postoperative residual of muscle relaxant, so pay attention to the patients in the process of surgery anesthesia management, strengthen the monitoring.%目的:探讨结直肠手术患者全麻拔管后肌松残余的发生率及其应对措施。方法将我院100例全身麻醉结直肠手术患者资料进行整理分析,同时使用肌松监测仪监测肌松及评估患者肌松残余的发生率,并分析预防患者出现术后肌松残余的措施。结果结直肠手术全麻患者术后用客观评估法拔管后肌松残余的发生率为63%,肌松残余组与非肌松残余组在患者体质量、年龄、肌松剂类型方面比较有显著差别(P<0.05);手术过程中要注意麻醉管理,最大限度降低术后肌松残余发生率,防止并发症的发生。结论结直肠手术全麻患者术后肌松残余的发生率明显升高,所以要注意患者手术过

  15. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  16. Dealing with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a general overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azermai M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Majda Azermai Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: Dealing with the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD is often complex. Given the controversy with regard to antipsychotics for behavioral problems in people with dementia, there has been a renewed emphasis on nonpharmacological interventions, with progress in the design of the relevant studies. Potential nonpharmacological interventions for BPSD are: cognitive training/stimulation, rehabilitative care, activities of daily living, music therapy, massage/touch, physical activity, education/training of professionals, and education and psychosocial support of informal caregivers. Use of antipsychotics in the management of BPSD is controversial due to limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse effects, but credible alternatives remain scarce. The problem of chronic use of antipsychotics in nursing homes should be tackled. Discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in older individuals with BPSD appears to be feasible. Discontinuation efforts are needed to differentiate between patients for whom antipsychotics have no added value and patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Keywords: behavioral symptoms, psychological symptoms, dementia, interventions, nonpharmacological intervention

  17. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: Converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eHahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs. Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW-players and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed 1 trait sensitivity to reward, 2 BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum and 3 ventral-striatal resting state dynamics. We find a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state. On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait sensitivity to reward, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  18. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  19. Asymptotic behavior of 2D generalized stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation with additive noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-long LI; Bo-ling GUO

    2009-01-01

    The 2D generalized stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation with additive noise is considered. The compactness of the random dynamical system is established with a priori estimate method, showing that the random dynamical system possesses a random attractor in H10.

  20. A Comparison of General and Descriptive Praise in Teaching Intraverbal Behavior to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polick, Amy S.; Carr, James E.; Hanney, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive praise has been recommended widely as an important teaching tactic for children with autism, despite the absence of published supporting evidence. We compared the effects of descriptive and general praise on the acquisition and maintenance of intraverbal skills with 2 children with autism. The results showed slight advantages of…

  1. Health behaviors, health definitions, sense of coherence, and general practitioners’ attitudes towards obesity and diagnosing obesity in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physicians’ attitudes towards health may influence the motivation of patients for constructive health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate general practitioners (GP) attitudes towards health and to determine factors affecting diagnosis of obesity in their patients. Material and methods We examined 250 GPs. The average age was 53.55 ±10.57 years. We used methods examining: health behaviors (IZZ), the sense of coherence (SOC-29), the individual meaning of health (LZK), and attitude toward obesity (own questionnaire). Results The predominance of pro-health behaviors was found in 31.9% and anti-health behavior was observed in 24.6% of the examined group. Health was most commonly defined as a state (74%). The most common criterion of health was “self-acceptance” (38%). A high level of coherence was seen in 39% of individuals. A relationship between the sense of coherence and seeing health as a process (p < 0.01) and target (p < 0.05) was found in this study. We also found a relationship between the doctor’s attitude towards obesity and his internship, area of residence, number of hours spent at work during the week and bodey mass index. It was found that taking the body weight and waist circumference measurements from patients depends significantly on the results from SOC-29 (p = 0.05) and IZZ (p = 0.05). Conclusions Polish GPs are a diverse group in terms of health behavior, defining health, sense of coherence and attitude towards obesity. High sense of coherence and the manifestation of healthy behavior are factors that favor the diagnosis of obesity in patients by the GP. PMID:28261299

  2. The Association of Dietary Behaviors and Physical Activity Levels with General and Central Obesity among ASEAN University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related factors (dietary behaviors and physical activity levels in a cross-sectional, observational study of ASEAN undergraduate students. Material and Methods: A total of 6783 (35.5% male and 64.5% female undergraduate students (Mean age: 20.5, SD = 2.0 from eight ASEAN countries completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs for the association of nutrition behaviors with prevalence of general obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m², elevated waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (>0.50, and high waist circumference (WC (≥80 cm in females, ≥90 cm in males. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, dietary behavior, physical activity and sitting time (using the “International Physical Activity Questionnaire”. Results: There was a higher prevalence of general obesity (24.2% versus 9.3%, and high WHtR (16.6% versus 12.1 in males relative to females, while high WC (9.4% versus 10.4% did not significantly differ between genders. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared to females, males had higher odds of obesity (odds-ratio, OR: 2.13, confidence interval, CI: 1.80, 2.77, and high WHtR (OR: 1.90, CI: 1.48, 2.43 (P < 0.001 for both. Snacking frequency and avoiding fatty foods were associated with all three obesity indicators; obesity (OR: 1.16, CI: 1.05, 1.28 and OR: 1.54, CI: 1.24, 1.92, respectively, WHtR (OR: 1.17, CI: 1.04, 1.32 and OR: 1.46, CI: 1.04, 1.54, and high WC (OR: 1.16, CI: 2.01, 1.33 and OR 1.52, CI: 1.14, 2.04, respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were not significantly associated with any obesity measure. Conclusions: There was a low prevalence of healthy behaviors and a high prevalence of obesity in this sample of ASEAN young adults. Specific dietary behaviors but not physical activity nor sedentary behavior were associated with obesity.

  3. Relaxation Dynamics of Non-Power-Law Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liang, Zhan-Peng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-12-01

    The relaxation of non-Newtonian liquids with non-power-law rheology on partially wetted surfaces is rarely investigated. This study assesses the relaxation behavior of 14 partial wetting systems with non-power-law fluids by sessile drop method. These systems are two carboxymethylcellulose sodium solutions on two kinds of slides, cover glass, and silicon wafer surfaces; three polyethylene glycol (PEG400) + silica nanoparticle suspensions on polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene surfaces. The dynamic contact angle and moving velocity of contact line relationship data for relaxation drops of the 14 tested systems demonstrate a power-law fluid-like behavior, and the equivalent power exponent for a certain fluid on different solid substrates are uniform. By analyzing the relationship between the equivalent power exponent and shear rate, it is proposed that a fluid regime with shear rates of a few tens of s controls relaxation dynamics.

  4. Ferrohydrodynamic evaluation of rotational viscosity and relaxation in certain ferrofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    A significant effect of aggregation dynamics for aqueous ferrofluid (AF) and kerosene based ferrofluid (KF) using magnetic field dependent capillary viscosity and magneto-optical relaxation measurements is studied. For better comparison parameters of AF and KF are kept similar. Ferrohydrodynamic equations of chain forming ferrofluids, dilute ferrofluids, and Brownian dynamic simulations are compared. It is observed that the rotational viscosity of AF is larger than that of KF due to field induced aggregates in it and strong dipolar interactions. It is also observed that at Ωτ ~ 0.04 both AF and KF viscosity becomes almost similar, suggesting similar behavior at that shear rate. The magneto-optical relaxation in AF exhibits nonexponential behavior when relaxed from higher magnetic field and follows irreversible thermodynamics, whereas for KF the relaxation is exponential and follows the effective field method. This discrepancy is explained based on aggregation dynamics of magnetic particles. Results are well described by the corresponding theoretical models.

  5. An Experiment on Behavior Generalization and the Emergence of Linguistic Compositionality in Evolving Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuci, E.; Ferrauto, T.; Zeschel, A.;

    2011-01-01

    the target object and executing the required action). The comparison between two experimental conditions, in one of which the agents are required to ignore rather than to indicate objects, shows that the composition of the behavioral set significantly influences the development of compositional semantic......Populations of simulated agents controlled by dynamical neural networks are trained by artificial evolution to access linguistic instructions and to execute them by indicating, touching, or moving specific target objects. During training the agent experiences only a subset of all object...

  6. Generalized adiabatic polaron hopping: Meyer-Neldel compensation and Poole-Frenkel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David

    2008-04-25

    The commonly employed adiabatic treatment of polaron hopping is extended to treat the continuous alteration of a carrier wave function with the atoms' movements and a carrier's long-range interaction with a polar surrounding. These features, respectively, introduce carrier-induced softening of the atoms' vibrations and a hopping activation energy that depends on hopping distance. The Meyer-Neldel compensation effect results from carrier-induced softening of vibrations. Poole-Frenkel behavior emerges for electric-field driven polaron hopping in ionic and polar media.

  7. Finite element implementation of the Hoek-Brown material model with general strain softening behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed; Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A numerical implementation of the Hoek–Brown criterion is presented, which is capable of modeling different post-failure behaviors observed in jointed rock mass. This is done by making the material parameters a function of the accumulated plastic strain. The implementation is for use in finite...... element calculations, and is based on the return mapping framework. The updated stress state together with the consistent constitutive matrix is found in principal stress space based on the principles of boundary planes. The implementation is verified through the simulation of a tunnel excavation...

  8. Magnetic relaxation effects in zero field cooled Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanain, S.K.; Mumtaz, A.; Ali, T.; Husain, M.; Bhatti, G.S. (Dept. of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (PK))

    1990-03-10

    This paper reports on results of the magnetic relaxation in 1:2:3 superconductors initiated by a very slow field reversal. The authors find that the relaxation at earlier times follows a stretched exponential type function, while at longer times it has a logarithmic behavior. The onset time of lnt behavior depends on the applied field. The data is interpreted in terms of a two-stage relaxation process.

  9. Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature-dependent property of the Grueneisen parameter has been employed in photoacoustic imaging mainly to measure tissue temperature. Here we explore this property using a different approach and develop Grueneisen-relaxation photoacoustic microscopy (GR-PAM), a technique that images non-radiative absorption with confocal optical resolution. GR-PAM sequentially delivers two identical laser pulses with a micro-second-scale time delay. The first laser pulse generates a photoacoustic signal and thermally tags the in-focus absorbers. Owing to the temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter, when the second laser pulse excites the tagged absorbers within the thermal relaxation time, a photoacoustic signal stronger than the first one is produced. GR-PAM detects the amplitude difference between the two co-located photoacoustic signals, confocally imaging the non-radiative absorption. We greatly improved axial resolution from 45 µm to 2.3 µm and at the same time slightly improved lateral resolution from 0.63 µm to 0.41 µm. In addition, the optical sectioning capability facilitates the measurement of the absolute absorption coefficient without fluence calibration. PMID:25379919

  10. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...

  11. Client Retrospective Accounts of Corrective Experiences in Motivational Interviewing Integrated With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Christianne; Angus, Lynne; Khattra, Jasmine; Westra, Henny; Ip, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    A corrective experience (CE) is one "in which a person comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2012, p. 5). CEs disconfirm clients' expectations based on past problematic experiences, and can be emotional, relational, behavioral, and/or cognitive. This qualitative study explored corrective shifts among recovered participants (N = 8) who had received motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT alone to MI-CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016). We administered a posttherapy interview querying their experience of, and explanations for, any shifts in therapy. Grounded theory analysis yielded three core themes: in command of the worry train, experiencing myself in new ways in therapy, and oriented toward change. Findings are discussed in terms of MI theory, and clinical implications for therapists are provided.

  12. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  13. Correlation between General Corrosion Behavior and Eddy Current Noise of Alloy 690 Steam Generator Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Shim, Hee-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel and its oxides are released from the surface of steam generator tubes into the primary water. Released nickel and cobalt is activated to Co-58 and Co-60 in the reactor core by a neutron flux, respectively. These activated corrosion products are the main source of high radiation fields and occupational radiation exposure. In addition, some of the corrosion products redeposit on the fuel cladding, hinder the heat transfer, increase the corrosion rate of the fuel cladding, and finally induce an axial offset anomaly. This phenomenon can decrease core shutdown margin, and thus lead to a down-rating of a plant. Recently, many researchers have reported that the surface states of Alloy 690 tubes affect the corrosion product formation and its release in simulated primary water environments. Meanwhile, the surface states of steam generator tubes affect the noise level of eddy current testing. Noise signals arising from the tubes degrade the probability of detection and sizing accuracy of the defects. The corrosion behavior was closely correlated to the tube noise measured using a rotating probe, while it was not related to the noise measured using a bobbin probe. It is suggested that the tube noise value measured using a rotating pancake coil probe can be a decisive measure to estimate the corrosion behavior of tubing.

  14. PET Recycling Behavior of consumers in Lahore, Pakistan, Available knowledge and general attitudes, Impact on recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, van der, R.W.; , Usman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lahore, Pakistan is one of the most populated and hottest regions of the world. Due to long summers beverages consumption is generally high leading to an increase in consumption of beverage PET bottles. There is a huge amount of municipal waste which is not being recycled and as a result it ends up in land refills. Through a survey I have tried to figure out that how different factors like income level, educational level, recycling facility, knowledge and incentives influence recycli...

  15. The use of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery in sport psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Thomas S; Bogacki, David F

    2005-10-01

    Hypnosis is a procedure during which a mental health professional suggests that a patient experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the use of various methods of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery techniques available to enhance athletic performance. The characteristics that these techniques have in common include relaxation, suggestibility, concentration, imaginative ability, reality testing, brain function, autonomic control, and placebo effect. Case studies are provided for illustration.

  16. Anomalous divergence of a relaxation time in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Maharjan, Rijan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a Discontinuous Shear Thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. Starting from a steady shear in a parallel plate rheometer, we stopped the top plate rotation and measured the transient stress relaxation. We found that at low effective packing fraction $\\phi_{eff}$, the suspensions exhibited a relaxation behavior consistent with a rheometric fluid in which the relaxation is determined by the steady-state viscosity. However, for larger $\\phi_{eff}$, we find up to two exponential relaxation regimes, which both become distinct from the rheometric model. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the rheometric prediction was found to be as large as 4 orders of magnitude and diverges in the limit as $\\phi_{eff} \\rightarrow \\phi_c$, corresponding to the liquid solid transition, as the measured relaxation times diverge to infinity while the rheometric prediction approaches 0. In this limit, the measured relaxation time scales are on the order of $\\...

  17. Memory effects in the asymptotic diffusive behavior of a classical oscillator described by a generalized Langevin equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despósito, M A; Viñales, A D

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the memory effects present in the asymptotic dynamics of a classical harmonic oscillator governed by a generalized Langevin equation. Using Laplace analysis together with Tauberian theorems we derive asymptotic expressions for the mean values, variances, and velocity autocorrelation function in terms of the long-time behavior of the memory kernel and the correlation function of the random force. The internal and external noise cases are analyzed. A simple criterion to determine if the diffusion process is normal or anomalous is established.

  18. Difference and similarity of dielectric relaxation processes among polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoguchi, Ayumi; Kitai, Kei; Nozaki, Ryusuke

    2003-09-01

    Complex permittivity measurements were performed on sorbitol, xylitol, and sorbitol-xylitol mixture in the supercooled liquid state in an extremely wide frequency range from 10 μHz to 500 MHz at temperatures near and above the glass transition temperature. We determined detailed behavior of the relaxation parameters such as relaxation frequency and broadening against temperature not only for the α process but also for the β process above the glass transition temperature, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Since supercooled liquids are in the quasi-equilibrium state, the behavior of all the relaxation parameters for the β process can be compared among the polyols as well as those for the α process. The relaxation frequencies of the α processes follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann manner and the loci in the Arrhenius diagram are different corresponding to the difference of the glass transition temperatures. On the other hand, the relaxation frequencies of the β processes, which are often called as the Johari-Goldstein processes, follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence. The relaxation parameters for the β process are quite similar among the polyols at temperatures below the αβ merging temperature, TM. However, they show anomalous behavior near TM, which depends on the molecular size of materials. These results suggest that the origin of the β process is essentially the same among the polyols.

