User's manual for CNVUFAC, the general dynamics heat-transfer radiation view factor program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, R. L.
1976-06-25
CNVUFAC, the General Dynamics heat-transfer radiation veiw factor program, has been adapted for use on the LLL CDC 7600 computer system. The input and output have been modified, and a node incrementing logic was included to make the code compatible with the TRUMP thermal analyzer and related codes. The program performs the multiple integration necessary to evaluate the geometric black-body radiaton node to node view factors. Card image output that contains node number and view factor information is generated for input into the related program GRAY. Program GRAY is then used to include the effects of gray-body emissivities and multiple reflections, generating the effective gray-body view factors usable in TRUMP. CNVUFAC uses an elemental area summation scheme to evaluate the multiple integrals. The program permits shadowing and self-shadowing. The basic configuration shapes that can be considered are cylinders, cones, spheres, ellipsoids, flat plates, disks, toroids, and polynomials of revolution. Portions of these shapes can also be considered.
Upper limits to near-field radiative heat transfer: generalizing the blackbody concept
Miller, Owen D.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Johnson, Steven G.
2016-09-01
For 75 years it has been known that radiative heat transfer can exceed far-field blackbody rates when two bodies are separated by less than a thermal wavelength. Yet an open question has remained: what is the maximum achievable radiative transfer rate? Here we describe basic energy-conservation principles that answer this question, yielding upper bounds that depend on the temperatures, material susceptibilities, and separation distance, but which encompass all geometries. The simple structures studied to date fall far short of the bounds, offering the possibility for significant future enhancement, with ramifications for experimental studies as well as thermophotovoltaic applications.
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert
2016-01-01
Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.
Thermal radiation heat transfer
Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar
2011-01-01
Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...
Essentials of radiation heat transfer
Balaji
2014-01-01
Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Planck, Max
2003-01-01
Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.
Monte Carlo direct view factor and generalized radiative heat transfer programs
Mc Williams, J. L.; Scates, J. H.
1969-01-01
Computer programs find the direct view factor from one surface segment to another using the Monte carlo technique, and the radioactive-transfer coefficients between surface segments. An advantage of the programs is the great generality of problems treatable and rapidity of solution from problem conception to receipt of results.
McCauley, Alexander P; Krüger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G
2011-01-01
We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.
Bistability in radiative heat exchange
Rudakov, V. I.; Ovcharov, V. V.; Prigara, V. P.
2008-08-01
The possibility of a bistable regime in systems with radiative heat exchange is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. The transfer characteristics of a radiation-closed stationary system have been calculated, in which the radiator is a blackbody and the absorber is made of a material with the absorptivity sharply increasing in a certain temperature interval. The radiator and absorber are separated by a vacuum gap. The heat exchange between the system and the environment is controlled by varying the flow rate of a heat-transfer agent cooling the absorber. The output parameter of a bistable system is the absorber temperature, while the input parameter can be either the radiator temperature or the heat-transfer agent flow rate. Depending on the choice of the input parameter, the transfer characteristic of the system is either represented by a usual S-like curve or has an inverted shape.
Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer
Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W
1974-01-01
Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Li, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The optimal ecological performance of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with the losses of heat-resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility, in which the transfer between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obeys a complex heat transfer law, including generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power and entropy production rate of the heat engine. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analyzed. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures.
Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection
Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.
1973-01-01
A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.
Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1992-12-01
Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jun Li; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun
2010-02-01
The fundamental optimal relation between heating load and coefficient of performance (COP) of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is derived based on a new generalized heat transfer law, which includes the generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law, $q \\varpropto ( T^{n})^{m}$. The generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump model incorporates several internal and external irreversibilities, such as heat resistance, bypass heat leakage, friction, turbulence and other undesirable irreversibility factors. The added irreversibilities besides heat resistance are characterized by a constant parameter and a constant coefficient. The effects of heat transfer laws and various loss terms are analysed. The heating load vs. COP characteristic of a generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump is a parabolic-like curve, which is consistent with the experimental result of thermoelectric heat pump. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures and indicated that the analysis results of the generalized irreversible Carnot heat pump were more suitable for engineering practice than those of the endoreversible Carnot heat pump.
Indirect solar loading of waste heat radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Tabor, J.E.; Lindman, E.L.; Cooper, A.J.
1988-01-01
Waste heat from space based power systems must ultimately be radiated away into space. The local topology around the radiators must be considered from two stand-points: the scattering of sunlight onto the surfaces of the radiator and the heat load that the radiator may put on near-by components of the system. A view factor code (SNAP) developed at Los Alamos allows the computation of the steady-state radiation environment for complex 3-D geometries. An example of the code's utility is given. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Structures to radiate heat softly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perilae, T.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.
1997-11-01
Over the past fifty years, heating systems in single-family houses have taken a great leap forward. First wood-burning stoves gave way to oil heaters; then these were superseded by central heating systems; and now conventional central heating systems have lost their way with the increasingly widespread use of room-specific heating systems
Thermal radiation heat transfer (3rd revised and enlarged edition)
Siegel, Robert; Howell, John R.
1992-01-01
This book first reviews the overall aspects and background information related to thermal radiation heat transfer and incorporates new general information, advances in analytical and computational techniques, and new reference material. Coverage focuses on radiation from opaque surfaces, radiation interchange between various types of surfaces enclosing a vacuum or transparent medium, and radiation including the effects of partially transmitting media, such as combustion gases, soot, or windows. Boundary conditions and multiple layers are discussed with information on radiation in materials with nonunity refractive indices.
Variable Heat Rejection Loop Heat Pipe radiator Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control systems are sized for the maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment. This design process results in a larger radiator surface area than...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping
2013-03-14
This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar
Investigation of radiative heat transfer in fixed bed biomass furnaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T. Klason; X.S. Bai; M. Bahador; T.K. Nilsson; B. Sunden [Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Division of Fluid Mechanics
2008-08-15
This paper presents an investigation of the radiative heat transfer process in two fixed bed furnaces firing biomass fuels and the performance of several widely used models for calculation of radiative heat transfer in the free-room of fixed bed furnaces. The effective mean grey gas absorption coefficients are calculated using an optimised version of the exponential wide band model (EWBM) based on an optical mean beam length. Fly-ash and char particles are taken into account using Mie scattering. In the investigated updraft small-scale fixed bed furnace radiative transfer carries heat from the bed to the free-room, whereas in the cross-current bed large-scale industry furnace, radiative transfer brings heat from the hot zones in the free-room to the drying zone of the bed. Not all the investigated models can predict these heat transfer trends, and the sensitivity of results to model parameters is fairly different in the two furnaces. In the small-scale furnace, the gas absorption coefficient predicted by using different optical lengths has great impact on the predicted temperature field. In the large-scale furnaces, the predicted temperature field is less sensitive to the optical length. In both furnaces, with the same radiative properties, the low-computational-cost P1 model predicts a temperature field in the free-room similar to that by the more time consuming SLW model. In general, the radiative heat transfer rates to the fuel bed are not very sensitive to the radiative properties, but they are sensitive to the different radiative heat transfer models. For a realistic prediction of the radiative heat transfer rate to the fuel bed or to the walls, more computationally demanding models such as the FGG or SLW models should be used. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Radiation heat transfer shapefactors for combustion systems
Emery, A. F.; Johansson, O.; Abrous, A.
1987-01-01
The computation of radiation heat transfer through absorbing media is commonly done through the zoning method which relies upon values of the geometric mean transmittance and absorptance. The computation of these values is difficult and expensive, particularly if many spectral bands are used. This paper describes the extension of a scan line algorithm, based upon surface-surface radiation, to the computation of surface-gas and gas-gas radiation transmittances.
Radiative heat transfer between metallic nanoparticles
Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Laroche, Marine; Volz, Sebastian; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2008-01-01
International audience; In this letter, we study the radiative heat transfer between two nanoparticles in the near field and in the far field. We find that the heat transfer is dominated by the electric dipole-dipole interaction for dielectric particles and by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction for metallic nanoparticles. We introduce polarizabilities formulas valid for arbitrary values of the skin depth. While the heat transfer mechanism is different for metallic and dielectric nanoparti...
Radiative heat transfer between metallic nanoparticles
Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Volz, Sebastian; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2008-01-01
In this letter, we study the radiative heat transfer between two nanoparticles in the near field and in the far field. We find that the heat transfer is dominated by the electric dipole-dipole interaction for dielectric particles and by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction for metallic nanoparticles. We introduce polarizabilities formulas valid for arbitrary values of the skin depth. While the heat transfer mechanism is different for metallic and dielectric nanoparticles, we show that the distance dependence is the same. However, the dependence of the heat flux on the particle radius is different.
Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps
Campana, R. J.
1986-01-01
Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.
Radiatively heated high voltage pyroelectric crystal pulser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antolak, A.J., E-mail: antolak@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chen, A.X. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leung, K.-N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2014-01-21
Thin lithium tantalate pyroelectric crystals in a multi-stage pulser were heated by quartz lamps during their charging phase to generate high voltage pulses. The charging voltage was determined empirically based on the measured breakdown voltage in air and verified by the induced breakdown voltage of an external high voltage power supply. A four-stage pyroelectric crystal device generated pulse discharges of up to 86 kV using both quartz lamps (radiative) and thermoelectric (conductive) heating. Approximately 50 mJ of electrical energy was harvested from the crystals when radiatively heated in air, and up to 720 mJ was produced when the crystals were submerged in a dielectric fluid. It is anticipated that joule-level pulse discharges could be obtained by employing additional stages and optimizing the heating configuration.
Radiative heating rates during AAOE and AASE
Rosenfield, Joan E.
Radiative transit computations of heating rates utilizing data from the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) (Tuck et al., 1989) and the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment (AASE) (Turco et al., 1990) are described. Observed temperature and ozone profiles and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the heating rates for the Southern Hemisphere during AAOE and the Northern Hemisphere during AASE. The AASE average cooling rates computed inside the vortex are in good agreement with the diabatic cooling rates estimated from the ER-2 profile data for N2O for the AASE period (Schoeberl et al., 1989).
Experimental observation of radiation heat waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DingYao－Nan; YaoZhen－Yu; 等
1997-01-01
Radiation heat waves play an important role in high-temperature hydrodrnamic phenomena which is very important for laser fusion.Therefore,the propagation of a radiation heat wave through a thin foil of solid aluminium is observed.The wave is driven by the intense solft-X-ray radiation in a cylindrical cavity heated by the intense laser pulse.Experiments are carried out with two beams of λ=1.05μm light form the Shenguang Nd-glass laser facility.The pulse energy is about 600 J and the pulse duration 0.8ns.Evidence of radiation heat wave is obtained by observing the delayes signal of intense thermal emission from the outside of the foil.The delay is 850ps for 1.5μm thick foil and the mass ablation rate is about 4.8×105g/(cm2.s) under the X-ray flux of about 1×1013W/cm2.Also.the radiation-driven shock waves of (2±1)TPa are observed from different shots in the experiments.
New general radiation protection training course
2008-01-01
Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...
New general radiation protection training course
2008-01-01
Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...
Radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suter, L.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; Darrow, C.B. [and others
1995-11-03
Nearly 10 years of Nova experiments and analysis have lead to a relatively detailed quantitative and qualitative understanding of radiation drive in laser heated hohlraums. Our most successful quantitative modelling tool is 2D Lasnex numerical simulations. Analysis of the simulations provides us with insight into the details of the hohlraum drive. In particular we find hohlraum radiation conversion efficiency becomes quite high with longer pulses as the accumulated, high Z blow-off plasma begins to radiate. Extensive Nova experiments corroborate our quantitative and qualitative understanding.
Radiation Heat Waves in Gold Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Jia-Min; XU Yan; DING Yao-Nan; LAI Dong-Xian; DING Yong-Kun; JIANG Shao-En; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; MIAO Wen-Yong
2003-01-01
Eight beams 0.35/um laser with pulse duration of about 1.0ns and energy of 260 J per beam was injected into a cylindrical cavity to generate intense x-ray radiation on the "Shengguang I" high power laser facility. Gold foils with a thickness in the range of 0.09-0.52/j,m were attached on the diagnostic hole of the cavity and ablated by the intense x-ray radiation. The propagating radiation heat wave in the high-Z gold plasma was observed clearly. For comparison, we also simulated the experimental results.
Many-body heat radiation and heat transfer in the presence of a nonabsorbing background medium
Müller, Boris; Incardone, Roberta; Antezza, Mauro; Emig, Thorsten; Krüger, Matthias
2017-02-01
Heat radiation and near-field radiative heat transfer can be strongly manipulated by adjusting geometrical shapes, optical properties, or the relative positions of the objects involved. Typically, these objects are considered as embedded in vacuum. By applying the methods of fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive general closed-form expressions for heat radiation and heat transfer in a system of N arbitrary objects embedded in a passive nonabsorbing background medium. Taking into account the principle of reciprocity, we explicitly prove the symmetry and positivity of transfer in any such system. Regarding applications, we find that the heat radiation of a sphere as well as the heat transfer between two parallel plates is strongly enhanced by the presence of a background medium. Regarding near- and far-field transfer through a gas like air, we show that a microscopic model (based on gas particles) and a macroscopic model (using a dielectric contrast) yield identical results. We also compare the radiative transfer through a medium like air and the energy transfer found from kinetic gas theory.
Many body heat radiation and heat transfer in the presence of a non-absorbing background medium
Müller, Boris; Antezza, Mauro; Emig, Thorsten; Krüger, Matthias
2016-01-01
Heat radiation and near-field radiative heat transfer can be strongly manipulated by adjusting geometrical shapes, optical properties, or the relative positions of the objects involved. Typically these objects are considered as embedded in vacuum. By applying the methods of fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive general closed-form expressions for heat radiation and heat transfer in a system of $N$ arbitrary objects embedded in a passive non-absorbing background medium. Taking into account the principle of reciprocity, we explicitly prove the symmetry and positivity of transfer in any such system. Regarding applications, we find that the heat radiation of a sphere as well as the heat transfer between two parallel plates is strongly enhanced by the presence of a background medium. Regarding near- and far-field transfer through a gas like air, we show that a microscopic model (based on gas particles) and a macroscopic model (using a dielectric contrast) yield identical results. We also compare the radiative t...
Radiation heating in sports halls. Stralingsverwarming in sporthallen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blokpoel, L.
1994-03-01
The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine whether by means of the application of radiation heating the required level of thermal comfort in sporting halls can be realized and how much energy is needed to realize such comfort. In two sporting halls the air heating installation was replaced by a radiant heating system. In the sports hall 'D'n Treffer' in Maasbree, Netherlands, infrared radiators were installed, and in the sports hall 'de Taxandriahal' in Waalwijk, Netherlands, so-called dark radiators were installed. After a brief introduction on how to define and quantify thermal comfort, measured results for both sporting halls are presented and discussed. Also the results of a survey among the users of the sporting halls to determine their opinion on the thermal comfort in the halls are presented. The survey was carried out by the authority that commissioned this study, The Dutch National Sports Federation (NSF). In general it can be concluded that radiation heating is a well applicable heating system for sports halls. 17 figs., 8 ills., 10 tabs., 8 appendices
Ecological optimization for general heat engines
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-09-01
We conducted an analysis of efficiency and its bounds for general heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion. For generality, both nonisothermal heat-exchanging processes and internal dissipation were taken into consideration. When the product of the internal dissipation and the heat capacity ratio is one, the efficiency under the maximum ecological criterion is the same as that of the irreversible Carnot model. However, the efficiencies have different physical meanings and optimization spaces. Furthermore, the efficiency is independent of the time it takes to complete each process and the heat conductance. For other situations, numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the parameters' effects on optimal efficiency. When the dimensionless contact times approach zero, the irreversible Carnot model is recovered. The general upper and lower bounds of optimal efficiency are obtained by applying the asymmetric heat capacity ratio limits when the dimensionless contact times approach infinity. In addition, the efficiency of general endoreversible heat engines was investigated. The efficiency bounds of different real-life heat engines under the maximum ecological criterion are proposed.
Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation
Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.
1980-01-01
A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Li, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The finite time exergoeconomic performance of the generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility, and with a complex heat transfer law, including generalized convective heat transfer law and generalized radiative heat transfer law is investigated in this paper. The focus of this paper is to obtain the compromised optimization between economics (profit and the energy utilization factor (efficiency for the generalized irreversible Carnot heat engine, by searching the optimum efficiency at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound. The obtained results include those obtained in many literatures and can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design of practical heat engines.
Heat radiative characteristics of ultra-attenuated materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dehong Xia; Yonghong Wu
2004-01-01
From the microstructure of heat radiation, the interaction between the incident heat radiative wave and the electromagnetism syntonic wave is analyzed to reveal the emission, absorption, transmission and reflection mechanisms of the incident heat radiative wave in materials. Based on Lorentz dispersion theory, the effect of optical parameters on heat radiative characteristics is also analyzed. The method of ultra-attenuation and nanocrystallization improving the heat radiative characteristics of the material and the emissivity dispersion of the ultra-attenuated materials are brought to light.
Convective and radiative heating of a Saturn entry probe
Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.; Moss, J. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1984-01-01
The extent of convective and radiative heating for a Saturn entry probe is investigated in the absence and presence of ablation mass injection. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The importance of chemical nonequilibrium effects for both the radiative and convective nonblowing surface heating rates is demonstrated for prescribed entry conditions. Results indicate that the nonequilibrium chemistry can significantly influence the rate of radiative heating to the entry probes. With coupled carbon-phenolic ablation injection, the convective heating rates are reduced substantially. Turbulence has little effect on radiative heating but it increases the convective heating considerably.
Vaporization characteristics of carbon heat shields under radiative heating.
Davy, W. C.; Bar-Nun, A.
1972-01-01
Study of the vaporization characteristics of samples of ATJ graphite, a material that has been considered for use on a Jovian probe. These samples were subjected to radiative heating loads of approximately 2 kW/sq cm in argon atmospheres of pressures from 0.00046 to 1 atm. Surface temperatures, mass loss rates, and spatially resolved emission spectral data were recorded. These data are analyzed to determine carbon vapor pressure as a function of temperature and are compared with current models for the vapor pressure of carbon. The effects of finite vaporization (i.e., nonequilibrium) rates are considered and compared with experiment. Estimates of the heat of vaporization from an energy balance are also presented.
Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.
2010-01-01
For wearers of protective clothing in radiation environments there are no quantitative guidelines available for the effect of a radiative heat load on heat exchange. Under the European Union funded project ThermProtect an analytical effort was defined to address the issue of radiative heat load whil
A thermokinetic approach to radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agustín Pérez-Madrid
Full Text Available Radiative heat exchange at the nanoscale presents a challenge for several areas due to its scope and nature. Here, we provide a thermokinetic description of microscale radiative energy transfer including phonon-photon coupling manifested through a non-Debye relaxation behavior. We show that a lognormal-like distribution of modes of relaxation accounts for this non-Debye relaxation behavior leading to the thermal conductance. We also discuss the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The general expression for the thermal conductance we obtain fits existing experimental results with remarkable accuracy. Accordingly, our approach offers an overall explanation of radiative energy transfer through micrometric gaps regardless of geometrical configurations and distances.
A thermokinetic approach to radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.
Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C; Rubí, J Miguel
2013-01-01
Radiative heat exchange at the nanoscale presents a challenge for several areas due to its scope and nature. Here, we provide a thermokinetic description of microscale radiative energy transfer including phonon-photon coupling manifested through a non-Debye relaxation behavior. We show that a lognormal-like distribution of modes of relaxation accounts for this non-Debye relaxation behavior leading to the thermal conductance. We also discuss the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The general expression for the thermal conductance we obtain fits existing experimental results with remarkable accuracy. Accordingly, our approach offers an overall explanation of radiative energy transfer through micrometric gaps regardless of geometrical configurations and distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, W.; Cengel, Y.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States))
Radiation heat transfer between rectangular electronic components on a printed circuit board and the walls of its enclosure is studied analytically using a Monte Carlo method. The radiation heat transfer between the electronic components and the cover is determined for the cases of diffuse and specular surfaces with constant properties, and for diffuse and specular surfaces with variable temperature and direction-dependent properties. The radiation interchange between the components and the cover of the enclosure are determined and presented for various dimensionless parameters and surface emissivities in tabular and graphical forms. The radiation heat transfer, in general, is found to be comparable in magnitude to natural-convection heat transfer at operating conditions encountered in practice. It is shown that radiation can serve as an effective heat transfer mechanism for the cooling of electronic components in sealed enclosures cooled externally.
Blackbody radiation: rosetta stone of heat bath models
O'Connell, R. F.
2007-06-01
The radiation field can be regarded as a collection of independent harmonic oscillators and, as such, constitutes a heat bath. Moreover, the known form of its interaction with charged particles provides a "rosetta stone" for deciding on and interpreting the correct interaction for the more general case of a quantum particle in an external potential and coupled to an arbitrary heat bath. In particular, combining QED with the machinery of stochastic physics, enables the usual scope of applications to be widened. We discuss blackbody radiation effects on: the equation of motion of a radiating electron (obtaining an equation of motion which is free from runaway solutions), anomalous diffusion, the spreading of a Gaussian wave packet, and decoherence effects due to zero-point oscillations. In addition, utilizing a formula we obtained for the free energy of an oscillator in a heat bath, enables us to determine all the quantum thermodynamic functions of interest (particularly in the areas of quantum information and nanophysics where small systems are involved) and from which we obtain temperature dependent Lamb shifts, quantum effects on the entropy at low temperature and implications for Nernst's law.
Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger
Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.
2011-01-01
An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.
Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2016-09-15
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)
Nanoscale radiative heating of a sample with a probe
Joulain, K; Carminati, R; Greffet, J J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to transfer large amount of heat to a sample at a nanometer scale by approaching a probe such as those used in near-field microscopies. We evaluate the different heat exchange processes such as convective and radiative heat transfer. An application to local heating is discussed.
User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry
Risch, Timothy K.
2016-01-01
Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.
Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection
Erickson, Lisa
2016-01-01
The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.
Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.
Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2015-12-17
Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.
Features of Afterbody Radiative Heating for Earth Entry
Johnston, Christopher O.; Brandis, Aaron
2014-01-01
Radiative heating is identified as a major contributor to afterbody heating for Earth entry capsules at velocities above 10 km/s. Because of rate-limited electron-ion recombination processes, a large fraction of the electronically-excited N and O atoms produced in the high temperature/pressure forebody remain as they expand into the afterbody region, which results in significant afterbody radiation. Large radiative heating sensitivities to electron-impact ionization rates and escape factors are identified. Ablation products from a forebody ablator are shown to increase the afterbody radiation by as much as 40%. The tangent-slab radiation transport approach is shown to over-predict the radiative flux by as much as 40% in the afterbody, therefore making the more computationally expensive ray-tracing approach necessary for accurate radiative flux predictions. For the Stardust entry, the afterbody radiation is predicted to be nearly twice as large as the convective heating during the peak heating phase of the trajectory. Comparisons between simulations and the Stardust Echelle observation measurements, which are shown to be dominated by afterbody emission, indicate agreement within 20% for various N and O lines. Similarly, calorimeter measurements from the Fire II experiment are identified as a source of validation data for afterbody radiation. For the afterbody calorimeter measurement closest to the forebody, which experiences the largest afterbody radiative heating component, the convective heating alone is shown to under-predict the measurement, even for the fullycatalytic assumption. Agreement with the measurements is improved with the addition of afterbody radiation. These comparisons with Stardust and Fire II measurements provide validation that the significant afterbody radiation values proposed in this work are legitimate.
Radiators in hydronic heating installations structure, selection and thermal characteristics
Muniak, Damian Piotr
2017-01-01
This book addresses key design and computational issues related to radiators in hydronic heating installations. A historical outline is included to highlight the evolution of radiators and heating technologies. Further, the book includes a chapter on thermal comfort, which is the decisive factor in selecting the ideal heating system and radiator type. The majority of the book is devoted to an extensive discussion of the types and kinds of radiators currently in use, and to identifying the reasons for the remarkable diversity of design solutions. The differences between the solutions are also addressed, both in terms of the effects of operation and of the thermal comfort that needs to be ensured. The book then compares the advantages and disadvantages of each solution, as well as its potential applications. A detailed discussion, supported by an extensive theoretical and mathematical analysis, is presented of the computational relations that are used in selecting the radiator type. The dynamics of radiator hea...
Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator
Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan
2011-01-01
Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads
Radiative Heating on the After-Body of Martian Entry Vehicles
Brandis, A. M.; Saunders, D. A.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.; White, T. R.
2015-01-01
This paper presents simulations of the radiative heat flux imparted on the after-body of vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. The radiation is dominated by CO2 bands emitting in the mid-wave infrared spectral region. This mechanism has traditionally not been considered in the design of past Mars entry vehicles. However, with recent analysis showing that the CO2 radiation can be greater than convective heating in the wake, and with several upcoming and proposed missions to Mars potentially affected, an investigation of the impact of this radiation is warranted. The focus of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the impact to aerothermal heating predictions and to provide comparisons between NASA's two main radiation codes, NEQAIR and HARA. The tangent slab approximation is shown to be overly conservative, by as much as 58 percent, for most back- shell body point locations compared to using a full angular integration method. However, due to the complexity of the wake flow, it is also shown that tangent slab does not always represent an upper limit for radiative heating. Furthermore, analysis in this paper shows that it is not possible to provide a general knock-down factor from the tangent slab results to those obtained using the more rigorous full integration method. When the radiative heating is accounted for on the after-body, the unmargined total heat flux can be as high as 14 watts per square centimeter.
46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's...
General relativistic tidal heating for Moller pseudotensor
So, Lau Loi
2015-01-01
Thorne elucidated that the relativistic tidal heating is the same as the Newtonian theory. Moreover, Thorne also claimed that the tidal heating is independent of how one localizes gravitational energy and is unambiguously given by a certain formula. Purdue and Favata calculated the tidal heating for different classical pseudotensors including Moller and obtained the results all matched with the Newtonian perspective. After re-examined this Moller pseudotensor, we find that there does not exist any tidal heating value. Thus we claim that the relativistic tidal heating is pseudotensor independent under the condition that if the peusdotensor is a Freud typed superpotential.
Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...
Near-field radiative heat transfer between metasurfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dai, Jin; Dyakov, Sergey A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-01-01
Metamaterials possess artificial bulk and surface electromagnetic states. Tamed dispersion properties of surface waves allow one to achieve a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer (RHT) process between two closely spaced objects. We numerically demonstrate enhanced RHT between two...
Grey-body surface radiation coupled with conduction and convection for general geometries
Engelman, Michael; Jamnia, Mohammad-Ali
1991-11-01
This paper presents a numerical technique for the simulation of the effects of grey-diffuse surface radiation on the temperature field of fluid flows using FIDAP, a general purpose incompressible, viscous fluid code. The radiating surface relationships assume a non-participating medium, constant surface temperature and heat fluxes at the discretized elemental level. The technique involves the decoupling of energy and radiation exchange equations. A concept of macrosurfaces, each containing a number of radiating boundary surfaces, is introduced. These boundary macroelements then carry the information from the radiating boundary into the fluid regime. A number of simulations illustrating the algorithm are presented.
Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode
Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David
2013-03-01
Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.
Relationships between outgoing longwave radiation and diabatic heating in reanalyses
Zhang, Kai; Randel, William J.; Fu, Rong
2016-12-01
This study investigates relationships between daily variability in National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), as a proxy for deep convection, and the global diabatic heat budget derived from reanalysis data sets. Results are evaluated based on data from ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2). The diabatic heating is separated into components linked to `physics' (mainly latent heat fluxes), plus longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) radiative tendencies. Transient variability in deep convection is highly correlated with diabatic heating throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. Correlation patterns and composite analyses show that enhanced deep convection (lower OLR) is linked to amplified heating in the tropical troposphere and in the mid-latitude storm tracks, tied to latent heat release. Enhanced convection is also linked to radiative cooling in the lower stratosphere, due to weaker upwelling LW from lower altitudes. Enhanced transient deep convection increases LW and decreases SW radiation in the lower troposphere, with opposite effects in the mid to upper troposphere. The compensating effects in LW and SW radiation are largely linked to variations in cloud fraction and water content (vapor, liquid and ice). These radiative balances in reanalyses are in agreement with idealized calculations using a column radiative transfer model. The overall relationships between OLR and diabatic heating are robust among the different reanalyses, although there are differences in radiative tendencies in the tropics due to large differences of cloud water and ice content among the reanalyses. These calculations provide a simple statistical method to quantify variations in diabatic heating linked to transient deep convection in the climate system.
Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers
Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała, Małgorzata; Bury, Tomasz; Widziewicz, Katarzyna
2016-03-01
A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water - air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.
Analysis of radiative heat transfer impact in cross-flow tube and fin heat exchangers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanuszkiewicz-Drapała Małgorzata
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A cross-flow, tube and fin heat exchanger of the water – air type is the subject of the analysis. The analysis had experimental and computational form and was aimed for evaluation of radiative heat transfer impact on the heat exchanger performance. The main element of the test facility was an enlarged recurrent segment of the heat exchanger under consideration. The main results of measurements are heat transfer rates, as well as temperature distributions on the surface of the first fin obtained by using the infrared camera. The experimental results have been next compared to computational ones coming from a numerical model of the test station. The model has been elaborated using computational fluid dynamics software. The computations have been accomplished for two cases: without radiative heat transfer and taking this phenomenon into account. Evaluation of the radiative heat transfer impact in considered system has been done by comparing all the received results.
Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control
Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena
1990-10-01
Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.
Enhanced radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates
Guérout, R; Rosa, F S S; Hugonin, J -P; Dalvit, D A R; Greffet, J -J; Lambrecht, A; Reynaud, S
2012-01-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between nanostructured gold plates in the framework of the scattering theory. We predict an enhancement of the heat transfer as we increase the depth of the corrugations while keeping the distance of closest approach fixed. We interpret this effect in terms of the evolution of plasmonic and guided modes as a function of the grating's geometry.
Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak
2014-01-01
During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.
Radiative heat transfer as a Landauer-Büttiker problem
Yap, Han Hoe; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2017-01-01
We study the radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite half-spaces, bounded by conductive surfaces in contact with vacuum. This setup is interpreted as a four-terminal mesoscopic transport problem. The slabs and interfaces are viewed as bosonic reservoirs, coupled perfectly to a scattering center consisting of the two planes and vacuum. Using Rytov's fluctuational electrodynamics and assuming Kirchhoff's circuital law, we calculate the heat flow in each bath. This allows for explicit evaluation of a conductance matrix, from which one readily verifies Büttiker symmetry. Thus, radiative heat transfer in layered media with conductive interfaces becomes a Landauer-Büttiker transport problem.
Backshell Radiative Heating on Human-Scale Mars Entry Vehicles
West,Thomas K., IV; Theisinger, John E.; Brune, Andrew J.; Johnston, Christopher O.
2017-01-01
This work quantifies the backshell radiative heating experienced by payloads on human- scale vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. Three underlying configurations were studied: a generic sphere, a sphere-cone forebody with a cylindrical payload, and an ellipsled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow field and radiation were performed using the LAURA and HARA codes, respectively. Results of this work indicated the primary contributor to radiative heating is emission from the CO2 IR band system. Furthermore, the backshell radiation component of heating can persist lower than 2 km/s during entry and descent. For the sphere-cone configuration a peak heat flux of about 3.5 W/cm(exp. 2) was observed at the payload juncture during entry. At similar conditions, the ellipsled geometry experienced about 1.25 W/cm(exp. 2) on the backshell, but as much as 8 W/cm(exp. 2) on the base at very high angle of attack. Overall, this study sheds light on the potential magnitudes of backshell radiative heating that various configurations may experience. These results may serve as a starting point for thermal protection system design or configuration changes necessary to accommodate thermal radiation levels.
Radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities
Robin, Langebach; Christoph, Haberstroh
2017-02-01
Radiative heat transfer is usually of substantial importance in cryogenics when systems are designed and thermal budgeting is carried out. However, the contribution of pipes is commonly assumed to be comparably low since the warm and cold ends as well as their cross section are fairly small. Nevertheless, for a first assessment of each pipe rough estimates are always appreciated. In order to estimate the radiative heat transfer with traditional “paper and pencil“ methods there is only one analytical case available in literature - the case of plane-parallel plates. This case can only be used to calculate the theoretical lower and the upper asymptotic values of the radiative heat transfer, since pipe wall radiation properties are not taken into account. For this paper we investigated the radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities with the help of numerical simulations. Out of a number of calculation series we could gain an empirical extension for the used approach of plane-parallel plates. The model equation can be used to carry out enhanced paper and pencil estimations for the radiative heat transfer through pipes without demanding numerical simulations.
Nonequilibrium radiative heating of a Jovian entry body
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1979-01-01
The influence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer on radiative and convective heating of a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, and in chemical equilibrium. The chemical species considered for the collisional deactivation processes are H2, H, H+. The NLTE radiative transfer equations are derived for multilevel energy transitions. The rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that higher-level energy transitions have little influence on the overall NLTE results. The NLTE results, however, are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distributions in the shock layer. The convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced significantly because of the NLTE conditions; the reduction in convective heating, however, is relatively small. The influence of NLTE is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes.
Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.
1990-10-01
Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.
Transient radiation-conductive heat transfer problems: ``The quadrupole method''
Degiovanni, Alain; Remy, Benjamin; Andre, Stéphane
2002-11-01
This paper presents a statement of the works performed in L.E.M.T.A by the members of the thermal and mechanical heterogeneous media research group during the last six years concerning the solving of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfers within a multilayer and semi-transparent “wall”. Out of the authors, this paper allows to take inspiration from the works of D. Maillet, M. Lazard and V. Manias[19, 20, 21]. The aim of these works is to represent in a macroscopic way, with the minimum number of thermophysical parameters, the heat transfers in a plane system composed of semi-transparent media. The approach we propose is semi-analytic (Kernel substitution technique, Laplace transformation) and allow to obtain in the Laplace domain an analytical solution that can be easily used. This method can be applied in two main scopes of applications: the estimation of thermophysical properties (phononic conductivity, optical thickness, Planck number for instance) of semi-transparent materials (glasses, crystals, glass wool, semi-conductors, synthetic diamonds, vitroceramics and so on) and the modelling of processes with semitransparent walls (for instance bottles forming, flat glass production, drying of paper). The method will be first presented and validated and two examples of applications will be then given. This method can be applied to semitransparent walls that emit, absorb and scatter the radiant energy (participating medium). It appears from the principle of a Kernel substitution technique applied to the radiative flux expression and initially introduced by Lick[1] that allows to change the character of the governing heat equation from the integro-differential form to a purely differential one. In the case of limiting cases of purely scattering and purely absorbing media, the solution of the radiative transfer equation is exact. In the general case, we make a two-flux approximation. In all cases, we assume a linear transfer and use the Laplace transform
Deployable radiators for waste heat dissipation from Shuttle payloads
Cox, R. L.; Dietz, J. B.; Leach, J. W.
1976-01-01
Prototypes of two types of modularized, deployable radiator systems with a high degree of configuration and component commonality to minimize design, development and fabrication costs are currently under development for Shuttle payloads with high waste heat: a rigid radiator system which utilizes aluminum honeycomb panels that are deployed by a scissors mechanism; and two 'flexible' radiator systems which use panels constructed from flexible metal/dielectric composite materials that are deployed by 'unrolling' or 'extending' in orbit. Detail descriptions of these deployable radiator systems along with design and performance features are presented.
Radiation and Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere: A Comprehensive Approach on a Molecular Basis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann Harde
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the interaction of infrared active molecules in the atmosphere with their own thermal background radiation as well as with radiation from an external blackbody radiator. We show that the background radiation can be well understood only in terms of the spontaneous emission of the molecules. The radiation and heat transfer processes in the atmosphere are described by rate equations which are solved numerically for typical conditions as found in the troposphere and stratosphere, showing the conversion of heat to radiation and vice versa. Consideration of the interaction processes on a molecular scale allows to develop a comprehensive theoretical concept for the description of the radiation transfer in the atmosphere. A generalized form of the radiation transfer equation is presented, which covers both limiting cases of thin and dense atmospheres and allows a continuous transition from low to high densities, controlled by a density dependent parameter. Simulations of the up- and down-welling radiation and its interaction with the most prominent greenhouse gases water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone in the atmosphere are presented. The radiative forcing at doubled CO2 concentration is found to be 30% smaller than the IPCC-value.
Radiation dosimetry of a conformal heat-brachytherapy applicator.
Taschereau, Richard; Stauffer, Paul R; Hsu, I-Chow; Schlorff, Jaime L; Milligan, Andrew J; Pouliot, Jean
2004-08-01
The purpose of this paper is to report the radiation dosimetric characteristics of a new combination applicator for delivering heat and radiation simultaneously to large area superficial disease conformal printed circuit board microwave antenna array (for heat generation), and a body-conforming 5-10 mm thick temperature-controlled water bolus. The rationale for applying both modalities simultaneously includes the potential for significantly higher response rate due to enhanced synergism of modalities, and lower peak toxicity due to temporal extension of heat and radiation induced toxicities. Treatment plans and radiation dosimetry are calculated with IPSA (an optimization tool developed at UCSF) for 15 x 15 cm(2) and 35 x 24 cm(2) applicators, lesion thicknesses of 5 to 15 mm, flat and curved surfaces, and catheter separation of 5 and 10 mm. The effect on skin dose of bolus thickness and presence of thin copper antenna structures between radiation source and tissue are also evaluated. Results demonstrate the ability of the applicator to provide conformal radiation dose coverage for up to 15 mm deep target volumes under the applicator. For clinically acceptable plans, tumor coverage is > 98%, homogeneity index > 0.95 and the percentage of normal tissue irradiated is antenna array is of the order 0.25% and secondary electron emissions are absorbed completely within 5 mm of water bolus and plastic layers. Both phenomena can then be neglected in dose calculations allowing commercial software to be used for treatment planning. This novel applicator should prove useful for the treatment of diffuse chestwall disease located over contoured anatomy that may be difficult to treat with single field external beam therapy. By delivering heat and radiation simultaneously, increased synergism is expected with a TER in the range of 2-5. Lowering radiation dose by an equivalent factor may produce lower radiation toxicity with similar efficacy, while preserving the option of
Radiation Heat Transfer Procedures for Space-Related Applications
Chai, John C.
2000-01-01
Over the last contract year, a numerical procedure for combined conduction-radiation heat transfer using unstructured grids has been developed. As a result of this research, one paper has been published in the Numerical Heat Transfer Journal. One paper has been accepted for presentation at the International Center for Heat and Mass Transfer's International Symposium on Computational Heat Transfer to be held in Australia next year. A journal paper is under review by my NASA's contact. A conference paper for the ASME National Heat Transfer conference is under preparation. In summary, a total of four (4) papers (two journal and two conference) have been published, accepted or are under preparation. There are two (2) to three (3) more papers to be written for the project. In addition to the above publications, one book chapter, one journal paper and six conference papers have been published as a result of this project. Over the last contract year, the research project resulted in one Ph.D. thesis and partially supported another Ph.D. student. My NASA contact and myself have formulated radiation heat transfer procedures for materials with different indices of refraction and for combined conduction-radiation heat transfer. We are trying to find other applications for the procedures developed under this grant.
Radiative heat transfer by the Monte Carlo method
Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Yang, Wen-Jei; Kudo, Kazuhiko
1995-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and applications of radiative heat transfer used in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering, and can serve as a reference book for engineers and scientists in researchand development. A PC disk containing software for numerical analyses by the Monte Carlo method is included to provide hands-on practice in analyzing actual radiative heat transfer problems.Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than journals or texts usually allow.Key Features* Offers solution methods for integro-differential formulation to help avoid difficulties* Includes a computer disk for numerical analyses by PC* Discusses energy absorption by gas and scattering effects by particles* Treats non-gray radiative gases* Provides example problems for direct applications in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyrboel, Susanne
1998-05-01
Fibrous materials are some of the most widely used materials for thermal insulation. In this project the focus of interest has been on fibrous materials for building application. Interest in improving the thermal properties of insulation materials is increasing as legislation is being tightened to reduce the overall energy consumption. A knowledge of the individual heat transfer mechanisms - whereby heat is transferred within a particular material is an essential tool to improve continuously the thermal properties of the material. Heat is transferred in fibrous materials by four different transfer mechanisms: conduction through air, conduction through fibres, thermal radiation and convection. In a particular temperature range the conduction through air can be regarded as a constant, and conduction through fibres is an insignificant part of the total heat transfer. Radiation, however, constitutes 25-40% of the total heat transfer in light fibrous materials. In Denmark and a number of other countries convection in fibrous materials is considered as non-existent when calculating heat transmission as well as when designing building structures. Two heat transfer mechanisms have been the focus of the current project: radiation heat transfer and convection. The radiation analysis serves to develop a model that can be used in further work to gain a wider knowledge of the way in which the morphology of the fibrous material, i.e. fibre diameter distribution, fibre orientation distribution etc., influences the radiation heat transfer under different conditions. The convection investigation serves to examine whether considering convection as non-existent is a fair assumption to use in present and future building structures. The assumption applied in practically is that convection makes a notable difference only in very thick insulation, at external temperatures below -20 deg. C, and at very low densities. For lager thickness dimensions the resulting heat transfer through the
Computation of Radiation Heat Transfer in Aeroengine Combustors
Patankar, S. V.
1996-01-01
In this report the highlights of the research completed for the NASA are summarized. This research has been completed in the form of two Ph.D. theses by Chai (1994) and Parthasarathy (1996). Readers are referred to these theses for a complete details of the work and lists of references. In the following sections, first objectives of this research are introduced, then the finite-volume method for radiation heat transfer is described, and finally computations of radiative heat transfer in non-gray participating media is presented.
Radiation and Heat Resistance of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in Meats
1978-01-23
growth 7 Vacuum packaging and impact on growth of resistant isolates .... 7 Effect of fat content of meat on radiation and heat resistance of...approximately 10 cells per ml. Storage for culture main- tenance after growth was at 3-5*C. Vacuum packaging and impact on growth of resistant isolates...sensitive to reduced oxygen occur- ring with vacuum packaging of foods (Maxcy et al., 1976). Furthermore, most of the radiation-resiscant M-A were
Galerkin method for solving combined radiative and conductive heat transfer
Ghattassi, Mohamed; Roche, Jean Rodolphe; Asllanaj, Fatmir; Boutayeb, Mohamed
2016-01-01
International audience; This article deals with a numerical solution for combined radiation and conduction heat transfer in a grey absorbing and emitting medium applied to a two-dimensional domain using triangular meshes. The radiative transfer equation was solved using the high order Discontinuous Galerkin method with an upwind numerical flux. The energy equation was discretized using a high order finite element method. Stability and error analysis were performed for the Discontinuous Galerk...
HEAT SHRINKING BEHAVIOUR OF γ-RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Yuchen; JIA Lianda; SONG Yongxian; WU Suyun; LI Lixia; CHEN Donglin
1988-01-01
Heat shrinking material of γ-radiation crosslinked polyethylene is widely used for various application in industry. In this study, DSC, TMA, WAXD and density measurement techniques were used to investigate the influence of MI and thermal history of LDPE on the effectiveness of network formation. Based on the results of heat stretching and heat shrinkage tests, it is found that the formation of a network as perfect as possible is indispensable to the irradiated material if good heat shrinkage property is desired. To this end, quenching technique and polyethylene with appropriate MI must be used so that an effective radiation effect will be obtained with a minimum amount of radiation dose. In spite of that the mechanical property of the irradiated polyethylene in the rubbery state is basically in agreement with the classical expression of the theory of high elasticity, only about90% shrinkage can be reached. Besides, the heat shrinkage temperature Ts and the % shrinkage S are both related to the radiation dose.
Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Jingzhi, E-mail: jzwu@live.nuc.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, Shanxi (China)
2016-02-15
Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.
Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age
2017-02-01
The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.
Thermotronics. Towards nanocircuits to manage radiative heat flux
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Palaiseau (France). Lab. Charles Fabry; Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Biehs, Svend-Age [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2017-05-01
The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20{sup th} century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.
Application of entransy dissipation extremum principle in radiative heat transfer optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Jing; LIANG XinGang
2008-01-01
The concepts of entransy flux and entransy dissipation in radiative heat transfer were introduced based on the analogy with heat conduction and heat convection processes. Entransy will be partially dissipated during the radiative heat transfer processes due to the irreversibility. The extremum principle of entransy dissipation was developed for optimizing radiative heat transfer processes. This principle states that for a fixed boundary temperature the radiative heat transfer is optimized when the entransy dissipation is maximized, while for a fixed boundary heat flux the radiative heat transfer process is optimized when the entransy dissipation is minimized. Finally, examples for the application of the entransy dissipation extre-mum principle are presented.
Application of entransy dissipation extremum principle in radiative heat transfer optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The concepts of entransy flux and entransy dissipation in radiative heat transfer were introduced based on the analogy with heat conduction and heat convection processes. Entransy will be partially dissipated during the radiative heat transfer processes due to the irreversibility. The extremum principle of entransy dissipation was developed for optimizing radiative heat transfer processes. This principle states that for a fixed boundary temperature the radiative heat transfer is optimized when the entransy dissipation is maximized, while for a fixed boundary heat flux the radiative heat transfer process is optimized when the entransy dissipation is minimized. Finally, examples for the application of the entransy dissipation extre- mum principle are presented.
Gleckler, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Boer, G.; Colman, R.; Dix, M.; Galin, V.; Helfand, M.; Kiehl, J.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, W.
1995-01-01
This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.
On the net radiation method for heat transfer
Micco, C D
2003-01-01
A simplifying approach for calculating the radiant energy is achieved by introducing the concept of net transmittance, resulting in a novel variation of the net radiation method that provides an easy way for solving a variety of situations. In particular, a closed form for the net radiation between two grey plates through a radiation shield formed by a series of partially transparent partially reflecting partially absorbing plates is found. In addition, the method is generalized to cylindrical and spherical geometries.
Parametric Study of Mixed Convective RadiativeHeat Transfer in an Inclined Annulus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raed G. Saihood
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The steady state laminar mixed convection and radiation through inclined rectangular duct with an interior circular tube is investigated numerically for a thermally and hydrodynamicaly fully developed flow. The two heat transfer mechanisms of convection and radiation are treated independently and simultaneously. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations. These equations are normalized and solved using the Vorticity-Stream function and the Body Fitted Coordinates (B.F.C methods. The finite difference approach with the Line Successive Over-Relaxation (LSOR method is used to obtain all the computational results. The (B.F.C method is used to generate the grid of the problem. A computer program (Fortran 90 is built to calculate the steady state Nusselt number (Nu for Aspect Ratio AR (0.55-1 and Geometry Ratio GR (0.1-0.9. The fluid Prandtl number is 0.7, Rayleigh number Ra = 400, Reynolds number Re = 100, Optical Thickness (0 ≤ t ≤ 10, Conduction- Radiation parameter (0 ≤ N ≤ 100 and Inclination angle λ = 45. For the range of parameters considered, results show that radiation enhance heat transfer. It is also indicated in the results that heat transfer from the surface of the circle exceeds that of the rectangular duct. Generally, Nu is increased with increasing GR, t and N but it decreased with AR increase. When the radiation effect added to the heat transfer mechanism, the heat transfer rate increased. This effect increased with increasing in GR and decreasing with AR. The increasing in radiation properties lead to increase the radiation effect. Tecplot 7 program was used to plot the curves which cleared these relations and isotherms and streamlines which illustrate the behavior of air through the channel and its variation with other parameters. A correlation equation is concluded to describe the radiation effect. Comparison of the results with the previous work shows a good agreement.
Radiative heat conduction and the magnetorotational instability
Araya-Gochez, R A; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08329.x
2004-01-01
A photon or a neutrino gas, semicontained by a non-diffusive particle species through scattering, comprises a rather peculiar magnetohydrodynamic fluid where the magnetic field is truly frozen only to the comoving volume associated with the mass density. Although radiative diffusion precludes a formal adiabatic treatment of compressive perturbations, we cast the energy equation in quasi- adiabatic form by assuming a negligible rate of energy exchange among species on the time-scale of the perturbation. This leads to a simplified dispersion relation for toroidal, non-axisymmetric magnetorotational modes when the accretion disc has comparable stress contributions from diffusive and non-diffusive components. The properties of the modes of fastest growth are shown to depend strongly on the compressibility of the mode, with a reduction in growth rate consistent with the results of Blaes & Socrates for axisymmetric modes. A clumpy disc structure is anticipated on the basis of the polarization properties of the ...
Heat Induced Damage Detection by Terahertz (THz) Radiation
Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Wu, Ziran; Xin, Hao
2011-06-01
Terahertz (THz) and sub-terahertz imaging and spectroscopy are becoming increasingly popular nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage detection and characterization of materials. THz radiation is being used for inspecting ceramic foam tiles used in TPS (Thermal Protection System), thick polymer composites and polymer tiles that are not good conductors of ultrasonic waves. Capability of THz electromagnetic waves in detecting heat induced damage in porous materials is investigated in this paper. Porous pumice stone blocks are subjected to long time heat exposures to produce heat induced damage in the block. The dielectric properties extracted from THz TDS (Time Domain Spectroscopy) measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure. Experimental results show noticeable and consistent change in dielectric properties with increasing levels of heat exposure, well before its melting point.
Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology
Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...
Qiu, Yan; Tian, Maocheng; Guo, Zhixiong
2013-03-01
A three-dimensional numerical study was made to investigate effects of fin angle, fin surface emissivity, and tube wall temperature on heat transfer enhancement for a longitudinal externally-finned tube placed vertically in a small chamber. The numerical model was first validated through comparison with experimental measurements and the appropriateness of general boundary conditions was examined. The numerical results show that the mean Nusselt number increases with Rayleigh number for all the fin angles investigated. The maximum heat transfer rate per mass occurs when the fin angle is about 60° for fin surface emissivity between 0.7 and 0.8 and 55° when the surface emissivity increases to 0.9. With increasing tube wall temperature, both the natural convection and radiation heat transfer are enhanced, but the fraction of radiation heat transfer decreases in the temperature range studied. Radiation fraction increases with increasing fin surface emissivity. Both convection and radiation heat transfer modes are important.
Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.
Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.
Heat induced damage detection in composite materials by terahertz radiation
Radzieński, Maciej; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Ostachowicz, Wiesław
2015-03-01
In recent years electromagnetic Terahertz (THz) radiation or T-ray has been increasingly used for nondestructive evaluation of various materials such as polymer composites and porous foam tiles in which ultrasonic waves cannot penetrate but T-ray can. Most of these investigations have been limited to mechanical damage detection like inclusions, cracks, delaminations etc. So far only a few investigations have been reported on heat induced damage detection. Unlike mechanical damage the heat induced damage does not have a clear interface between the damaged part and the surrounding intact material from which electromagnetic waves can be reflected back. Difficulties associated with the heat induced damage detection in composite materials using T-ray are discussed in detail in this paper. T-ray measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure of composite specimens.
Makinde, O. D.; Chinyoka, T.
2010-12-01
This present study consists of a numerical investigation of transient heat transfer in channel flow of an electrically conducting variable viscosity Boussinesq fluid in the presence of a magnetic field and thermal radiation. The temperature dependent nature of viscosity is assumed to follow an exponentially model and the system exchanges heat with the ambient following Newton's law of cooling. The governing nonlinear equations of momentum and energy transport are solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, fluid temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for various parametric values. Our results reveal that combined effect of thermal radiation, magnetic field, viscosity variation and convective cooling have significant impact in controlling the rate of heat transfer in the boundary layer region.
Thermal Radiation of a General Non-stationary Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨成全; 任秦安; 赵峥
1994-01-01
The thermal radiation of the most general non-stationary black holes is discussed in this paper.The universal representatives determining the location of an event horizon and the temperature function are given.
Generalization of the Force Approach to Radiation Reaction
Lopez, Gustavo V
2016-01-01
A generalization of the force approach to radiation reaction is given, taken into consideration an arbitrary motion of the charged particle . The expression obtained brings about the expression already given for the linear an the circular acceleration cases.
MICROWAVE RADIATIONS FOR HEAT-SETTING OF POLYESTER FIBERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajit V.Gore
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The use of radio and microwave frequency is gainingimportance for industrial applications such asheating, drying, and other processing. The mostimportant advantage of using microwave is that it isnon-contact or localized heating and the heat isproduced within the material. This can be much moreeffective than indirect heating where the heatpropagation is by heat conduction through thematerial. We have been investigating the influence ofmicrowave radiation on different fibers for the lastfew years. In the present investigation we usedmicrowave frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate itseffect on polyester fibers. The polyester fibers wereheat set in air as well as a liquid, which acted as alossy substances. The liquid was chosen on the basisof earlier experiments, which showed the maximumeffect. A comparative study was also carried outusing conventional heating in silicone oil.Using the method of X-ray Diffraction (XRD wecalculated the changes in % crystallinity andorientation. It was found that as the time of treatmentunder microwave radiation increased from 15 sec. to120 sec. the order factor was found to increase from0.32 to 0.71.The crystalline orientation as determinedfrom the azimuthal scan was also found to increase.Such structural changes can be highly beneficial forthe processing of fabric in industry. The microwaveradiation process is fast, reliable and energy saving.
Analytical Heat Transfer Modeling of a New Radiation Calorimeter
Ndong, Elysée Obame; Aitken, Frédéric
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from -50 {\\deg}C to 150 {\\deg}C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ~1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.
Radiative properties of advanced spacecraft heat shield materials
Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.; Mcnab, T. K.
1983-01-01
Experimental results are presented to show the effects of simulated reentry exposure by convective heating and by radiant heating on spectral and total emittance of statically oxidized Inconel 617 and Haynes HS188 superalloys to 1260 K and a silicide coatea (R512E) columbium 752 alloy to 1590 K. Convective heating exposures were conducted in a supersonic arc plasma wind tunnel using a wedge-shaped specimen configuration. Radiant tests were conducted at a pressure of .003 atmospheres of dry air at a flow velocity of several meters per second. Convective heating specimens were subjected to 8, 20, and 38 15-min heating cycles, and radiant heating specimens were tested for 10, 20, 50, and 100 30-min heating cycles. Changes in radiative properties are explained in terms of changes in composition resulting from simulated reentry tests. The methods used to evaluate morphological, compositional and crystallographic changes include: Auger electron spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; and electron microprobe analysis.
Energetics and the resistive tearing mode - Effects of Joule heating and radiation
Steinolfson, R. S.
1983-01-01
The contribution of energy flux to the dynamics of magnetic field reconnection is analytically studied in order to determine the influence of Joule heating and radiation on the linear development of the tearing instability in slab geometry. A temperature-dependent Coulomb-like resistivity is used to provide the coupling between the dynamics and the energy equation. Analytical expressions are derived for the growth rates utilizing constant-psi and long-wavelength approximations. The solutions indicate the occurrence of several modes in addition to the usual tearing mode, several of which have relatively slow, complex growth rates. At large values of the magnetic Reynolds number, there are at least two modes with purely exponential growth when the radiative loss decreases with increasing temperature. If the radiation is neglected, the Joule heating alone also results in two modes with real, positive growth at large S. Below a particular value of S, all the modes are generally stabilized.
Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,
2016-10-01
Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.
Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanhong Wang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.
Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)
Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.
1985-08-01
The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.
A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.
Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,
2016-10-01
Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.
Heat engineering characteristics of the radiator for effective electronic equipment cooling systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudenko A. I.
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of heat transfer charac-teristics research of the radiator on basis of a heat pipe for cooling of personal computer elements. It is determined that using acetone and ethanol as heat carriers under heat flow density q4·104 W/m2 is preferable. It is shown that the introduced radiators are considerably more effective than the radiators of conventional design with flat heat exchange surface with a rectangle plate fin.