  19. Effectively universal behavior of rotating neutron stars in general relativity makes them even simpler than their Newtonian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis A

    2014-03-28

    Recently, it was shown that slowly rotating neutron stars exhibit an interesting correlation between their moment of inertia I, their quadrupole moment Q, and their tidal deformation Love number λ (the I-Love-Q relations), independently of the equation of state of the compact object. In the present Letter a similar, more general, universality is shown to hold true for all rotating neutron stars within general relativity; the first four multipole moments of the neutron star are related in a way independent of the nuclear matter equation of state we assume. By exploiting this relation, we can describe quite accurately the geometry around a neutron star with fewer parameters, even if we don't know precisely the equation of state. Furthermore, this universal behavior displayed by neutron stars could promote them to a more promising class of candidates (next to black holes) for testing theories of gravity.

  20. Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chloe T; Long, Debra L; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J Faye; Miller, Meghan R; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dysfunctional behavior associated with the disorder, "off-task" behavior during academic task performance. The effect of computerized WM training (adaptive) was compared to a placebo condition (nonadaptive) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 26 children (18 males; age, 7 to 14 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. Participants completed the training in approximately 25 sessions. The Restricted Academic Situations Task (RAST) observational system was used to assess aspects of off-task behavior during the completion of an academic task. Traditional measures of ADHD symptoms (Conners' Parent Rating Scale) and WM ability (standardized WM tests) were also collected. WM training led to significant reductions in off-task ADHD-associated behavior on the RAST system and improvement on WM tests. There were no significant differences between groups in improvement on parent rating scales. Findings lend insight into the generalizability of the effects of WM training and the relation between deficits in WM and off-task behavioral components of ADHD. These preliminary data suggest WM training may provide a mechanism for indirectly altering academic performance in children with ADHD.

  1. Social security in a general equilibrium model with endogenous government behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissen, E; Van Winden, F

    1991-05-01

    "In this paper attention is focused on the economic and political effects of an aging population. For that purpose, a general equilibrium model is used that allows for an endogenous analysis of decision making on government policies. We concentrate here on the effects of an aging population on expenditures and levels of social security benefits, the provision of public goods and services, the private output and intergenerational conflicts. Special attention will be paid to the effects of changes in the retirement age and in capital endowments. Furthermore, the effects of issues related to aging, as changes in the political influence structure and the motive of other-directedness by others, are investigated."

  2. Hysteresis behaviors of the crystal field diluted general spin-S Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2017-10-01

    Hysteresis characteristics of the crystal field diluted general Spin-S (S > 1) Blume-Capel model have been studied within the effective field approximation. Particular emphasis has been paid on the large negative valued crystal field and low temperature region and it has been demonstrated for this region that, rising dilution of the crystal field results in decreasing number of windowed hysteresis loops. The evolution of the multiple hysteresis loop with the dilution of the crystal field has been investigated and physical mechanism behind this evolution has been given.

  3. Magnetoviscosity and relaxation in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof

    2000-09-01

    The increase in viscosity of a ferrofluid due to an applied magnetic field is discussed on the basis of a phenomenological relaxation equation for the magnetization. The relaxation equation was derived earlier from irreversible thermodynamics, and differs from that postulated by Shliomis. The two relaxation equations lead to a different dependence of viscosity on magnetic field, unless the relaxation rates are related in a specific field-dependent way. Both planar Couette flow and Poiseuille pipe flow in parallel and perpendicular magnetic field are discussed. The entropy production for these situations is calculated and related to the magnetoviscosity.

  4. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  5. Load Relaxation of Olivine Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. F.; Stone, D. S.; Plookphol, T.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnesian olivine (San Carlos, AZ, peridot; Fo90-92) have been deformed in both uniaxial creep and load relaxation under conditions of ambient pressure, T = 1500ºC and pO2 = 10-10 atm; creep stresses were in the range 40 ≤ σ1 (MPa) ≤ 220. The crystals were oriented such that the applied stress was parallel to [011]c, which promotes single slip on the slowest slip system in olivine, (010)[001]. The creep rates at steady state match well the results of earlier investigators, as does the stress sensitivity (a power-law exponent of n = 3.6). Dislocation microstructures, including spatial distribution of low-angle (subgrain) boundaries, additionally confirm previous investigations. Inverted primary creep (an accelerating strain rate with an increase in stress) was observed. Load-relaxation, however, produced a singular response—a single hardness curve—regardless of the magnitude of creep stress or total accumulated strain preceding relaxation. The log-stress v. log-strain rate data from load-relaxation and creep experiments overlap to within experimental error. The load-relaxation behavior is distinctly different that that described for other crystalline solids, where the flow stress is affected strongly by work hardening such that a family of distinct hardness curves is generated, which are related by a scaling function. The response of olivine for the conditions studied, thus, indicates flow that is rate-limited by dislocation glide, reflecting specifically a high intrinsic lattice resistance (Peierls stress).

  6. Relaxing Behavioural Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Amálio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Object-oriented (OO inheritance allows the definition of families of classes in a hierarchical way. In behavioural inheritance, a strong version, it should be possible to substitute an object of a subclass for an object of its superclass without any observable effect on the system. Behavioural inheritance is related to formal refinement, but, as observed in the literature, the refinement constraints are too restrictive, ruling out many useful OO subclassings. This paper studies behavioural inheritance in the context of ZOO, an object-oriented style for Z. To overcome refinement's restrictions, this paper proposes relaxations to the behavioural inheritance refinement rules. The work is presented for Z, but the results are applicable to any OO language that supports design-by-contract.

  7. The LASSO for generic design matrices as a function of the relaxation parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Chretien, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    The LASSO is a variable subset selection procedure in statistical linear regression based on $\\ell_1$ penalization of the least-squares operator. Its behavior crucially depends, both in practice and in theory, on the ratio between the fidelity term and the penalty term. We provide a detailed analysis of the fidelity vs. penalty ratio as a function of the relaxation parameter. Our study is based on a general position condition on the design matrix which holds with probability one for most experimental models. Along the way, the proofs of some well known basic properties of the LASSO are provided from this new generic point of view.

  8. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-11-01

    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  9. Relaxation and Diffusion for the Kicked Rotor

    CERN Document Server

    Khodas, M A

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of the kicked-rotor, that is a paradigm for a mixed system, where the motion in some parts of phase space is chaotic and in other parts is regular is studied statistically. The evolution (Frobenius-Perron) operator of phase space densities in the chaotic component is calculated in presence of noise, and the limit of vanishing noise is taken is taken in the end of calculation. The relaxation rates (related to the Ruelle resonances) to the invariant equilibrium density are calculated analytically within an approximation that improves with increasing stochasticity. The results are tested numerically. The global picture of relaxation to the equilibrium density in the chaotic component when the system is bounded and of diffusive behavior when it is unbounded is presented.

  10. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  11. Evolutionary behavior of generalized zero-determinant strategies in iterated prisoner's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Y.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2015-07-01

    We study the competition and strategy selections between a class of generalized zero-determinant (ZD) strategies and the classic strategies of always cooperate (AllC), always defect (AllD), tit-for-tat (TFT), and win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS) strategies in an iterated prisoner's dilemma comprehensively. Using the generalized ZD strategy, a player could get a payoff that is χ (χ > 1) times that of his opponent's, when the payoff is measured with respect to a referencing baseline parameterized by 0 ≤ σ ≤ 1. Varying σ gives ZD strategies of tunable generosity from the extortionate-like ZD strategy for σ ≪ 1 to the compliance-like strategy at σ ≈ 1. Expected payoffs when ZD strategy competes with each one of the classic strategies are presented. Strategy evolution based on adopting the strategy of a better performing neighbor is studied in a well-mixed population of finite size and a population on a square lattice. Depending on the parameters, extortion-like strategies may not be evolutionarily stable despite a positive surplus over cooperative strategies, while extortion-like strategies may dominate or coexist with other strategies that tend to defect despite a negative surplus. The dependence of the equilibrium fraction of ZD strategy players on the model parameters in a well-mixed population can be understood analytically by comparing the average payoffs to the competing strategies. On a square lattice, the success of the ZD strategy can be qualitatively understood by focusing on the relative alignments of the finite number of payoff values that the two competing strategies could attain when the spatial structure is imposed. ZD strategies with properly chosen generosity could be more successful in evolutionary competing systems.

  12. Study of Patients Absconding Behavior in a General Hospital at Southern Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khammarnia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients’ escape from hospital imposes a significant cost to patients as well as the health system. Besides, for these patients, exposure to adverse events (such as suicide, self-harm, violence and harm to hospital reputation are more likely to occur compared to others. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of the absconding patients in a general hospital through a case-control design in Shiraz, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 413 absconded patients as case and 413 patients as control in a large general hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. In this study, data on the case and control patients was collected from the medical records using a standard checklist in the period of 2011–3. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, through SPSS 16. Results The finding showed that 413 patients absconded (0.50% and mean of age in case group was 40.98 ± 16.31 years. In univariate analysis, variables of gender [Odds Ratio (OR= 2], ward (OR= 1.22, insurance status (OR= 0.41, job status (OR= 0.34 and residence expenditure were significant. However, in multivariate analysis significant variables were age (ORadj= 0.13, gender (ORadj= 2.15, self-employment/unemployed (ORadj= 0.47, emergency/admission (ORadj= 2.14, internal/admission (ORadj= 3.16, insurance status (ORadj= 4.49 and residence expenditure (ORadj= 1.15. Conclusion Characteristics such as middle age, male gender, no insurance coverage, inability to afford hospital expenditures and admission in emergency department make patients more likely abscond from the hospital. Therefore, it may be necessary to focus efforts on high-risk groups and increase insurance coverage in the country to prevent absconding from hospital.

  13. A classical description of relaxation of interacting pairs of unlike spins: Extension to T1 ϱ, T2, and T1 ϱoff, including contact interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Seymour H.

    A novel derivation of the equations that describe the spin-lattice magnetic relaxation of nuclear spin moments, in liquids, resulting from magnetic dipolar interactions with neighboring paramagnetic ions, the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan equations was previously presented (S. H. Koenig, J. Magn. Reson.31, 1 (1978)). The derivation involves a computation of the dissipative energy flow from the nuclear spins to the lattice rather than a computation of the lattice-produced fluctuations of the local field at the nuclear spins. Two advantages accrue: (1) the spectral densities that enter into the relaxation expressions can be directly related to well-defined absorption transitions and relaxation processes of the paramagnetic ions, clarifying the physical processes that produce relaxation, and (2) the derivation can be readily generalized to paramagnetic ions with arbitrary spin Hamiltonian, and to deviations of their susceptibility from Curie law behavior. The derivation is extended to include relaxation in liquids in the rotating frame: the on resonance T1 ϱ which reduces to T2 for small amplitude radiofrequency fields; and the off resonance T1 ϱoff, which reduces to T1. The results, which are given for contact as well as dipolar interactions, also describe relaxation of 13C and 15N nuclei by protons under conditions of proton-decoupling, a situation becoming increasingly important in the study of biological macromolecules by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Determination of relaxation modulus of time-dependent materials using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulova, Alexandra; Govekar, Edvard; Emri, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Health monitoring systems for plastic based structures require the capability of real time tracking of changes in response to the time-dependent behavior of polymer based structures. The paper proposes artificial neural networks as a tool of solving inverse problem appearing within time-dependent material characterization, since the conventional methods are computationally demanding and cannot operate in the real time mode. Abilities of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN) to solve ill-posed inverse problems on an example of determination of a time-dependent relaxation modulus curve segment from constant strain rate tensile test data are investigated. The required modeling data composed of strain rate, tensile and related relaxation modulus were generated using existing closed-form solution. Several neural networks topologies were tested with respect to the structure of input data, and their performance was compared to an exponential fitting technique. Selected optimal topologies of MLP and RBFN were tested for generalization and robustness on noisy data; performance of all the modeling methods with respect to the number of data points in the input vector was analyzed as well. It was shown that MLP and RBFN are capable of solving inverse problems related to the determination of a time dependent relaxation modulus curve segment. Particular topologies demonstrate good generalization and robustness capabilities, where the topology of RBFN with data provided in parallel proved to be superior compared to other methods.

  15. Determination of relaxation modulus of time-dependent materials using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulova, Alexandra; Govekar, Edvard; Emri, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Health monitoring systems for plastic based structures require the capability of real time tracking of changes in response to the time-dependent behavior of polymer based structures. The paper proposes artificial neural networks as a tool of solving inverse problem appearing within time-dependent material characterization, since the conventional methods are computationally demanding and cannot operate in the real time mode. Abilities of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN) to solve ill-posed inverse problems on an example of determination of a time-dependent relaxation modulus curve segment from constant strain rate tensile test data are investigated. The required modeling data composed of strain rate, tensile and related relaxation modulus were generated using existing closed-form solution. Several neural networks topologies were tested with respect to the structure of input data, and their performance was compared to an exponential fitting technique. Selected optimal topologies of MLP and RBFN were tested for generalization and robustness on noisy data; performance of all the modeling methods with respect to the number of data points in the input vector was analyzed as well. It was shown that MLP and RBFN are capable of solving inverse problems related to the determination of a time dependent relaxation modulus curve segment. Particular topologies demonstrate good generalization and robustness capabilities, where the topology of RBFN with data provided in parallel proved to be superior compared to other methods.

  16. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  17. 放松治疗对广泛性焦虑症患者睡眠功能的影响%The effects of relaxation therapy on the sleep of patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆俊林; 张朝辉; 张宁; 杜好瑞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of relaxation treatment (RT) on the sleep quality of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Methods Ninety-two GAD patients were recruited and evenly divided into a study group (n =46) and a control group.The control group was treated with conventional medications,while the study group received RT in addition.The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and polysomnography (PSG) were used to test for changes in sleep before and after treatment.Results There were no significant differences between the two groups before treatment in terms of average PSQI scores or PSG results.After treatment,both groups scored significantly better on the PSQI than before the treatment.PSG showed that after treatment there was less awakening,greater sleep efficiency and longer total sleep time.There was shorter sleep latency and rapid eye movement sleep latency,shorter duration of shallow sleep,and longer duration of deep sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in the study group,as well as fewer awakenings,greater sleep efficiency and longer total sleep time.The PSQI and PSG results of the two groups after treatment were significantly different.Conclusions RT can significantly improve sleep disorders in GAD patients.%目的 观察放松治疗(RT)对广泛性焦虑症(GAD)患者睡眠功能的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将92例GAD患者分为研究组(46例)及对照组(46例).对照组给予常规药物帕罗西汀治疗,研究组在此基础上辅以RT治疗.于治疗前、治疗6周后分别采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)及多导睡眠图(PSG)对2组患者睡眠功能进行评定.结果 治疗前2组患者PSQI总分[研究组为(12.92 ±3.38)分,对照组为(13.01±3.22)分]及各项PSG指标组间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);经治疗6周后,发现2组患者PSQI总分[研究组为(5.43±1.26)分,对照组为(8.71 ±1.53)分]均较治疗前明显降低(P<0.01);与治疗前PSG检测结果比较,治疗后研究组

  18. On semidefinite programming relaxations of the traveling salesman problem

    CERN Document Server

    de Klerk, Etienne; Sotirov, Renata; 10.1137/070711141

    2009-01-01

    We consider a new semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation of the symmetric traveling salesman problem (TSP) that may be obtained via an SDP relaxation of the more general quadratic assignment problem (QAP). We show that the new relaxation dominates the one in [D. Cvetkovic, M. Cangalovic, and V. Kovacevic-Vujcic, Semidefinite programming methods for the symmetric traveling salesman problem, in Proc. 7th Int. IPCO Conference, Springer, London, 1999, pp. 126--136]. Unlike the bound of Cvetkovic et al., the new SDP bound is not dominated by the Held-Karp linear programming bound, or vice versa.

  19. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

  20. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, Manasvi; Hudson, Stuart R

    2016-01-01

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation, and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects (MRxHMHD), and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the relaxed states.

  1. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.

    2016-08-01

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of "ideal barriers" that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the partially relaxed states.

  2. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse or...

  3. THE IMPACT OF BOUND STELLAR ORBITS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ON THE TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lixin; Escala, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Coppi, Paolo, E-mail: lixin.dai@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of the resulting stellar debris changes qualitatively. The debris is initially all bound, returning to pericenter in a short time about the original stellar orbital timescale. The resulting fallback rate can thus be much higher than the Eddington rate. Furthermore, if the star is disrupted close to the hole, in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal precession can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, likely leading to fast debris energy dissipation. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, nodal precession reduces the probability of self-intersection, and circularization may take many dynamical timescales, delaying the onset of flare activity. An examination of the particle dynamics suggests that quasi-periodic flares with short durations, produced when the center of the tidal stream passes pericenter, may occur in the early-time light curve. The late-time light curve may still show power-law behavior which is generic to disk accretion processes. The detection triggers for future surveys should be extended to capture such 'non-standard' short-term flaring activity before the event enters the asymptotic decay phase, as this activity is likely to be more sensitive to physical parameters such as the black hole spin.

  4. The effects of cigarette smoking behavior and psychosis history on general and social cognition in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Luz H; Russo, Manuela; Nitzburg, George M; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes M; Mcgrath, Meaghan; Levine, Hannah; Mulaimovic, Sandra; Burdick, Katherine E

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have documented the prevalence and effects of cigarette smoking on cognition in psychotic disorders; fewer have focused on bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive and social dysfunction are common in BD, and the severity of these deficits may be related both to illness features (e.g., current symptoms, psychosis history) and health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). The current study assessed the influence of cigarette smoking on general and social cognition in a BD cohort, accounting for illness features with a focus on psychosis history. We assessed smoking status in 105 euthymic patients with BD, who completed a comprehensive battery including social (facial affect recognition, emotional problem-solving, and theory of mind) and general (the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and executive functioning) cognitive measures. We compared smokers vs nonsmokers on cognitive performance and tested for the effects of psychosis history, premorbid intellectual functioning, substance use, and current affective symptoms. Within the nonpsychotic subgroup with BD (n=45), smokers generally outperformed nonsmokers; by contrast, for subjects with BD with a history of psychosis (n=41), nonsmokers outperformed smokers. This pattern was noted more globally using a general composite cognitive score and on social/affective measures assessing patients' ability to identify emotions of facial stimuli and solve emotional problems. Cigarette smoking differentially affects performance on both general and social cognition in patients with BD as a function of psychosis history. These results suggest that there may be at least partially divergent underlying neurobiological causes for cognitive dysfunction in patients with BD with and without psychosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  6. Water types and their relaxation behavior in partially rehydrated CaFe-mixed binary oxide obtained from CaFe-layered double hydroxide in the 155-298 K temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugris, Valéria; Haspel, Henrik; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán; Sipiczki, Mónika; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István

    2013-10-29

    Heat-treated CaFe-layered double hydroxide samples were equilibrated under conditions of various relative humidities (11%, 43% and 75%). Measurements by FT-IR and dielectric relaxation spectroscopies revealed that partial to full reconstruction of the layered structure took place. Water types taking part in the reconstruction process were identified via dielectric relaxation measurements either at 298 K or on the flash-cooled (to 155 K) samples. The dynamics of water molecules at the various positions was also studied by this method, allowing the flash-cooled samples to warm up to 298 K.

  7. Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy for gad on insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Langlois, Frédéric; Ladouceur, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical practice suggests that sleep complaints are frequent among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), frequency, severity, types of insomnia complaints, and relationship to GAD diagnosis severity in patients diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria are not well documented. Clinical data about the impact on insomnia symptoms of treating GAD worries are also lacking. The present study examined these aspects in 44 GAD patients who participated in a treatment study specifically addressing excessive worries through CBT interventions. All patients were assessed using a structured clinical interview and the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule-IV (ADIS-IV). They also completed anxiety and insomnia inventories, including the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), a self-report measure which assesses insomnia type, severity and interference with daily life. Among this sample, 47.7% reported difficulties initiating sleep, 63.6% reported difficulties maintaining sleep, and 56.8% complained of waking too early in the morning. The majority of these patients (86.5%) reported never having experienced insomnia without having excessive worries. However, insomnia severity and GAD severity were not correlated. In this sample, patients with severe GAD did not necessarily report more severe insomnia symptoms. Regarding treatment impact on insomnia complaints, ISI post-treatment scores were significantly lower after treatment. Mean post-treatment scores almost reached ISI's "absence of clinical insomnia" category. Results indicate that this CBT package for GAD does have a significant impact on sleep quality even if sleep disturbances were not specifically addressed during treatment.

  8. Dielectric Relaxation in Dimethyl Sulfoxide/Water Mixtures Studied by Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijie; Manias, Evangelos; MacDonald, Digby D.; Lanagan, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Dielectric spectra of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, have been measured using the transmission line method at frequencies from 45 MHz to 26 GHz and at temperatures of 298-318 K. The relaxation times of the mixtures show a maximum at an intermediate molar fraction of DMSO. The specific structure of mixtures in different concentration regions was determined by the dielectric relaxation dynamics, obtained from the effect of temperature on the relaxation time. A water structure "breaking effect" is observed in dilute aqueous solutions. The average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in these mixtures is found to be reduced compared to pure water. The increase in the dielectric relaxation time in DMSO/water mixtures is attributed to the spatial (steric) constraints of DMSO molecules on the hydrogen-bond network, rather than being due to hydrophobic hydration of the methyl groups. The interaction between water and DMSO by hydrogen bonding reaches a maximum at a DMSO molar fraction of 0.33, reflected by the maximum activation enthalpy for dielectric relaxation in this concentration, suggesting the formation of a stoichiometric compound, H2O-DMSO-H2O. In highly concentrated solutions, negative activation entropies are observed, indicating the presence of aggregates of DMSO molecules. A distinct antiparallel arrangement of dipoles is obtained for neat DMSO in the liquid state according to the Kirkwood correlation factor (gK = 0.5), calculated from the static permittivity. The similarity of the dielectric behavior of pure DMSO and DMSO-rich mixtures suggests that dipole-dipole interactions contribute significantly to the rotational relaxation process in these solutions.

  9. Ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J Michael; Cogdell, Richard J; Mančal, Tomáš; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-03-15

    Energy relaxation in light-harvesting complexes has been extensively studied by various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, the fastest processes being in the sub-100-fs range. At the same time, much slower dynamics have been observed in individual complexes by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy (SMS). In this work, we use a pump-probe-type SMS technique to observe the ultrafast energy relaxation in single light-harvesting complexes LH2 of purple bacteria. After excitation at 800 nm, the measured relaxation time distribution of multiple complexes has a peak at 95 fs and is asymmetric, with a tail at slower relaxation times. When tuning the excitation wavelength, the distribution changes in both its shape and position. The observed behavior agrees with what is to be expected from the LH2 excited states structure. As we show by a Redfield theory calculation of the relaxation times, the distribution shape corresponds to the expected effect of Gaussian disorder of the pigment transition energies. By repeatedly measuring few individual complexes for minutes, we find that complexes sample the relaxation time distribution on a timescale of seconds. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution from a single long-lived complex with the whole ensemble, we demonstrate that, regarding the relaxation times, the ensemble can be considered ergodic. Our findings thus agree with the commonly used notion of an ensemble of identical LH2 complexes experiencing slow random fluctuations.

  10. GENERAL DECAY OF A TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR KIRCHHOFF TYPE WAVE EQUATIONS WITH BOUNDARY MEMORY CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hye PARK

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of boundary dissipation on the de-cay property of solutions for a transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equation with boundary memory condition. By introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals, we establish a general decay estimate for the energy, which depends on the behavior of relaxation function.

  11. EFFECT OF CROSS-LINKING ON THE EXCESS ENTHALPY RELAXATION OF EPOXY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuping; QI Zongneng

    1987-01-01

    A method of comparative DSC technique is proposed for excess enthalpy relaxation study. The essential of the comparative DSC technique consists of comparing the enthalpy relaxation behavior of an aged sample with a quenched sample as reference. The accuracy of comparison is improved because of simultaneous measuring of the sample and reference which makes noise of the apparatus subtractive. This technique has been applied to studying the influence of crosslinking on the enthalpy relaxation behavior of epoxy resins. The effect of crosslinking on the kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of epoxy resins is discussed.

  12. Repeated load relaxations of type 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.

    1984-03-01

    Several experiments have shown that the shape of the load relaxation curve after reloading in a logarithmic stress vs. logarithmic strain rate plot may differ from that after the initial loading. In a recent study Korhonen and Li showed that the apparent kink in a log sigma versus log epsilon plot of the stress relaxation data, after mainly elastic and anelastic loading, is due to change of the deformation mode from an anelasticity dominated one to a plasticity dominated one. According to the state variable model by Hart, the relaxation curve in reloading should overlap with the original one after this transition in the absence of structural changes. Therefore, the crossing of stress relaxation curves after an initial plastic loading and subsequent elastic and anelastic reloadings in commercially pure aluminum at room temperature was accounted for by thermally induced effects. In the same study, consecutive stress relaxation runs were conducted on 316 SS, and no cross-over behavior was observed, which was associated with the lack of thermal effects in 316 SS at room temperature. The results demonstrate that strain aging has an effect on relaxation behavior even at room temperature, the effect being more pronounced at high strains. The phenomena can be accounted for according to a state variable model by modifying the rate constant, which is affected by the amount of mobile dislocations as well as dislocation mobility.

  13. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, G R; Dewar, R L; Hole, M J

    2014-01-01

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  14. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  15. Supervised Discrete Hashing With Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Sun, Zhenan; Tao, Dacheng; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-12-29

    Data-dependent hashing has recently attracted attention due to being able to support efficient retrieval and storage of high-dimensional data, such as documents, images, and videos. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based hashing method called ''supervised discrete hashing with relaxation'' (SDHR) based on ''supervised discrete hashing'' (SDH). SDH uses ordinary least squares regression and traditional zero-one matrix encoding of class label information as the regression target (code words), thus fixing the regression target. In SDHR, the regression target is instead optimized. The optimized regression target matrix satisfies a large margin constraint for correct classification of each example. Compared with SDH, which uses the traditional zero-one matrix, SDHR utilizes the learned regression target matrix and, therefore, more accurately measures the classification error of the regression model and is more flexible. As expected, SDHR generally outperforms SDH. Experimental results on two large-scale image data sets (CIFAR-10 and MNIST) and a large-scale and challenging face data set (FRGC) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SDHR.

  16. A learning collaborative of CMHCs and CHCs to support integration of behavioral health and general medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Steven D; Mauer, Barbara; Kern, John; Girn, Kamaljeet; Ingoglia, Charles; Campbell, Jeannie; Galbreath, Laura; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Integration of general medical and mental health services is a growing priority for safety-net providers. The authors describe a project that established a one-year learning collaborative focused on integration of services between community health centers (CHCs) and community mental health centers (CMHCs). Specific targets were treatment for general medical and psychiatric symptoms related to depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This observational study used mixed methods. Quantitative measures included 15 patient-level health indicators, practice self-assessment of resources and support for chronic disease self-management, and participant satisfaction. Sixteen CHC-CMHC pairs were selected for the learning collaborative series. One pair dropped out because of personnel turnover. All teams increased capacity on one or more patient health indicators. CHCs scored higher than CMHCs on support for chronic disease self-management. Participation in the learning collaborative increased self-assessment scores for CHCs and CMHCs. Participant satisfaction was high. Observations by faculty indicate that quality improvement challenges included tracking patient-level outcomes, workforce issues, and cross-agency communication. Even though numerous systemic barriers were encountered, the findings support existing literature indicating that the learning collaborative is a viable quality improvement approach for enhancing integration of general medical and mental health services between CHCs and CMHCs. Real-world implementation of evidence-based guidelines presents challenges often absent in research. Technical resources and support, a stable workforce with adequate training, and adequate opportunities for collaborator communications are particular challenges for integrating behavioral and general medical services across CHCs and CMHCs.

  17. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  18. Dynamic relaxation behaviors of poly( methyl methacrylate)/Ga nanocomposites%聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯/镓纳米复合物的动力学弛豫行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周学懋; 陈晓萌; 吴学邦; 水嘉鹏; 朱震刚

    2011-01-01

    通过原位自由基聚合方法制备了聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)以及含镓(Ga)质量分数为11.3%和13.5%的PMMA/Ga纳米复合材料.在玻璃化转变温度及以上温区,利用能量耗散技术研究PMMA/Ga纳米复合物的动力学弛豫行为,发现随着Ga含量的增加,复合物的a弛豫峰移向高温但峰高降低.此外,还定量研究了Ga含量对PMMA/Ga复合物的a'弛豫的影响,并作出了相应的解释.%Two kinds of poly(methyl methacrylate)/gallium (PMMA/Ga) nanocomposites with different Ga contents (11.3% and 13.5% ) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The relaxation dynamics of PMMA/Ga nanocomposite above the glass transition temperature has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy. It was found that the peak temperatures of α relaxation of the nanocomposites increase with the increasing Ga content, but the peak heights of α relaxation decrease. Besides, the composition-dependent dynamics of the α′ relaxation in PMMA/Ga nanocomposites was also studied.

  19. Controlling spin relaxation with a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stern, M.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous emission of radiation is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which an excited quantum system returns to equilibrium. For spins, however, spontaneous emission is generally negligible compared to other non-radiative relaxation processes because of the weak coupling between the magnetic dipole and the electromagnetic field. In 1946, Purcell realized that the rate of spontaneous emission can be greatly enhanced by placing the quantum system in a resonant cavity. This effect has since been used extensively to control the lifetime of atoms and semiconducting heterostructures coupled to microwave or optical cavities, and is essential for the realization of high-efficiency single-photon sources. Here we report the application of this idea to spins in solids. By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity with a high quality factor and a small mode volume, we reach the regime in which spontaneous emission constitutes the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation. The relaxation rate is increased by three orders of magnitude as the spins are tuned to the cavity resonance, demonstrating that energy relaxation can be controlled on demand. Our results provide a general way to initialize spin systems into their ground state and therefore have applications in magnetic resonance and quantum information processing. They also demonstrate that the coupling between the magnetic dipole of a spin and the electromagnetic field can be enhanced up to the point at which quantum fluctuations have a marked effect on the spin dynamics; as such, they represent an important step towards the coherent magnetic coupling of individual spins to microwave photons.

  20. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  1. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.

  2. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D

    2009-09-22

    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  3. Play skills taught via behavioral intervention generalize, maintain, and persist in the absence of socially mediated reinforcement in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.; Machalicek, W.A.; Rispoli, M.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We measured generalization, maintenance and parent reports of child happiness in the context of a behavioral intervention to teach toy-play skills to three young children with autism. Lag schedules of reinforcement were implemented for two participants whose play did not initially generalize. The pl

  4. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  5. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    OpenAIRE

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the...

  6. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    CERN Document Server

    Solodukhin, S N

    2004-01-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  7. Effects of dissolved hydrogen on general corrosion behavior and oxide films of alloy 690TT in PWR primary water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Lee, Eun-Hee; Hur, Do Haeng

    2017-03-01

    The effect of dissolved hydrogen (DH) on the general corrosion behavior and oxide films of Alloy 690TT is investigated in simulated primary water at 330 °C. With increasing DH, the structure of oxide film significantly changed and the corrosion rate decreased. At DH = 5 cm3/kg H2O, the oxide layer was thick, and consisted of outer Ni oxide layer and inner Cr2O3 layer. Under the conditions of DH = 35 and 100 cm3/kg H2O, the oxide films grew thinner and composed of outer polyhedral spinel oxide particles such as NiCr2O4 or NiCrFeO4 and an intermediate metallic Ni-rich layer, with inner Cr2O3 layer. The general corrosion rate significantly decreased by about 72% as DH concentration increased from 5 to 35 cm3/kg H2O. In the range of 35-65 cm3/kg H2O, the corrosion rate slightly decreased with increasing DH concentration. However, no further changes were observed in the range of 65-100 cm3/kg H2O.

  8. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  9. Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenaar, J; Rumyantzeva, G; Kasyanenko, A; Kaasjager, K; Westermann, A; van den Brink, W; van den Bout, J; Savelkoul, J

    1997-12-01

    Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there are differences in the general health status of the inhabitants of the two regions that may be attributed to the Chernobyl disaster. A broad-based population sample from each of these regions was studied using a variety of self-report questionnaires. A subsample (n = 449) was further examined with a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The results show significantly higher scores on the self-report questionnaires and higher medical service utilization in the exposed region. No significant differences were observed in global clinical indices of health. Although there were trends for some disorders to be more prevalent in the exposed region, none of these could be directly attributed to exposure to ionizing radiation. The results of this study suggest that the Chernobyl disaster had a significant long-term impact on psychological well-being, health-related quality of life, and illness behavior in the exposed population.