The influence of a radiated heat exchanger surface on heat transfer
Morel, Sławomir
2015-09-01
The experiment leads to establish the influence of radiated surface development heat exchangers on the values of heat flux transferred with water flowing through the exchangers and placed in electric furnace chamber. The values of emissivity coefficients are given for the investigated metal and ceramic coatings. Analytical calculations have been made for the effect of the heating medium (flame) - uncoated wall and then heating medium (flame) - coated wall reciprocal emissivity coefficients. Analysis of the values of exchanged heat flux were also realized. Based on the measurement results for the base coating properties, these most suitable for spraying the walls of furnaces and heat exchangers were selected, and determined by the intensification of heat exchange effect. These coatings were used to spray the walls of a laboratory waste-heat boiler, and then measurements of fluxes of heat absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the boiler tubes covered with different type coatings were made. Laboratory tests and calculations were also confirmed by the results of full-scale operation on the metallurgical equipment.
The influence of a radiated heat exchanger surface on heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morel Sławomir
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The experiment leads to establish the influence of radiated surface development heat exchangers on the values of heat flux transferred with water flowing through the exchangers and placed in electric furnace chamber. The values of emissivity coefficients are given for the investigated metal and ceramic coatings. Analytical calculations have been made for the effect of the heating medium (flame – uncoated wall and then heating medium (flame – coated wall reciprocal emissivity coefficients. Analysis of the values of exchanged heat flux were also realized. Based on the measurement results for the base coating properties, these most suitable for spraying the walls of furnaces and heat exchangers were selected, and determined by the intensification of heat exchange effect. These coatings were used to spray the walls of a laboratory waste-heat boiler, and then measurements of fluxes of heat absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the boiler tubes covered with different type coatings were made. Laboratory tests and calculations were also confirmed by the results of full-scale operation on the metallurgical equipment.
Mesoscopic near-field radiative heat transfer at low temperatures
Maasilta, Ilari; Geng, Zhuoran; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Koppinen, Panu
2015-03-01
Near-field radiative heat transfer has mostly been discussed at room temperatures and/or macroscopic scale geometries. Here, we discuss our recent theoretical and experimental advances in understanding near-field transfer at ultra-low temperatures below 1K. As the thermal wavelengths increase with lowering temperature, we show that with sensitive tunnel junction bolometers it is possible to study near-field transfer up to distances ~ 10 μm currently, even though the power levels are low. In addition, these type of experiments correspond to the extreme near-field limit, as the near-field region starts at ~ mm distances at 0.1 K, and could have theoretical power enhancement factors of the order of 1010. Preliminary results on heat transfer between two parallel metallic wires are presented. We also comment on possible areas were such heat transfer might be relevant, such as densely packed arrays of low-temperature detectors.
Thermodynamic framework for a generalized heat transport equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Yangyu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized heat transport equation including relaxational, nonlocal and nonlinear effects is provided, which contains diverse previous phenomenological models as particular cases. The aim of the present work is to establish an extended irreversible thermodynamic framework, with generalized expressions of entropy and entropy flux. Nonlinear thermodynamic force-flux relation is proposed as an extension of the usual linear one, giving rise to the nonlinear terms in the heat transport equation and ensuring compatibility with the second law. Several previous results are recovered in the linear case, and some additional results related to nonlinear terms are also obtained.
Application of coupled mode theory on radiative heat transfer between layered Lorentz materials
Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo
2017-05-01
The coupled mode theory (CMT) provides a simple and clear framework to analyze the radiation energy exchange between reservoirs. We apply CMT to analyze the radiative heat transfer between layered Lorentz materials whose dielectric functions can be approximated by the Lorentz oscillator model. By comparing the transmissivity computed by the exact solution to that computed by CMT, we find that CMT generally gives a good approximation for this class of materials. The biggest advantage of CMT analysis, in our opinion, is that only the (complex) resonant energies are needed to obtain the radiation energy transfer; the knowledge of the spatial profile of resonances is not required. Several issues, including how to choose the resonant modes, what these modes represent, and the limitation of this method, are discussed. Finally, we also apply the CMT method to the electronic systems, demonstrating the generality of this formalism.
Kumar, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Moon, Y.-J.
2016-06-01
Standing long-period (with periods longer than several minutes) oscillations in large, hot (with a temperature higher than 3 MK) coronal loops have been observed as the quasi-periodic modulation of the EUV and microwave intensity emission and the Doppler shift of coronal emission lines, and they have been interpreted as standing slow magnetoacoustic (longitudinal) oscillations. Quasi-periodic pulsations of shorter periods, detected in thermal and non-thermal emissions in solar flares could be produced by a similar mechanism. We present theoretical modeling of the standing slow magnetoacoustic mode, showing that this mode of oscillation is highly sensitive to peculiarities of the radiative cooling and heating function. We generalized the theoretical model of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in a hot plasma, including the effects of the radiative losses and accounting for plasma heating. The heating mechanism is not specified and taken empirically to compensate the cooling by radiation and thermal conduction. It is shown that the evolution of the oscillations is described by a generalized Burgers equation. The numerical solution of an initial value problem for the evolutionary equation demonstrates that different dependences of the radiative cooling and plasma heating on the temperature lead to different regimes of the oscillations, including growing, quasi-stationary, and rapidly decaying. Our findings provide a theoretical foundation for probing the coronal heating function and may explain the observations of decayless long-period, quasi-periodic pulsations in flares. The hydrodynamic approach employed in this study should be considered with caution in the modeling of non-thermal emission associated with flares, because it misses potentially important non-hydrodynamic effects.
Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael J Iacono
2011-04-07
This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.
Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test
Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang
2016-06-01
Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.
Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Paul, C.; Sircar, A.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
Radiation in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method. DOE, NSF.
Modeling Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in Engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-26
Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a full-load (peak pressure ~200 bar) heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.
Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.
1979-01-01
The influence of change in the precursor region flow properties on the entire shock layer flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body was investigated. The flow in the shock layer was assumed to be steady, axisymmetric, and viscous. Both the chemical equilibrium and the nonequilibrium composition of the shock layer gas were considered. The effects of transitional range behavior were included in the analysis of high altitude entry conditions. Realistic thermophysical and radiation models were used, and results were obtained by employing the implicit finite difference technique in the shock layer and an iterative procedure for the entire shock layer precursor zone. Results obtained for a 45 degree angle hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicates that preheating the gas significantly increases the static pressure and temperature ahead of the shock for entry velocities exceeding 36 km/sec. The nonequilibrium radiative heating rate to the body is found to be significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating generally increases the radiative and convective heating of a body. That increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.
Slip Flow and Radiative Heat Transfer on a Convectively Heated Vertical Cylinder
Das, S.; Jana, R. N.; Makinde, O. D.
2017-05-01
An axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer slip flow of a viscous incompressible rarefied gas in a convectively heated vertical cylinder in the presence of thermal radiation is analyzed. The governing equations in cylindrical coordinates are transformed into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation. These transformed equations are then solved numerically, using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the gas velocity, temperature, as well as on the shear stress and heat transfer rate at the cylinder surface, are estimated.
Shape-Independent Limits to Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer.
Miller, Owen D; Johnson, Steven G; Rodriguez, Alejandro W
2015-11-13
We derive shape-independent limits to the spectral radiative heat transfer rate between two closely spaced bodies, generalizing the concept of a blackbody to the case of near-field energy transfer. Through conservation of energy and reciprocity, we show that each body of susceptibility χ can emit and absorb radiation at enhanced rates bounded by |χ|(2)/Im χ, optimally mediated by near-field photon transfer proportional to 1/d(2) across a separation distance d. Dipole-dipole and dipole-plate structures approach restricted versions of the limit, but common large-area structures do not exhibit the material enhancement factor and thus fall short of the general limit. By contrast, we find that particle arrays interacting in an idealized Born approximation (i.e., neglecting multiple scattering) exhibit both enhancement factors, suggesting the possibility of orders-of-magnitude improvement beyond previous designs and the potential for radiative heat transfer to be comparable to conductive heat transfer through air at room temperature, and significantly greater at higher temperatures.
Topological Angular Momentum and Radiative Heat Transport in Closed Orbits
Silveirinha, Mario G
2016-01-01
Here, we study the role of topological edge states of light in the transport of thermally generated radiation in a closed cavity at a thermodynamic equilibrium. It is shown that even in the zero temperature limit - when the field fluctuations are purely quantum mechanical - there is a persistent flow of electromagnetic momentum in the cavity in closed orbits, deeply rooted in the emergence of spatially separated unidirectional edge state channels. It is highlighted the electromagnetic orbital angular momentum of the system is nontrivial, and that the energy circulation is towards the same direction as that determined by incomplete cyclotron orbits near the cavity walls. Our findings open new inroads in topological photonics and suggest that topological states of light can determine novel paradigms in the context of radiative heat transport.
Chromospheric heating by acoustic waves compared to radiative cooling
Sobotka, M; Švanda, M; Jurčák, J; del Moro, D; Berrilli, F
2016-01-01
Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near a large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on October 15, 2008 in the lines Fe I 617.3 nm and Ca II 853.2 nm with the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer (IBIS) attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. Analyzing the Ca II observations with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.4" and 52 s, the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared with that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven 1D hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72 %. In quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only of about 15 %. In active areas with photospheric ma...
Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications
Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei
2016-01-01
Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.
Thermal self-oscillations in radiative heat exchange
Dyakov, Sergey; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min
2014-01-01
We report the effect of relaxation-type self-induced temperature oscillations in the system of two parallel plates of SiO$_2$ and VO$_2$ which exchange heat by thermal radiation in vacuum. The nonlinear feedback in the self-oscillating system is provided by metal-insulator transition in VO$_2$. Using the method of fluctuational electrodynamics we show that under the action of external laser of a constant power, the temperature of VO$_2$ plate oscillates around its phase transition value.
Absorption Measurement of Radiatively-Heated Low-z Mixture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Jia-Min; DING Yao-Nan; ZHANG Bao-Han; YANG Guo-Hong; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; ZHANG Wen-Hai; WANG Yao-Mei; YAN Jun; LI Jia-Ming
2001-01-01
High-resolution transmission spectra of radiatively-heated low-z C10H16O6 plasma have been measured on 'Xing-guang Ⅱ' laser facility by using a flat field grating spectrometer. Absorption lines of oxygen and carbon ions in the region of 1.6-5.0nm have been observed clearly and identified. Using the unresolved transition array model,we also calculated the transmission spectra of C10H16O6 plasma. The measured transmission spectrum has beencompared with the calculated one.
General analysis of dark radiation in sequestered string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)
2015-12-22
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kähler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kähler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. In this case, the simplest model with a shift-symmetric Higgs sector can suppress the excess of dark radiation ΔN{sub eff} to values as small as 0.14, in perfect agreement with current experimental bounds. Depending on the exact mass of the SUSY scalars all values in the range 0.14≲ΔN{sub eff}≲1.6 are allowed. Interestingly dark radiation overproduction can be avoided also in the absence of a Giudice-Masiero coupling.
Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon.
Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2009-01-01
International audience; In this letter, we revisit the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near-field heat transfer. We also analyse the flux and find that there is a doping level that maximizes the heat flux.
Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B
2012-01-01
The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.
Hawking radiation via tunnelling from general stationary axisymmetric black holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jing-Yi; Fan Jun-Hui
2007-01-01
Hawking radiation is viewed as a tunnelling process. In this way the emission rates of massless particles and massive particles tunnelling across the event horizon of general stationary axisymmetric black holes are calculated,separately. The emission spectra of these two different kinds of outgoing particles have the same functional form and both are consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Radiation dominated era and the power of general relativity
Corda, Christian
2012-01-01
An analysis in the framework of the radiation dominated era permits to put bounds on the weak modification of general relativity which arises from the Lagrangian R^{1+epsilon}. Such a theory has been recently discussed in various papers in the literature. The new bounds together with previous ones in the literature rule out this theory in an ultimate way.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nickell, T.W.
1988-01-01
This study numerically analyzes combined radiative and natural or forced convective heat transfer between vertical parallel plates with two-dimensional discrete heat sources. The numerical method was verified by comparing its results with other published experimental data and the agreement was excellent. It is shown that radiative heat transfer is a significant and useful mode of heat transfer in combination with both natural and forced convection in this situation and cannot be neglected. Radiative heat transfer accounted for 50-60% or more of the total heat transfer in some cases, and usually approximately 30-35% on the top of a discrete heat source. This fact can be used to advantage in the thermal design of electronic circuit boards.
Radiative heat transfer modelling in a PWR severe accident sequence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magali Zabiego; Florian Fichot [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - BP 3 - 13115 Saint-paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pablo Rubiolo [Westinghouse Science and Technology - 1344 Beulah Road - Pittsburgh - PA 15235 (United States)
2005-07-01
Full text of publication follows: The present study is devoted to the estimation of the radiative heat transfers during a severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor. In such a situation, the residual nuclear power released by the fuel rods can not be evacuated and heats up the core. As a result, the cylindrical rods and the structures initially composing the core undergo a degradation process: swelling, breaking or melting of the rods and structures and eventual collapse to form a heap of fragments called a debris bed. As the solid matrix loses its original shape, the core geometry continuously evolves from standing, regularly-spaced cylinders to a non-homogeneous system including deformed remaining rods and structures and debris particles. To predict this type of sequence, the ICARE/CATHARE software [1] is developed by IRSN. Since the temperatures can reach values greater than 3000 K, it was of major interest to provide the code with an accurate radiative transfer model usable whatever the geometry of the system. Considering the size of a reactor core compared to the mean penetration length of radiation, the core can be seen as an optically thick medium. This observation led us to use the diffusion approximation to treat the radiation propagation. In this approach, the radiative flux is calculated in a way similar to thermal conduction: q{sub r} = [K{sub e}].{nabla}T where [K{sub e}] is the equivalent conductivity tensor of the system accounting for thermal and radiative transfer. An homogenization technique is applied to estimate the equivalent conductivity. Given the temperature level, the radiative contribution to the equivalent conductivity tensor quickly becomes dominant. This model was described earlier in [2] in which it was shown that an equivalent conductivity can be continuously calculated in the system when the geometry evolves from standing regular cylinder rods to swollen or broken ones, surrounded or not by a film of liquid materials, to
Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating.
Wang, Bei; Khir, Ragab; Pan, Zhongli; El-Mashad, Hamed; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Ma, Haile; McHugh, Tara H; Qu, Wenjuan; Wu, Bengang
2014-09-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. flavus spores before the tests. The infected samples were heated by IR radiation to 60°C in less than 1 min, and then samples were tempered at 60°C for 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, or 120 min. High heating rates and corresponding high levels of moisture removal were achieved using IR heating. The highest total moisture removal was 5.3% for the fresh rice with an IMC of 27.0% after IR heating and then 120 min of tempering. IR heating followed by tempering for 120 min resulted in 2.5- and 8.3-log reductions of A. flavus spores in rough rice with the lowest and highest IMCs, respectively. To study the effect on disinfection of rewetting dried storage rice, the surface of the dry rice was rewetted to achieve IMCs of 14.7 to 19.4% (wet basis). The rewetting process for the dry rice had a significant effect on disinfection. IR heating followed by tempering for 60 min resulted in 7.2-log reductions in A. flavus on rewetted rough rice. The log-linear plus tail model was applied to estimate the tempering time needed to achieve a 5-log reduction of A. flavus in rice of different IMCs. At least 30 and 20 min of tempering were needed for fresh rice and rewetted rice, respectively, with the highest IMCs. The recommended conditions of simultaneous disinfection and drying for fresh rice was IR heating to 60°C followed by tempering for 120 min and natural cooling, resulting in a final MC of 16.5 to 22.0%, depending on the IMC. For the rewetted dry rice with an IMC of 19.4%, the recommended condition for disinfection and drying involved only 20 min of tempering. The final MC of the sample was 13.8%, which is a safe MC for storage rice.
A Simplified Scheme of the Generalized Layered Radiative Transfer Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, firstly, a simplified version (SGRTM) of the generalized layered radiative transfer model (GRTM) within the canopy, developed by us, is presented. It reduces the information requirement of inputted sky diffuse radiation, as well as of canopy morphology, and in turn saves computer resources. Results from the SGRTM agree perfectly with those of the GRTM. Secondly, by applying the linear superposition principle of the optics and by using the basic solutions of the GRTM for radiative transfer within the canopy under the condition of assumed zero soil reflectance, two sets of explicit analytical solutions of radiative transfer within the canopy with any soil reflectance magnitude are derived: one for incident diffuse, and the other for direct beam radiation. The explicit analytical solutions need two sets of basic solutions of canopy reflectance and transmittance under zero soil reflectance, run by the model for both diffuse and direct beam radiation. One set of basic solutions is the canopy reflectance αf (written as α1 for direct beam radiation) and transmittance βf (written as β1 for direction beam radiation) with zero soil reflectance for the downward radiation from above the canopy (i.e. sky), and the other set is the canopy reflectance (αb) and transmittanceβb for the upward radiation from below the canopy (i.e., ground). Under the condition of the same plant architecture in the vertical layers, and the same leaf adaxial and abaxial optical properties in the canopies for the uniform diffuse radiation, the explicit solutions need only one set of basic solutions, because under this condition the two basic solutions are equal, i.e., αf = αb and βf = βb. Using the explicit analytical solutions, the fractions of any kind of incident solar radiation reflected from (defined as surface albedo, or canopy reflectance),transmitted through (defined as canopy transmittance), and absorbed by (defined as canopy absorptance)the canopy and other properties
Concrete Hydration Heat Analysis for RCB Basemat Considering Solar Radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seong-Cheol; Son, Yong-Ki [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Cheol [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The NPP especially puts an emphasis on concrete durability for structural integrity. It has led to higher cementitious material contents, lower water-cementitious-material ratios, and deeper cover depth over reinforcing steel. These requirements have resulted in more concrete placements that are subject to high internal temperatures. The problem with high internal temperatures is the increase in the potential for thermal cracking that can decrease concrete's long-term durability and ultimate strength. Thermal cracking negates the benefits of less permeable concrete and deeper cover by providing a direct path for corrosion-causing agents to reach the reinforcing steel. The purpose of this study is to develop how to analyze and estimate accurately concrete hydration heat of the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane. An analysis method considering concrete placement sequence was studied and solar radiation effects on the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane were reviewed through the analytical method. In this study, the measured temperatures at the real scale structure and the analysis results of concrete hydration heat were compared. And thermal stress analysis was conducted. Through the analysis, it was found that concrete placement duration, sequence and solar radiation effects should be considered to get the accurate concrete peak temperature, maximum temperature differences and crack index.
Tensile and impact properties of General Atomics 832864 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Gazda, J.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
1998-09-01
A 1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was procured by General Atomics (GA) for the DIII-D radiative divertor program. To determine the mechanical properties of this alloy, tensile and Charpy tests were conducted on specimens prepared from pieces of 4.8-mm-thick as-rolled plates, a major product form for the DIII-D application. The tensile tests were conducted at three temperatures, 26, 280 and 380 C, the last two being the anticipated peak temperatures during DIII-D boronization and postvent bake-out, respectively. Results from these tests show that the tensile and impact properties of the 832864 heat are comparable to those of the other smaller V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy heats previously developed by the US Fusion Materials Program and that scale-up of vanadium alloy production can be successfully achieved as long as reasonable process control is implemented.
Generalized Performance Characteristics of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Huleihil
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A finite-time generic model to describe the behavior of real refrigeration systems is discussed. The model accounts for finite heat transfer rates, heat leaks, and friction as different sources of dissipation. The performance characteristics are cast in terms of cooling rate (r versus coefficient of performance (w. For comparison purposes, various types of refrigeration/heat pump systems are considered: the thermoelectric refrigerator, the reverse Brayton cycle, and the reverse Rankine cycle. Although the dissipation mechanisms are different (e.g., heat leak and Joule heating in the thermoelectric refrigerator, isentropic losses in the reverse Brayton cycle, and limits arising from the equation of state in the reverse Rankine cycle, the r−w characteristic curves have a general loop shape. There are four limiting types of operation: open circuit in which both r and w vanish in the limit of slow operation; short circuit in which again r and w vanish but in the limit of fast operation; maximum r; maximum w. The behavior of the considered systems is explained by means of the proposed model. The derived formulae could be used for a quick estimation of w and the temperatures of the working fluid at the hot and cold sides.
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.
Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction
Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani
2017-06-01
Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.
De Aquino, Fran
2011-01-01
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons' temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modu...
De Aquino, Fran
2011-01-01
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons' temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modu...
ESTIMATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF FOUNDRY WORKERS BY INFRARED (HEAT RADIATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Lazarenkov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The description of infrared radiations, their influence on human organism is given. The results of investigation of infrared (heat radiation intensity on the workers in foundries are given.
Generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves in heat conducting materials
Sharma, J. N.
2007-04-01
Keeping in view the applications of diffusion processes in geophysics and electronics industry, the aim of the present paper is to give a detail account of the plane harmonic generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves in heat conducting solids. According to the characteristic equation, three longitudinal waves namely, elastodiffusive (ED), mass diffusion (MD-mode) and thermodiffusive (TD-mode), can propagate in such solids in addition to transverse waves. The transverse waves get decoupled from rest of the fields and hence remain unaffected due to temperature change and mass diffusion effects. These waves travel without attenuation and dispersion. The other generalized thermoelastic diffusive waves are significantly influenced by the interacting fields and hence suffer both attenuation and dispersion. At low frequency mass diffusion and thermal waves do not exist but at high-frequency limits these waves propagate with infinite velocity being diffusive in character. Moreover, in the low-frequency regions, the disturbance is mainly dominant by mechanical process of transportation of energy and at high-frequency regions it is significantly dominated by a close to diffusive process (heat conduction or mass diffusion). Therefore, at low-frequency limits the waves like modes are identifiable with small amplitude waves in elastic materials that do not conduct heat. The general complex characteristic equation is solved by using irreducible case of Cardano's method with the help of DeMoivre's theorem in order to obtain phase speeds, attenuation coefficients and specific loss factor of energy dissipation of various modes. The propagation of waves in case of non-heat conducting solids is also discussed. Finally, the numerical solution is carried out for copper (solvent) and zinc (solute) materials and the obtained phase velocities, attenuation coefficients and specific loss factor of various thermoelastic diffusive waves are presented graphically.
K. S. Adegbie; F. I. Alao
2012-01-01
A mathematical model for thermal explosion in a combustible dusty gas containing fuel droplets with general Arrhenius reaction-rate laws, convective and radiative heat losses, and interphase heat exchange between gas and inert solid particles is investigated. The objective of the study is to examine the effects of interphase heat exchange between the gas and solid particles on (i) ignition of reacting gas, (ii) accumulation of heat by the solid particles during combustion process (iii) evapor...
Sadowski, A; Narayan, R; Abarca, D; McKinney, J C
2016-01-01
We present a numerical method which evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components -- ions and electrons -- which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a standard prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation, and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric spacetime of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low luminosity black hole accretion. ...
Neutrino Radiation Showing a Christodoulou Memory Effect in General Relativity
Bieri, Lydia
2013-01-01
We describe neutrino radiation in general relativity by introducing the energy-momentum tensor of a null fluid into the Einstein equations. Investigating the geometry and analysis at null infinity, we prove that a component of the null fluid enlarges the Christodoulou memory effect of gravitational waves. The description of neutrinos in general relativity as a null fluid can be regarded as a limiting case of a more general description using the massless limit of the Einstein-Vlasov system. The present authors with co-authors have work in progress to generalize the results of this paper using this more general description. Gigantic neutrino bursts occur in our universe in core-collapse supernovae and in the mergers of neutron star binaries.
Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.
1992-01-01
This paper focuses on the role of cloud- and surface-atmosphere forcing on the net radiation balance and their potential impact on the general circulation at climate time scales. The globally averaged cloud-forcing estimates and cloud sensitivity values taken from various recent studies are summarized. It is shown that the net radiative heating over the tropics is principally due to high clouds, while the net cooling in mid- and high latitudes is dominated by low and middle clouds.
Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. J. Morcrette
2007-05-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an
General Analysis of Dark Radiation in Sequestered String Models
Cicoli, Michele
2015-01-01
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kahler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kahler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. ...
Near field radiative heat transfer between two nonlocal dielectrics
Singer, F; Joulain, Karl
2015-01-01
We explore in the present work the near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel nonlocal dielectric planes by means of fluctuational electrodynamics. We use atheory for the nonlocal dielectric permittivityfunction proposed byHalevi and Fuchs. This theory has the advantage to includedifferent models performed in the literature. According to this theory, the nonlocal dielectric function is described by a Lorenz-Drude like single oscillator model, in which the spatial dispersion effects are represented by an additional term depending on the square of the total wavevector k. The theory takes into account the scattering of the electromagneticexcitation at the surface of the dielectric material, which leads to the need of additional boundary conditions in order to solve Maxwell's equations and treat the electromagnetic transmission problem. The additional boundary conditions appear as additional surface scattering parameters in the expressions of the surface impedances. It is shown that the...
Near-field radiative heat transfer between metasurfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dai, Jin; Dyakov, Sergey A.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-01-01
Metamaterials possess artificial bulk and surface electromagnetic states. Tamed dispersion properties of surface waves allow one to achieve a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer (RHT) process between two closely spaced objects. We numerically demonstrate enhanced RHT between two...... two-dimensional grooved metal plates by a full-wave scattering approach. The enhancement originates from both transverse-magnetic spoof surface-plasmon polaritons and a series of transverse-electric bonding- and anti-bonding-waveguide modes at surfaces. The RHT spectrum is frequency selective...... and highly geometrically tailorable. Our simulation also reveals thermally excited nonresonant surface waves in constituent metallic materials may play a prevailing role for RHT at an extremely small separation between two metal plates, rendering metamaterial modes insignificant for the energy...
Radiative and free convective heat transfer from a containerless sphere
Johnson, K.
1979-01-01
A mathematical model is derived for heat loss due to radiation and free convection for a small copper sphere (approximately 0.3 to 0.4 cm diameter) cooled by a helium-argon gas mixture. A FORTRAN program written to simplify calculations and extend the range of applicability to experimentation is presented. Pressures used were less than 400 torr, and resulting temperatures ranged from 500 to 4600 K. Comparison of results for initial cooling by the gas mixture with experimental data showed a 5 percent error for temperature values and a 2.7 percent error for the temperature difference caused by the cooling. Results indicate that the accuracy could be increased significantly by using better estimates for thermal conductivities.
Thermal self-oscillations in radiative heat exchange
Dyakov, S. A.; Dai, J.; Yan, M.; Qiu, M.
2015-02-01
We report the effect of relaxation-type self-induced temperature oscillations in the system of two parallel plates of SiO2 and VO2 which exchange heat by thermal radiation in vacuum. The non-linear feedback in the self-oscillating system is provided by metal-insulator transition in VO2. Using the method of fluctuational electrodynamics, we show that under the action of an external laser of a constant power, the temperature of VO2 plate oscillates around its phase transition value. The period and amplitude of oscillations depend on the geometry of the structure. We found that at 500 nm vacuum gap separating bulk SiO2 plate and 50 nm thick VO2 plate, the period of self-oscillations is 2 s and the amplitude is 4 K, which is determined by phase switching at threshold temperatures of phase transition.
Split radiator design for heat rejection optimization for a waste heat recovery system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.
2016-10-18
A cooling system provides improved heat recovery by providing a split core radiator for both engine cooling and condenser cooling for a Rankine cycle (RC). The cooling system includes a radiator having a first cooling core portion and a second cooling core portion. An engine cooling loop is fluidly connected the second cooling core portion. A condenser of an RC has a cooling loop fluidly connected to the first cooling core portion. A valve is provided between the engine cooling loop and the condenser cooling loop adjustably control the flow of coolant in the condenser cooling loop into the engine cooling loop. The cooling system includes a controller communicatively coupled to the valve and adapted to determine a load requirement for the internal combustion engine and adjust the valve in accordance with the engine load requirement.