  10. Linguistic analysis of communication in therapist-assisted internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkse, Dale; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Hesser, Hugo; Barak, Azy

    2015-01-01

    Therapist-assisted Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) involves elements of expressive writing through secure messaging with a therapist. Expressive writing has been associated with psychological and physical health benefits in past research; furthermore, certain linguistic dimensions in expressive writing have been identified as particularly beneficial to health, such as less frequent use of negative emotion words and greater use of positive emotion words. No research, to date, has analyzed linguistic dimensions in client communication over the course of therapist-assisted ICBT for individuals with symptoms of generalized anxiety. This naturalistic study examined messages sent to therapists during the course of ICBT using linguistic analysis, and explored covariation of word use with symptom improvement. Data were obtained from patients with symptoms of generalized anxiety (N = 59) who completed 12 modules of therapist-assisted ICBT and rated symptoms of anxiety, depression, and panic at the beginning of each module. Linguistic analysis categorized text submitted to therapists into different word categories. Results found that patients' use of negative emotion, anxiety, causation, and insight words reduced over the course of treatment, while past tense words increased. Furthermore, negative emotion words significantly covaried with symptom ratings over the course of treatment. While causal statements cannot be made, findings improve our understanding of patient communication in ICBT and suggest that the further study of linguistic dimensions as psychological indicators and the potential utility of expressive writing strategies in therapist-assisted ICBT may be worthwhile.

  11. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2016-09-03

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  12. Application of muscle relaxation closed loop monitoring system in general anesthesia for elderly patients and prevention of postoperative pulmonary infections%老年全麻患者肌松闭环监测的应用观察及术后肺部感染的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 杜建龙; 包梅芳; 吴纯西

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical effect and safety of the closed-loop muscle relaxation injection system used by the elderly patients during general anesthesia so as to prevent the postoperative pulmonary infections. METHODS A total of 100 elderly patients (with the general anesthesia of AS Ⅰ - Ⅱ class) who underwent upper abdominal surgery from Feb 2010 to Feb 2012 were randomly selected as the study subjects and were divided into the group A (the AEP closed-loop muscle relaxant injection system group) and the group B (traditional experience control group) , with 50 cases in each. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate of the two groups were observed, and the total muscle relaxants, induced total recovery time and postoperative adverse reactions, and pulmonary infections were recorded. RESULTS The copper rating, anaesthetists satisfaction rate, and the operation physician satisfaction rate of the group A were all higher than the group B, the difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05). There were 8 cases with pulmonary infections in the group A with the infection rate of 16. 0%, and there were 11 cases with the postoperative pulmonary infections in the group B with the infection rate of 22. 0%. CONCLUSION The closed-loop muscle relaxant injection system used by the elderly patients with general anesthesia can effectively guide the reasonable use of muscle relaxants during anesthesia and reduce the incidence of residual paralysis, thereby improving the safety of elderly patients with general anesthesia.%目的 观察闭环肌松注射系统在老年全麻患者的临床效果及安全性,以预防老年患者术后肺部感染.方法 随机选取2010年2月-2012年2月进行上腹部手术的老年全麻手术(ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ级)患者100例为研究对象,将其分为A、B两组,每组50例,A组为AEP闭环肌松注射系统组,B组为传统经验对照组,观察两组患者平均动脉压、心率、呼吸频率等数值,记录肌松

  13. An Exact Relaxation of Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2009-01-01

    of clustering problems such as the K-means objective and pairwise clustering as well as graph partition problems, e.g., for community detection in complex networks. In particular we show that a relaxation to the simplex can be given for which the extreme solutions are stable hard assignment solutions and vice......Continuous relaxation of hard assignment clustering problems can lead to better solutions than greedy iterative refinement algorithms. However, the validity of existing relaxations is contingent on problem specific fuzzy parameters that quantify the level of similarity between the original...... versa. Based on the new relaxation we derive the SR-clustering algorithm that has the same complexity as traditional greedy iterative refinement algorithms but leading to significantly better partitions of the data. A Matlab implementation of the SR-clustering algorithm is available for download....

  14. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  15. Relaxation Dynamics in Heme Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Reinhard Wilhelm

    A protein molecule possesses many conformational substates that are likely arranged in a hierarchy consisting of a number of tiers. A hierarchical organization of conformational substates is expected to give rise to a multitude of nonequilibrium relaxation phenomena. If the temperature is lowered, transitions between substates of higher tiers are frozen out, and relaxation processes characteristic of lower tiers will dominate the observational time scale. This thesis addresses the following questions: (i) What is the energy landscape of a protein? How does the landscape depend on the environment such as pH and viscosity, and how can it be connected to specific structural parts? (ii) What relaxation phenomena can be observed in a protein? Which are protein specific, and which occur in other proteins? How does the environment influence relaxations? (iii) What functional form best describes relaxation functions? (iv) Can we connect the motions to specific structural parts of the protein molecule, and are these motions important for the function of the protein?. To this purpose, relaxation processes after a pressure change are studied in carbonmonoxy (CO) heme proteins (myoglobin-CO, substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450cam-CO, chloroperoxidase-CO, horseradish peroxidase -CO) between 150 K and 250 K using FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the CO bound to the heme iron. Two types of p -relaxation experiments are performed: p-release (200 to ~eq40 MPa) and p-jump (~eq40 to 200 MPa) experiments. Most of the relaxations fall into one of three groups and are characterized by (i) nonexponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM1( nu), FIM1(Gamma)); (ii) exponential time dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIM0(A_{i}to A_{j})); exponential time dependence and Arrhenius temperature dependence (FIMX( nu)). The influence of pH is studied in myoglobin-CO and shown to have a strong influence on the substate population of the

  16. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  17. Relaxation strategies for patients during dermatologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.

  18. Simulating the Formation of Lunar Floor-Fracture Craters Using Elastoviscoplastic Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombard, A. J.; Gillis, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar floor-fracture craters formed during the height of mare basalt emplacement. Due to a general temporal and spatial relation with the maria, these craters, numbering some 200, may be diagnostic of the thermal structure of the crust during this time. As the name suggests, these craters exhibit brittle failure, generally limited to the central floor region. That, and a shallower depth than fresh lunar craters, has led to two main theories as to their formation: laccolith emplacement under the crater and viscous relaxation. The implications of each model for the state of the Moon's crust during this time are quite different, so the viability of each model must be checked. Laccolith emplacement has been treated elsewhere. However, previous attempts to study the relaxation of the craters have assumed only a uniform, Newtonian viscous response of the near surface to the topographic driving forces, and simply postulated that the fractures resulted from tensile stresses associated with floor uplift. Here, we use a more sophisticated rheological model that includes not only non-Newtonian viscous behavior (i.e., the viscosity is stress-dependent), but also incorporates elastic behavior and a plastic component to the rheology to directly simulate the formation of the floor fractures. The results of our simulations show that while elastoviscoplastic relaxation is potentially viable for larger floor-fracture craters, it is not viable for craters with diameters value problems, via the commercially available MARC software package. To test the viability of topographic relaxation, our goal is to prepare the simulations as to maximize the amount of relaxation. We take advantage of the natural axisymmetry of craters, simulating one radial plane. Initial shapes are based on data for fresh craters from Pike. To simplify implementation, a fourth order polynomial is used for the basin, while a third order inverse function is used for the rim. This form closely approximates the long

  19. Formation and relaxation of quasistationary states in particle systems with power-law interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Joyce, M.

    2017-09-01

    We explore the formation and relaxation of the so-called quasistationary states (QSS) for particle distributions in three dimensions interacting via an attractive radial pair potential V (r →∞ ) ˜1 /rγ with γ >0 , and either a soft core or hard core regularization at small r . In the first part of the paper, we generalize, for any spatial dimension d ≥2 , Chandrasekhar's approach for the case of gravity to obtain analytic estimates of the rate of collisional relaxation due to two-body collisions. The resultant relaxation rates indicate an essential qualitative difference depending on the integrability of the pair force at large distances: for γ >d -1 , the rate diverges in the large particle number N (mean-field) limit, unless a sufficiently large soft core is present; for γ mean interparticle distance). Our results provide strong evidence that the existence of QSS is robust only for long-range interactions with a large distance behavior γ

  20. Orientational relaxation in semiflexible dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Biswas, Parbati

    2013-12-14

    The orientational relaxation dynamics of semiflexible dendrimers are theoretically calculated within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is modeled through appropriate restrictions in the direction and orientation of the respective bond vectors, while the hydrodynamic interactions are included via the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The time autocorrelation function M(i)(1)(t) and the second order orientational autocorrelation function P(i)(2)(t) are analyzed as a function of the branch-point functionality and the degree of semiflexibility. Our approach of calculating M(i)(1)(t) is completely different from that of the earlier studies (A. Perico and M. Guenza J. Chem. Phys., 1985, 83, 3103; J. Chem. Phys., 1986, 84, 510), where the expression of M(i)(1)(t) obtained from earlier studies does not demarcate the flexible dendrimers from the semiflexible ones. The component of global motion of the time autocorrelation function exhibits a strong dependence on both degree of semiflexibility and branch-point functionality, while the component of pulsation motion depends only on the degree of semiflexibility. But it is difficult to distinguish the difference in the extent of pulsation motion among the compressed (0 qualitative behavior of P(i)(2)(t) obtained from our calculations closely matches with the expression for P(exact)(2)(t) in the earlier studies. Theoretically calculated spectral density, J(ω), is found to depend on the degree of semiflexibility and the branch-point functionality for the compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers as a function of frequency, especially in the high frequency regime, where J(ω) decays with frequency for both compressed and expanded conformations of semiflexible dendrimers. This decay of the spectral density occurs after displaying a cross-over behavior with the variation in the degree of semiflexibility in the intermediate frequency regime. The characteristic area increases with the

  1. The evaluation of effects on driver behavior and accidents of concentrated general enforcement on interurban roads in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, A S; Gitelman, V; Cohen, A; Doveh, E; Umansky, T

    2001-01-01

    The study deals with the evaluation of the effects of a new deployment of the National Traffic Police in Israel--a concentrated general enforcement on 700 km of interurban roads, which contain 60% of all rural accidents and about half of the severe accident locations. The enforcement project began in April 1997 and lasted for 1 year, aiming at a 10% reduction of severe accidents on those roads. The evaluation study consisted of three main parts: (a) monitoring of everyday police operations on the project roads; (b) periodic evaluation of the project's influence on drivers' behavior and attitudes; and (c) the evaluation of accident changes within the project area, at the end of the project year. Speed measurements, performed before the police project launch, demonstrated that, depending on road type, up to 85% of drivers violated the rural road speed limits. Two rounds of field observations, before and during the project, took place at 32 sites throughout the project area and comprised eight behavior types: turning performance; signaling while turning; compliance with 'stop' and 'yield' signs; safety belt use by drivers and front-seat passengers, at the intersections; 'keeping to the right' on dual carriageway roads; and 'not-crossing of the white separating line' at single carriageway roads. A comparison revealed a general reduction in violation rates of most behaviors, during-the-project, except for compliance with 'stop' signs and signaling. Concurrently, two rounds of driver surveys were performed which examined the project's influence on the drivers' attitudes towards the police enforcement effectiveness and risk connected with traffic rule violations. An improvement was identified in perceived general level of police activity, during the project, whereas a lower or similar risk of apprehension was attributed by drivers to most specific violations of the traffic rules. Three groups of indices of police activity were estimated monthly during the study: inputs

  2. Anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation in strontium doped lanthanum molybdate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Fan, Huiqing, E-mail: hqfan3@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Shi, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anomaly diffuse and dielectric relaxation behaviors are fitted by the Cole-Cole approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak in the LSMO is corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first give better explanation about the strange conductivity change caused by doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen ion diffusion is due to a combination of the dipolar relaxation and the motion of ions. -- Abstract: The dielectric properties of the La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-{delta}} (x = 0-0.2) ceramics were investigated in the temperature range of 300-800 K. Dielectric measurement reveals that two dielectric anomalies, associated with the oxygen ion diffusion, exist in frequency spectrum with x = 0.5. The broad dielectric peaks in tan {delta}({omega}) can be well fitted by a modified Cole-Cole approach. When x = 0.1, only one dielectric relaxation peak is observed, corresponding to different oxygen ion diffusion processes, as distinct from the only relaxation peak in the pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The relaxation parameters {tau}{sub 0}, the dielectric relaxation strength {Delta}, and the activation energy E{sub a} were obtained. The result of this work shows that, the conductivity change caused by doping between the two phases is due to the combination of the dipolar effects and motion of ions.

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. THE THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ENTHALPY RELAXATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBRINKE, G; OUDHUIS, L; ELLIS, TS

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,

  6. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  7. THE THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ENTHALPY RELAXATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBRINKE, G; OUDHUIS, L; ELLIS, TS

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of enthalpy relaxation of amorphous glassy polymers has been developed into an analytical tool which can be applied to elucidate phase behavior and morphologically related phenomena of multi-component systems. We have both reviewed the experimental details concerning its application,

  8. Comparison of Younger and Older Adults' Acceptability of Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Co-Occurring with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…

  9. Intolerance of uncertainty as a mediator of reductions in worry in a cognitive behavioral treatment program for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, J; Ramsawh, H; Ball, T M; Taylor, C T; Paulus, M P; Lang, A J; Stein, M B

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a cognitive vulnerability that is a central feature across diverse anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce IU, it remains to be established whether or not reductions in IU mediate reductions in worry. This study examined the process of change in IU and worry in a sample of 28 individuals with GAD who completed CBT. Changes in IU and worry, assessed bi-weekly during treatment, were analyzed using multilevel mediation models. Results revealed that change in IU mediated change in worry (ab = -0.20; 95% CI [-.35, -.09]), but change in worry did not mediate change in IU (ab = -0.16; 95% CI [-.06, .12]). Findings indicated that reductions in IU accounted for 59% of the reductions in worry observed over the course of treatment, suggesting that changes in IU are not simply concomitants of changes in worry. Findings support the idea that IU is a critical construct underlying GAD.

  10. A new standard of sexual behavior? Are claims associated with the "hookup culture" supported by general social survey data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Martin A; Carey, Anna G

    2014-01-01

    Popular media have described intimate relationships among contemporary college students as dominated by a pervasive sexual "hookup culture," implying that students are involved in frequent sexual encounters pursued by both participants without the expectation of a continuing relationship. The hookup culture has been described as "a nationwide phenomenon that has largely replaced traditional dating on college campuses" (Bogle, 2008 , p. 5). We tested whether these claims are supported among young adults (18-25) who had completed at least one year of college. Contrasting 1988-1996 waves of the General Social Survey with 2004-2012 waves, we found respondents from the current era did not report more sexual partners since age 18, more frequent sex, or more partners during the past year than respondents from the earlier era. Sexually active respondents from the current era were more likely than those from the earlier era to report sex with a casual date/pickup or friend, and less likely to report sex with a spouse/regular partner. These modest changes are consistent with cultural shifts in the "scripts" and terminology surrounding sexuality. We find no evidence of substantial changes in sexual behavior that would indicate a new or pervasive pattern of non-relational sex among contemporary college students.

  11. Targeted Behavioral Therapy for childhood generalized anxiety disorder: a time-series analysis of changes in anxiety and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Michelle A; Alfano, Candice A

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Targeted Behavioral Therapy (TBT), a newly developed intervention targeting features of childhood generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Using a time-series design, 4 children (7-12 years) with primary GAD were treated with TBT, which includes sleep improvement strategies, systematic desensitization for reducing intolerance of uncertainty, and in vivo exposures for anxiety. Diagnostic interviews and questionnaires were administered at baseline, post-treatment and 3 months follow-up. Anxiety symptoms and sleep characteristics/problems were rated weekly during a 4-week baseline and 14-weeks of treatment. Two children remitted at post-treatment and no child had a GAD diagnosis at follow-up. Child but not parent report revealed improvements in both worry and sleep. Despite improvements from pre- to post-assessment, considerable symptom fluctuation observed during the baseline period preclude conclusion that symptom changes are specifically attributable to the course of treatment. Overall, preliminary support is provided for the efficacy of TBT for childhood GAD.