Holographic heat engines: general considerations and rotating black holes
Hennigar, Robie A.; McCarthy, Fiona; Ballon, Alvaro; Mann, Robert B.
2017-09-01
We perform the first study of holographic heat engines where the working material is a rotating black hole, obtaining exact results for the efficiency of a rectangular engine cycle. We also make general considerations in the context of benchmarking these engines on circular cycles. We find an exact expression that is valid for black holes with vanishing specific heat at constant volume and derive an upper bound, below the Carnot efficiency and independent of spacetime dimension, which holds for any black hole of this kind. We illustrate our results with applications to a variety of black holes, noting the effects of spacetime dimension, rotation, and higher curvature corrections on the efficiency of the cycle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S
2005-05-03
In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration,input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝Δ(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory,and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches,four maximum-efficiency branches,and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained,as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton’s heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective,and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG HanJiang; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui
2008-01-01
Optimal configuration of a class of endoreversible heat engines with fixed duration, input energy and radiative heat transfer law (q∝△(T4)) is determined. The optimal cycle that maximizes the efficiency of the heat engine is obtained by using opti-mal-control theory, and the differential equations are solved by the Taylor series expansion. It is shown that the optimal cycle has eight branches including two isothermal branches, four maximum-efficiency branches, and two adiabatic branches. The interval of each branch is obtained, as well as the solutions of the temperatures of the heat reservoirs and the working fluid. A numerical example is given. The obtained results are compared with those obtained with the Newton's heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, those with linear phe-nomenological heat transfer law for the maximum efficiency objective, and those with radiative heat transfer law for the maximum power output objective.
General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-08-08
This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.
1998-09-01
DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.
Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)
1991-01-01
The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.).
A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody
Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.
1993-01-01
A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.
Numerical modeling of the conduction and radiation heating in precision glass moulding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2012-01-01
and the temperature uniformity in the glass wafer are evaluated for both heating mechanisms. Subsequently, the approximate radiation heat loss from the glass wafer during cooling is calculated using both numerical and analytical methods and the temperature change in the glass wafer versus time is obtained...... wafer, heating can be performed by either conduction or radiation. The numerical simulation of these two heating mechanisms in the wafer based glass moulding process is the topic of the present paper. First, the transient heating of the glass wafer is simulated by the FEM software ABAQUS. Temperature...... dependent material data of the glass wafer are taken into account in the simulation to have a more realistic model of the material. Heating curves depicting temperature as a function of time inside the glass wafer are predicted for both radiation and conduction heating and based on that the heating time...
Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.
Conceptual approach of detonation wave direct initiation by external radiative heating of microparticles locally suspended in flammable gaseous mixture is proposed. Combustion waves and detonation initiation mechanisms in the congestion regions of microparticles heated by radiation are studied numerically. Necessary criteria on geometrical scales of gas-particles layer and spatial uniformity of particles distribution for successful detonation initiation are formulated.
Dai, Jin; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Yan, Min
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the possibility of ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer be- tween two metal plates patterned with tapered hyperbolic metamaterial arrays. It is shown that, by employing profile-patterned hyperbolic media, one can design photonic bands to populate a desired thermal radiation window, with a spectral density of modes much higher than what can be achieved with unstructured media. For nanometer-sized gaps between two plates, the modes occupy states both inside and outside the light cone, giving rise to ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer. Our study reveals that structured hyperbolic metamaterial offers unprecedented potential in achieving a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer.
Prediction of rocket plume radiative heating using backward Monte-Carlo method
Wang, K. C.
1993-01-01
A backward Monte-Carlo plume radiation code has been developed to predict rocket plume radiative heating to the rocket base region. This paper provides a description of this code and provides sample results. The code was used to predict radiative heating to various locations during test firings of 48-inch solid rocket motors at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Comparisons with test measurements are provided. Predictions of full scale sea level Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) plume radiative heating to the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) dome center were also made. A comparison with the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) measurements is also provided.
Simovski, Constantin; Maslovski, Stanislav; Nefedov, Igor; Tretyakov, Sergei
2013-06-17
Using our recently developed method we analyze the radiative heat transfer in micron-thick multilayer stacks of metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. The metamaterials are especially designed for prospective thermophotovoltaic systems. We show that the huge transfer of near-infrared thermal radiation across micron layers of metamaterials is achievable and can be optimized. We suggest an approach to the optimal design of such metamaterials taking into account high temperatures of the emitting medium and the heating of the photovoltaic medium by the low-frequency part of the radiation spectrum. We show that both huge values and frequency selectivity are achievable for the radiative heat transfer in hyperbolic multilayer stacks.
Self-similar solution of the subsonic radiative heat equations using a binary equation of state
Heizler, Shay I.; Shussman, Tomer; Malka, Elad
2016-01-01
Radiative subsonic heat waves, and their radiation driven shock waves, are important hydro-radiative phenomena. The high pressure, causes hot matter in the rear part of the heat wave to ablate backwards. At the front of the heat wave, this ablation pressure generates a shock wave which propagates ahead of the heat front. Although no self-similar solution of both the ablation and shock regions exists, a solution for the full problem was found in a previous work. Here, we use this model in orde...
Delcov, A.; Hodenkov, A.; Zhuikov, D.
2015-10-01
This paper covered the problem of assessing the effectiveness of the section of the fin-tube radiator of space thermal control system. The task of calculating the conjugate radiation-convective heat transfer is presented. The results of numerical simulation are described.
Generalized thermal resistance for convective heat transfer and its relation to entransy dissipation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Qun; REN JianXun
2008-01-01
In order to further analyze and optimize convective heat transfer process further, the concepts of heat flux weighted average heat temperature and heat flux weighted average heat temperature difference in multi-dimensional heat transfer system were introduced in this paper. The ratio of temperature difference to heat flux is defined as the generalized thermal resistance of convective heat transfer processes,and then the minimum thermal resistance theory for convective heat transfer optimization was developed. By analyzing the relationship between generalized thermal resistance and entansy dissipation in convective heat transfer processes, it can be concluded that the minimum thermal resistance theory equals the entransy dissipation extremum theory. Finally, a two-dimensional convective heat transfer process with constant wall temperature is taken as an example to illustrate the applicability of generalized thermal resistance to convective heat transfer process analysis and optimization.
Enhancement of heat radiative characteristics of coatings by ultra-attenuation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dehong Xia; Yonghong Wu
2004-01-01
The absorption process of radiative heat in its transmission medium and the effect of ultra-attenuation on the radiative characteristics are analyzed in detail. A method of ultra-attenuation to enhance the radiative characteristics of the medium is proposed. It is proved that decreasing the particle size of coatings can increase the transmission depth of radiative heat and get higher emissivity and absorptivity both theoretically and practically. Ultra-attenuation and nanocrystallization will bring a brilliant prospect to the development of radiative coatings.
Coaxial radiative and convective heat transfer in gray and nongray gases
Mattick, A. T.
1980-01-01
Coupled radiative and convective heat transfer is investigated for an absorbing gas flowing in a finite length channel and heated by blackbody radiation directed along the flow axis. The problem is formulated in one dimension and numerical solutions are obtained for the temperature profile of the gas and for the radiation escaping the channel entrance, assuming both gray and nongray absorption spectra. Due to radiation trapping, the flowing gas is found to have substantially smaller radiation losses for a given peak gas temperature than a solid surface that is radiatively heated to this temperature. A greenhouse effect is also evident whereby radiation losses are minimized for a gas having stronger absorption at long wavelengths.
Costa, G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Bonito, R.
2017-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in classical T Tauri stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free-fall velocity and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims: We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream, with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods: We developed a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray radiation. The latter term represents the heating of the infalling plasma due to the absorption of X-rays emitted from the post-shock region. Results: We found that the radiative heating of the pre-shock plasma plays a non-negligible role in the accretion phenomenon. In particular, the dense and cold plasma of the pre-shock accretion column is gradually heated up to a few 105K due to irradiation of X-rays arising from the shocked plasma at the impact region. This heating mechanism does not affect significantly the dynamics of the post-shock plasma. On the other hand, a region of radiatively heated gas (that we consider a precursor) forms in the unshocked accretion column and contributes significantly to UV emission. Our model naturally reproduces the luminosity of UV emission lines correlated to accretion and shows that most of the UV emission originates from the precursor.
Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications
Modest, Michael F
2016-01-01
This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.
Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Yu, Lifeng [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2014-03-15
Purpose: In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. Methods: The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Results: Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube
Temperature patterns in the gas infrared radiator heating area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurilenko N.I.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The obtained results of experimental studies provide the basis for the heat transfer mechanism specification on the studied conditions that are typical for many practical applications. It was proved appropriateness of the natural convection and heat conduction process simulation while analyzing the heat transfer in rectangular enclosures with the radiant heating sources at the high bound.
Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer under Temperature Gradients and Conductive Transfer
Jin, Weiliang; Messina, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.
2017-02-01
We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.
Near-field radiative heat transfer under temperature gradients and conductive transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Messina, Riccardo [CNRS-Univ. de Montpellier (France). Lab. Charles Coulomb
2017-05-01
We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.
Abraham Ekeroth, R. M.; García-Martín, A.; Cuevas, J. C.
2017-06-01
We present here a generalization of the thermal discrete dipole approximation (TDDA) that allows us to describe the near-field radiative heat transfer between finite objects of arbitrary shape that exhibit magneto-optical (MO) activity. We also extend the TDDA approach to describe the thermal emission of a finite object with and without MO activity. Our method is also valid for optically anisotropic materials described by an arbitrary permittivity tensor and we provide simple closed formulas for the basic thermal quantities that considerably simplify the implementation of the TDDA method. Moreover, we show that by employing our TDDA approach one can rigorously demonstrate Kirchhoff's radiation law relating the emissivity and absorptivity of an arbitrary MO object. Our work paves the way for the theoretical study of the active control of emission and radiative heat transfer between MO systems of arbitrary size and shape.
Effect of Joule heating and thermal radiation in flow of third grade fluid over radiative surface.
Hayat, Tasawar; Shafiq, Anum; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer in third grade fluid over an unsteady permeable stretching sheet. The transverse magnetic and electric fields in the momentum equations are considered. Thermal boundary layer equation includes both viscous and Ohmic dissipations. The related nonlinear partial differential system is reduced first into ordinary differential system and then solved for the series solutions. The dependence of velocity and temperature profiles on the various parameters are shown and discussed by sketching graphs. Expressions of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated and analyzed. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are tabulated and examined. It is observed that both velocity and temperature increases in presence of electric field. Further the temperature is increased due to the radiation parameter. Thermal boundary layer thickness increases by increasing Eckert number.
Effect of Joule heating and thermal radiation in flow of third grade fluid over radiative surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer in third grade fluid over an unsteady permeable stretching sheet. The transverse magnetic and electric fields in the momentum equations are considered. Thermal boundary layer equation includes both viscous and Ohmic dissipations. The related nonlinear partial differential system is reduced first into ordinary differential system and then solved for the series solutions. The dependence of velocity and temperature profiles on the various parameters are shown and discussed by sketching graphs. Expressions of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated and analyzed. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are tabulated and examined. It is observed that both velocity and temperature increases in presence of electric field. Further the temperature is increased due to the radiation parameter. Thermal boundary layer thickness increases by increasing Eckert number.
Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.
2000-08-02
A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.
Brandon, S.; Derby, J. J.
1992-01-01
In the present investigation of crystalline phase internal radiation and heat conduction during the vertical Bridgman growth of a YAG-like oxide crystal, where transport through the melt is dominated by convection and conduction, heat is also noted to be conducted through ampoule walls via natural convection and enclosure radiation. The results of a quasi-steady-state axisymmetric Galerkin FEM indicate that heat transfer through the system is powerfully affected by the optical absorption coefficient of the crystal. The coupling of internal radiation through the crystal with conduction through the ampoule walls promotes melt/crystal interface shapes that are highly reflected near the ampoule wall.
General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure
Do, Kyung Hyun
2016-01-01
After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, ...
Electricity eliminates rust from district heat pipes. The new deoxidation method works on radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonninen, R.; Leisio, C.
1996-11-01
Oxygen dissolving in district heating water through district heat pipes and pipe joints made of plastic corrodes many small and medium-size district heating systems, resulting in heat cuts in the buildings connected to these systems. IN some cases, corrosion products have even circulated back to district heating power plants, thus hampering heat generation in the worst of cases. People residing in blocks of flats where some radiator components are made of plastic also face a similar problem, though on a smaller scale. A small and efficient electrochemical deoxidation cell has now been invented to eliminate this nuisance, which occurs particularly in cold winter weather. (orig.)
Electricity eliminates rust from district heat pipes. The new deoxidation method works on radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonninen, R.; Leisio, C.
1996-11-01
Oxygen dissolving in district heating water through district heat pipes and pipe joints made of plastic corrodes many small and medium-size district heating systems, resulting in heat cuts in the buildings connected to these systems. IN some cases, corrosion products have even circulated back to district heating power plants, thus hampering heat generation in the worst of cases. People residing in blocks of flats where some radiator components are made of plastic also face a similar problem, though on a smaller scale. A small and efficient electrochemical deoxidation cell has now been invented to eliminate this nuisance, which occurs particularly in cold winter weather. (orig.)
Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew
2017-04-01
We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.
Radiation reaction in binary systems in general relativity
Kennefick, Daniel John
1997-09-01
This thesis is concerned with current problems in, and historical aspects of, the problem of radiation reaction in stellar binary systems in general relativity. Part I addresses current issues in the orbital evolution due to gravitational radiation damping of compact binaries. A particular focus is on the inspiral of small bodies orbiting large black holes, employing a perturbation formalism. In addition, the merger, at the end of the insprial, of comparable mass compact binaries, such as neutron star binaries is also discussed. The emphasis of Part I is on providing detailed descriptions of sources and signals with a view to optimising signal analysis in gravitational wave detectors, whether ground- or space- based interferometers, or resonant mass detectors. Part II of the thesis examines the historical controversies surrounding the problem of gravitational waves, and gravitational radiation damping in stellar binaries. In particular, it focuses on debates in the mid 20th-century on whether binary star systems would really exhibit this type of damping and emit gravitational waves, and on the 'quadrupole formula controversy' of the 1970s and 1980s, on the question whether the standard formular describing energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves was correctly derived for such systems. The study shed light on the role of analogy in science, especially where its use is controversial, on the importance of style in physics and on the problem of identity in science, as the use of history as a rhetorical device in controversial debate is examined. The concept of the Theoretician's Regress is introduced to explain the difficulty encountered by relativists in closing debate in this controversy, which persisted in one forms or another for several decades.
Pflug, I. J.
1973-01-01
The mechanistic basis of the synergetic effect of combined heat and radiation on microbial destruction was analyzed and results show that radiation intensity, temperature, and relative humidity are the determining factors. Dry heat resistance evaluation for selected bacterial spore crops indicates that different strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus demonstrate marked differences in resistance. Preliminary work to determine the effects of storage time, suspending medium, storage temperature and spore crop cleaning procedures on dry heat survival characteristics of Bacillus subtilis var. Niger, and dry heat resistance of natural microflora in soil particles is also reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU; Lei; FAN; Xi’an; HU; Xiaoming; ZHANG; Jianyi
2015-01-01
The cordierite-ferrites based infrared radiation composite materials were synthesized with Fe2O3, Mn O2, Cu O, Co2O3, and Mg2Al4Si5O18 powders as raw materials via microwave heating. The cordierite-ferrites based composite ceramics could be obtained via microwave heating at 1173 K for 1 h or 1473 K for 10 min, respectively. The lower synthesis temperature or the shorter heating time results in the smaller grain size of the composite ceramics obtained by microwave heating. The interplanar distance of cordierite becomes greater after microwave heating, indicating that the doping effect of transitional metal oxides on the cordierite is more efficient in microwave heating. The infrared radiation composite ceramics synthesized by microwave heating at 1473 K for 1 h exhibit the maximum emissivity of 0.9 in the band range of 6-8 μm at 1073 K.
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shashikumar, N. S.; Shehzad, S. A.
2017-10-01
Present study addresses the Marangoni transport of dissipating SWCNT and MWCNT nanofluids under the influence of magnetic force and radiation. A novel exponential space dependent heat source is considered. The flow is generated due to a disk with surface tension created by thermal gradient. The partial differential equations system governing the flow of carbon-water nanoliquids and heat transfer through Marangoni convection is established. Subsequent system is reduced to nonlinear ordinary boundary value problem via generalized Karman transformations. Numerical solutions are developed of the arising nonlinear problem via Runge-Kutta based shooting approach. Impacts of embedded parameters are focused on Nusselt number, velocity and heat transport distributions through graphical illustrations. Our simulations figured out that the heat transfer rate increased via Marangoni convection; however it is decayed by applied magnetic force. The temperature of SWCNT-H2O nanoliquid dominates MWCNT-H2O nanoliquid.
Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.
2010-01-01
The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were
Influence of Heat-radiating on Multi-photon Compton Scattering High-energy Electron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO Dong-shan; WANG Xin-min
2007-01-01
Using the model of the inverse Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat-radiation photons, the influence of heat-radiating photons on multi-photon Compton scattering high-energy electrons is studied . The results show that the energy loss, power loss, light resistance and light pressure of the high-energy electron formed by heat radiating are all proportional to the temperature T4 of the vacuum cavity of the electron,the Lorentz factor γ2 of the high-energy electrons, the scattering section of the electron and the number of photons acting at the same time with high-energy electrons. A good method for lessening the energy loss of the high-energy electron by using the one-photon Compton scattering between high-energy electrons and heat radiation photons is proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaojun Xia, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A multistage endoreversible Carnot heat engine system operating with a finite thermal capacity high-temperature black photon fluid reservoir and the heat transfer law is investigated in this paper. Optimal control theory is applied to derive the continuous Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations, which determine the optimal fluid temperature configurations for maximum power output under the conditions of fixed initial time and fixed initial temperature of the driving fluid. Based on the general optimization results, the analytical solution for the case with pseudo-Newtonian heat transfer law is further obtained. Since there are no analytical solutions for the radiative heat transfer law, the continuous HJB equations are discretized and the dynamic programming (DP algorithm is adopted to obtain the complete numerical solutions, and the relationships among the maximum power output of the system, the process period and the fluid temperatures are discussed in detail. The optimization results obtained for the radiative heat transfer law are also compared with those obtained for pseudo-Newtonian heat transfer law and stage-by-stage optimization strategy. The obtained results can provide some theoretical guidelines for the optimal designs and operations of solar energy conversion and transfer systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Zarubin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The equipment uses heat-shielding and structural materials that, when exposed, absorb radiation both on the surface and in the volume. In a variety of technical devices, absorption processes of penetrating radiation of materials and structural elements are typical for a number of process steps and operating conditions. Absorption of radiation penetrating into material volume may significantly affect the temperature state and runability of construction made of such material.The process of material-absobed penetrating radiation is associated with transition of the electromagnetic wave energy into the excitation energy of this material microparticles that, after all, leads to increasing internal energy and temperature growth. With radiation passing through the layer of material its flow density and hence energy of penetrating radiation decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the exposed layer surface. This law was experimentally established by the French physicist P. Bouguer and bears his name. In general, a certain fraction of this energy is radiated and dissipated in the material volume, and the rest is absorbed. A mathematical model describing these processes is an equation of the radiative energy transfer.In mathematical modeling of thermomechanical processes there is a need to consider the effect of penetrating radiation on the temperature state of materials and construction elements. The P. Bouguer law is used also when the volume radiation and scattering of penetrating radiation in the material can be neglected, but it is necessary to take into account its absorption. In this case, a negative indicator of the exponential function is represented by the product of the distance from the irradiated surface and integral or some average absorption factor that is constant for a given material and spectral distribution of penetrating radiation. However, with increasing power of radiation passing through the material layer there is a
Nanoscale Heat Transfer Due to Near Field Radiation and Nanofluidic Flows
2015-07-21
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0205 Nanoscale heat transfer due to near field radiation and nanofluidic flows Peter Taborek UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanoscale heat transfer due to near field radiation and nanofluidic flows 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0065...liquid flows through the pipe would spontaneously form a liquid/vapor interface either inside the pie or near the exit. We developed a model which
Influence of nonequilibrium radiation on heating of an ablating Jovian entry probe
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1980-01-01
The influence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer on the entire shock-layer flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be viscous, axisymmetric, laminar, and in chemical equilibrium. The entry body considered is a 35-deg hyperboloid and the results have been obtained for the peak heating entry conditions. The results indicate that the radiative heating of the entry body is significantly higher under NLTE conditions.
Role of Internal Radiation in Oxide Crystal Growth by Heat Exchanger Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wencheng Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Internal radiation was investigated using the finite volume method for the heat exchanger method (HEM growth of oxide crystals. Special attention was devoted to the temperature and thermal stress distributions in the bottom region of the grown crystal at the end of the solidification process. The numerical results show that internal radiation strongly strengthens heat transport through the crystal. However, it causes isotherms to intensively concentrate in the crystal bottom region, leading to a significant increase in the temperature gradient and thermal stress in this region. Then, the effect of absorption coefficient on this phenomenon was numerically investigated. It was found that the radiation heat transfer rate at the bottom surface of the crystal monotonically decreases as the absorption coefficient is increased, while the conduction heat transfer rate first increases and then decreases as the absorption coefficient is increased, under the interaction between internal radiation and heat conduction. The variations of the maximum temperature gradient and thermal stress in the crystal bottom show the same tendency as the conduction heat transfer rate. This study indicates that the role of internal radiation on the heat transfer and thermal stress in oxide crystal by HEM process shows some differences from that by Czochralski and Kyropoulos processes.
Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions
Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing
2016-01-01
Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and
Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.
Design considerations for a thermophotovoltaic energy converter using heat pipe radiators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashcroft, J.; DePoy, D. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)
1997-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss concepts for using high temperature heat pipes to transport energy from a heat source to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converter. Within the converter, the condenser portion of each heat pipe acts as a photon radiator, providing a radiant flux to adjacent TPV cells, which in turn create electricity. Using heat pipes in this way could help to increase the power output and the power density of TPV systems. TPV systems with radiator temperatures in the range of 1,500 K are expected to produce as much as 3.6 W/cm{sup 3} of heat exchanger volume at an efficiency of 20% or greater. Four different arrangements of heat pipe-TPV energy converters are considered. Performance and sizing calculations for each of the concepts are presented. Finally, concerns with this concept and issues which remain to be considered are discussed.
Thermal radiation of laser heated niobium clusters Nb(+)(N), 8 ⩽ N ⩽ 22.
Hansen, Klavs; Li, Yejun; Kaydashev, Vladimir; Janssens, Ewald
2014-07-14
The thermal radiation from small, laser heated, positively charged niobium clusters has been measured. The emitted power was determined by the quenching effect on the metastable decay, employing two different experimental protocols. The radiative power decreases slightly with cluster size and shows no strong size-to-size variations. The magnitude is 40-50 keV/s at the timescale of several microseconds, which is the measured crossover time from evaporative to radiative cooling.
Radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a helium dewer multilayer insulation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1995-02-01
This report describes a method for calculating mixed heat transfer through the multilayer insulation used to insulated a 4K liquid helium cryostat. The method described permits one to estimate the insulation potential for a multilayer insulation system from first principles. The heat transfer regimes included are: radiation, conduction by free molecule gas conduction, and conduction through continuum gas conduction. Heat transfer in the transition region between the two gas conduction regimes is also included.
Sircar, A.; Paul, C.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive CFD models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating conditions typical of heavy-duty CI engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. NSF, DOE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dulal Pal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of an electrically conduct- ing fluid over an stretching permeable sheet in the presence of transverse magnetic field, thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink effects is investigated. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature fields is due to the time-dependent nature of the stretching velocity and the surface temperature. Both opposing and assisting flows are considered. The dimensionless governing or- dinary non-linear differential equations are solved numerically by applying shooting method using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The effects of unsteadiness parameter, buoyancy parameter, thermal radiation, Eckert number, Prandtl number and non-uniform heat source/sink parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Comparisons of the present results with previously published results for the steady case are found to be excellent.
Maximum cycle work output optimization for generalized radiative law Otto cycle engines
Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui
2016-11-01
An Otto cycle internal combustion engine which includes thermal and friction losses is investigated by finite-time thermodynamics, and the optimization objective is the maximum cycle work output. The thermal energy transfer from the working substance to the cylinder inner wall follows the generalized radiative law (q∝Δ (Tn)). Under the condition that all of the fuel consumption, the compression ratio and the cycle period are given, the optimal piston trajectories for both the examples with unlimited and limited accelerations on every stroke are determined, and the cycle-period distribution among all strokes is also optimized. Numerical calculation results for the case of radiative law are provided and compared with those obtained for the cases of Newtonian law and linear phenomenological law. The results indicate that the optimal piston trajectory on each stroke contains three sections, which consist of an original maximum-acceleration and a terminal maximum-deceleration parts; for the case of radiative law, optimizing the piston motion path can achieve an improvement of more than 20% in both the cycle-work output and the second-law efficiency of the Otto cycle compared with the conventional near-sinusoidal operation, and heat transfer mechanisms have both qualitative and quantitative influences on the optimal paths of piston movements.
Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.
2017-03-01
Thermal cooling rates QC and solar heating rates QH in the atmosphere of Venus at altitudes between 0 and 100 km are investigated using the radiative transfer and radiative balance simulation techniques described by Haus et al. (2015b, 2016). QC strongly responds to temperature profile and cloud parameter changes, while QH is less sensitive to these parameters. The latter mainly depends on solar insolation conditions and the unknown UV absorber distribution. A parameterization approach is developed that permits a fast and reliable calculation of temperature change rates Q for different atmospheric model parameters and that can be applied in General Circulation Models to investigate atmospheric dynamics. A separation of temperature, cloud parameter, and unknown UV absorber influences is performed. The temperature response parameterization relies on a specific altitude and latitude-dependent cloud model. It is based on an algorithm that characterizes Q responses to a broad range of temperature perturbations at each level of the atmosphere using the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) as basis temperature model. The cloud response parameterization considers different temperature conditions and a range of individual cloud mode factors that additionally change cloud optical depths as determined by the initial latitude-dependent model. A QH response parameterization for abundance changes of the unknown UV absorber is also included. Deviations between accurate calculation and parameterization results are in the order of a few tenths of K/day at altitudes below 90 km. The parameterization approach is used to investigate atmospheric radiative equilibrium (RE) conditions. Polar mesospheric RE temperatures above the cloud top are up to 70 K lower and equatorial temperatures up to 10 K higher than observed values. This radiative forcing field is balanced by dynamical processes that maintain the observed thermal structure.
Radiative Peristaltic Flow of Jeffrey Nanofluid with Slip Conditions and Joule Heating.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available Mixed convection peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with compliant walls is addressed here. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Whole analysis is performed for velocity, thermal and concentration slip conditions. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating and slip parameters are explored in detail. Clearly temperature is a decreasing function of Hartman number and radiation parameter.
Parametric study of radiative heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniak, Z.I.; Palmer, B.J.; Drost, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
1996-02-01
The parameter space for study of radiative transfer in and through arrays of regular elements is extremely large. The present study has developed a number of correlations, based on MCLITE code results for simple geometric elements. These correlations can guide a designer of heat exchangers in optimizing performance. When the incident radiation is diffuse, these correlations are fairly accurate. When the incident radiation is collimated, and strikes the array at some arbitrary angle, the correlations are less accurate. For detailed analysis of heat exchanger performance there is no substitute for exercising a code such as MCLITE. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marijn Billiet
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.