  12. Supply Chains Competition under Uncertainty Concerning Player’s Strategies and Customer Choice Behavior: A Generalized Nash Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezalkotob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers in a supply chain confront two main sources of uncertainty in market environment including uncertainty about customers purchasing behaviors and rival chains strategies. Focusing on competition between two supply chains, it is considered that each customer as an independent player selects products of these chains based on random utility model. Similar to quantal response equilibrium approach, we take account of customer rationality as an exogenous parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that decision makers in a supply chain can perceive an estimation of rival strategies about price and service level formulated in the model by fuzzy strategies. In the competition model, chain’s decision makers consider a subjective probability for wining each customer which is formulated by coupled constraints. These constraints connect chains strategies regarding to each customer and yield a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. Since price cutting and increasing service level are main responses to rival supply chain, after calculating optimal strategies, we show that more efficient responses depend on customer preferences.

  13. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Erick

    The processes that govern how a glass relaxes towards its thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium state are major factors in understanding glass behavior near the glass transition region, as characterized by the glass transition temperature (Tg). Intrinsic glass properties such as specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, density, etc. are used to map the behavior of the glass network below in and near the transition region. The question of whether a true thermodynamic second order phase transition takes place in the glass transition region is another pending question. Linking viscosity behavior to entropy, or viewing the glass configuration as an energy landscape are just a couple of the most prevalent methods used for attempting to understand the glass transition. The structural relaxation behavior of inorganic glasses is important for more than scientific reasons, many commercial glass processing operations including glass melting and certain forms of optical fabrication include significant time spent in the glass transition region. For this reason knowledge of structural relaxation processes can, at a minimum, provide information for annealing duration of melt-quenched glasses. The development of a predictive model for annealing time prescription has the potential to save glass manufacturers significant time and money as well as increasing volume throughput. In optical hot forming processes such as precision glass molding, molded optical components can significantly change in shape upon cooling through the glass transition. This change in shape is not scientifically predictable as of yet though manufacturers typically use empirical rules developed in house. The classification of glass behavior in the glass transition region would allow molds to be accurately designed and save money for the producers. The work discussed in this dissertation is comprised of the development of a dilatometric measurement and characterization method of structural relaxation. The measurement and

  14. On the Rate of Relaxation for the Landau Kinetic Equation and Related Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Alexander; Gamba, Irene M.; Zhang, Chenglong

    2017-08-01

    We study the rate of relaxation to equilibrium for Landau kinetic equation and some related models by considering the relatively simple case of radial solutions of the linear Landau-type equations. The well-known difficulty is that the evolution operator has no spectral gap, i.e. its spectrum is not separated from zero. Hence we do not expect purely exponential relaxation for large values of time t>0. One of the main goals of our work is to numerically identify the large time asymptotics for the relaxation to equilibrium. We recall the work of Strain and Guo (Arch Rat Mech Anal 187:287-339 2008, Commun Partial Differ Equ 31:17-429 2006), who rigorously show that the expected law of relaxation is \\exp (-ct^{2/3}) with some c > 0. In this manuscript, we find an heuristic way, performed by asymptotic methods, that finds this "law of two thirds", and then study this question numerically. More specifically, the linear Landau equation is approximated by a set of ODEs based on expansions in generalized Laguerre polynomials. We analyze the corresponding quadratic form and the solution of these ODEs in detail. It is shown that the solution has two different asymptotic stages for large values of time t and maximal order of polynomials N: the first one focus on intermediate asymptotics which agrees with the "law of two thirds" for moderately large values of time t and then the second one on absolute, purely exponential asymptotics for very large t, as expected for linear ODEs. We believe that appearance of intermediate asymptotics in finite dimensional approximations must be a generic behavior for different classes of equations in functional spaces (some PDEs, Boltzmann equations for soft potentials, etc.) and that our methods can be applied to related problems.

  15. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.

  16. Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Tiemeier, H.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    It is important to investigate associations between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents. Antisocial, aggressive, and criminal behaviors in adults often begin early in life. Disruptive behaviors are often thought to be associated with low activity of the hypothalam

  17. Dynamical theory of spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Timothy R.; Bain, Alex D.

    2013-02-01

    The dynamics of a spin system is usually calculated using the density matrix. However, the usual formulation in terms of the density matrix predicts that the signal will decay to zero, and does not address the issue of individual spin dynamics. Using stochastic calculus, we develop a dynamical theory of spin relaxation, the origins of which lie in the component spin fluctuations. This entails consideration of random pure states for individual protons, and how these pure states are correctly combined when the density matrix is formulated. Both the lattice and the spins are treated quantum mechanically. Such treatment incorporates both the processes of spin-spin and (finite temperature) spin-lattice relaxation. Our results reveal the intimate connections between spin noise and conventional spin relaxation.

  18. Strain relaxation and self-organization phenomena in heteroepitaxial systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, Sergey Y; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    1995-01-01

    to 500 degrees C) temperatures, and examined at different length scales. We demonstrate that the strain relaxation in the thick metastable layers is an evolutionary propagative process, which is heterogenous from the very beginning and localized in narrow shear bands. It is shown that the relaxation......The plastic behavior of strained, compositionally graded Si1-xGex alloy layers grown on Si substrates has been studied by a combination of optical, atomic force, and transmission electron microscopy. Formation of ordered patterns of misfit dislocations has been found in films grown at low (similar...

  19. A mixed relaxed clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  20. Parent Inclusion in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: The Influence of Parental Stress, Parent Treatment Fidelity and Parent-Mediated Generalization of Behavior Targets on Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Fava, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Although early intensive behavior interventions have been efficient in producing positive behavior outcome in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, there is a considerable variety in the children's progress. Research has suggested that parental and treatment factors are likely to affect children's response to treatment. The purpose of the…

  1. Assessment of child behavior in dental operatory in relation to sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index and role of multi media distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Children and adolescents comprise a group of individuals representing a large variation in size, competence, maturity, personality, temperament and emotions experience, oral health, family background, culture, etc. Furthermore, a growing child is in a constant state of flux as he grows up and actively interacts with the environment. Many factors contribute to the dental behavior of the child. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index (BMI, and role of multimedia on the child behavior (CB in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and one children aged 3-14 years and their parents participated in the study. In the first visit, the questionnaire was filled by the parent and general examination was done. During the second visit, the required dental procedure was rendered, and the behavior was recorded by a single examiner. Results: Among sociodemographic factors, increasing age is directly related to child′s positive behavior, whereas other factors such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES are not significantly related. General anxiety significantly affects the child′s behavior. BMI of the child is not related to child′s behavior in dental operatory. Multimedia was not found to be significantly affecting the behavior of the child in dental operatory. Interpretations and Conclusion: The principle conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of age and treatment procedure rendered with the CB in the dental operatory whereas gender, SES, general anxiety, BMI, and multimedia do not show any significant association with the CB in the dental operatory.

  2. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David N.; Hernquist, Lars

    1992-01-01

    We propose a functional that is extremized through violent relaxation. It is based on the Ansatz that the wave-particle scattering during violent dynamical processes can be approximated as a sequence of discrete scattering events that occur near a particle's perigalacticon. This functional has an extremum whose structure closely resembles that of spheroidal stellar systems such as elliptical galaxies. The results described here, therefore, provide a simple framework for understanding the physical nature of violent relaxation and support the view that galaxies are structured in accord with fundamental statistical principles.

  3. Active optomechanics through relaxation oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Princepe, Debora; Frateschi, Newton

    2014-01-01

    We propose an optomechanical laser based on III-V compounds which exhibits self-pulsation in the presence of a dissipative optomechanical coupling. In such a laser cavity, radiation pressure drives the mechanical degree of freedom and its back-action is caused by the mechanical modulation of the cavity loss rate. Our numerical analysis shows that even in a wideband gain material, such dissipative coupling couples the mechanical oscillation with the laser relaxation oscillations process. Laser self-pulsation is observed for mechanical frequencies below the laser relaxation oscillation frequency under sufficiently high optomechanical coupling factor.

  4. Thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation of rice gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉琴; 赵思明; 熊善柏

    2008-01-01

    Rice gel was prepared by simulating the production processes of Chinese local rice noodles,and the properties of thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation during gelatinization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement and dynamic rheometer.The results show that during gelatinization,the molecular chains of rice starch undergo the thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation.During the first heating and high temperature holding processes,the starch crystallites in the rice slurry melt,and the polymer chains stretch and interact,then viscoelastic gel forms.The cooling and low temperatures holding processes result in reinforced networks and decrease the viscoelasticity of the gel.During the second heating,the remaining starch crystallites further melt,the network is reinforced,and the viscoelasticity increases.The viscoelasticity,the molecular conformation and texture of the gel are adjusted by changing the temperature,and finally construct the gel with the textural characteristics of Chinese local rice noodle.

  5. Electron-relaxation-mode interaction in BaTiO3:Nb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, M.; Belkaoumi, M.

    1992-02-01

    Dielectric relaxation was previously reported in BaTiO3 and BaTiO3:Fe single crystals at radio frequencies [M. Maglione et al., Phys. Rev. B 40, 11 441 (1989)]. We have measured the dielectric dispersion in four BaTiO3:Nb samples (xNb<0.3 at. %) as a function of frequency (10relaxation step at all temperatures. In the rhombohedral phase of BaTiO3:Nb (T<180 K), an unusual slowing down of the relaxation motion is measured. The relaxation time increases to more than 10-2 s at 20 K while the relaxation step is temperature independent. The precursor effect of this slowing down is a maximum in the dc conductivity. A simple electron-relaxation-mode coupling model may explain such behavior.

  6. CREEP BEHAVIOR OF TWO KINDS OF HR3C HEAT RESISTANT STEELS BASED ON STRESS RELAXATION TESTS%应力松弛方法研究2种HR3C耐热钢的高温蠕变行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹铁山; 方旭东; 程从前; 赵杰

    2014-01-01

    Rupture life is a main property for a material using at high-temperature condition.Usually,the rupture life is gained from creep rupture test.As creep and stress relaxation are two main behaviors for a material served in high-temperature environment,it is important to work out the interrelationship through which one of the two behaviors can be deduced from the other one.Recently,a number of researchs have taken stress relaxation test to replace creep rupture test on studying the creep behavior,and furthermore predicting the rupture life and the stress relaxation test is proved to be superior to the traditional creep rupture test for its short time,small at damage,abundant of information and so on.In this work,the stress relaxation test was used to analyze the creep behavior of two HR3C heat resistant steels with different grain sizes.Additionally,considering the change of microstructure during serve period,the aged HR3C steel was used to compare with as-received HR3C steel for studying the aging effects on the creep behavior.Furthermore,the creep behavior was correlated to their microstructure characteristics.The result was shown that the creep behaviors of two HR3C heat resistant steels varied significantly in spite of their similarity in chemical composition.The coarse grained HR3C steel had lower creep rate,larger stress exponent,greater activation energy and higher creep resistance than that of fine grained HR3C steel for both as-received one and aged one.The long-term aging process damaged the microstructures of two HR3C steels,increased aged HR3C steel's creep rate,lowered stress exponent and activation energy and reduced creep resistance.And the damaging effects on the coarse grained HR3C steel were larger than that on fine grained HR3C steel,which meant the coarse grained HR3C steel had much more stable creep resistance than that of fine grained HR3C steel.%采用应力松弛方法研究了2种不同晶粒大小HR3C耐热钢的初始态试样和时效态

  7. 心理干预联合放松训练在广泛性焦虑障碍治疗中的应用效果分析%The application effect analysis on psychological intervention combine with relaxation training for generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Toinvestigatetheinfluenceofpsychologicalinterventioncombinedwithrelaxationtrainingonhos-pitalized patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Methods:Sixty-four patients with generalized anxiety disorder were ran-domly divided into experimental group and control group,each group were 32 cases,with anti-anxiety medication alone in control group,and psychological intervention combined with relaxation training based on anti-anxiety drugs in experimental group. TO evaluate the efficacy during relaxation training of 1,2,3 weeks respectively with self-rating anxiety scale( SAS), hamilton anxiety scale( HAMA ),clinical global assessment acale( CGI ). Results:After three weeks respectively HAMA scores,SAS scores and CGI scores of the two groups all decreased,the scores of experimental group after relaxation training 1, 2,3 weeks decreased significantly with the control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion:Psychological intervention combined with re-laxation training have a remarkable effect on anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder,which have a real-istic promotional value.%目的:探讨心理干预联合放松训练对广泛性焦虑障碍( GAD)患者疗效的影响。方法:将64例广泛性焦虑患者随机分为实验组和对照组,每组32例,对照组单纯使用抗焦虑药物,实验组在对照组的基础上加用心理干预联合放松训练。在患者应用放松训练前及放松训练的第1周、第2周、第3周分别用焦虑自评量表( SAS)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、临床总体评价量表(CGI)进行疗效评定。结果:治疗3周后两组分别采用HAMA评分、SAS评分和CGI评分进行评估,发现两组患者得分均较治疗前有所下降,尤其是实验组在放松训练的第1周、第2周、第3周HA-MA评分、SAS评分及CGI评分下降更明显,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义( P约0.01,P约0.05)。结论:对广泛性焦虑障碍患者的焦虑症

  8. Innovations in the Treatment of Bulimia: Transpersonal Psychology, Relaxation, Imagination, Hypnosis, Myth, and Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Written for counselors who must help clients deal with bulimia, this article reviews bulimia's most obvious physical signs and symptoms, etiology, and behavioral characteristics. Considers innovative counseling approaches including Transpersonal Psychology, relaxation training, imagination, fantasy, hypnosis, myths, and rituals. (Author)

  9. Innovations in the Treatment of Bulimia: Transpersonal Psychology, Relaxation, Imagination, Hypnosis, Myth, and Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Written for counselors who must help clients deal with bulimia, this article reviews bulimia's most obvious physical signs and symptoms, etiology, and behavioral characteristics. Considers innovative counseling approaches including Transpersonal Psychology, relaxation training, imagination, fantasy, hypnosis, myths, and rituals. (Author)

  10. Water sorption-induced crystallization, structural relaxations and strength analysis of relaxation times in amorphous lactose/whey protein systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fanghui; Mou, Tian; Nurhadi, Bambang; Roos, Yrjö H.

    2016-01-01

    Water sorption-induced crystallization, α-relaxations and relaxation times of freeze-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) systems were studied using dynamic dewpoint isotherms (DDI) method and dielectric analysis (DEA), respectively. The fractional water sorption behavior of lactose/WPI mixtures shown at aw ≤ 0.44 and the critical aw for water sorption-related crystallization (aw(cr)) of lactose were strongly affected by protein content based on DDI data. DEA results showed that the α-rel...

  11. Reductions in the diurnal rigidity of anxiety predict treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder which is characterized by worrisome mentation about future outcomes. Because the evocative stimuli in GAD are largely internally derived, the feared outcomes contained in worry episodes can be invoked--and responded to--regardless of external context. We hypothesized that individuals with GAD would be entrained to internally-regulated, fixed patterns of anxiety on a day-to-day basis and that successful therapeutic intervention would serve to mitigate this entrainment. Thus, the present study examined the constructs of flexibility and rigidity as they apply to the daily fluctuation of anxious symptoms in individuals with GAD. We aimed to demonstrate that an apparently variable system can be conceptualized as rigid when the variability maps onto stable and predictable periodic oscillations. Sixty-nine individuals completed cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Average age was 36.62 years (SD = 11.56), and participants were mostly Caucasian (89.5%) and female (68.4%). Daily-diary data indicating level of anxiety on a 0 to 100-point scale and collected four times per day were subjected to spectral analysis in order to determine the spectral power attributable to daily oscillations--which was related to the degree of rigidity in daily anxiety. Diurnal rigidity decreased throughout therapy and the degree to which rigidity was reduced significantly predicted reliable change at post-treatment. Thus, symptom rigidity can be conceptualized as stable periodic fluctuation and is discernible from other metrics of volatility in repeated measures data. Moreover, diurnal rigidity is significantly reduced during treatment, facilitating flexible responding to environmental demands.