Sandwich Core Heat-Pipe Radiator for Power and Propulsion Systems
Gibson, Marc; Sanzi, James; Locci, Ivan
2013-01-01
Next-generation heat-pipe radiator technologies are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide advancements in heat-rejection systems for space power and propulsion systems. All spacecraft power and propulsion systems require their waste heat to be rejected to space in order to function at their desired design conditions. The thermal efficiency of these heat-rejection systems, balanced with structural requirements, directly affect the total mass of the system. Terrestrially, this technology could be used for thermal control of structural systems. One potential use is radiant heating systems for residential and commercial applications. The thin cross section and efficient heat transportability could easily be applied to flooring and wall structures that could evenly heat large surface areas. Using this heat-pipe technology, the evaporator of the radiators could be heated using any household heat source (electric, gas, etc.), which would vaporize the internal working fluid and carry the heat to the condenser sections (walls and/or floors). The temperature could be easily controlled, providing a comfortable and affordable living environment. Investigating the appropriate materials and working fluids is needed to determine this application's potential success and usage.
Murio, Diego A.
1991-01-01
An explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference method for the solution of the transient inverse heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite or finite slab mediums subject to nonlinear radiation boundary conditions is presented. After measuring two interior temperature histories, the mollification method is used to determine the surface transient heat source if the energy radiation law is known. Alternatively, if the active surface is heated by a source at a rate proportional to a given function, the nonlinear surface radiation law is then recovered as a function of the interface temperature when the problem is feasible. Two typical examples corresponding to Newton cooling law and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law respectively are illustrated. In all cases, the method predicts the surface conditions with an accuracy suitable for many practical purposes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert G. Ellingson
2004-09-28
One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.
Generalized Subtraction Schemes for the Difference Formulation in Radiation Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luu, T; Brooks, E; Szoke, A
2008-07-25
In the difference formulation for the transport of thermally emitted photons, the photon intensity is defined relative to a reference field, the black body at the local material temperature. This choice of reference field removes the cancellation between thermal emission and absorption that is responsible for noise in the Monte Carlo solution of thick systems, but introduces time and space derivative source terms that can not be determined until the end of the time step. It can also lead to noise induced crashes under certain conditions where the real physical photon intensity differs strongly from a black body at the local material temperature. In this report, we consider a difference formulation relative to the material temperature at the beginning of the time step, and in the situations where the radiation intensity more closely follows a temperature other than the local material temperature, that temperature. The result is a method where iterative solution of the material energy equation is efficient and noise induced crashes are avoided. To support our contention that the resulting generalized subtraction scheme is robust, and therefore suitable for practical use, we perform a stability analysis in the thick limit where instabilities usually occur.
Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.
Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A
2011-01-01
In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.
Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D
2015-01-01
In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...
Self-Regulating Freezable Heat Exchanger and Radiator Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At present, both the astronaut's metabolic heat and that produced by the Portable Life Support System are rejected to space by a sublimator that consumes up to 8...
Measurement of XUV-absorption spectra of ZnS radiatively heated foils
Kontogiannopoulmos, Nikolaos; Thais, Frédéric; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Sauvan, Pascal; Schott, R; Fölsner, Wolfgang; Arnault, Philippe; Poirier, Michel; Blenski, Thomas
2008-01-01
Time-resolved absorption of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and aluminum in the XUV-range has been measured. Thin foils in conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium were heated by radiation from laser-irradiated gold spherical cavities. Analysis of the aluminum foil radiative hydrodynamic expansion, based on the detailed atomic calculations of its absorption spectra, showed that the cavity emitted flux that heated the absorption foils corresponds to a radiation temperature in the range 55 60 eV. Comparison of the ZnS absorption spectra with calculations based on a superconfiguration approach identified the presence of species Zn6+ - Zn8+ and S5+ - S6+. Based on the validation of the radiative source simulations, experimental spectra were then compared to calculations performed by post-processing the radiative hydrodynamic simulations of ZnS. Satisfying agreement is found when temperature gradients are accounted for.
Turbulent convection driven by internal radiative heating of melt ponds on sea ice
Wells, Andrew; Langton, Tom; Rees Jones, David; Moon, Woosok
2016-11-01
The melting of Arctic sea ice is strongly influenced by heat transfer through melt ponds which form on the ice surface. Melt ponds are internally heated by the absorption of incoming radiation and cooled by surface heat fluxes, resulting in vigorous buoyancy-driven convection in the pond interior. Motivated by this setting, we conduct two-dimensional direct-numerical simulations of the turbulent convective flow of a Boussinesq fluid between two horizontal boundaries, with internal heating predicted from a two-stream radiation model. A linearised thermal boundary condition describes heat exchange with the overlying atmosphere, whilst the lower boundary is isothermal. Vertically asymmetric convective flow modifies the upper surface temperature, and hence controls the partitioning of the incoming heat flux between emission at the upper and lower boundaries. We determine how the downward heat flux into the ice varies with a Rayleigh number based on the internal heating rate, the flux ratio of background surface cooling compared to internal heating, and a Biot number characterising the sensitivity of surface fluxes to surface temperature. Thus we elucidate the physical controls on heat transfer through Arctic melt ponds which determine the fate of sea ice in the summer.
Verification of Conjugate Heat Transfer Models in a Closed Volume with Radiative Heat Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maksimov Vyacheslav I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The results of verification of mathematical model of convective-conductive heat transfer in a closed volume with a thermally conductive enclosing structures are presented. Experiments were carried out to determine the temperature of floor premises in the working conditions of radiant heating systems. Comparison of mathematical modelling of temperature fields and experiments showed their good agreement. It is concluded that the mathematical model of conjugate heat transfers in the air cavity with a heat-conducting and heat-retaining walls correspond to the real process of formation of temperature fields in premises with gas infrared heaters system.
Measurement of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation
Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.
1983-01-01
A series of experiments was performed in which a suitably tuned CO2 laser, frequency doubled by a Tl3AsSe37 crystal, was brought into resonance with a P-line or two R-lines in the fundamental vibration spectrum of CO. Cooling or heating produced by absorption in CO was measured in a gas-thermometer arrangement. P-line cooling and R-line heating could be demonstrated, measured, and compared. The experiments were continued with CO mixed with N2 added in partial pressures from 9 to 200 Torr. It was found that an efficient collisional resonance energy transfer from CO to N2 existed which increased the cooling effects by one to two orders of magnitude over those in pure CO. Temperature reductions in the order of tens of degrees Kelvin were obtained by a single pulse in the core of the irradiated volume. These measurements followed predicted values rather closely, and it is expected that increase of pulse energies and durations will enhance the heat pump effects. The experiments confirm the feasibility of quasi-isentropic engines which convert laser power into work without the need for heat rejection. Of more immediate potential interest is the possibility of remotely powered heat pumps for cryogenic use, such applications are discussed to the extent possible at the present stage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhishek Khanna
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We revisit the problem of optimal power extraction in four-step cycles (two adiabatic and two heat-transfer branches when the finite-rate heat transfer obeys a linear law and the heat reservoirs have finite heat capacities. The heat-transfer branch follows a polytropic process in which the heat capacity of the working fluid stays constant. For the case of ideal gas as working fluid and a given switching time, it is shown that maximum work is obtained at Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. Our expressions clearly show the dependence on the relative magnitudes of heat capacities of the fluid and the reservoirs. Many previous formulae, including infinite reservoirs, infinite-time cycles, and Carnot-like and non-Carnot-like cycles, are recovered as special cases of our model.
Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar
2016-12-01
Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.
Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar
2017-06-01
Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.
Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model
Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen
2016-07-01
The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes
47 CFR 15.215 - Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations.
2010-10-01
... RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.215 Additional provisions to the general radiated emission limitations. (a) The regulations in §§ 15.217 through... frequency bands shown in these alternative provisions must be attenuated to the emission limits shown...
Heat Transfer Issues in Thin-Film Thermal Radiation Detectors
Barry, Mamadou Y.
1999-01-01
The Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has been working closely with scientists and engineers at NASA's Langley Research Center to develop accurate analytical and numerical models suitable for designing next generation thin-film thermal radiation detectors for earth radiation budget measurement applications. The current study provides an analytical model of the notional thermal radiation detector that takes into account thermal transport phenomena, such as the contact resistance between the layers of the detector, and is suitable for use in parameter estimation. It was found that the responsivity of the detector can increase significantly due to the presence of contact resistance between the layers of the detector. Also presented is the effect of doping the thermal impedance layer of the detector with conducting particles in order to electrically link the two junctions of the detector. It was found that the responsivity and the time response of the doped detector decrease significantly in this case. The corresponding decrease of the electrical resistance of the doped thermal impedance layer is not sufficient to significantly improve the electrical performance of the detector. Finally, the "roughness effect" is shown to be unable to explain the decrease in the thermal conductivity often reported for thin-film layers.
Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E
2015-01-01
Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.
Effective disinfection of rough rice using infrared radiation heating
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) heating and tempering treatments on disinfection of Aspergillus flavus in freshly harvested rough rice and storage rice. Rice samples with initial moisture contents (IMCs) of 14.1 to 27.0% (wet basis) were infected with A. fl...
Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology
The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...
Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating
Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...
Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.
1992-01-01
The index of refraction can considerably influence the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow in semitransparent materials such as some ceramics. For external radiant heating, the refractive index influences the amount of energy transmitted into the interior of the material. Emission within a material depends on the square of its refractive index, and hence this emission can be many times that for a biackbody radiating into a vacuum. Since radiation exiting through an interface into a vacuum cannot exceed that of a blackbody, there is extensive reflection at the internal surface of an interface, mostly by total internal reflection. This redistributes energy within the layer and tends to make its temperature distribution more uniform. The purpose of the present analysis is to show that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained very simply from the results for an index of refraction of unity. For the situation studied here, the layer is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces. The material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. For simplicity the index of refraction is unity in the medium surrounding the layer. The surfaces of the layer are assumed diffuse. This is probably a reasonable approximation for a ceramic layer that has not been polished. When transmitted radiation or radiation emitted from the interior reaches the inner surface of an interface, the radiation is diffused and some of it thereby placed into angular directions for which there is total internal reflection. This provides a trapping effect for retaining energy within the layer and tends to equalize its temperature distribution. An analysis of temperature distributions in absorbing-emitting layers, including index of refraction effects, was developed by Gardon (1958) to predict cooling and heat treating of glass plates
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2017-01-01
The mathematical model for describing combined conductive-radiative heat transfer in a dielectric layer, which emits, absorbs, and scatters IR radiation both in its volume and on the boundary, has been considered...
Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel’s surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot- ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel’s surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re- fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother- mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal- ana- lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat- ing medium. In the multilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin- gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.
Antenna-coupled terahertz radiation from joule-heated single-wall carbon nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Muthee
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this letter an experimental method is introduced that allows detection of terahertz (THz radiation from arrays of joule-heated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs, by coupling this radiation through integrated antennas and a silicon lens. The radiation forms a diffraction-limited beam with a total maximum radiated power of 450 nW, significantly greater than the power estimated from Nyquist thermal noise (8 nW. The physical radiation process is unknown at this stage, but possible explanations for the high radiated power are discussed briefly. The emission has a typical bandwidth of 1.2 THz and can be tuned to different frequencies by changing the dimensions of the antennas. Arrays of the devices could be integrated in CMOS integrated circuits, and find application in THz systems, such as in near-range medical imaging.
Effects of radiation on convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid past a moving wedge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salama Faiza A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady hydrodynamic flow of water-based copper(Cu nanofluid over a moving wedge, taking into account the effects of thermal radiation, have been investigated numerically. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing fundamental equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations and solved numerically by using the fourth-order Runge-kutta method with shooting technique. A comparison with previously published work has been carried out and the results are found to be in good agreement. The existence of unique and dual solutions for self-similar equations of the flow and heat transfer are analyzed numerically. The results indicate that there is strong dependence of the thermal gradient at the surface of the wedge on both velocity ratio parameter and thermal radiation.
Magnetogasdynamic Cylindrical Shock Waves in a Rotating Nonideal Gas with Radiation Heat Flux
Vishwakarma, J. P.; Patel, Nanhey
2015-03-01
A similarity solution is presented for a cylindrical magnetogasdynamic shock wave in a rotating nonideal gas in the presence of a variable axial magnetic field in the case where the radiation heat flux is of importance. The initial angular velocity of the medium is assumed to vary as some power of the distance from the symmetry axis. The radiation heat flux is evaluated from the equation of motion without explicit use of the radiation transfer equations. It is shown that the gas nonidealness increases the shock strength but decreases the shock velocity. On the other hand, the presence of a magnetic field decreases the shock strength but increases the shock velocity. Moreover, the shock velocity increases with the ratio of specific heats. The total energy of the shock wave increases with time.
Heat transfer including radiation and slag particles evolution in MHD channel-I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Im, K H; Ahluwalia, R K
1980-01-01
Accurate estimates of convective and radiative heat transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic channel are provided. Calculations performed for a base load-size channel indicate that heat transfer by gas radiation almost equals that by convection for smooth walls, and amounts to 70% as much as the convective heat transfer for rough walls. Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and potassium atoms are the principal participating gases. The evolution of slag particles by homogeneous nucleation and condensation is also investigated. The particle-size spectrum so computed is later utilized to analyze the radiation enhancement by slag particles in the MHD diffuser. The impact of the slag particle spectrum on the selection of a workable and design of an efficient seed collection system is discussed.
Combined effect of natural convection and non-gray gas radiation with partial heating
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A MAZGAR; F BEN NEJMA
2016-07-01
The present paper reports numerical results of combined effects of non-gray gas radiation and natural convection between two vertical plates with partial heating at walls. The plates are symmetrical and made of two equal zones alternately isotherm and insulated. The idea is to predict that thermal radiation will attenuate the difference pre-established in the literature, between choosing a partial heating from the top and the bottom of the wall. Computations are carried out to establish flow and temperature fields of the fluid in the enclosure. The effect of enclosure dimensions and boundary conditions are analyzed. Using the computed temperature fields, the mean Nusselt number is calculated. The results show that there is no major influence of two-dimensional radiation to reduce the difference between the reported top and bottom heating for the chosen gas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamer Khatib
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for predicting hourly solar radiation data using daily solar radiation averages. The proposed model is a generalized regression artificial neural network. This model has three inputs, namely, mean daily solar radiation, hour angle, and sunset hour angle. The output layer has one node which is mean hourly solar radiation. The training and development of the proposed model are done using MATLAB and 43800 records of hourly global solar radiation. The results show that the proposed model has better prediction accuracy compared to some empirical and statistical models. Two error statistics are used in this research to evaluate the proposed model, namely, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. These values for the proposed model are 11.8% and −3.1%, respectively. Finally, the proposed model shows better ability in overcoming the sophistic nature of the solar radiation data.
Makarov, A. N.
2014-09-01
The progress seen in the 19th-21st centuries in the development of methods for calculating heat transfer in torch furnaces, fireboxes, and combustion chambers is analyzed. Throughout the 20th century, calculations of heat transfer were carried out based on the law for radiation from solid bodies deduced by Y. Stefan and L. Boltzmann. It is shown that the use of this law for calculating heat transfer of a torch (a gaseous source of radiation) in heating furnaces and power-generating installations leads to incorrect results. It is substantiated that there is crisis of methods for calculating heat transfer in torch furnaces and power-generating installations. Geometrical and physical torch models in the form of radiating cylindrical gas volumes as sources of heat radiation are proposed for overcoming this crisis.
Trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia with various heating modalities in cancer therapy.
Egawa, S; Ishioka, K; Kawada, Y
1984-01-01
A microwave heating apparatus with a frequency of 2,450 MHz and an inductive radio-frequency heating apparatus were developed for hyperthermia for cancer therapy, and clinical trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia were conducted. During the same period, a capacitive type radiofrequency unit was used. The tumors included superficial tumors, cancer of the uterine cervix, recurrent tumors at the stump of the cervix, and some deep-seated tumors. Cases showing complete response were as follows: 5 out of 13 cases treated with 2,450 MHz heating for superficial tumors, 8 out of 17 cases treated with 2,450 MHz intracavitary heating, and 2 out of 15 cases treated with radiofrequency heating. A feasibility study of various heating modalities was performed.
Asymptotic solution for heat convection-radiation equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mabood, Fazle; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Khan, Waqar A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, PN Engineering College, Karachi, 75350 (Pakistan)
2014-07-10
In this paper, we employ a new approximate analytical method called the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) to solve steady state heat transfer problem in slabs. The heat transfer problem is modeled using nonlinear two-point boundary value problem. Using OHAM, we obtained the approximate analytical solution for dimensionless temperature with different values of a parameter ε. Further, the OHAM results for dimensionless temperature have been presented graphically and in tabular form. Comparison has been provided with existing results from the use of homotopy perturbation method, perturbation method and numerical method. For numerical results, we used Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. It was found that OHAM produces better approximate analytical solutions than those which are obtained by homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods, in the sense of closer agreement with results obtained from the use of Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method.
Ultra thin metallic coatings to control near field radiative heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Esquivel-Sirvent
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present a theoretical calculation of the changes in the near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces due to the presence of ultra thin metallic coatings on semiconductors. Depending on the substrates, the radiative heat transfer is modulated by the thickness of the ultra thin film. In particular we consider gold thin films with thicknesses varying from 4 to 20 nm. The ultra-thin film has an insulator-conductor transition close to a critical thickness of dc = 6.4 nm and there is an increase in the near field spectral heat transfer just before the percolation transition. Depending on the substrates (Si or SiC and the thickness of the metallic coatings we show how the near field heat transfer can be increased or decreased as a function of the metallic coating thickness. The calculations are based on available experimental data for the optical properties of ultrathin coatings.
A Model of Solar Radiation and Joule Heating in Flow of Third Grade Nanofluid
Hussain, Tariq; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Chen, Bin
2015-03-01
The flow problem resulting from the stretching of a surface with convective conditions in a magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid with solar radiation is examined. Both heat and nanoparticle mass transfer convective conditions are employed. An incompressible third grade fluid which exhibits shear thinning and shear thickening characteristics is used as a base fluid. Concept of convective nanoparticle mass condition is introduced. Effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis on magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid are accounted in the presence of thermal radiation. Energy equation incorporates the features of Joule heating. The impact of physical parameters on the temperature and nanoparticle concentration has been pointed out. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are presented and analysed. It is hoped that this present investigation serves as a stimulus for the next generation of solar film collectors, heat exchangers technology, material processing, geothermal energy storage, and all those processes which are highly affected by the heat enhancement concept.
Strong Near-Field Enhancement of Radiative Heat Transfer between Metallic Surfaces
Kralik, Tomas; Hanzelka, Pavel; Zobac, Martin; Musilova, Vera; Fort, Tomas; Horak, Michal
2012-11-01
Near-field heat transfer across a gap between plane-parallel tungsten layers in vacuo was studied experimentally with the temperature of the cold sample near 5 K and the temperature of the hot sample in the range 10-40 K as a function of the gap size d. At gaps smaller than one-third of the peak wavelength λm given by Wien’s displacement law, the near-field effect was observed. In comparison with blackbody radiation, hundred times higher values of heat flux were achieved at d≈1μm. Heat flux normalized to the radiative power transferred between black surfaces showed scaling (λm/d)n, where n≈2.6. This Letter describes the results of experiment and a comparison with present theory over 4 orders of magnitude of heat flux.
Radiation Effect on Mhd Heat and Mass Transfer Flow over a Shrinking Sheet with Mass Suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
patkar ramesh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the effects radiation and heat source/sink on the steady two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer past a shrinking sheet with wall mass suction. In the dynamic system, a uniform magnetic field acts normal to the plane of flow. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into self-similar equations are solved by employing finite difference using the quasilinearization technique. From the analysis it is found that the velocity inside the boundary layer increases with increase of wall mass suction and magnetic field and accordingly the thickness of the momentum boundary layer decreases. The temperature decreases with Hartmann number, Prandtl number, and heat sink parameter and the temperature increases with heat source parameter, radiation parameter. The concentration decreases with an increase of Hartmann number, mass suction parameter, Schmidt number, chemical reaction parameter.
El-Wakil, S. A.; Sallah, M.; El-Hanbaly, A. M.
2015-10-01
The stochastic radiative transfer problem is studied in a participating planar finite continuously fluctuating medium. The problem is considered for specular- and diffusly-reflecting boundaries with linear anisotropic scattering. Random variable transformation (RVT) technique is used to get the complete average for the solution functions, that are represented by the probability-density function (PDF) of the solution process. In the RVT algorithm, a simple integral transformation to the input stochastic process (the extinction function of the medium) is applied. This linear transformation enables us to rewrite the stochastic transport equations in terms of the optical random variable (x) and the optical random thickness (L). Then the transport equation is solved deterministically to get a closed form for the solution as a function of x and L. So, the solution is used to obtain the PDF of the solution functions applying the RVT technique among the input random variable (L) and the output process (the solution functions). The obtained averages of the solution functions are used to get the complete analytical averages for some interesting physical quantities, namely, reflectivity and transmissivity at the medium boundaries. In terms of the average reflectivity and transmissivity, the average of the partial heat fluxes for the generalized problem with internal source of radiation are obtained and represented graphically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingke Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A spectral selectivity surface for both solar heating and radiative cooling was proposed. It has a high spectral absorptivity (emissivity in the solar radiation band and atmospheric window band (i.e., 0.2~3 μm and 8~13 μm, as well as a low absorptivity (emissivity in other bands aside from the solar radiation and atmospheric window wavelengths (i.e., 3~8 μm or above 13 μm. A type of composite surface sample was trial-manufactured combining titanium-based solar selective absorbing coating with polyethylene terephthalate (TPET. Sample tests showed that the TPET composite surface has clear spectral selectivity in the spectra of solar heating and radiation cooling wavelengths. The equilibrium temperatures of the TPET surface under different sky conditions or different inclination angles of surface were tested at both day and night. Numerical analysis and comparisons among the TPET composite surface and three other typical surfaces were also performed. These comparisons indicated that the TPET composite surface had a relative heat efficiency of 76.8% of that of the conventional solar heating surface and a relative temperature difference of 75.0% of that of the conventional radiative cooling surface, with little difference in cooling power.
Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.
2012-01-01
The propagation of shock waves in a rotational axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which has a variable azimuthally fluid velocity together with a variable axial fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-condition is maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston (or inner expanding surface). The fluid velocities in the ambient medium are assume to be vary and obey power laws. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant, the heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. In order to obtain the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is assume to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. The effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are also investigated.
Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Metamaterials coated with Silicon Carbide Film
Basu, Soumyadipta; YANG, YUE; Wang, Liping
2014-01-01
In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC.By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonance for the meta...
Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darvishi M.T.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.
Two-flux method for radiation heat transfer in anisotropic gas-particles media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Fei; CEN Kefa; T. Girasole; A. Garo; G. Gréhan; YAN Jianhua
2004-01-01
Two-flux method can be used, as a simplification for the radiative heat transfer, to predict heat flux in a slab consisting of gas and particles. In the original two-flux method (Schuster, 1905 and Schwarzschild, 1906), the radiation field was assumed to be isotropic. But for gas-particles mixture in combustion environments, the scatterings of particles are usually anisotropic, and the original two-flux method gives critical errors when ignoring this anisotropy. In the present paper, a multilayer four-flux model developed by Rozé et al. (2001) is extended to calculate the radiation heat flux in a slab containing participating particles and gas mixture. The analytic resolution of the radiative transfer equation in the framework of a two-flux approach is presented. The average crossing parameter ε And the forward scattering ratio ζ are defined to describe the anisotropy of the radiative field. To validate the model, the radiation transfer in a slab has been computed. Comparisons with the exact analytical result of Modest (1993) and the original two-flux model show the exactness and the improvement. The emissivity of a slab containing flyash/CO2/H2O mixture is obtained using the new model. The result is identical with that of Goodwin (1989).
Giant heat transfer in the crossover regime between conduction and radiation
Kloppstech, Konstantin; Könne, Nils; Biehs, Svend-Age; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Worbes, Ludwig; Hellmann, David; Kittel, Achim
2017-01-01
Heat is transferred by radiation between two well-separated bodies at temperatures of finite difference in vacuum. At large distances the heat transfer can be described by black body radiation, at shorter distances evanescent modes start to contribute, and at separations comparable to inter-atomic spacing the transition to heat conduction should take place. We report on quantitative measurements of the near-field mediated heat flux between a gold coated near-field scanning thermal microscope tip and a planar gold sample at nanometre distances of 0.2–7 nm. We find an extraordinary large heat flux which is more than five orders of magnitude larger than black body radiation and four orders of magnitude larger than the values predicted by conventional theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. Different theories of phonon tunnelling are not able to describe the observations in a satisfactory way. The findings demand modified or even new models of heat transfer across vacuum gaps at nanometre distances. PMID:28198369
The role of Compton heating on radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes
Park, KwangHo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Reynolds, Christopher S
2014-01-01
We investigate the role of Compton heating in radiation-regulated accretion on to black holes from a neutral dense medium using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the relative effects of Compton-heating and photo-heating as a function of the spectral slope {\\alpha}, assuming a power-law spectrum in the energy range of 13.6 eV--100 keV. While Compton heating is dominant only close to the black hole, it can reduce the accretion rate to 0.1 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}^2$ model)--0.01 % ($l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model) of the Bondi accretion rate when the BH radiation is hard ({\\alpha} ~ 1), where $l$ and $\\dot{m}$ are the luminosity and accretion rate normalised by Eddington rates, respectively. The oscillatory behaviour otherwise typically seen in simulations with {\\alpha} > 1, become suppressed when {\\alpha} ~ 1 only for the $l \\propto \\dot{m}$ model. The relative importance of the Compton heating over photo-heating decreases and the oscillatory behaviour becomes stronger as the spectrum softens. When the...
Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, A. [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)
2015-03-15
This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field.
Fano resonances in antennas: General control over radiation patterns
Rybin, Mikhail V; Filonov, Dmitry S; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F
2013-01-01
The concepts of many optical devices are based on the fundamental physical phenomena such as resonances. One of the commonly used devices is an electromagnetic antenna that converts localized energy into freely propagating radiation and vise versa, offering unique capabilities for controlling electromagnetic radiation. Here we propose a concept for controlling the intensity and directionality of electromagnetic wave scattering in radio-frequency and optical antennas based on the physics of Fano resonances. We develop an analytical theory of spatial Fano resonances in antennas that describes switching of the radiation pattern between the forward and backward directions, and confirm our theory with both numerical calculations and microwave experiments. Our approach bridges the concepts of conventional radio antennas and photonic nanoantennas, and it provides a paradigm for the design of wireless optical devices with various functionalities and architectures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qualey, D.L.; Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Drost, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-02-07
A two-dimensional Monte Carlo method has been applied to a classic radiant energy exchange problem that models the interior of an industrial furnace. The configuration involves a source as an infinite radiating plane and the heat sink as parallel rows of infinitely long tubes. Hottel used a graphical technique to solve this furnace model for the two-tube-row configuration. This work extends Hottel`s results by increasing the number of rows in the original equilateral triangular array and then generalizing the results to isosceles triangular arrangements.
Boundary conditions and generalized functions in a transition radiation problem
Villavicencio, M.; Jiménez, J. L.
2017-03-01
The aim of this work is to show how all the components of the electromagnetic field involved in the transition radiation problem can be obtained using distribution functions. The handling of the products and derivatives of distributions appearing in the differential equations governing transition radiation, allows to obtain the necessary boundary conditions, additional to those implied by Maxwell's equations, in order to exactly determine the longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. It is shown that this method is not only useful but it is really convenient to achieve a full analysis of the problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidi-Ali Kamel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work analyses the contribution of radiation heat transfer in the cooling of a pebble bed modular reactor. The mathematical model, developed for a porous medium, is based on a set of equations applied to an annular geometry. Previous major works dealing with the subject have considered the forced convection mode and often did not take into account the radiation heat transfer. In this work, only free convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. This can occur during the removal of residual heat after shutdown or during an emergency situation. In order to derive the governing equations of radiation heat transfer, a steady-state in an isotropic and emissive porous medium (CO2 is considered. The obtained system of equations is written in a dimensionless form and then solved. In order to evaluate the effect of radiation heat transfer on the total heat removed, an analytical method for solving the system of equations is used. The results allow quantifying both radiation and free convection heat transfer. For the studied situation, they show that, in a pebble bed modular reactor, more than 70% of heat is removed by radiation heat transfer when CO2 is used as the coolant gas.
Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of radiatively heated Xe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollock, B; Meinecke, J; Kuschel, S; Ross, J S; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Tynan, G R
2012-05-01
Uniform density and temperature Xe plasmas have been produced over >4 mm scale-lengths using x-rays generated in a cylindrical Pb cavity. The cavity is 750 {micro}m in depth and diameter, and is heated by a 300 J, 2 ns square, 1054 nm laser pulse focused to a spot size of 200 {micro}m at the cavity entrance. The plasma is characterized by simultaneous imaging Thomson scattering measurements from both the electron and ion scattering features. The electron feature measurement determines the spatial electron density and temperature profile, and using these parameters as constraints in the ion feature analysis allows an accurate determination of the charge state of the Xe ions. The Thomson scattering probe beam is 40 J, 200 ps, and 527 nm, and is focused to a 100 {micro}m spot size at the entrance of the Pb cavity. Each system has a spatial resolution of 25 {micro}m, a temporal resolution of 200 ps (as determined by the probe duration), and a spectral resolution of 2 nm for the electron feature system and 0.025 nm for the ion feature system. The experiment is performed in a Xe filled target chamber at a neutral pressure of 3-10 Torr, and the x-rays produced in the Pb ionize and heat the Xe to a charge state of 20 {+-} 4 at up to 200 eV electron temperatures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of
Yamamoto, Masaru; Takahashi, Masaaki
2016-04-01
A high significance of planetary rotation and poleward eddy heat fluxes is determined for general circulation driven by baroclinic forcing due to cloud layer heating. In a high-resolution simplified Venus general circulation model, a planetary-scale mixed Rossby-gravity wave with meridional winds across the poles produces strong poleward heat flux and indirect circulation. This strong poleward heat transport induces downward momentum transport of indirect cells in the regions of weak high-latitude jets. It also reduces the meridional temperature gradient and vertical shear of the high-latitude jets in accordance with the thermal wind relation below the cloud layer. In contrast, strong equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets form in the cloud layer in the absence of polar indirect cells in an experiment involving Titan's rotation. Both the strong midlatitude jet and meridional temperature gradient are maintained in the situation that eddy horizontal heat fluxes are weak. The presence or absence of strong poleward eddy heat flux is one of the important factors determining the slow or fast superrotation state in the cloud layer through the downward angular momentum transport and the thermal wind relation. For fast Earth rotation, a weak global-scale Hadley circulation of the low-density upper atmosphere maintains equatorial superrotation and midlatitude jets above the cloud layer, whereas multiple meridional circulations suppress the zonal wind speed below the cloud layer.
Wall heat transfer in gas-fired furnaces: Effect of radiation modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vondál J.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study heat transfer to cooled walls in a MW-scale laboratory furnace with a dominating thermal radiation component. Experiment is performed in a specially designed combustion chamber with segmental water-cooled walls and profile of absorbed heat flux is measured along the flame. Non-premixed natural gas flame is stabilized by a guide-vane swirler. The unsteady governing equations of turbulent flow are solved by a finite-volume code with a two-equation k-ε realizable turbulence model, a combination of first-order and second-order upwind schemes and implicit time integration. The coupling of pressure with velocity is treated by SIMPLE (semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations algorithm. Radiative heat transfer as the main heat transfer method is modelled with special care by discrete ordinates method and gas absorption coefficient is calculated by two alternatives of WSGGM (weighted sum of grey gases model. The predicted total heat transfer rate is found to depend strongly on method chosen for the computation of mean beam length. The results of numerical simulations show that overall heat transfer in a process furnace can be successfully predicted, while heat flux profile along the flame is more difficult to predict accurately. Good engineering accuracy is nevertheless achievable with reasonable computational resources. The trend of deviations is reported, which is useful for the interpretation of practical predictions of process furnaces (fired heaters.
Active control of near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials
Zhao, Qimei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Wenxing; Liu, Jiangtao; Yu, Tianbao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua
2017-04-01
In this study, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered metamaterials is investigated. The electric surface plasmons (SPs) supported by metamaterials can be coupled with the SPs supported by graphene. The near-field heat transfer between the graphene-covered metamaterials is significantly larger than that between metamaterials because of the strong coupling in our studied frequency range. The relationship between heat flux and chemical potential is studied for different vacuum gaps. Given that the chemical potential of graphene can be tuned by the external electric field, heat transfer can be actively controlled by modulating the chemical potential. The heat flux for certain vacuum gaps can reach a maximum value when the chemical potential is at a particular value. The results of this study are beneficial for actively controlling energy transfer.
Radiative and free-convective heat transfer from a finite horizontal plate inside an enclosure
Hrycak, Peter; Sandman, D. J.
1986-01-01
An experimental and analytical investigation of heat transfer from a horizontal, thin, square plate inside of an enclosure was carried out. Experimental results were obtained from both the upward-facing and the downward-facing sides of the heated plate. Starting with the integrated momentum and energy equations, approximate solutions were obtained for heat transfer in the laminar and the turbulent regime that correlate well with experimental data. Radiative heat transfer correction was given special attention. Effects of the enclosure-related recirculation of the test fluid, as well as effects of simultaneous heat transfer on both sides of the plate, caused an early transition, and indicated a high level of internal turbulence.
Generalizations and applications of the Onofri heat kernel expansion in quantum field theory
Martin, Louise Claire
2001-07-01
This thesis concerns perturbative quantum field theory. Two aspects of radiative corrections are examined: expansion of the heat kernel, and gauge parameter and metric dependence in quantum corrections in a topological gauge field theory. A novel expansion of the quantum mechanical heat kernel matrix element, introduced by Onofri, is generalized to accommodate Hamiltonians with vector potentials and with arbitrary metrics (i.e. curved space). The expansion is represented in terms of functional derivatives of an expression which solely involves classical variables, this being in some ways complementary to the quantum mechanical Feynman path integral. Ambiguities that arise in implementing the Feynman approach are avoided in this method. Illustrative field theoretic calculations are performed using this expansion. They are: the lowest order term in the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion for the diagonal heat kernel matrix element for a scalar propagating in a curved background, the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly for the VVA (Vector, Vector, Axial-Vector) triangle graph, and, using off-diagonal elements of the heat kernel, a two-loop calculation for a scalar theory in six dimensions. In the second part of this work, in pure non-Abelian Chern-Simons theory, the contribution to the modulus of the one-loop effective action in an arbitrary covariant gauge is computed. It is found that the results depend on both the gauge parameter ( a ) and the metric required in the gauge fixing. A contribution arises that has not been previously encountered; it is of the form a/p2 emlnpl . This is possible because in three dimensions a is dimensionful. A variant of proper time regularization is used to render these integrals well-behaved (although no divergences occur when the regularization is turned off at the end of the calculation). The results are shown to be consistent with the so-called Nielsen identities which predict the explicit gauge parameter dependence using an extension of BRS symmetry
Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.
2010-01-01
The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considere
Heat transfer in a gray tube with forced convection, internal radiation and axial wall conduction
Chung, B. T. F.; Thompson, J. E.
1983-01-01
A method of successive approximations is employed to solve the problem of heat transfer to a transparent gas flowing through a radiating-conducting tube with turbulent forced convection between the tube wall and the gas, and with energy generation in the wall. Emphasis is given to the effect of emissivity of the wall to the tube and gas temperature profiles.
Research on high-temperature heat receiver in concentrated solar radiation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Estera Przenzak
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental and computer simulations studies of the high temperature heat receiver working in the concentrated solar radiation system. In order to study the radiation absorption process and heat exchange, the two types of computer simulations were carried out. The first one was used to find the best location for absorber in the concentrating installation. Ray Tracing Monte Carlo (RTMC method in Trace Pro software was used to perform the optical simulations. The results of these simulations were presented in the form of the solar radiation distribution map and chart. The data obtained in RTMC simulations were used as a second type boundary conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. These studies were used to optimize the internal geometry of the receiver and also to select the most effective flow parameters of the working medium. In order to validate the computer simulations, high temperature heat receiver was tested in experimental conditions. The article presents the results of experimental measurements in the form of temperature, radiation intensity and power graphs. The tests were performed for varied flow rate and receiver location. The experimental and computer simulation studies presented in this article allowed to optimize the configuration of concentrating and heat receiving system.
On computations for thermal radiation in MHD channel flow with heat and mass transfer.
Hayat, T; Awais, M; Alsaedi, A; Safdar, Ambreen
2014-01-01
This study examines the simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer on the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous fluid between two infinite parallel plates. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal radiation effects are present. The governing problems are first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Influence of several embedded parameters on the velocity, concentration and temperature fields are described.
Effect of anisotropic scattering on radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular media
Hao Jin Bo
2003-01-01
Effect of scattering on radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular media by the finite-volume method has been studied. Compared with the existing solutions, it shows that the result obtained by the finite-volume method is reliable. Furthermore, relative errors caused by the approximation that linear and nonlinear anisotropic scattering media is simplified to isotropic scattering media have been studied.
Self-similar solution of the subsonic radiative heat equations using a binary equation of state
Heizler, Shay I; Malka, Elad
2016-01-01
Radiative subsonic heat waves, and their radiation driven shock waves, are important hydro-radiative phenomena. The high pressure, causes hot matter in the rear part of the heat wave to ablate backwards. At the front of the heat wave, this ablation pressure generates a shock wave which propagates ahead of the heat front. Although no self-similar solution of both the ablation and shock regions exists, a solution for the full problem was found in a previous work. Here, we use this model in order to investigate the effect of the equation of state (EOS) on the propagation of radiation driven shocks. We find that using a single ideal gas EOS for both regions, as used in previous works, yields large errors in describing the shock wave. We use the fact that the solution is composed of two different self-similar solutions, one for the ablation region and one for the shock, and apply two ideal gas EOS (binary-EOS), one for each region, by fitting a detailed tabulated EOS to power laws at different regimes. By comparin...
Radiative heat conductances between dielectric and metallic parallel plates with nanoscale gaps
Song, Bai; Thompson, Dakotah; Fiorino, Anthony; Ganjeh, Yashar; Reddy, Pramod; Meyhofer, Edgar
2016-06-01
Recent experiments have demonstrated that radiative heat transfer between objects separated by nanometre-scale gaps considerably exceeds the predictions of far-field radiation theories. Exploiting this near-field enhancement is of great interest for emerging technologies such as near-field thermophotovoltaics and nano-lithography because of the expected increases in efficiency, power conversion or resolution in these applications. Past measurements, however, were performed using tip-plate or sphere-plate configurations and failed to realize the orders of magnitude increases in radiative heat currents predicted from near-field radiative heat transfer theory. Here, we report 100- to 1,000-fold enhancements (at room temperature) in the radiative conductance between parallel-planar surfaces at gap sizes below 100 nm, in agreement with the predictions of near-field theories. Our measurements were performed in vacuum gaps between prototypical materials (SiO2-SiO2, Au-Au, SiO2-Au and Au-Si) using two microdevices and a custom-built nanopositioning platform, which allows precise control over a broad range of gap sizes (from <100 nm to 10 μm). Our experimental set-up will enable systematic studies of a variety of near-field-based thermal phenomena, with important implications for thermophotovoltaic applications, that have been predicted but have defied experimental verification.
Open Loop Heat Pipe Radiator Having a Free-Piston for Wiping Condensed Working Fluid
Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An open loop heat pipe radiator comprises a radiator tube and a free-piston. The radiator tube has a first end, a second end, and a tube wall, and the tube wall has an inner surface and an outer surface. The free-piston is enclosed within the radiator tube and is capable of movement within the radiator tube between the first and second ends. The free-piston defines a first space between the free-piston, the first end, and the tube wall, and further defines a second space between the free-piston, the second end, and the tube wall. A gaseous-state working fluid, which was evaporated to remove waste heat, alternately enters the first and second spaces, and the free-piston wipes condensed working fluid from the inner surface of the tube wall as the free-piston alternately moves between the first and second ends. The condensed working fluid is then pumped back to the heat source.
Radiative heat transfer in plasma of pulsed high pressure caesium discharge
Lapshin, V. F.
2016-01-01
Two-temperature many component gas dynamic model is used for the analysis of features of radiative heat transfer in pulsed high pressure caesium discharge plasma. It is shown that at a sufficiently high pressure the radial optical thickness of arc column is close to unit (τR (λ) ∼ 1) in most part of spectrum. In this case radiative heat transfer has not local character. In these conditions the photons which are emitted in any point of plasma volume are absorbed in other point remote from an emission point on considerable distance. As a result, the most part of the electric energy put in the discharge mainly near its axis is almost instantly redistributed on all volume of discharge column. In such discharge radial profiles of temperature are smooth. In case of low pressure, when discharge plasma is optically transparent for own radiation in the most part of a spectrum (τR(λ) << 1), the emission of radiation without reabsorption takes place. Radiative heat transfer in plasma has local character and profiles of temperature have considerable gradient.
Du, Liming; Xie, Maozhao
2011-06-01
A numerical study of Reciprocating Superadiabatic Combustion of Premixed gases in porous media (hereafter, referred to as RSCP) is performed. In this system the transient combustion of methane-air mixture is stabilized in a porous media combustor by periodically switching flow directions. The mass, momentum, energy and species conservation equations are solved using a two-dimensional control volume method. Local thermal non-equilibrium between the gas and the solid phases is considered by solving separate energy equations for the two phases and coupling them through a convective heat transfer coefficient. The porous media is assumed to emit, absorb and isotropically scatter radiation. The influences of the dominating operating parameters, such as filtration velocity, equivalence ratio and half cycle on the temperature profile, heat release rate, radiant flux, radiant efficiency and combustion efficiency are discussed. The results show that coupling calculating of flow field, combustion reaction and volume radiation of the optically thick media is successively achieved and heat radiation plays an important role in the overall performance of the burner. The temperature profile inside the RSCP combustor has a typical trapezoidal shape and the profile of radiation flux is similar to sinusoidal shape. Compared with the conventional premixed combustion in porous medium, combustion behavior in RSCP combustor is superior, such as better thermal structure and higher radiation efficiency and combustion efficiency.
Ali, M. E.; Sandeep, N.
The knowledge of heat transfer in MHD nanofluid flows over different geometries is very important for heat exchangers design, transpiration, fiber coating, etc. Recent days, heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids plays a major role in manufacturing processes due to its shear thinning and thickening properties. Naturally, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles move randomly within the base fluid. By applying the transverse magnetic field, the motion of those nanoparticles becomes uniform. This phenomenon is very useful in heat transfer processes. With this initiation, a mathematical model is developed to investigate the heat transfer behaviour of electrically conducting MHD flow of a Casson nanofluid over a cone, wedge and a plate. We consider a Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model with variable source/sink and nonlinear radiation effects. We also considered water as the base fluid suspended with magnetite nanoparticles. R-K-Felhberg-integration scheme is employed to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Impacts of governing parameters on common profiles (temperature and velocity) are conversed (in three cases). By viewing the same parameters, the friction factor coefficient and heat transfer rate are discussed with the assistance of tables. It is found that the boundary layers (thermal and flow) over three geometries (cone, wedge and a plate) are not uniform. It is also found that the thermal relaxation parameter effectively enhances the heat local Nusselt number and the heat transfer performance is high in the flow over a wedge when compared with the flows over a cone and plate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramalingam Senthil
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this present investigation, heat transfer performance of CeO2-ethylene glycol as coolants in heat pipes are analyzed. Various concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 vol.% with different volumetric flow 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 lpm at a temperature of 40°C, are investigated experimentally and the results are numerically analyzed by means of cross tube heat exchanger and horizontal flow with twist plate insert. The results are scrutinized to evaluate the best concentration which will reduce the size of the existing radiator length. The results demonstrated that, for 0.75 vol.% combination of CeO2-ethylene glycol resulted in increase of heat transfer coefficient compared to the combination of water-ethylene glycol. Increase in volumetric flow rate of the coolant increase the heat transfer coefficient results in the contraction of radiator length. Replacing the original coolant with the proposed combination, it is estimated that the size of the radiator, inventory of the fluid, and pumping power is reduced, thus, making this nanofluid an energy efficient fluid for the engine cooling system.
Vishwakarma, J. P.; Nath, G.
2010-04-01
A self-similar solution for the propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux, which is rotating about the axis of symmetry, is investigated. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a piston (an inner expanding surface) and the dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. The density of the ambient medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the parameter of non-idealness of the gas in the mixture, the mass concentration of solid particles and the ratio of density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas are investigated.
Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng
2017-02-01
An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.
Cong, Li; Qifei, Jian; Wu, Shifeng
2016-06-01
An experimental study and theoretical analysis of heat transfer performance of a sintered heat pipe radiator that implemented in a 50 L domestic semiconductor refrigerator have been conducted to examine the effect of inclination angle, combined with a minimum entropy generation analysis. The experiment results suggest that inclination angle has influences on both the evaporator and condenser section, and the performance of the heat pipe radiator is more sensitive to the inclination change in negative inclined than in positive inclined position. When the heat pipe radiator is in negative inclination angle position, large amplitude of variation on the thermal resistance of this heat pipe radiator is observed. As the thermal load is below 58.89 W, the influence of inclination angle on the overall thermal resistance is not that apparent as compared to the other three thermal loads. Thermal resistance of heat pipe radiator decreases by 82.86 % in inclination of 60° at the set of 138.46 W, compared to horizontal position. Based on the analysis results in this paper, in order to achieve a better heat transfer performance of the heat pipe radiator, it is recommended that the heat pipe radiator be mounted in positive inclination angle positions (30°-90°), where the condenser is above the evaporator.
Dai, Jin; Ding, Fei; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Yan, Min
2017-06-01
Localized cavity resonances due to nanostructures at material surfaces can greatly enhance radiative heat transfer (RHT) between two closely placed bodies owing to stretching of cavity states in momentum space beyond the light line. Based on such understanding, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of ultrabroadband super-Planckian RHT between two plates patterned with trapezoidal-shaped hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) arrays. The phenomenon is rooted not only in HMM's high effective index for creating subwavelength resonators but also its extremely anisotropic isofrequency contour. The two properties enable one to create photonic bands with a high spectral density to populate a desired thermal radiation window. At submicron gap sizes between such two plates, the artificial continuum states extend outside the light cone, tremendously increasing overall RHT. Our study reveals that structured HMM offers unprecedented potential in achieving a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer for thermal management at nanoscale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
anjali devi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of nonlinear radiation on hydromagnetic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a shrinking surface is investigated in the present work. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant equations which are highly nonlinear are solved numerically using Nachtsheim Swigert shooting iteration scheme together with Fourth Order Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions for velocity, skin friction coefficient and temperature are obtained for various values of physical parameters involved in the study namely Suction parameter, Magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Radiation parameter and Temperature ratio parameter. Numerical values for dimensionless rate of heat transfer are also obtained for various physical parameters and are shown through tables. The analytical solution of the energy equation when the radiation term is taken in linear form is obtained using Confluent hypergeometric function.
A Simple Framework for the Dynamic Response of Cirrus Clouds to Local Diabatic Radiative Heating
Schmidt, C T
2012-01-01
This paper presents a simple analytical framework for the dynamic response of cirrus to a local radiative flux convergence, expressible in terms of three independent modes of cloud evolution. Horizontally narrow and tenuous clouds within a stable environment adjust to radiative heating by ascending gradually across isentropes while spreading sufficiently fast so as to keep isentropic surfaces nearly flat. More optically dense clouds experience very concentrated heating, and if they are also very broad, they develop a convecting mixed layer. Along isentropic spreading still occurs, but in the form of turbulent density currents rather than laminar flows. A third adjustment mode relates to evaporation, which erodes cloudy air as it lofts. The dominant mode is determined from two dimensionless numbers, whose predictive power is shown in comparisons with high resolution numerical cloud simulations. The power and simplicity of the approach hints that fast, sub-grid scale radiative-dynamic atmospheric interactions m...
ANALYTICAL MODEL OF MHD MIXED CONVECTIVE RADIATING FLUID WITH VISCOUS DISSIPATIVE HEAT
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Sahin Ahmed,
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of thermal radiation and magnetic Prandtl number on the steady MHD heat and mass transfer by mixed convection flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically-conducting, Newtonian fluid which is an optically thin gray gas over a vertical porous plate taking into account the induced magnetic field. The similarity solutions of the transformed dimensionless governing equations are obtained by seriessolution. It is found that, velocity is reduced considerably with a rise in conduction-radiation parameter (R or Hartmann number (M whereas the rate of heat transfer is found to be markedly boosted with an increase in Hartmann number (M or radiation (R or Eckert number (
Nonlinear radiative heat transfer to stagnation-point flow of Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, International Islamic University Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-05-15
In the present paper, we endeavor to perform a numerical analysis in connection with the nonlinear radiative stagnation-point flow and heat transfer to Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder in the presence of convective boundary conditions. The influence of thermal radiation using nonlinear Rosseland approximation is explored. The numerical solutions of transformed governing equations are calculated through forth order Runge-Kutta method using shooting technique. With the help of graphs and tables, the influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity and temperature along with the local skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed. The results reveal that the temperature increases however, heat transfer from the surface of cylinder decreases with the increasing values of thermal radiation and temperature ratio parameters. Moreover, the authenticity of numerical solutions is validated by finding their good agreement with the HAM solutions.
Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios
Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T
2014-01-01
Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation ($\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$. It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields. The latter decay channel avoids the most stringent constraints of the sequestered setting. Nevertheless, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small "by accident" as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised ...
Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers
Olson, Douglas A.
1989-01-01
An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).
Heat enhancement of radiation resistivity of evaporated CsI, KI and KBr photocathodes
Tremsin, A S
2000-01-01
The photoemissive stability of as-deposited and heat-treated CsI, KI and KBr evaporated thin films under UV radiation is examined in this paper. After the deposition, some photocathodes were annealed for several hours at 90 deg. C in vacuum and their performance was then compared to the performance of non-heated samples. We observed that the post-evaporation thermal treatment not only increases the photoyield of CsI and KI photocathodes in the spectral range of 115-190 nm, but also reduces CsI, KI and KBr photocurrent degradation that occurs after UV irradiation. KBr evaporated layers appeared to be more radiation-resistant than CsI and KI layers. Post-deposition heat treatment did not result in any significant variation of KBr UV sensitivity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Min, E-mail: alice.m.xie@icloud.com; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun
2016-09-11
The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.
Xie, Min; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun
2016-09-01
The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.
Radiative Heat Transfer modelling in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-05
Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for a heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.
Verification of radiation heat transfer analysis in KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel during baking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, S.Y. [Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34167 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J., E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.T.; Jung, N.Y.; Im, D.S.; Gong, J.D.; Lee, J.M.; Park, K.R.; Oh, Y.K. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Thermal network is used to analyze heat transfer from PFC to VV. • Three heat transfer rate equations are derived based on the thermal network. • The equations is verified using Experimental data and design documents. • Most of the heat lost in tokamak is transferred to experimental room air. • The heat loss to the air is 101 kW of the total heat loss of 154 kW in tokamak. - Abstract: KSTAR PFC (Plasma Facing Component) and VV (Vacuum Vessel) were not arrived at the target temperatures in bake-out phase, which are 300 °C and 110 °C, respectively. The purpose of this study is to find out the reason why they have not been reached the target temperature. A thermal network analysis is used to investigate the radiation heat transfer from PFC to VV, and the thermal network is drawn up based on the actual KSTAR tokamak. The analysis model consists of three equations, and is solved using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The heat transfer rates obtained with the analysis model is verified using the experimental data at the KSTAR bake-out phase. The analyzed radiation heat transfer rates from PFC to VV agree quite well with those of experiment throughout the bake-out phase. Heat loss from PFC to experimental room air via flange of VV is also calculated and compared, which is found be the main reason of temperature gap between the target temperature and actually attained temperature of KSTAR PFC.
Corrected Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles from a General Static Riemann Black Hole
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Ge-Rui Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Considering energy conservation and the back reaction of radiating particles to the spacetime, we investigate the massive Dirac particles' Hawking radiation from a general static Riemann black hole using improved Damour-Ruffini method. A direct consequence is that the radiation spectrum is not strictly thermal. The correction to the thermal spectrum is consistent with an underlying unitary quantum theory and this may have profound implications for the black hole information loss paradox.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irvan Paramananda
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Pengeringan yang dilakukan pada batu bara dengan memanfaatkan udara panas menggunakan konsep heat exchanger. Salah satu heat exchanger yang sering digunakan adalah heat exchanger dengan tipe single row-fin tube yaitu radiator. Radiator ini akan dimanfaatkan sebagai penghasil udara panas dari air panas yang mengalir dan dihembuskan oleh kipas radiator. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada effectiveness dari komponen radiator fungsi dari kecepatan udara mulai dari kecepatan 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s, 4 m/s dan 5 m/s dan fungsi jumlah radiator yang digunakan. Prinsip dari radiator yang digunakan adalah mengalirkan fluida panas berupa air ke dalam tube-tube radiator kemudian didinginkan oleh udara yang dihembuskan oleh fan yang melewati fin sehingga air yang keluar dari tube menjadi dingin dan udara yang melewati fin menjadi panas. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen ini diantaranya kecepatan udara yang optimal terhadap proses pengeringan batu bara yang dipakai pada alat pengering batu bara adalah sebesar 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator. qhot untuk penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 30121.17 Watt. Effectiveness pada penggunaan 2 radiator dengan kecepatan udara sebesar 5 m/s adalah 0.65. Efisiensi fin yang terjadi pada kecepatan udara 5 m/s dengan menggunakan 2 radiator sebesar 0.93
Design for heating radiator of water medium%水媒电暖器的设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牟瑛
2011-01-01
The water medium radiator is an electric heating device with hot water as heating medium, which relies on the thermal power generated by two upper and lower electric heated tubes to heat the water and control the temperature of water inside the radiator,and makes the hot water circulate naturally by utilizing the features of water density(or specific gravity)and water viscosity( or flowability )under different temperature between supply and return water.The structural design of water medium radiator ensures that the circulating power of water heating system is natural circulated hot-water heating system (circulate based on pressure formed by the weight difference in diverse temperature between supply and return water ).The exhaust holes designed can discharge the air inside the radiator which effectively reduces air retention in radiator.Comparing with central heating and Electric Ting heaters ,the water medium radiator is particularly significant in environmental protection,energy conservation and water conservation.%水媒电暖器是以热水作热媒的电采暖装置.水媒电暖器依靠上下二个电热管产生的热源给水加热,控制散热器内不同位置水的温度,利用供、回水在不同的温度下的水的密度(或比重)、水的黏度(或流动性)的特点使散热器内的水自然循环.水媒电暖器结构设计保证了水采暖系统的循环动力为自然循环热水采暖系统(靠供、回水在不同温度下的重度差形成压力进行循环).设计的出气孔使气体排出散热器内,有效的减少散热器内的空气潴留.水媒电暖器与集中供暖、与电热汀取暖器相比其在环保、节能、节水方面尤为显著.
Shah, S.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.
2016-08-01
Present study examines the numerical analysis of MHD flow of Maxwell fluid with thermal radiation and Joule heating by considering the recently developed Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model which explains the time relaxation characteristics for the heat flux. The objective is to analyze the governing parameters such as viscoelastic fluid parameter, Magnetic parameter, Eckert and Prandtl number's impact on the velocity and temperature profiles through graphs and tables. Suitable similarity transformations have been used to reduce the formulated PDEs into a system of coupled non-linear ODEs. Shooting technique has been invoked for finding the numerical solutions of the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles. Additionally, the MATLAB built-in routine bvp4c has also been used to verify and strengthen the results obtained by shooting method. From some special cases of the present work, a comparison with the previously published results has been presented.
Control of near-field radiative heat transfer via surface phonon-polariton coupling in thin films
Francoeur, M.; Mengüç, M. Pınar; Vaillon, R.