  12. Degravitation and the relaxed Einstein equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The general idea to modify Einstein's field equations by promoting Newton's constant $G$ to a covariant differential operator $G_\\Lambda(\\Box_g)$ was apparently outlined for the first time in [12-15]. The modification itself originates from the quest of finding a mechanism which is able to degravitate the vacuum energy on cosmological scales. We present in this article a precise covariant coupling model which acts like a high-pass filter with a macroscopic distance filter scale $\\sqrt{\\Lambda}$. In the context of this particular theory of gravity we work out the effective relaxed Einstein equations as well as the effective 1.5 post-Newtonian total near-zone mass of a many body system. We observe that at any step of computation we recover in the limit of vanishing modification parameters the corresponding general relativistic result.

  13. Self-Regulated Strategy Development and Generalization Instruction: Effects on Story Writing and Personal Narratives among Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Mary H.; Gavins, Marva V.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) and generalization instruction with 3 second and third grade students with severe emotional/behavioral disorders, in one self-contained classroom were examined. The effects of the intervention on multiple measures of story writing were examined at baseline, postinstruction and maintenance.…

  14. Study on public perceptions and protective behaviors regarding Lyme disease among the general public in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.M.A. Beaujean (Desirée); M. Bults (Marloes); J.E. van Steenbergen (Jim); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, perceived risk, feelings of anxiety, and behavioral responses of the general public in relation to tick bites and LD in the Netherlands.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder with Integrated Techniques from Emotion-Focused and Interpersonal Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…

  16. Task Engagement and Escape Maintained Challenging Behavior: Differential Effects of General and Explicit Cues when Implementing a Signaled Delay in the Delivery of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Joe; Johnson, LeAnne; Monn, Emily; Harris, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of explicit and general delay cues when implementing a tolerance for a delay in the delivery of a reinforcement procedure to increase task engagement and decrease escape maintained challenging behavior. Two preschool children with autism participated in an alternating treatments design with changing…

  17. Collective and molecular relaxation in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, S.; Marzec, M.; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Gestblom, B.; Hiller, Steffen; Haase, Wolfgang

    1995-08-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals are molecular ferroelectrics showing up in the tilted liquid crystalline systems (SmC*, SmI*, SmF*) composed of chiral molecules. In this work, we present the dielectric, electro-optic, and calorimetric studies of a single component system: 3-octyloxy-6[2-fluor-4-(2-fluoroctyloxy)phenyl]-pyridine showing interesting ferroelectric properties. The compound exhibits a first order N*- SmC* phase transition which leads to a qualitatively new behavior, for instance the relaxation frequency of the soft mode below TC seems to be temperature independent. The high frequency relaxation process, connected with the reorientation around the long axis, is practically undisturbed at the N*-SmC* transition. Yet, it was found that in the SmC* phase, the best fit was obatined with two Cole-Cole functions yielding two relaxation times to describe a biased reorientation of molecules in the SmC* phase.

  18. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...... efficiency. We also discuss the implementation aspects. Secondly, we explore the final state refinement acceleration by a combination with the conjugate gradient technique, where the key ingredient is an implicit corrector step. Finally, we test the feasibility of passive Hessian matrix accumulation from...

  19. Dielectric relaxation of CdO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ramna; Dutta, Alo; Das, Sayantani; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium oxide have been synthesized by soft chemical route using thioglycerol as the capping agent. The crystallite size is determined by X-ray diffraction technique and the particle size is obtained by transmission electron microscope. The band gap of the material is obtained using Tauc relation to UV-visible absorption spectrum. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The molecular components in the material have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric dispersion of the material is investigated in the temperature range from 313 to 393 K and in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz by impedance spectroscopy. The Cole-Cole model is used to describe the dielectric relaxation of the system. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of impedance shows that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency-dependent electrical data are also analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electrical modulus formalisms. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.

  20. Dielectric relaxation of samarium aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T.P. [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-15

    A ceramic SmAlO{sub 3} (SAO) sample is synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern has been done to find the crystal symmetry of the sample at room temperature. An impedance spectroscopy study of the sample has been performed in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 313 K to 573 K. Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The Cole-Cole model is used to analyze the dielectric relaxation mechanism in SAO. The temperature-dependent relaxation times are found to obey the Arrhenius law having an activation energy of 0.29 eV, which indicates that polaron hopping is responsible for conduction or dielectric relaxation in this material. The complex impedance plane plot of the sample indicates the presence of both grain and grain-boundary effects and is analyzed by an electrical equivalent circuit consisting of a resistance and a constant-phase element. The frequency-dependent conductivity spectra follow a double-power law due to the presence of two plateaus. (orig.)

  1. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  2. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author). 36 refs.

  3. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  4. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  5. Towards a Generic Constructive Nonlinear Control Design Tool using Relaxed Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit a control design approach for general (non-affine) nonlinear systems using relaxed control. Using the notion of relaxed input, where the ordinary real-valued control input is replaced by a measure-valued control input, we are able to manipulate the original system such that

  6. New Nonequilibrium-to-Equilibrium Dynamical Scaling and Stretched-Exponential Critical Relaxation in Cluster Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Nonequilibrium relaxation behaviors in the Ising model on a square lattice based on the Wolff algorithm are totally different from those based on local-update algorithms. In particular, the critical relaxation is described by the stretched-exponential decay. We propose a novel scaling procedure to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors continuously, and find that the stretched-exponential scaling region in the Wolff algorithm is as wide as the power-law scaling region in local-update algorithms. We also find that relaxation to the spontaneous magnetization in the ordered phase is characterized by the exponential decay, not the stretched-exponential decay based on local-update algorithms.

  7. Anesthesia for trans-sternal thymectomy: modified non-muscle relaxant technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baftiu, Nehat; Hadri, Burhan; Morina, Muharrem; Mustafa, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis is challenging. Early surgical management is now considered to be an important therapeutic intervention for most of the patients of myasthenia gravis. The anesthetic experience of that technique is quite large. It involves either muscle relaxant or non-muscle relaxant techniques. However, the literature is deficient of standard anesthetic technique for thymectomy. Therefore we present in this report a modified non-muscle relaxant technique for thymectomy. We report one case with thymectomy under general anesthesia using fentanyl and propofol for induction and endotracheal intubation using non-muscle relaxant technique. The intubating, intraoperative and postoperative conditions were excellent.

  8. Predictability of the large relaxations in a cellular automaton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Ambroj, Samuel; Gomez, Javier B; Pacheco, Amalio F [Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-19

    A simple one-dimensional cellular automaton model with threshold dynamics is introduced. It is loaded at a uniform rate and unloaded by abrupt relaxations. The cumulative distribution of the size of the relaxations is analytically computed and behaves as a power law with an exponent equal to -1. This coincides with the phenomenological Gutenberg-Richter behavior observed in seismology for the cumulative statistics of earthquakes at the regional or global scale. The key point of the model is the zero-load state of the system after the occurrence of any relaxation, no matter what its size. This leads to an equipartition of probability between all possible load configurations in the system during the successive loading cycles. Each cycle ends with the occurrence of the greatest-or characteristic-relaxation in the system. The duration of the cycles in the model is statistically distributed with a coefficient of variation ranging from 0.5 to 1. The predictability of the characteristic relaxations is evaluated by means of error diagrams. This model illustrates the value taking into account the refractory periods to obtain a considerable gain in the quality of the predictions.

  9. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L.; Huber, Heartley B.; Carter, Erik W.; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137…

  10. Initial design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies: developing an mHealth intervention for young sexual minority men with generalized anxiety disorder and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

    2013-12-05

    To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users' ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities.

  11. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  12. The systematic development of a brief intervention to increase walking in the general public using an "extended" theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Darker, Catherine D; Eves, Frank F; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an "intention-behavior gap" noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.

  13. Anomalous diffusion approach to non-exponential relaxation in complex physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina; Weron, Aleksander

    2015-07-01

    We derive the relaxation function from the simple model of two-state systems under memory effects caused by the subordination. The non-exponential relaxation is shown to result from subordination by inverse infinity divisible random processes. The wide class of such random processes includes ordinary α-stable, tempered α-stable, exponential, gamma processes and many others as particular cases. This approach generalizes the Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami laws well known in experimental physics of relaxation. The presented considerations discover a direct (one-to-one) relationship between the method of random relaxation rates and the anomalous diffusion approach based on subordination of random processes that are applied for the theory of relaxation phenomena. Moreover, it is found that the space and time clusterizations are responsible on equal foots for power-law memory effects in relaxation of complex physical systems.

  14. Post-seismic stress relaxation with a linear transient rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piersanti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed an analysis of post-seismic stress relaxation, taking into account generalized linear rheologies. We compared the stress field (and its derived functions obtained with a classical Maxwell rheology with that obtained with a transient Burgers body. From a set of synthetic case studies, we have revealed quantitative and qualitative differences both in relaxation times and in local stress values when a transient rheology is introduced. As a practical application, we modeled the time evolution of the Coulomb failure function following the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, and we show that a transient rheology can lead to non-monotonic time dependence.

  15. Sherali-Adams Relaxations of Graph Isomorphism Polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Peter N

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Sherali-Adams lift & project hierarchy applied to a graph isomorphism polytope whose integer points encode the isomorphisms between two graphs. In particular, the Sherali-Adams relaxations characterize a new vertex classification algorithm for graph isomorphism, which we call the generalized vertex classification algorithm. This algorithm generalizes the classic vertex classification algorithm and generalizes the work of Tinhofer on polyhedral methods for graph automorphism testing. We establish that the Sherali-Adams lift & project hierarchy when applied to a graph isomorphism polytope needs Omega(n) iterations in the worst case before converging to the convex hull of integer points. We also show that this generalized vertex classification algorithm is also strongly related to the well-known Weisfeiler-Lehman algorithm, which we show can also be characterized in terms of the Sherali-Adams relaxations of a semi-algebraic set whose integer points encode graph isomorphisms.

  16. Organic semiconductors: What makes the spin relax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Peter A.

    2010-04-01

    Spin relaxation in organic materials is expected to be slow because of weak spin-orbit coupling. The effects of deuteration and coherent spin excitation show that the spin-relaxation time is actually limited by hyperfine fields.

  17. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-10-01

    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  18. The effects of a brief intervention to promote walking on Theory of Planned Behavior constructs: a cluster randomized controlled trial in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stefanie L; Michie, Susan; Dale, Jeremy; Stallard, Nigel; French, David P

    2015-05-01

    Perceived behavioral control (PBC) is a consistent predictor of intentions to walk more. A previously successful intervention to promote walking by altering PBC has been adapted for delivery in general practice. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of this intervention on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in this context. Cluster randomized controlled trial, with n = 315 general practice patients. Practice nurses and Healthcare Assistants delivered a self-regulation intervention or information provision (control). Questionnaires assessed TPB variables at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks and 6 months. Walking was measured by pedometer. The control group reported significantly higher subjective norm at all follow-up time points. There were no significant differences between the two groups in PBC, intention, attitude or walking behavior. TPB variables significantly predicted intentions to walk more, but not objective walking behavior, after accounting for clustering. The lack of effect of the intervention was probably due to a failure to maintain intervention fidelity, and the unsuitability of the behavior change techniques included in the intervention for the population investigated. This previously successful intervention was not successful when delivered in this context, calling into question whether practice nurses are best placed to deliver such interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relaxation Behaviour of Lithium-Borosilicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Thombre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three systems of lithium borosilicate (LBS glasses namely SI 42.5Li2O: (57.5-x B2O3: xSiO2, SII 42.5Li2O: xB2O3 :( 57.5-x SiO2 where x=0, 5, 10, 20, and 30, and SIII (100-2x Li2O: xB2O3: xSiO2 where x=30, 28.75, 27.5, 25, and 22.5, are prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. Functional dependence of conductivity on temperature in the range from 523- 673K and frequency in the range from 10Hz to 13 MHz is studied. In order to analyze electrical conductivity the microscopic parameters such as ionic jump distance and barrier height are necessary. These parameters can be understood properly on the basis of the models proposed by Almond and Elliott. As frequency increases from 1MHz to 13MHz, the Tmin shifts towards low temperature side. According to this model the charge transfer is a thermally activated process and provides a correlation between the barrier height (W and the hopping length (R. The fitting of conductivity data into Almond-West type power law behavior σ = σ(o + Aωs yielded power law exponent(s. Electrical conductivity data fitted well in Elliott’s model, which is true only for amorphous materials. The temperature dependence of frequency exponent s exhibits a minimum (smin at a particular temperature (Tmin . . From the scaling behavior of the ac conductivity it is seen that all the curves scaled better, suggesting that s is temperature independent. It is observed that smin shifts to lower temperature, which shows that electrical conductivity of glassy solid electrolytes is the manifestation of ionic dynamic processes. The superposition of the reduced conductivity at all temperatures shows relaxation mechanism is temperature independent. Analysis of modulus formalism with a distribution of relaxation times using KWW stretched exponential function, the stretching exponent, β, is depend on temperature. The analysis of the temperature variation of the M″ peak indicates the relaxation process is thermally activated

  20. Stress retardation versus stress relaxation in linear viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary examination of a new approach to a long-standing problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. First, we summarize how a general implicit functional relation between stress and rate of strain of a continuum with memory is reduced to the well-known linear differential constitutive relations that account for "relaxation" and "retardation." Then, we show that relaxation and retardation are asymptotically equivalent for small Deborah numbers, whence causal pure relaxation models necessarily correspond to ill-posed pure retardation models. We suggest that this dichotomy could be a possible way to reconcile the discrepancy between the theory of and certain experiments on viscoelastic liquids that are conjectured to exhibit only stress retardation.

  1. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have...... a significant effect on the coherent spin dynamics of the radicals. It is generally assumed that evolutionary pressure has led to protection of the electron spins from irreversible loss of coherence in order that the underlying quantum dynamics can survive in a noisy biological environment. Here, we address...... this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation...

  2. Readout of relaxation rates by nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Roche, Benoît; Jehl, Xavier; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-06-01

    We put forward nonadiabatic charge pumping as a method for accessing the different charge relaxation rates as well as the relaxation rates of excited orbital states in double-quantum-dot setups, based on extremely size-limited quantum dots and dopant systems. The rates are obtained in a well-separated manner from plateaus, occurring when comparing the steady-state current for reversed driving cycles. This yields a reliable readout independent of any fitting parameters. Importantly, the nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy essentially exploits the same driving scheme that the operation of these devices generally employs. We provide a detailed analysis of the working principle of the readout scheme as well as of possible errors, thereby demonstrating its broad applicability. The precise knowledge of relaxation rates is highly relevant for the implementation of time-dependently operated devices, such as electron pumps for metrology or qubits in quantum information.

  3. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  4. Brief relaxation training program for hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Judith L; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Beigi, Richard; Brooks, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Employee stress leads to attrition, burnout, and increased medical costs. We aimed to assess if relaxation training leads to decreased stress levels based on questionnaire and thermal biofeedback. Thirty-minute relaxation training sessions were conducted for hospital employees and for cancer patients. Perceived Stress levels and skin temperature were analyzed before and after relaxation training.

  5. Study on preoperative gradual muscles relaxation training to reduce restlessness of patients in analepsia period of general anesthesia%术前渐进性肌肉放松训练减轻全身麻醉病人苏醒期躁动程度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢珍; 李瑞英; 向承红

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of gradual muscles relaxation training to reduce restlessness of patients in analepsia period of general Anesthesia.Methods: A total of 60 patients selected from general surgery, five sense organs, gynecology , liver and gall department who were scheduled for accepting tracheal intubation and combined intravenous and inhalation anesthesia were randomly divided into test group and control group.Patients of control group wcre just received routine visiting.Patients of test group were received preoperative visiting on the day before operation and were carried out gradual muscles relaxation training.Then heart rate, blood pressure.blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) , scoring of restless - sedation in analepsia period,and incidence of restless of the two group patients had recorded before the induction, right after operation, on the time of extubation,5 minutes and 10 minutes after the extubation respectively.Results : In terms of heart rate and blood pressure, there were statistical significant differences between the two group patients (P<0.05).The score of restless - sedation in test group patients was 0.65±0.34 and was 1.98 ± 0.38 in control group cases.There was statistical significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).The incidence of restless in test group patients was 13.3% and was 46.7% in control group.There was statistical significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion: The gradual muscles relaxation training was helpful to decrease the incidence and the degree of restlessess of patients in analepsia period of general anesthesia.%[目的]探讨渐进性肌肉放松训练对减轻全身麻醉病人苏醒期躁动程度的影响.[方法]选择普外科、五官科、妇科、肝胆科拟行气管插管静脉吸入复合麻醉的手术病人60例,随机分为实验组和对照组.实验组术前1d访视并进行渐进性肌肉放松训练,对照组常规术前访视.记录两组病人诱

  6. POS Tagging Using Relaxation Labelling

    CERN Document Server

    Padro, L

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation labelling is an optimization technique used in many fields to solve constraint satisfaction problems. The algorithm finds a combination of values for a set of variables such that satisfies -to the maximum possible degree- a set of given constraints. This paper describes some experiments performed applying it to POS tagging, and the results obtained. It also ponders the possibility of applying it to word sense disambiguation.