2010-01-01
The possibily of controlling near-field radiative heat transfer via thin films supporting surface phonon-polaritons (SPhPs) is explored. Local density of electromagnetic states (LDOS) within the nanometric gap formed between two silicon carbide (SiC) films and the radiative heat flux exchanged between the thin layers are calculated. Using this information, engineering of desired heat transfer profiles can be obtained, which can be used for the next generation energy harvesting device. Kent...
Uncertainities in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cess, R.D.; Zhang, M.H. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Potter, G.L.; Gates, W.L.; Taylor, K.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)); Colman, R.A.; Fraser, J.R.; McAvaney, B.J. (Bureau of Meterorology Research Centre, Victoria (Australia)); Dazlich, D.A.; Randall, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Del Genio, A.D.; Lacis, A.A. (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)); Esch, M.; Roeckner, E. (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)); Galin, V. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Hack, J.J.; Kiehl, J.T. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Ingram, W.J. (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)); Le Treut, H.; Lli, Z.X. (Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)); Liang, X.Z.; Wang, W.C. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)); Mahfouf,
1993-11-19
Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.
High Conductivity Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipes for Light Weight Space Power System Radiators
Juhasz, Albert J.
2008-01-01
Based on prior successful fabrication and demonstration testing of a carbon-carbon heat pipe radiator element with integral fins this paper examines the hypothetical extension of the technology via substitution of high thermal conductivity composites which would permit increasing fin length while still maintaining high fin effectiveness. As a result the specific radiator mass could approach an ultimate asymptotic minimum value near 1.0 kg/m2, which is less than one fourth the value of present day satellite radiators. The implied mass savings would be even greater for high capacity space and planetary surface power systems, which may require radiator areas ranging from hundreds to thousands of square meters, depending on system power level.
General expression of double ellipsoidal heat source model and its error analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In order to analyze the maximum power density error with different heat flux distribution parameter values for double ellipsoidal heat source model, a general expression of double ellipsoidal heat source model was derived from Goldak double ellipsoidal heat source model, and the error of maximum power density was analyzed under this foundation. The calculation error of thermal cycling parameters caused by the maximum power density error was compared quantitatively by numerical simulation. The results show that for guarantee the accuracy of welding numerical simulation, it is better to introduce an error correction coefficient into the Goldak double ellipsoidal heat source model expression. And, heat flux distribution parameter should get higher value for the higher power density welding methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. Adegbie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model for thermal explosion in a combustible dusty gas containing fuel droplets with general Arrhenius reaction-rate laws, convective and radiative heat losses, and interphase heat exchange between gas and inert solid particles is investigated. The objective of the study is to examine the effects of interphase heat exchange between the gas and solid particles on (i ignition of reacting gas, (ii accumulation of heat by the solid particles during combustion process (iii evaporation of the liquid fuel droplets, and (iv consumption of reacting gas concentration. The equations governing the physical model with realistic assumptions are stated and nondimensionalised leading to an intractable system of first-order coupled nonlinear differential equations, which is not amenable to exact methods of solution. Therefore, we present numerical solutions as well as different qualitative effects of varying interphase heat exchange parameter. Graphs and Table feature prominently to explain the results obtained.
A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".
Two-flux method for radiation heat transfer in anisotropic gas-particles media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
［1］Schuster, A., Radiation through a foggy atmosphere, Astrophysics J., 1905, 21(1): 1-22.［2］Schwarzchild, K., Equilibrium of the Sun's atmosphere, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen Math.-Phys. Klasse, 1906, (1): 41-53.［3］Maheu, B., Letoulouzan, J. N., Gouesbet, G., Four-flux models to solve the scattering transfer equation in terms of Loren-Mie parameters, Applied Optics, 1984, 23(19): 3353-3362.［4］Maheu, B., Gouesbet, G., Four-flux models to solve the scattering transfer equation: special cases, Applied Optics, 1986, 25(7): 1122-1128.［5］Roze, C., Girasole, T., Tafforin, A. G., Multiplayer four-flux model of scattering, emitting and absorbing media, Atmospheric Environment, 2001, 35: 5125-5130.［6］Modest, M. F., Radiative Heat Transfer, New York: McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering, 1993.［7］Goodwin, D. G., Mitchner, M., Flyash radiative properties and effects on radiative heat transfer in coal-fired systems, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1989, 32(4): 627-638.［8］Siegel, R., Howell, J. R., Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1980.［9］Irvine, T. F., Hartnett, J. P., Advances in Heat Transfer, Vol. 3, New York: Academic Press, 1966.［10］Rozé, C., Girasole, T., Grehan, G. et al., Average crossing parameter and forward scattering ratio values in four-flux model for multiple scattering media, Optics Communication, 2001, 194: 251-263.［11］Wall, T. F., Lowe, A., Wibberley, L. J. et al., Fly ash characteristics and radiative heat transfer in pulverized-coal-fired furnace, Combustion Science and Technology, 1981, 26: 107-121.［12］Ozisik, M. N., Radiative Transfer and Interactions with Conduction and Convection, New York: Wiley, 1973.［13］Gupta, R. P., Wall, T. F., Truelove, J. S., Radiative scatter by fly ash in pulverized-coal-fired furnace: application of the Monte Carlo method to anisotropic scatter, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1983
PECULIARITIES OF GENERALIZATION OF SIMILAR PHENOMENA IN THE PROCESS OF FISH HEAT TREATMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Pokhol’chenko
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The theoretical presuppositions for the possibility of generalizing and similarity founding in dehydration and wet materials heating processes are studieded in this article. It is offered to carry out the given processes generalization by using dimensionless numbers of similarity. At the detailed analyzing of regularities of heat treatment processes of fish in different modes a significant amount of experienced material was successfully generalized on the basis of dimensionless simplex (similarity numbers. Using the dimensionless simplex allowed to detect a number of simple mathematical models for the studied phenomena. The generalized kinetic models of fish dehydration, the generalized dynamic models (changing moisture diffusion coefficients, the generalized kinetic models of fish heating (the temperature field changing in the products thickness, average volume and center were founded. These generalized mathematical models showed also relationship of dehydration and heating at the processes of fish semi-hot, hot smoking (drying and frying. The relationship of the results from the physical nature of the dehydration process, including a change in the binding energy of the moisture with the material to the extent of the process and the shrinkage impact on the rate of the product moisture removal is given in the article. The factors influencing the internal structure and properties of the raw material changing and retarding the dehydration processes are described there. There was a heating rate dependence of fish products on the chemical composition the geometric dimensions of the object of heating and on the coolant regime parameters. A unique opportunity is opened by using the generalized models, combined with empirically derived equations and the technique of engineering calculation of these processes, to design a rational modes of heat treatment of raw materials and to optimize the performance of thermal equipment.
Criss, R. E.; Hofmeister, A.
2010-12-01
The popular view that Earth is sufficiently hot to still be shedding primordal heat, largely originating in the core, is inconsistent with thermodynamic constraints and recent heat transport studies. Previous work presumes that the large difference in gravitational potential energy (Ug) between a fictious, homogeneous reference state and Earth’s current layered configuration of metallic core and rocky mantle was converted to frictional heat during core formation, greatly increasing temperature (T) inside the Earth. However, heating (ΔT >0) was deduced by assuming that Ug is positive, which is inconsistent with Newton’s law of gravitation. Use of an erroneous sign for ΔUg has prevented recognition that the process is an exothermic transformation. Thermodynamic principles were not considered in previous analyses: neglecting the effect of the change in configuration on entropy and energy contributes greatly to the view that heat is retained. Instead, stringent limits are set on the permissible temperature increase by the rapid rate of ballistic radiative transfer, a process associated with transient events, as well as by the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. In the static, instantaneous model of core formation, configurational entropy (S) of the Earth decreases upon forming the ordered layered state; this entropy decrease is offset by a greater increase in S of the surrounding universe, which can only be accomplished by release of heat to space (the surroundings). Instantaneous dissipation of heat in the static model reasonably approximates radiative processes being superfast. Core formation involves negligible changes in volume and rotational energy, so Helmholtz free energy (=Ug-TS) is conserved, as in atmospheric processes and other graviational-thermodynamic problems. Because S of the universe is immense and heat must flow from hotter to colder bodies, negligible heat from core formation is retained, consistent with the exothermic nature of this transition
The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia
Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina
2016-03-01
The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.
A new hybrid algorithm for solving transient combined conduction radiation heat transfer problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaabane Raoudha
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM is proposed as an hybrid solver for two dimensional transient conduction and radiation heat transfer problems in an optically emitting, absorbing and scattering medium. The LBM was used to solve the energy equation and the CVFEM was used to compute the radiative information. The advantages of the proposed methodology is to avoid problems that confronted when previous techniques are used to predict radiative heat transfer, essentially, in complex geometries and when there is scattering and/or non-black boundaries surfaces. This method combination, which is applied for the first time to solve this unsteady combined mode of heat transfer, has been found to accurately predict the effects of various thermo-physical parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the extinction coefficient on temperature distribution. The results of the LBM-CVFEM combination were found to be in excellent agreement with the LBM-CDM (Collapsed Dimension Methodthis proposed numerical approach include, among others, simple implementation on a computer, accurate CPU time, and capability of stable simulation.
Study of radiative heat transfer in Ångström- and nanometre-sized gaps
Cui, Longji; Jeong, Wonho; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Feist, Johannes; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2017-02-01
Radiative heat transfer in Ångström- and nanometre-sized gaps is of great interest because of both its technological importance and open questions regarding the physics of energy transfer in this regime. Here we report studies of radiative heat transfer in few Å to 5 nm gap sizes, performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions between a Au-coated probe featuring embedded nanoscale thermocouples and a heated planar Au substrate that were both subjected to various surface-cleaning procedures. By drawing on the apparent tunnelling barrier height as a signature of cleanliness, we found that upon systematically cleaning via a plasma or locally pushing the tip into the substrate by a few nanometres, the observed radiative conductances decreased from unexpectedly large values to extremely small ones--below the detection limit of our probe--as expected from our computational results. Our results show that it is possible to avoid the confounding effects of surface contamination and systematically study thermal radiation in Ångström- and nanometre-sized gaps.
Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.
Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N
2000-08-01
Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments.
Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Henkel, Carsten; Joulain, Karl; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2008-01-01
We study the heat transfer between two parallel metallic semi-infinite media with a gap in the nanometer-scale range. We show that the near-field radiative heat flux saturates at distances smaller than the metal skin depth when using a local dielectric constant and investigate the origin of this effect. The effect of non-local corrections is analysed using the Lindhard-Mermin and Boltzmann-Mermin models. We find that local and non-local models yield the same heat fluxes for gaps larger than 2 nm. Finally, we explain the saturation observed in a recent experiment as a manifestation of the skin depth and show that heat is mainly dissipated by eddy currents in metallic bodies.
Radiation budget and soil heat fluxes in different Arctic tundra vegetation types
Juszak, Inge; Iturrate Garcia, Maitane; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela
2016-04-01
While solar radiation is one of the primary energy sources for warming and thawing permafrost soil, the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the soil is reduced by vegetation shading. Climate change has led to greening, shrub expansion and encroachment in many Arctic tundra regions and further changes are anticipated. These vegetation changes feed back to the atmosphere and permafrost as they modify the surface energy budget. However, canopy transmittance of solar radiation has rarely been measured or modelled for a variety of tundra vegetation types. We assessed the radiation budget of the most common vegetation types at the Kytalyk field site in North-East Siberia (70.8°N, 147.5°E) with field measurements and 3D radiative transfer modelling and linked it to soil heat fluxes. Our results show that Arctic tundra vegetation types differ in canopy albedo and transmittance as well as in soil heat flux and active layer thickness. Tussock sedges transmitted on average 56% of the incoming light and dwarf shrubs 27%. For wet sedges we found that the litter layer was very important as it reduced the average transmittance to only 6%. Model output indicated that both, albedo and transmittance, also depend on the spatial aggregation of vegetation types. We found that permafrost thaw was more strongly related to soil properties than to canopy shading. The presented radiative transfer model allows quantifying effects of the vegetation layer on the surface radiation budget in permafrost areas. The parametrised model can account for diverse vegetation types and variation of properties within types. Our results highlight small scale radiation budget and permafrost thaw variability which are indicated and partly caused by vegetation. As changes in species composition and biomass increase can influence thaw rates, small scale patterns should be considered in assessments of climate-vegetation-permafrost feedbacks.
Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility
Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.
2016-01-01
Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.
Near-field radiative heat transfer between arbitrarily-shaped objects and a surface
Edalatpour, Sheila
2016-01-01
A fluctuational electrodynamics-based formalism for calculating near-field radiative heat transfer between objects of arbitrary size and shape and an infinite surface is presented. The surface interactions are treated analytically via Sommerfeld's theory of electric dipole radiation above an infinite plane. The volume integral equation for the electric field is discretized using the thermal discrete dipole approximation (T-DDA). The framework is verified against exact results in the sphere-surface configuration, and is applied to analyze near-field radiative heat transfer between a complex-shaped probe and an infinite plane both made of silica. It is found that when the probe tip size is approximately equal to or smaller than the gap d separating the probe and the surface, coupled localized surface phonon (LSPh)-surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) mediated heat transfer occurs. In this regime, the net spectral heat rate exhibits four resonant modes due to LSPhs along the minor axis of the probe while the net tota...
Near-field radiative heat transfer between parallel structures in the deep subwavelength regime.
St-Gelais, Raphael; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal
2016-06-01
Thermal radiation between parallel objects separated by deep subwavelength distances and subject to large thermal gradients (>100 K) can reach very high magnitudes, while being concentrated on a narrow frequency distribution. These unique characteristics could enable breakthrough technologies for thermal transport control and electricity generation (for example, by radiating heat exactly at the bandgap frequency of a photovoltaic cell). However, thermal transport in this regime has never been achieved experimentally due to the difficulty of maintaining large thermal gradients over nanometre-scale distances while avoiding other heat transfer mechanisms, namely conduction. Here, we show near-field radiative heat transfer between parallel SiC nanobeams in the deep subwavelength regime. The distance between the beams is controlled by a high-precision micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). We exploit the mechanical stability of nanobeams under high tensile stress to minimize thermal buckling effects, therefore keeping control of the nanometre-scale separation even at large thermal gradients. We achieve an enhancement of heat transfer of almost two orders of magnitude with respect to the far-field limit (corresponding to a 42 nm separation) and show that we can maintain a temperature gradient of 260 K between the cold and hot surfaces at ∼100 nm distance.
General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid.
Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
2017-01-28
Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gauri Shanker Seth
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An investigation of unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection heat and mass trans fer flow with Hall current of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting, heat absorbing and optically thin radiating fluid past an accelerated moving vertical plate through fluid saturated porous medium in a rotating environment is carried out when temperature of the plate has a temporarily ramped profile. The exact solutions of momentum, energy and concentration equations are obtained in closed form by Laplace transform technique. The expressions of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also derived. For both ramped temperature and isothermal plates, Hall current tends to accelerate primary and secondary fluid velocities whereas heat absorption and radiation have reverse effect on it. Rotation tends to retard primary fluid velocity whereas it has a reverse effect on secondary fluid velocity. Heat absorption and radiation have tendency to enhance rate of heat transfer at the plate.
The role of a convective surface in models of the radiative heat transfer in nanofluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com; Al-Mazroui, W.A.; Al-Hatmi, F.S.; Al-Lawatia, M.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.
2014-08-15
Highlights: • The role of a convective surface in modelling with nanofluids is investigated over a wedge. • Surface convection significantly controls the rate of heat transfer in nanofluid. • Increased volume fraction of nanoparticles to the base-fluid may not always increase the rate of heat transfer. • Effect of nanoparticles solid volume fraction depends on the types of constitutive materials. • Higher heat transfer in nanofluids is found in a moving wedge rather than in a static wedge. - Abstract: Nanotechnology becomes the core of the 21st century. Nanofluids are important class of fluids which help advancing nanotechnology in various ways. Convection in nanofluids plays a key role in enhancing the rate of heat transfer either for heating or cooling nanodevices. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the role of a convective surface on the heat transfer characteristics of water-based nanofluids over a static or moving wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} are considered in preparation of nanofluids. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are made dimensionless with the similarity transformations. Numerical simulations are carried out through the very robust computer algebra software MAPLE 13 to investigate the effects of various pertinent parameters on the flow field. The obtained results presented graphically as well as in tabular form and discussed from physical and engineering points of view. The results show that the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation significantly depends on the surface convection parameter. If the hot fluid side surface convection resistance is lower than the cold fluid side surface convection resistance, then increased volume fraction of the nanoparticles to the base fluid may reduces the heat transfer rate rather than increases from the surface of
Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Afterbody Radiative Heating Predictions for Earth Entry
West, Thomas K., IV; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hosder, Serhat
2016-01-01
The objective of this work was to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for afterbody radiative heating predictions of Stardust capsule during Earth entry at peak afterbody radiation conditions. The radiation environment in the afterbody region poses significant challenges for accurate uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis due to the complexity of the flow physics, computational cost, and large number of un-certain variables. In this study, first a sparse collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos approach along with global non-linear sensitivity analysis was used to identify the most significant uncertain variables and reduce the dimensions of the stochastic problem. Then, a total order stochastic expansion was constructed over only the important parameters for an efficient and accurate estimate of the uncertainty in radiation. Based on previous work, 388 uncertain parameters were considered in the radiation model, which came from the thermodynamics, flow field chemistry, and radiation modeling. The sensitivity analysis showed that only four of these variables contributed significantly to afterbody radiation uncertainty, accounting for almost 95% of the uncertainty. These included the electronic- impact excitation rate for N between level 2 and level 5 and rates of three chemical reactions in uencing N, N(+), O, and O(+) number densities in the flow field.
Coherent regime and far-to-near-field transition for radiative heat transfer
Tsurimaki, Yoichiro; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao; Vaillon, Rodolphe
2017-01-01
Radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel media is analyzed in the transition zone between the near-field and the classical macroscopic, i.e. incoherent far-field, regimes of thermal radiation, first for model gray materials and then for real metallic (Al) and dielectric (SiC) materials. The presence of a minimum in the flux-distance curve is observed for the propagative component of the radiative heat transfer coefficient, and in some cases for the total coefficient, i.e. the sum of the propagative and evanescent components. At best this reduction can reach 15% below the far-field limit in the case of aluminum. The far-to-near-field regime taking place for the distance range between the near-field and the classical macroscopic regime involves a coherent far-field regime. One of its limits can be practically defined by the distance at which the incoherent far-field regime breaks down. This separation distance below which the standard theory of incoherent thermal radiation cannot be applied anymore is found to be larger than the usual estimate based on Wien's law and varies as a function of temperature. The aforementioned effects are due to coherence, which is present despite the broadband spectral nature of thermal radiation, and has a stronger impact for reflective materials.
Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study
Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René
2010-05-01
Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1
Effects of microwave radiation and conductive heating on Tribolium castaneum microstructure.
Lu, H H; Zhou, J C; Yan, D; Zhao, S M; Xiong, S B
2011-01-01
Microwave radiation and conductive heating were used to completely kill adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in wheat flour to protect the flour during storage without significantly effecting its quality. The microstructure of T. castaneum was analyzed to reveal the mechanisms leading to death under microwave and heat treatments. Microwave radiation and conductive heating had different effects on the microstructure of the cuticle of adult T. castaneum and on the ultrastructure of the cells of the epidermis, fat body, and midgut. Both treatments caused a large cavity to appear in the nucleus and the disappearance of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. After microwave treatment, there was little change in the surface microstructure but the epidermis was of uneven thickness and the four outer layers of the cuticle were thinner. Nuclear size was essentially unchanged, but fat body cells were fewer and coalesced together. In contrast, conductive heating led to a disordered arrangement of cells on the surface of T. castaneum and indistinct boundaries between layers of the cuticle. The nuclei were enlarged and the fat body cells noticeably fewer and indistinct with a scattered distribution. Thus, microwave treatment produced less severe effects on the surface microstructure and cellular ultrastructure of T. castaneum than did conductive heating. It is concluded that these cellular and surface changes were responsible for the death of T. castaneum.
Scattering effect in radiative heat transfer during selective laser sintering of polymers
Liu, Xin; Boutaous, M'hamed; Xin, Shihe
2016-10-01
The aim of this work is to develop an accurate model to simulate the selective laser sintering (SLS) process, in order to understand the multiple phenomena occurring in the material and to study the influence of each parameter on the quality of the sintered parts. A numerical model, coupling radiative and conductive heat transfers in a polymer powder bed providing a local temperature field, is proposed. To simulate the polymer sintering by laser heating as in additive manufacturing, a double-lines scanning of a laser beam over a thin layer of polymer powder is studied. An effective volumetric heat source, using a modified Monte Carlo method, is estimated from laser radiation scattering and absorption in a semi-transparent polymer powder bed. In order to quantify the laser-polymer interaction, the heating and cooling of the material is modeled and simulated with different types heat sources by both finite elements method (FEM) and discrete elements method (DEM). To highlight the importance of introducing a semi-transparent behavior of such materials and in order to validate our model, the results are compared with works taken from the literature.
Non-gray combined conduction and radiation heat transfer by using FVM and SLW
Sun, Yujia; Zhang, Xiaobing; Howell, John R.
2017-08-01
To investigate non-gray combined conduction and radiation problems, this paper uses the FVM to solve the energy equation and radiative transfer equation and the SLW method to model the effect of gas spectral properties in a 2D geometry. Carbon dioxide, water vapor and carbon monoxide are considered as the participating media. The effects of gas species, gas mixture ratios and wall emissivities on the temperature and heat flux were investigated. The accuracy of the gray gas model is also analyzed compared to the SLW method.
General Relativistic Radiative Transfer Code in Rotating Black Hole Spacetime: {ARTIST}
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2016-10-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, {ARTIST} (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), which is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of {ARTIST} is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole, which was originally explored by Hanni (1977). This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the {ARTIST} turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hot spot problem. All the simulations in the present study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The {ARTIST} is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2017-02-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
A study of graphite ablation in combined convective and radiative heating.
Wakefield, R. M.; Peterson, D. L.
1972-01-01
Comparison of graphite ablation experiment results in the diffusion-controlled oxidation and sublimation regimes with results of an equilibrium chemistry, film coefficient ablation analysis. Mass transfer and energy transfer effects are considered. Tests were conducted in an arcjet facility at convective heating rates of 600 to 800 W/sq cm, radiative heating rates up to 2900 W/sq cm, with test specimen surface pressures of 0.06, 0.1, and 0.3 atm in an air stream. The experimental and analytical mass loss and surface temperature results agreed well when the carbon vapor thermodynamic properties from the JANAF tables are used in the analysis.
Testing of SLA-561V in NASA-Ames' Turbulent Flow Duct with Augmented Radiative Heating
Sepka, Steven A.; Kornienko, Robert S.; Radbourne, Chris A.
2010-01-01
As part of Mars Science Laboratory s (MSL) heatshield development program, SLA-561 was tested in NASA Ames Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD) Facility. For these tests, the TFD facility was modified to include a ceramic plate located in the wall opposite to the test model. Normally the TFD wall opposite to the test model is water-cooled steel. Installing a noncooled ceramic plate allows the ceramic to absorb convective heating and radiate the energy back to the test model as the plate heats up. This work was an effort to increase the severity of TFD test conditions. Presented here are the results from these tests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Shehzad
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to address the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD radiative flow of an incompressible Jeffrey fluid over a linearly stretched surface. Heat and mass transfer characteristics are accounted for in the presence of Joule heating and thermophoretic effects. Series solutions by the homotopy analysis method are constructed for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. A convergence criterion for the series solutions is discussed. In addition, the numerical values of the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are first computed and then analyzed.
Radiation Energy Loss from Laser-Heated Shenguang-Ⅱ Hohlraums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHANG Tie-Qiang; HUANG Tian-Xuan; SUN Ke-Xu; WANG Guang-Yu; DUAN Qing-Sheng; PEI Wen-Bing; GU Pei-Jun; ZHANG Xing-Hong; DING Yong-Kun; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; YANG Jia-Min
2004-01-01
@@ The x ray energy loss out of laser-heated hohlraum through laser entrance holes (LEH) is discussed in detail according to a simple theoretical model and is compared with the hohlraum experimental data measured at Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility. The radiation loss is considered to be composed of two parts, that is, direct contribution from laser spots and re-emitted part from the x ray-heated hohlraum inner wall, and the former accounts for about 20% of the total loss for the Shenguang Ⅱ hohlraums. Owing to the non-equilibrium characteristics of laser target coupling the direct contribution part is non-equilibrium in spectrum.
Aspects of radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drost, M.K.; Palmer, B.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
1993-08-01
Arrays of fixed discrete surfaces are encountered in a number of important applications. Evaluating radiant heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is challenging because array optical properties are often nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. This article presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation heat transfer in several array geometries. The results show that for the array geometries included in the study, the extinction coefficient is strongly anisotropic and that optical properties are dependent on both the geometric arrangement of the elements and the scattering characteristics of individual elements.
Generalized scale invariance, clouds and radiative transfer on multifractal clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)
1995-09-01
Recent systematic satellite studies (LANDSAT, AVHRR, METEOSAT) of cloud radiances using (isotropic) energy spectra have displayed excellent scaling from at least about 300m to about 4000km, even for individual cloud pictures. At first sight, this contradicts the observed diversity of cloud morphology, texture and type. The authors argue that the explanation of this apparent paradox is that the differences are due to anisotropy, e.g. differential stratification and rotation. A general framework for anisotropic scaling expressed in terms of isotropic self-similar scaling and fractals and multifractals is needed. Schertzer and Lovejoy have proposed Generalized Scale Invariance (GSI) in response to this need. In GSI, the statistics of the large and small scales of system can be related to each other by a scale changing operator T{sub {lambda}} which depends only on the scale ratio {lambda}{sub i} there is no characteristic size. 3 refs., 1 fig.
A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid
Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars
2014-01-01
Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodynamics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion (FLD) solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calc...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Numerical investigation using SIMPLE algorithm with QUICK scheme for natural convection and heat transfer in the enclosure bounded by a solid wall and with heat transfer and radiation coupled in natural convection has been conducted.The various parameters are:Rayleigh number(from 103 to 105),dimensionless conductivity of bounding wall(from 0 to 100),dimensionless wall thickness(from 0 to 0.6) and radiation emissivity of all surfaces(from 0 to 1).The results suggest that flow and heat transfer are influenced by radiation.Radiation is a dominant action on flow and heat transfer.With increase of the thermal conductivity of wall,flow and heat transfer turn stronger.The temperature distribution changes obviously.When the thermal conductivity of wall is over a certain critical number,the increasing trend of flow and heat transfer may disappear.With increase of enclosure wall thickness,flow and heat transfer turn slighter.When the enclosure wall thickness is over a certain critical number,the flow and heat transfer will turn slow.
A general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG SongPing; CHEN QingLin; ZHANG BingJian; HUA Ben
2009-01-01
The main methods of single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement are analyzed in this paper,and the unity of contradiction between heat transfer enhancement and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)is expounded.The thermodynamic relationship between heat(or exergy)transfer efficiency and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)as well as driving forces is established,and a general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement is further obtained.The principle shows that temperature gradient field distribution and velocity field distribution constrain each other,and that the optimum heat transfer efficiency can be obtained when they are synergetic.If the level of the synergy of temperature gradient field distribution with velocity field distribution is determined,the relative uniform temperature gradient is required,and vice versa.The principle also shows the relationship of relative temperature gradient with specific heat and coefficient of heat conductivity.The deduced results can be used as a theoretical guidance for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement and optimum design of heat exchangers.
A general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The main methods of single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement are analyzed in this paper, and the unity of contradiction between heat transfer enhancement and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)is expounded.The thermodynamic relationship between heat(or exergy)transfer efficiency and energy consumption(or exergy destruction)as well as driving forces is established,and a general theoretical principle for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement is further obtained. The principle shows that temperature gradient field distribution and velocity field distribution constrain each other,and that the optimum heat transfer efficiency can be obtained when they are synergetic.If the level of the synergy of temperature gradient field distribution with velocity field distribution is determined,the relative uniform temperature gradient is required,and vice versa.The principle also shows the relationship of relative temperature gradient with specific heat and coefficient of heat conductivity.The deduced results can be used as a theoretical guidance for single-phase convection heat transfer enhancement and optimum design of heat exchangers.