  7. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  8. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  9. Spin relaxation in metallic ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, L.

    2011-02-01

    The Elliott theory of spin relaxation in metals and semiconductors is extended to metallic ferromagnets. Our treatment is based on the two-current model of Fert, Campbell, and Jaoul. The d→s electron-scattering process involved in spin relaxation is the inverse of the s→d process responsible for the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). As a result, spin-relaxation rate 1/τsr and AMR Δρ are given by similar formulas, and are in a constant ratio if scattering is by solute atoms. Our treatment applies to nickel- and cobalt-based alloys which do not have spin-up 3d states at the Fermi level. This category includes many of the technologically important magnetic materials. And we show how to modify the theory to apply it to bcc iron-based alloys. We also treat the case of Permalloy Ni80Fe20 at finite temperature or in thin-film form, where several kinds of scatterers exist. Predicted values of 1/τsr and Δρ are plotted versus resistivity of the sample. These predictions are compared to values of 1/τsr and Δρ derived from ferromagnetic-resonance and AMR experiments in Permalloy.

  10. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  11. Relaxation response in femoral angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, C L; Domar, A D; Harrington, D P; Leserman, J; Bozadjian, E M; Friedman, R; Benson, H

    1990-03-01

    Immediately before they underwent femoral angiography, 45 patients were given one of three types of audiotapes: a relaxation response tape recorded for this study, a tape of contemporary instrumental music, or a blank tape. All patients were instructed to listen to their audiotape during the entire angiographic procedure. Each audiotape was played through earphones. Radiologists were not told the group assignment or tape contents. The patients given the audiotape with instructions to elicit the relaxation response (n = 15) experienced significantly less anxiety (P less than .05) and pain (P less than .001) during the procedure, were observed by radiology nurses to exhibit significantly less pain (P less than .001) and anxiety (P less than .001), and requested significantly less fentanyl citrate (P less than .01) and diazepam (P less than .01) than patients given either the music (n = 14) or the blank (n = 16) control audiotapes. Elicitation of the relaxation response is a simple, inexpensive, efficacious, and practical method to reduce pain, anxiety, and medication during femoral angiography and may be useful in other invasive procedures.

  12. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  13. The cosmological constant and the relaxed universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Florian

    2010-01-01

    We study the role of the cosmological constant (CC) as a component of dark energy (DE). It is argued that the cosmological term is in general unavoidable and it should not be ignored even when dynamical DE sources are considered. From the theoretical point of view quantum zero-point energy and phase transitions suggest a CC of large magnitude in contrast to its tiny observed value. Simply relieving this disaccord with a counterterm requires extreme fine-tuning which is referred to as the old CC problem. To avoid it, we discuss some recent approaches for neutralising a large CC dynamically without adding a fine-tuned counterterm. This can be realised by an effective DE component which relaxes the cosmic expansion by counteracting the effect of the large CC. Alternatively, a CC filter is constructed by modifying gravity to make it insensitive to vacuum energy.

  14. Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Baigent

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments.

  15. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  16. Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.

  17. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  18. Relaxed selection is a precursor to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotypic plasticity represents one of the most important ways that organisms adaptively respond to environmental variation. Alternate phenotypes produced through phenotypic plasiticity generally arise through conditional gene expression, which is predicted to result in relaxed selective constrain...

  19. The relationship between prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, general self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy: Study in department of physical education and sport teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mevlüt; ŞENEL, Ender; Şahan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, general self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy beliefs of students studying in physical education and sport teacher education department. 118 students in department of physical education and sport teacher education at Mugla Sitki Kocman University voluntarily participated in the study.  31 of the participants were national athletes while 87 of them were non-national athletes. 50 of the...

  20. Elasticity, structure, and relaxation of extended proteins under force

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Force spectroscopies have emerged as a powerful and unprecedented tool to study and manipulate biomolecules directly at a molecular level. Usually, protein and DNA behavior under force is described within the framework of the worm-like chain (WLC) model for polymer elasticity. Although it has been surprisingly successful for the interpretation of experimental data, especially at high forces, the WLC model lacks structural and dynamical molecular details associated with protein relaxation unde...

  1. Repeated load relaxations of Type 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.

    1983-10-01

    Results demonstrate that strain aging has a clear effect on the relaxation behavior of 316 SS even at room temperature, the effect being more pronounced at high strains. It is suggested that the phenomena can be accounted for according to a state variable model by modifying the rate constant a*, which is affected by the amount of mobile dislocations as well as the dislocation mobility.

  2. EFFECT OF CYP2A6*4 GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ON SMOKING BEHAVIORS AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN A GENERAL POPULATION OF JAPANESE MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Teruna; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Mori, Yayoi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Takehito; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Fukushima, And Tetsuhito

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine in cigarettes is metabolized primarily by CYP2A6-catalyzed oxidation. The CYP2A6*4 allele, in which CYP2A6 is a homozygous whole-deletion variant, completely lacks enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CYP2A6*4 genetic polymorphism on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a general population of Japanese men. The subjects were 124 healthy Japanese men who gave informed consent to give saliva samples. The survey items included general information, smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to analyze the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2A6. The subjects were classified into two groups: Group W (CYP2A6*4 absence: *1A/*1A, *1A/*1B and *1B/*1B) and Group D (CYP2A6*4 presence: *1B/*4A, *4A/*4A, *1A/*4A or *1B/*4D, and *1A/*4D). We analyzed the differences in the survey items between the two groups. There were no significant differences in smoking behaviors between the two groups. However, Group D tended to have less difficulty in refraining from smoking after waking in the morning compared to Group W (p=0.051). CYP2A6*4 genetic polymorphisms may not strongly affect smoking behavior but may possibly have an effect on nicotine dependence.

  3. Paper-based and web-based intervention modeling experiments identified the same predictors of general practitioners' antibiotic-prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Bonetti, Debbie; Maclennan, Graeme; Barnett, Karen; Eccles, Martin P; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Sullivan, Frank; Weal, Mark; Francis, Jill J

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the robustness of the intervention modeling experiment (IME) methodology as a way of developing and testing behavioral change interventions before a full-scale trial by replicating an earlier paper-based IME. Web-based questionnaire and clinical scenario study. General practitioners across Scotland were invited to complete the questionnaire and scenarios, which were then used to identify predictors of antibiotic-prescribing behavior. These predictors were compared with the predictors identified in an earlier paper-based IME and used to develop a new intervention. Two hundred seventy general practitioners completed the questionnaires and scenarios. The constructs that predicted simulated behavior and intention were attitude, perceived behavioral control, risk perception/anticipated consequences, and self-efficacy, which match the targets identified in the earlier paper-based IME. The choice of persuasive communication as an intervention in the earlier IME was also confirmed. Additionally, a new intervention, an action plan, was developed. A web-based IME replicated the findings of an earlier paper-based IME, which provides confidence in the IME methodology. The interventions will now be evaluated in the next stage of the IME, a web-based randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: Longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-01

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water 1H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft

  5. HIV-related risk behaviors among the general population: a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in 3 cities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan T H; Nadol, Patrick; Le, Linh Cu

    2015-03-01

    This study used a confidential survey method-namely, Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI)-to gather data about HIV-related risk knowledge/behaviors among the general population in Vietnam. The study sample included 1371 people aged 15 to 49 years in 3 cities-Hanoi, Da nang, and Can Tho. Results indicated that 7% of participants had ever had nonconsensual sex, and 3.6% of them had ever had a one-night stand. The percentage of male participants reported to ever have sex with sex workers was 9.6% and to ever inject drugs was 4.3%. The proportion of respondents who had ever tested for HIV was 17.6%. The risk factors and attitudes reported in the survey indicate the importance of analyzing risk behaviors related to HIV infection among the general population. Young people, especially men in more urbanized settings, are engaging in risky behaviors and may act as a "bridge" for the transmission of HIV from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam.

  6. Male circumcision in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya: beliefs about protection, risk behaviors, HIV, and STIs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Westercamp

    Full Text Available Using a population-based survey we examined the behaviors, beliefs, and HIV/HSV-2 serostatus of men and women in the traditionally non-circumcising community of Kisumu, Kenya prior to establishment of voluntary medical male circumcision services. A total of 749 men and 906 women participated. Circumcision status was not associated with HIV/HSV-2 infection nor increased high risk sexual behaviors. In males, preference for being or becoming circumcised was associated with inconsistent condom use and increased lifetime number of sexual partners. Preference for circumcision was increased with understanding that circumcised men are less likely to become infected with HIV.

  7. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, ... creating the relaxation response through regular use of relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. Relaxation ...

  8. Kinetic theories for spin models for cooperative relaxation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Steven Jerome

    The facilitated kinetic Ising models with asymmetric spin flip constraints introduced by Jackle and co-workers [J. Jackle, S. Eisinger, Z. Phys. B 84, 115 (1991); J. Reiter, F. Mauch, J. Jackle, Physica A 184, 458 (1992)] exhibit complex relaxation behavior in their associated spin density time correlation functions. This includes the growth of relaxation times over many orders of magnitude when the thermodynamic control parameter is varied, and, in some cases, ergodic-nonergodic transitions. Relaxation equations for the time dependence of the spin density autocorrelation function for a set of these models are developed that relate this autocorrelation function to the irreducible memory function of Kawasaki [K. Kawasaki, Physica A 215, 61 (1995)] using a novel diagrammatic series approach. It is shown that the irreducible memory function in a theory of the relaxation of an autocorrelation function in a Markov model with detailed balance plays the same role as the part of the memory function approximated by a polynomial function of the autocorrelation function with positive coefficients in schematic simple mode coupling theories for supercooled liquids [W. Gotze, in Liquids, Freezing and the Glass Transition, D. Levesque, J. P. Hansen, J. Zinn-Justin eds., 287 (North Holland, New York, 1991)]. Sets of diagrams in the series for the irreducible memory function are summed which lead to approximations of this type. The behavior of these approximations is compared with known results from previous analytical calculations and from numerical simulations. For the simplest one dimensional model, relaxation equations that are closely related to schematic extended mode coupling theories [W. Gotze, ibid] are also derived using the diagrammatic series. Comparison of the results of these approximate theories with simulation data shows that these theories improve significantly on the results of the theories of the simple schematic mode coupling theory type. The potential

  9. Relaxation Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Tethered Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung A

    2015-09-08

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle-tethered cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) are investigated using dielectric spectroscopy and rheometry. A model system composed of polymer chains densely grafted to spherical SiO2 nanoparticles to form self-suspended suspensions facilitates detailed studies of slow global chain and fast segmental mode dynamics under surface and geometrical confinement-from experiments performed in bulk materials. We report that unentangled polymer molecules tethered to nanoparticles relax far more slowly than their tethered entangled counterparts. Specifically, at fixed grafting density we find, counterintuitively, that increasing the tethered polymer molecular weight up to values close to the entanglement molecular weight speeds up chain relaxation dynamics. Decreasing the polymer grafting density for a fixed molecular weight has the opposite effect: it dramatically slows down chain relaxation, increases interchain coupling, and leads to a transition in rheological response from simple fluid behavior to viscoelastic fluid behavior for tethered PI chains that are unentangled by conventional measures. Increasing the measurement temperature produces an even stronger elastic response and speeds up molecular relaxation at a rate that decreases with grafting density and molecular weight. These observations are discussed in terms of chain confinement driven by crowding between particles and by the existence of an entropic attractive force produced by the space-filling constraint on individual chains in a self-suspended material. Our results indicate that the entropic force between densely grafted polymer molecules couples motions of individual chains in an analogous manner to reversible cross-links in associating polymers.

  10. [Evaluation of muscle relaxant requirement for hospital anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolev, A V; Levshankov, A I; Bogomolov, B N; Pereloma, V I; Dumnov, A G

    2013-03-01

    The rationale for cost-effectiveness of modern muscle relaxants (MR) administration in general anesthesia was evaluated. New MRs are more expensive than traditionally used pipecuronium and succinylcholine. However, the old MRs are often required as a block reversion with anticholinesterase medicines at the end of surgery, the longer artificial lung ventilation and observation in patients during recovery in intensive care unit. It was found that the district military hospital had done an annual average of about 900 general anesthesia assisted with artificial ventilation and muscle relaxation. About 2% of all anesthesias accrue to short-term anesthesia, the 27% to medium-term and 71% to long-term. 81% of the medium-term anesthesia accrue small hospitals. According to cost/effectiveness the most optimal muscle relaxants administration scheme for short-term (up to 30 min) anesthesia was mivacurium, for the operation of medium duration (30-120 min)--rocuronium, for long-term (120 min)--pipecuronium. An electronic form of annual report, which allows to obtain the necessary data for calculation of annual muscle relaxants demand and costs both in hospital and in the whole of the armed forces quickly, was developed.

  11. Long-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes in children following anesthesia: A comparison of the effects of general versus regional anesthesia on term infants delivered by elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouni Alameddine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effects of general anesthesia on the fetal and neonatal brain are limited. Animal studies demonstrated that anesthetic agents leave their consequences in the form of learning and memory deficits. The effects of propofol on the fetal neurodevelopment are not clear yet. Materials and Methods: This is a telephone-based questionnaire survey that addressed the effect of general anesthesia by propofol during cesarean section at term with no perinatal complications on the psychosocial behavior of children at 8-10 years of age compared with children having same characteristics except for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a score. Results: A total of 187 children were born at term between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 with no perinatal distress under induction of general anesthesia by propofol. 66 children (35.3% were lost to follow-up and parents of two children (1.1% refused to participate. A total of 189 children were included in the study: 119 were born by cesarean section under general anesthesia and 70 were born by cesarean section under neuraxial block. The incidence of psychosocial behavior impairment at 8-10 years of age was not found to be affected by the mode of anesthesia during delivery by cesarean section nor by neonatal nor parental characteristics. Conclusion: Exposure to propofol as an induction agent for general anesthesia or cesarean section does not seem to increase the psychosocial behavior disorder development risk at 8-10 years of age.

  12. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  13. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  14. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes: Maintenance and Generalization of Effects on Parent-Adolescent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Tim; Harris, Michael A.; Buckloh, Lisa M.; Mertlich, Deborah; Lochrie, Amanda Sobel; Taylor, Alexandra; Sadler, Michelle; White, Neil H.

    2008-01-01

    We report a randomized trial of a revised Behavioral Family Systems Therapy for Diabetes (BFST-D) intervention. Families of 104 adolescents with diabetes were randomized to standard care (SC) or to 6 months of an educational support group (ES) or BFST-D. Family communication and problem-solving skills were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months by…

  15. Learning Behaviors Scale and Canadian Youths: Factorial Validity Generalization and Comparisons to the U.S. Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) was examined with a sample of 393 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. An identical four-factor structure was observed for the Canadian sample as was obtained in the standardization sample of U.S. youths and with another American sample. Principal axis exploratory…

  16. Task Engagement in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Generalization Effects of Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks. Data were collected on participant's off-task…

  17. Task engagement in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: Generalization effects of behavioral skills training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, A.M.J.W.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks.

  18. Learning Behaviors Scale and Canadian Youths: Factorial Validity Generalization and Comparisons to the U.S. Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) was examined with a sample of 393 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. An identical four-factor structure was observed for the Canadian sample as was obtained in the standardization sample of U.S. youths and with another American sample. Principal axis exploratory…

  19. Caregiver and environmental variables related to difficult behaviors in institutionalized, demented elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, S C; Jirovec, M; Murrell, L; Barton, D

    1992-07-01

    This study describes the relationship between caregiver and elder behavior in institutionalized, cognitively impaired, elderly persons. A repeated-measures design was used to observe interactive behaviors between caregivers and demented elders within three caregiving situations (dressing, toileting, and bathing) and an interpersonal contact in two long-term care facilities. During observations, the caregiver's behaviors were rated using the Interaction Behavior Measure and Health Professional's-Geriatric Patient Behavior Rating scale, whereas the elder's behaviors were rated using a modified version of the Interaction Behavior Measure. The study included 116 subjects (58 elders and 58 caregivers), with each unique caregiver/elder pair being observed in the four situations. All elder behaviors varied according to situation type, with the most difficult elder behaviors occurring during bathing. Ten of the 12 caregiver behaviors included in the analysis varied by situation type. Significant relationships were systematically found between the caregiver's relaxed and smiling behavior and the elder's calm/functional behaviors, r = .42 (dressing) to r = .46 (toileting) for caregiver relaxed behavior and r = .34 (bathing) to r = .58 (dressing) for smiling. The elder's behavior did not vary by type of nursing unit (special dementia unit or general nursing unit), or interruptions to the interaction.

  20. Research on relaxation modulus of viscoelastic materials under unsteady temperature states based on TTSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Ju, Yutao; Han, Bo; Zhou, Changsheng; Zheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this work is to obtain relaxation curves of Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant under unsteady temperature states. A series of relaxation tests of HTPB were carried out, with the strain level ɛ 0 of the tests being applied with a ramp time of strain rate . A method is proposed to compensate for stress relaxation during the period of strain rate loading. The proposed method is compared to a numerical method and a general method in terms of accuracy of determination of relaxation modulus. The results show that the relaxation moduli obtained by the proposed method and the numerical method are more accurate than those from the general method; in addition, the proposed method is more convenient in data processing. The relaxation modulus values under unsteady temperature states were obtained from a series of relaxation curves under constant temperature, and at different temperatures according to Time-Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP). In this work, reduced time is defined as a function of time-temperature shift factor a T and a variable ψ( T) called `zero time' which depends on temperature. A comparison of test results showed that the values of relaxation modulus that take `zero time' into account are more accurate than those without `zero time'.

  1. Fast Heterogeneous Relaxation Near The Glass Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russina, Margarita

    2000-03-01

    More than a decade ago inelastic neutron scattering studies revealed a surprising characteristic feature in the atomic dynamics near the glass transition, which was often called the betta-process, with reference to predictions of the mode coupling theory (MCT). This process appears on the ps time scale, i.e. fast compared to the ordinary flow viscosity governed relaxation and slow compared to usual atomic vibrations, and its nature remained a puzzle over the years. Although inelastic neutron scattering is ideally suited to observe dynamics on microscopic time and length scales, experimental difficulties due to strong multiple scattering effects prevented the exploration of the spatial character of this process. By a new experimental approach to correct for these spurious contributions with a high precision, we were now able to extend the spatial domain of our observations from just about nearest neighbor atomic distances by close to an order of magnitude larger ones, which length scale includes that of the intermediate range order, which can be expected to reveal most sensitively collective, as opposed to the local, behavior. Our results in the fragile glass forming liquid Ca-K-NO3 show, that the betta-process is a first fast step of the structural relaxation, which confirms a most fundamental prediction of MCT. Furthermore, by investigating the Debye-Waller factor associated with this process, we found that its geometrical nature corresponds to quasi-rigid, correlated displacement of mobile groups of atoms, which move much faster than the ordinary flow of the bulk of the supercooled liquid. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of heterogeneous fast flow processes similar to the string-flow motion recently observed in molecular dynamic simulations of model liquids close to the glass transition.

  2. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  3. Constitutive models of ferroelectric composites with a viscoelastic and dielectric relaxation matrix (Ⅱ)——Experiment, calculation and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江冰; 方岱宁; 黄克智

    2000-01-01

    Experimental analysis of ferroelectric composites with a viscoelastic and dieiectric relax-ation matrix is carried out, and the electromechanical coupling behavior of the ferroelectric composites is calculated by means of the constitutive model proposed in this paper. Comparisons between the ex-perimental results and the calculations show that the constitutive model can reflect the electromechanical coupling behavior of the ferroelectric composites. The analysis indicates that the effect of viscoelas-ticity and dieiectric relaxation of the matrix on the electromechanical coupling behavior of ferroelectric composites cannot be neglected.

  4. [Relaxation treatments and biofeedback for anxiety and somatic stress-related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Massimo; Valentini, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation techniques (TR) and biofeedback (BFB) are widely used in psychiatric and psychological practice for the treatment for anxiety and stress-related disorders. An examination of studies focusing on the correlates of psychophysiology of relaxation and biofeedback has been done, in addiction to controlled therapeutic studies that describes clinical aspects, efficacy and limits. There are different TR and BFB procedures, but they have the same goal and same physiological modifications, resulting in stress and anxiety reduction. There is a proven action to musculoskeletal, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system, showing similar results. Very few data on immune changes are available. Meta-Analysis show superior efficacy to no treatment or placebo in anxiety disorders, tension headache, bruxism, temporomandibular pain syndrome, rehabilitation and prevention of ischemic heart disease. Moderate efficacy is shown for chronic low back pain, cancer-related pain, rheumatoid arthritis and gastrointestinal disorders; data for essential hypertension are controversial. Variability of techniques, procedures, sampling problems, non-systematic make definitive conclusions difficult. TR and BFB are often used in combination with cognitive-behavioral and educational techniques. The association of the active relaxation technique facilitates generalization and self-control during stress situation and outside the training session. TR and BFB are effective for anxiety and somatic stress-related disorders, associated with coping and quality of life improvement and affordable costs; they are minimally invasive but needing an active participation in the treatment process. Some limits are responders' prediction, continuity of practice and limited effectiveness for depression disorders. Finally, it is shown that they are real psychosomatic therapies that are able to produce somatic peripheral changes (neuroendocrine, neurovegetative and muscular systems) generated by the mind and

  5. Plasma Relaxation in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2011-01-01

    Parker's formulation of isotopological plasma relaxation process in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is extended to Hall MHD. The torsion coefficient alpha in the Hall MHD Beltrami condition turns out now to be proportional to the "potential vorticity." The Hall MHD Beltrami condition becomes equivalent to the "potential vorticity" conservation equation in two-dimensional hydrodynamics if the Hall MHD Lagrange multiplier beta is taken to be proportional to the "potential vorticity" as well. The winding pattern of the magnetic field lines in Hall MHD then appears to evolve in the same way as "potential vorticity" lines in 2D hydrodynamics.

  6. Spectral Estimation of NMR Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, David G.; Cushley, Robert J.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, spectral estimation of NMR relaxation is constructed as an extension of Fourier Transform (FT) theory as it is practiced in NMR or MRI, where multidimensional FT theory is used. nD NMR strives to separate overlapping resonances, so the treatment given here deals primarily with monoexponential decay. In the domain of real error, it is shown how optimal estimation based on prior knowledge can be derived. Assuming small Gaussian error, the estimation variance and bias are derived. Minimum bias and minimum variance are shown to be contradictory experimental design objectives. The analytical continuation of spectral estimation is constructed in an optimal manner. An important property of spectral estimation is that it is phase invariant. Hence, hypercomplex data storage is unnecessary. It is shown that, under reasonable assumptions, spectral estimation is unbiased in the context of complex error and its variance is reduced because the modulus of the whole signal is used. Because of phase invariance, the labor of phasing and any error due to imperfect phase can be avoided. A comparison of spectral estimation with nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation is made analytically and with numerical examples. Compared to conventional sampling for NLS estimation, spectral estimation would typically provide estimation values of comparable precision in one-quarter to one-tenth of the spectrometer time when S/N is high. When S/N is low, the time saved can be used for signal averaging at the sampled points to give better precision. NLS typically provides one estimate at a time, whereas spectral estimation is inherently parallel. The frequency dimensions of conventional nD FT NMR may be denoted D1, D2, etc. As an extension of nD FT NMR, one can view spectral estimation of NMR relaxation as an extension into the zeroth dimension. In nD NMR, the information content of a spectrum can be extracted as a set of n-tuples (ω1, … ωn), corresponding to the peak maxima

  7. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2003-01-01

    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  8. Effect of misalignment on mechanical behavior of metals in creep. [computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the endochronic theory of viscoplasticity to creep, creep recovery, and stress relaxation at the small strain and short time range produced the following results: (1) The governing constitutive equations for constant-strain-rate stress-strain behavior, creep, creep recovery, and stress relaxation were derived by imposing appropriate constraints on the general constitutive equation of the endochronic theory. (2) A set of material constants was found which correlate strain-hardening, creep, creep recovery, and stress relaxation. (3) The theory predicts with reasonable accuracy the creep and creep recovery behaviors at short time. (4) The initial strain history prior to the creep stage affects the subsequent creep significantly. (5) A critical stress was established for creep recovery. A computer program, written for the misalignment problem is reported.

  9. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors.

  10. Fractional-order viscoelasticity applied to describe uniaxial stress relaxation of human arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craiem, Damian; Armentano, Ricardo L [Facultad de IngenierIa, Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rojo, Francisco J; Atienza, Jose Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo V [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: dcraiem@favaloro.edu.ar

    2008-09-07

    Viscoelastic models can be used to better understand arterial wall mechanics in physiological and pathological conditions. The arterial wall reveals very slow time-dependent decays in uniaxial stress-relaxation experiments, coherent with weak power-law functions. Quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory was successfully applied to modeling such responses, but an accurate estimation of the reduced relaxation function parameters can be very difficult. In this work, an alternative relaxation function based on fractional calculus theory is proposed to describe stress relaxation experiments in strips cut from healthy human aortas. Stress relaxation (1 h) was registered at three incremental stress levels. The novel relaxation function with three parameters was integrated into the QLV theory to fit experimental data. It was based in a modified Voigt model, including a fractional element of order {alpha}, called spring-pot. The stress-relaxation prediction was accurate and fast. Sensitivity plots for each parameter presented a minimum near their optimal values. Least-squares errors remained below 2%. Values of order {alpha} = 0.1-0.3 confirmed a predominant elastic behavior. The other two parameters of the model can be associated to elastic and viscous constants that explain the time course of the observed relaxation function. The fractional-order model integrated into the QLV theory proved to capture the essential features of the arterial wall mechanical response.

  11. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of neurochemicals in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study of metabolites, relaxation time, and behavioral analysis in TASTPM and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Duncan; Davies, Karen; Williams, Steve

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Due to ongoing advances in our understanding of the underlying pathology of AD, many potential new targets for therapeutics are becoming available. Transgenic mouse models of AD have helped in furthering our understanding of AD and also provide a vehicle for preclinical testing of new, putative disease-modifying therapeutics, which may have potential for translation to use in clinical trials. To identify possible translational biomarkers, we have studied the longitudinal cerebral metabolic pattern of the TASTPM transgenic AD mouse, a double transgenic mouse overexpressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (hAPP695swe) and presenilin-1 (M146V) by (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with concurrent brain T1 /T2 mapping and behavioral testing. We found significant differences in creatine, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, and myo-inositol between TASTPM and wild-type mice. In the case of N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol, there were similarities to differences detected in human AD. T1 /T2 values were shorter overall in TASTPM mice, indicating possible differences in water content between TASTPM and wild-type mice. In older TASTPM mice, exploratory behavior became more random, indicating a possible memory deficiency. The decrease in behavioral performance correlated in the transgenic group with higher expression of myo-inositol. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  13. Anomaly of strain relaxation in thin ordered FePd layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, D.; Samson, Y.; Marty, A.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Beigné, C.; Gilles, B.; Mazille, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    Strain relaxation processes have been investigated in chemically ordered FePd thin layers grown on Pd(001). Microtwins due to the pileup of a/6 dislocations release most of the relaxation. A statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy images provides a detailed understanding of the involved processes and indicates a linear dependence of the relaxation process upon the FePd thickness. Such an unusual behavior is confirmed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction measurements. Through a modeling of the repulsion between the cores of the partial dislocations forming the microtwin, we put forward the mechanism explaining this discrepancy with the Matthews law.

  14. Temperature-dependent Structural Relaxation in As40Se60 Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Golovchak; A Kozdras; O Shpotyuk; C Gorecki; A Kovalskkiy; H Jain

    2011-12-31

    The origin of structural relaxation in As{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass at different annealing temperatures is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. Strong physical aging effect, expressed through the increase of endothermic peak area in the vicinity of Tg, is recorded by DSC technique at the annealing temperatures T{sub a} > 90 C. EXAFS data show that the observed structural relaxation is not associated with significant changes in the short-range order of this glass. An explanation is proposed for this relaxation behavior assuming temperature-dependent constraints.

  15. On the prediction of stress relaxation from known creep of nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, D.; Cederbaum, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1997-04-01

    A method to predict the nonlinear relaxation behavior from creep experiments of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is presented. It is shown that for given nonlinear creep properties, and creep compliance represented by the Prony series, the Schapery creep model can be transformed into a set of first order nonlinear equations. The solution of these equations enables the obtaining of the nonlinear stress relaxation curves. The strain-dependent constitutive equation can then be constructed for a given nonlinear viscoelastic model, as needed for engineering applications. A comparison example of the calculated stress relaxation curves, with test data for polyurethane demonstrates the very good accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. THE EFFECT OF BEHAVIORAL STATE ON GENERAL MOVEMENTS IN HEALTHY FULL-TERM NEWBORNS - A POLYMYOGRAPHIC STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HADDERSALGRA, M; NAKAE, Y; VANEYKERN, LA; KLIPVANDENNIEUWENDIJK, AWJ; PRECHTL, HFR

    1993-01-01

    In a group a eight healthy full-term newborns 6-h polygraphic recordings, which included EMG recording of eight arm muscles, were made to investigate the effect of behavioural state on general movement (GM) organization. Simultaneous video recordings supplied information about the form of the GMs. A

  17. Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    A major mystery of glass-forming liquids is the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time. This paper briefly reviews the classical phenomenological models for non-Arrhenius behavior – the free volume model and the entropy model – and critiques against these models. We...... are anharmonic, the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time is a consequence of the fact that the instantaneous shear modulus increases upon cooling....

  18. Anesthesia for thoracoscopic thymectomy: modified non-muscle relaxant technique--case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dawlatly, Abdelazeem A

    2007-02-01

    Anesthesia for thymectomy in myasthenia gravis is challenging. The anesthetic experience of that technique is quite large. In involves either muscle relaxant or non-muscle relaxant techniques. However, the literature is deficient of standard anesthetic technique for thoracoscopic thymectomy. Therefore we present in this report a modified non-muscle relaxant technique for thoracoscopic thymectomy (TT). We report two cases who underwent TT under general anesthesia using sufentanil and propofol for induction and local anesthesia spray to the vocal cords to facilitate endobronchial intubation using non-muscle relaxant technique. The intubating, operating and postoperative conditions were excellent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on modified non-muscle relaxant technique for TT in myasthenia gravis. Further cases have to be done to verify our technique.

  19. Donepezil: A cause of inadequate muscle relaxation and delayed neuromuscular recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Bhardwaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type II and Alzheimer′s disease, taking donepezil for 4 months was operated for right modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. During the procedure a higher dose of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant was required than those recommended for her age yet the muscle relaxation was inadequate intra-operatively. Residual neuromuscular blockade persisted postoperatively, due to the cumulative effect of large doses of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, needing post-operative ventilatory assistance. After ruling out other causes of resistance to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, we concluded that acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was primarily responsible for inadequate muscle relaxation and delayed post-operative neuromuscular recovery.

  20. Relaxation of liquid bridge after droplets coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangen Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relaxation of liquid bridge after the coalescence of two sessile droplets resting on an organic glass substrate both experimentally and theoretically. The liquid bridge is found to relax to its equilibrium shape via two distinct approaches: damped oscillation relaxation and underdamped relaxation. When the viscosity is low, damped oscillation shows up, in this approach, the liquid bridge undergoes a damped oscillation process until it reaches its stable shape. However, if the viscous effects become significant, underdamped relaxation occurs. In this case, the liquid bridge relaxes to its equilibrium state in a non-periodic decay mode. In depth analysis indicates that the damping rate and oscillation period of damped oscillation are related to an inertial-capillary time scale τc. These experimental results are also testified by our numerical simulations with COMSOL Multiphysics.