Monte Carlo calculation model for heat radiation of inclined cylindrical flames and its application
Chang, Zhangyu; Ji, Jingwei; Huang, Yuankai; Wang, Zhiyi; Li, Qingjie
2017-02-01
Based on Monte Carlo method, a calculation model and its C++ calculating program for radiant heat transfer from an inclined cylindrical flame are proposed. In this model, the total radiation energy of the inclined cylindrical flame is distributed equally among a certain number of energy beams, which are emitted randomly from the flame surface. The incident heat flux on a surface is calculated by counting the number of energy beams which could reach the surface. The paper mainly studies the geometrical evaluation criterion for validity of energy beams emitted by inclined cylindrical flames and received by other surfaces. Compared to Mudan's formula results for a straight cylinder or a cylinder with 30° tilt angle, the calculated view factors range from 0.0043 to 0.2742 and the predicted view factors agree well with Mudan's results. The changing trend and values of incident heat fluxes computed by the model is consistent with experimental data measured by Rangwala et al. As a case study, incident heat fluxes on a gasoline tank, both the side and the top surface are calculated by the model. The heat radiation is from an inclined cylindrical flame generated by another 1000 m3 gasoline tank 4.6 m away from it. The cone angle of the flame to the adjacent oil tank is 45° and the polar angle is 0°. The top surface and the side surface of the tank are divided into 960 and 5760 grids during the calculation, respectively. The maximum incident heat flux on the side surface is 39.64 and 51.31 kW/m2 on the top surface. Distributions of the incident heat flux on the surface of the oil tank and on the ground around the fire tank are obtained, too.
Thermalization via heat radiation of an individual object thinner than the thermal wavelength.
Wuttke, C; Rauschenbeutel, A
2013-07-12
Modeling and investigating the thermalization of microscopic objects with arbitrary shape from first principles is of fundamental interest and may lead to technical applications. Here, we study, over a large temperature range, the thermalization dynamics due to far-field heat radiation of an individual, deterministically produced silica fiber with a predetermined shape and a diameter smaller than the thermal wavelength. The temperature change of the subwavelength-diameter fiber is determined through a measurement of its optical path length in conjunction with an ab initio thermodynamic model of the fiber structure. Our results show excellent agreement with a theoretical model that considers heat radiation as a volumetric effect and takes the emitter shape and size relative to the emission wavelength into account.
Hady, Fekry M; Ibrahim, Fouad S; Abdel-Gaied, Sahar M; Eid, Mohamed R
2012-04-22
In this work, we study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation, included in the energy equation, and variable wall temperature. A similarity transformation was used to transform the governing partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical shooting technique with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme was used to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem. The variations of dimensionless surface temperature, as well as flow and heat-transfer characteristics with the governing dimensionless parameters of the problem, which include the nanoparticle volume fraction ϕ, the nonlinearly stretching sheet parameter n, the thermal radiation parameter NR, and the viscous dissipation parameter Ec, were graphed and tabulated. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier nonlinearly stretching sheet problem of Cortell for local Nusselt number without taking the effect of nanoparticles.
Computation of surface radiation and natural convection in a heated horticultural greenhouse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mezrhab, Ahmed; Elfarh, Larbi [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Energetique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed, Oujda (Morocco); Naji, Hassan [Universite Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies/Polytech' Lille/LML UMR 8107, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Lemonnier, D. [ENSMA, Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil cedex (France)
2010-03-15
This study analyses the effects of the radiation exchange inside a horticultural greenhouse, under winter climatic conditions, according to the number of squared heating tubes used. These ones, hot and isothermal, are equidistant inside the greenhouse volume. The governing differential equations are discretized using a finite volume method and the coupling pressure-velocity problem is carried out by the SIMPLER algorithm. The algebraic systems obtained are solved by a conjugate gradient method. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines and average Nusselt number for Rayleigh number of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 6}. The contour lines show that the radiative effects are noted near the solid surfaces, and become increasingly important when the Rayleigh number increases. As a result, the rise in the value of Rayleigh number leads to an increase of the overall heat transfer within the greenhouse. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the analysis of inherent irreversibility in hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of variable viscosity fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of thermal radiation and Newtonian heating. Using local similarity solution technique and shooting quadrature, the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained numerically and utilized to compute the entropy generation number. The effects of magnetic field parameter, Brinkmann number, the Prandtl number, variable viscosity parameter, radiation parameter and local Biot number on the fluid velocity profiles, temperature profiles, local skin friction and local Nusselt number are presented. The influences of the same parameters and the dimensionless group parameter on the entropy generation rate in the flow regime and Bejan number are calculated, depicted graphically and discussed quantitatively. It is observed that the peak of entropy generation rate is attained within the boundary layer region and plate surface act as a strong source of entropy generation and heat transfer irreversibility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-01-01
This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.
Assessment of Haar Wavelet-Quasilinearization Technique in Heat Convection-Radiation Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umer Saeed
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We showed that solutions by the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for the two problems, namely, (i temperature distribution equation in lumped system of combined convection-radiation in a slab made of materials with variable thermal conductivity and (ii cooling of a lumped system by combined convection and radiation are strongly reliable and also more accurate than the other numerical methods and are in good agreement with exact solution. According to the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique, we convert the nonlinear heat transfer equation to linear discretized equation with the help of quasilinearization technique and apply the Haar wavelet method at each iteration of quasilinearization technique to get the solution. The main aim of present work is to show the reliability of the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for heat transfer equations.
Radiation and convective heat transfer, and burnout in oxy-coal combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.P. Smart; P. O' Nions; G.S. Riley [RWE npower, Swindon (United Kingdom)
2010-09-15
Measurements of radiative and convective heat transfer, and carbon-in-ash have been taken on the RWEn 0.5 MWth combustion test facility (CTF) firing two different coals under oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals fired were a Russian Coal and a South African Coal. Recycle ratios were varied within the range of 65-75% dependent on coal. Furnace exit O{sub 2} values were maintained at 3% and 6% for the majority of tests. Air firing tests were also performed to generate baseline data. The work gives a comprehensive insight into the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on both radiative and convective heat transfer, and carbon-in-ash compared to air under dry simulated recycle conditions. Results have shown peak radiative heat flux values are inversely related to the recycle ratio for the two coals studied. Conversely, the convective heat flux values increase with increasing recycle ratio. It was also observed that the axial position of the peak in radiative heat flux moves downstream away from the burner as recycle ratio is increased. A 'working range' of recycle ratios exists where both the radiative and convective heat fluxes are comparable with air. Carbon-in-ash (CIA) was measured for selected conditions. For air firing of Russian Coal, the CIA for follows and expected trend with CIA decreasing with increasing furnace exit O{sub 2}. The CIA data for the two recycle ratios of 72% and 68% for the same coal show that the CIA values are lower than for air firing for corresponding furnace exit O{sub 2} levels and vary little with the value of furnace exit O{sub 2}. CIA measurements were taken for the South African Coal for a range of recycle ratios at 3% and 6% furnace exit O{sub 2} levels. Results indicate that the CIA values are lower for higher furnace exit O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
A New Mechanism for Chondrule Formation: Radiative Heating by Hot Planetesimals
Herbst, William
2015-01-01
We propose that chondrules are formed by radiative heating of pre-existing dust clumps during close fly-bys of planetesimals with incandescent lava at their surfaces. We show that the required temperatures and cooling rates are easily achieved in this scenario and discuss how it is consistent with bulk aspects of chondritic meteorites, including complementarity and the co-mingling of FeO-poor and FeO-rich chondrules.
Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.
2015-11-01
We propose a new conceptual approach for direct detonation initiation in the gaseous mixtures seeded with micro particles via the radiative heating from the external energy source. The basic mechanisms of energy absorption, ignition and detonation formation are analyzed numerically on the example of hydrogen-oxygen mixture. Obtained data is very promising and allows us to formulate conditions for the source power to ignite detonation in certain system geometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.
2013-01-31
Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by
Underwood, H R; Peterson, A F; Magin, R L
1992-02-01
A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode-dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low (epsilon r = 10) and high (epsilon r = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios at 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power.
Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel's surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YI HongLiang; TAN HePing
2008-01-01
This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot-ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel's surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re-fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother-mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal-ana-lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat-ing medium. In the muItilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin-gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.
Coupling heat conduction and radiation in complex 2D and 3D geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Rupp, I. [SIMULOG, 78 - Guyancourt (France)
1997-12-31
Thermal radiation is a very important mode of heat transfer in most real industrial systems. A numerical approach coupling radiation (restricted to non participant medium) and conduction is presented. The code (SYRTHES) is able to handle 2D and 3D problems (including cases with symmetries and periodicity). Radiation is solved by a radiosity approach, and conduction by a finite element method. Accurate and efficient algorithms based on a mixing of analytical/numerical integration, and ray tracing techniques are used to compute the view factors. Validation has been performed on numerous test cases. A conjugate residual algorithm solves the radiosity system. An explicit interactive numerical procedure is then used to couple conduction and radiation. No stability problem has been encountered so far. One specificity of SYRTHES is that conduction and radiation are solved on independent grids. This brings much flexibility and allows to keep the number of independent radiation patches at a reasonable level. Several industrial examples are given as illustration. (author) 6 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colvin, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shestakov, Aleksei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolken, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vignes, Ryan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2011-03-09
Lasers are widely used to modify the internal structure of semitransparent materials for a wide variety of applications, including waveguide fabrication and laser glass damage healing. The gray diffusion approximation used in past models to describe radiation cooling is not adequate for these materials, particularly near the heated surface layer. In this paper we describe a computational model based upon solving the radiation transport equation in 1D by the P_{n} method with ~500 photon energy bands, and by multi-group radiationdiffusion in 2D with fourteen photon energy bands. The model accounts for the temperature-dependent absorption of infrared laser light and subsequent redistribution of the deposited heat by both radiation and conductive transport. We present representative results for fused silica irradiated with 2–12 W of 4.6 or 10.6 µm laser light for 5–10 s pulse durations in a 1 mm spot, which is small compared to the diameter and thickness of the silica slab. Furthermore, we show that, unlike the case for bulk heating, in localized infrared laser heatingradiation transport plays only a very small role in the thermal response of silica.
A review of metallic radiation recuperators for thermal exhaust heat recovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Harshdeep [Galgotias University, Greater Noida (India); Kumar, Anoop; Varun [NIT-Hamirpur, Hamirpur (India); Khurana, Sourabh [Chandigarh University, Chandigarh (India)
2014-03-15
Radiation recuperator is a class of indirect contact heat exchanger widely used for waste heat recovery in high temperature industrial applications. At higher temperatures heat loss is higher and as the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, a radiation recuperator becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving recuperator performance, durability, and its design and material considerations has been an ongoing concern. Recent progress in furnace design and micro turbine applications together with use of recuperators has resulted in reduced fuel consumption, increased cost effectiveness and short pay-back time periods. Due to its high commercial value and confidential nature of the industry, little information is available in the open literature as compared to convection recuperators where results are well documented. This review paper intends to bridge the gap in literature and provides valuable information on experimental and theoretical investigations in radiation recuperator development along with identification of some unresolved issues.
Shock-tube studies of radiative base heating of Jovian probe
Shirai, H.; Park, C.
1980-01-01
A 6.4-cm-diameter scale model of the Jovian entry vehicle is tested in an electric-arc-driven shock tube and a 5-cm-diameter sphere model is tested in a combustion-driven shock tube and in an electric-arc-driven shock tunnel. The radiative heat-transfer rate and pressure on the front and the base regions are measured in the absence of ablation with sensors imbedded in the models in a stream consisting of 10% hydrogen in a bath of either neon or argon. The measured radiative heat-transfer rates and pressures range to about 22 kW/sq cm and 12 atm, respectively, at the front stagnation point. The ratio of the radiative heat-transfer rate at the base stagnation point to that at the front stagnation point is found to be about 1/4 for the sphere at Mach 1.8, about 1/30 for the sphere at Mach 4.8, and about 1/6 for the scale model at Mach 1.7. The present experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions of Park, thus indicating that Park's theory is valid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schumacher, Courtney
2012-12-13
Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.
Istra district heating system. General technical report. Appendix 1 to the master plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-09-01
The objective of the master plan project is to improve the heat supply in Istra. The considerable system losses from the fuel supplied to the end-users are one issue for improvement. At the same time, the current system operation results in poor quality heat for the consumers. Due to the inflexibility of the system the dwellings/premises of the consumers are either overheated or insufficiently heated. The financial situation in Istra, the legal ownership of the district heating system and consumers' lacking ability to pay limit the possibilities for system improvements. The Master Plan and Feasibility Study evaluates four different development scenarios. Each of the scenarios is compared to the current situation in Istra, where nothing is done to change the system, but only to operate the present system in a sustainable way. The sustainable operation of the district heating system includes all necessary renovations and component replacements necessary. The project does not take into account the present financial situation in Istra, which has resulted in less maintenance than necessary. This situation is not a comparable parameter, as it is not sustainable and will lead to a breakdown of the heat supply within a short time horizon. The General Technical Report evaluates the technical situation and describes system improvements at a general level. The intention with this report is to provide important information useful to other district heating companies in Russia. (au)
Costa, G; Peres, G; Argiroffi, C; Bonito, R
2016-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in Classical T Tauri Stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free fall velocity, and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims. We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods. We developed a 1D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray ...
Shi, Norman Nan; Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Camino, Fernando; Bernard, Gary D; Yu, Nanfang; Wehner, Rüdiger
2015-07-17
Saharan silver ants, Cataglyphis bombycina, forage under extreme temperature conditions in the African desert. We show that the ants' conspicuous silvery appearance is created by a dense array of triangular hairs with two thermoregulatory effects. They enhance not only the reflectivity of the ant's body surface in the visible and near-infrared range of the spectrum, where solar radiation culminates, but also the emissivity of the ant in the mid-infrared. The latter effect enables the animals to efficiently dissipate heat back to the surroundings via blackbody radiation under full daylight conditions. This biological solution for a thermoregulatory problem may lead to the development of biomimetic coatings for passive radiative cooling of objects.
Evaluation of FSK models for radiative heat transfer under oxyfuel conditions
Clements, Alastair G.; Porter, Rachael; Pranzitelli, Alessandro; Pourkashanian, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Oxyfuel is a promising technology for carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to combustion processes. It would be highly advantageous in the deployment of CCS to be able to model and optimise oxyfuel combustion, however the increased concentrations of CO2 and H2O under oxyfuel conditions modify several fundamental processes of combustion, including radiative heat transfer. This study uses benchmark narrow band radiation models to evaluate the influence of assumptions in global full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) models, and whether they are suitable for modelling radiation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of oxyfuel combustion. The statistical narrow band (SNB) and correlated-k (CK) models are used to calculate benchmark data for the radiative source term and heat flux, which are then compared to the results calculated from FSK models. Both the full-spectrum correlated k (FSCK) and the full-spectrum scaled k (FSSK) models are applied using up-to-date spectral data. The results show that the FSCK and FSSK methods achieve good agreement in the test cases. The FSCK method using a five-point Gauss quadrature scheme is recommended for CFD calculations in oxyfuel conditions, however there are still potential inaccuracies in cases with very wide variations in the ratio between CO2 and H2O concentrations.
Strongly coupled near-field radiative and conductive heat transfer between planar bodies
Messina, Riccardo; Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.
2016-09-01
We study the interplay of conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) in planar geometries and predict that temperature gradients induced by radiation can play a significant role on the behavior of RHT with respect to gap sizes, depending largely on geometric and material parameters and not so crucially on operating temperatures. Our findings exploit rigorous calculations based on a closed-form expression for the heat flux between two plates separated by vacuum gaps d and subject to arbitrary temperature profiles, along with an approximate but accurate analytical treatment of coupled conduction-radiation in this geometry. We find that these effects can be prominent in typical materials (e.g., silica and sapphire) at separations of tens of nanometers, and can play an even larger role in metal oxides, which exhibit moderate conductivities and enhanced radiative properties. Broadly speaking, these predictions suggest that the impact of RHT on thermal conduction, and vice versa, could manifest itself as a limit on the possible magnitude of RHT at the nanoscale, which asymptotes to a constant (the conductive transfer rate when the gap is closed) instead of diverging at short separations.
Kasmani, Ruhaila Md; Sivasankaran, S.; Bhuvaneswari, M.; Siri, Zailan
2015-10-01
An analysis is presented to find the effects of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption on convection heat transfer of nanofluid past a wedge in the presence of wall suction. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The resulting system is solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Numerical computations are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters to predict the effects of wedge angle, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and suction. It is found that the temperature increases significantly when the value of the heat generation/absorption parameter increases. But the opposite observation is found for the effect of thermal radiation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasmani, Ruhaila Md; Bhuvaneswari, M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sivasankaran, S.; Siri, Zailan [Institute of Mathematical Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
An analysis is presented to find the effects of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption on convection heat transfer of nanofluid past a wedge in the presence of wall suction. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The resulting system is solved numerically using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta method with shooting technique. Numerical computations are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters to predict the effects of wedge angle, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and suction. It is found that the temperature increases significantly when the value of the heat generation/absorption parameter increases. But the opposite observation is found for the effect of thermal radiation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, R.A.; Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Silverstein, C.C. [CCS Associates, Bethel Park, PA (United States)
1994-03-25
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos), and CCS Associates are conducting the Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC) for High-Speed Aircraft Propulsion program to determine the advantages and demonstrate the feasibility of using high-temperature heat pipes to cool hypersonic engine components. This innovative approach involves using heat pipes to transport heat away from the combustor, nozzle, or inlet regions, and to reject it to the environment by thermal radiation from adjacent external surfaces. HPRC is viewed as an alternative (or complementary) cooling technique to the use of pumped cryogenic or endothermic fuels to provide regenerative fuel or air cooling of the hot surfaces. The HPRC program has been conducted through two phases, an applications phase and a feasibility phase. The applications program (Phase 1) included concept and assessment analyses using hypersonic engine data obtained from US engine company contacts. The applications phase culminated with planning for experimental verification of the HPRC concept to be pursued in a feasibility program. The feasibility program (Phase 2), recently completed and summarized in this report, involved both analytical and experimental studies.
Observations of infrared radiation during disruptions in TEXTOR: heat pulses and runaway electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaspers, R. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Grewe, T. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Finken, K.H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Lopes Cardozo, N.J. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Mank, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Waidmann, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
1995-04-01
Disruptions are studied in TEXTOR using two infrared cameras. In the thermal quench phase, fast changing heat fluxes are observed, each delivering energies larger than 1 kJ/m{sup 2} to the limiter. These bursts are correlated with an electron temperature pulse near the limiter and an increased release of impurities. Further bursts are observed in the current decay phase. For the first time a disruption generated beam of runaway electrons, accelerated in about 10 ms to about 20 MeV, is observed inside the plasma by the infrared synchrotron radiation. This beam carries a current of about 20 kA and is lost within approximately 100 {mu}s. The heat deposition on the limiter due to the runaways is comparable to the power flux by the heat bursts. ((orig.)).
Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Metamaterials coated with Silicon Carbide Film
Basu, Soumyadipta; Wang, Liping
2014-01-01
In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC.By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonance for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.
Total Heat Exchange Factor Based on Non-Gray Radiation Properties of Gas in Reheating Furnace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI Miao; CHEN Hai-geng; XU Li; WU Bin
2009-01-01
Modified mathematical models based on imaginary plane zone method in reheating furnace were developed in which non-gray radiation properties of gas were considered,and the Newton's method and the finite difference method were adopted.Effects of productivity,fuel consumption,fuel-air ratio,calorific value of fuel and inserting depth of thermocouple on total heat exchange factor along the length of reheating furnace were investigated.The resuits show that total heat exchange factor increases with productivity or inserting depth of thermocouple,and it decreases when fuel consumption,fuel-air ratio or calorific value of fuel increases.The results are valuable for dynamical compensation of total heat exchange factor for online control mathematical models in reheating furnace.
Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrada, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico)
2007-10-15
A calorimeter was built for measuring the concentrated solar power produced by a point focus solar concentrator that was developed at CIE - UNAM. In order to obtain a thermal characterization of the calorimeter a theoretical and experimental heat transfer study is carried out. This study addresses the heat transfer in the circular flat plate of the calorimeter, which acts as receiver for the concentrating system. Temperatures are measured at different points of this plate and fit with a theoretical model that considers heat conduction with convective and radiative boundary conditions. In particular, it is possible to calculate the temperature distribution on the irradiated surface. This allows to examine the validity of the assumptions of cold water calorimetry, which was the technique applied to this system in previous works. (author)
On-line corrosion monitoring in geothermal district heating systems. I. General corrosion rates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Richter, S.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.
2006-01-01
General corrosion rates in the geothermal district heating systems in Iceland are generally low, of the magnitude 1 mu m/y. The reason is high pH (9.5), low-conductivity (200 mu m/y) and negligible dissolved oxygen. The geothermal hot water is either used directly from source or to heat up cold...... ground water. The fluid naturally contains sulphide, which helps keeping the fluid oxygen-free but complicates the electrochemical environment. In this research on-line techniques for corrosion monitoring were tested and evaluated in this medium. Electrochemical methods worked well as long as frequency...
Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Ilic, Ognjen; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G
2011-09-09
We demonstrate the possibility of achieving enhanced frequency-selective near-field radiative heat transfer between patterned (photonic-crystal) slabs at designable frequencies and separations, exploiting a general numerical approach for computing heat transfer in arbitrary geometries and materials based on the finite-difference time-domain method. Our simulations reveal a tradeoff between selectivity and near-field enhancement as the slab-slab separation decreases, with the patterned heat transfer eventually reducing to the unpatterned result multiplied by a fill factor (described by a standard proximity approximation). We also find that heat transfer can be further enhanced at selective frequencies when the slabs are brought into a glide-symmetric configuration, a consequence of the degeneracies associated with the nonsymmorphic symmetry group.
Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation
Herrera-Aguilar, A; da Rocha, Roldao
2015-01-01
From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered -- as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the physical soft singularities.
Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Herrera-Aguilar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khilap Singh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of chemical reaction on heat and mass transfer flow of a micropolar fluid in a permeable channel with heat generation and thermal radiation is studied. The Rosseland approximations are used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The model contains nonlinear coupled partial differential equations which have been transformed into ordinary differential equation by using the similarity variables. The relevant nonlinear equations have been solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth-order method with shooting technique. The physical significance of interesting parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics as well as the local skin friction coefficient, wall couple stress, and the heat transfer rate are thoroughly examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.K. Abdul Hakeem
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this present article heat transfer in a Walter’s liquid B fluid over an impermeable stretching sheet with non-uniform heat source/sink, elastic deformation and radiation are reported. The basic boundary layer equations for momentum and heat transfer, which are non-linear partial differential equations, are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using hyper geometric functions. The results are carried out for prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed power law surface heat flux (PHF. The effects of viscous dissipation, Prandtl number, Eckert number, heat source/sink parameter with elastic deformation and radiation are shown in the several plots and addressed.
Boriskina, Svetlana V; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Jiawei; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Chen, Gang
2016-01-01
The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (...
Abd Elazem, Nader Y.; Ebaid, Abdelhalim
2017-07-01
In this paper, the effect of partial slip boundary condition on the heat and mass transfer of the Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids over a stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field and radiation. Such partial slip boundary condition has attracted much attention due to its wide applications in industry and chemical engineering. The flow is basically governing by a system of partial differential equations which are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. This system has been exactly solved, where exact analytical expression has been obtained for the fluid velocity in terms of exponential function, while the temperature distribution, and the nanoparticles concentration are expressed in terms of the generalized incomplete gamma function. In addition, explicit formulae are also derived from the rates of heat transfer and mass transfer. The effects of the permanent parameters on the skin friction, heat transfer coefficient, rate of mass transfer, velocity, the temperature profile, and concentration profile have been discussed through tables and graphs.
Design and Testing of an Active Heat Rejection Radiator with Digital Turn-Down Capability
Sunada, Eric; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Miller, Jennifer; Berisford, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan
2010-01-01
NASA's proposed lunar lander, Altair, will be exposed to vastly different external environment temperatures. The challenges to the active thermal control system (ATCS) are compounded by unfavorable transients in the internal waste heat dissipation profile: the lowest heat load occurs in the coldest environment while peak loads coincide with the warmest environment. The current baseline for this fluid is a 50/50 inhibited propylene glycol/water mixture with a freeze temperature around -35 C. While the overall size of the radiator's heat rejection area is dictated by the worst case hot scenario, a turn-down feature is necessary to tolerate the worst case cold scenario. A radiator with digital turn-down capability is being designed as a robust means to maintain cabin environment and equipment temperatures while minimizing mass and power consumption. It utilizes active valving to isolate and render ineffective any number of parallel flow tubes which span across the ATCS radiator. Several options were assessed in a trade-study to accommodate flow tube isolation and how to deal with the stagnant fluid that would otherwise remain in the tube. Bread-board environmental tests were conducted for options to drain the fluid from a turned-down leg as well an option to allow a leg to freeze/thaw. Each drain option involved a positive displacement gear pump with different methods of providing a pressure head to feed it. Test results showed that a start-up heater used to generate vapor at the tube inlet held the most promise for tube evacuation. Based on these test results and conclusions drawn from the trade-study, a full-scale radiator design is being worked for the Altair mission profile.
Effect of cloud-radiation feedback on the climate of a general circulation model
Shukla, J.; Sud, Y.
1981-01-01
Experiments are described which show significant changes in the simulated large-scale dynamical circulation of a global model. Fixed clouds acting as zonally asymmetric radiative heat sources increase the generation of eddy available potential energy (EAPE) and the energy's conversion to eddy kinetic energy. Generation of EAPE by net radiative heating increases by 50% (0.11 W/sq m) for the fixed cloud experiment. The increase caused by the stationary component is much larger (approximately 100%), but it is partially compensated by a decrease caused by the transient component. A substantial increase is found in the variances of the planetary-scale stationary waves and the medium-scale waves of 2.7 day period. Although the sea surface temperatures are prescribed identically in both integrations, the changes in evaporation and precipitation are found to be much larger over the oceans than over the land.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Liu, Qing [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL
2007-01-01
We conducted observations and modeling at a forest site to assess importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions. We used the terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes And Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the calculated biomass energy storages. Effects of energy storages on flux exchanges and variations of radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without the storages. We found that with the storages, FAPIS predictions agreed with measurements well; without them, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all surface energy fluxes. The biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 Wm-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Without-storage simulations produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with with-storage simulations. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the biomass energy storages act to dampen diurnal temperature range. Therefore, biomass heat and biochemical energy storages are an integral and substantial part of the surface energy budget and play a role in modulating land surface temperatures and must be considered in studies of land - atmosphere interactions and climate modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drost, M.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Welty, J.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))
1992-08-01
Radiation heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is an important problem that is particularly difficult to analyze because of the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic optical properties involved. This article presents an efficient Monte Carlo method for evaluating radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. This Monte Carlo model has been optimized to take advantage of the regular arrangement of surfaces often encountered in these arrays. Monte Carlo model predictions have been compared with analytical and experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drost, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
1992-08-01
Radiation heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is an important problem that is particularly difficult to analyze because of the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic optical properties involved. This article presents an efficient Monte Carlo method for evaluating radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. This Monte Carlo model has been optimized to take advantage of the regular arrangement of surfaces often encountered in these arrays. Monte Carlo model predictions have been compared with analytical and experimental results.
Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M
2016-02-01
Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.
Thermoluminescence response of previously heated NaCl : Eu crystals to UV radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondragon-Galicia, G; Mendoza-Anaya, D [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departmento TecnologIa de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Nicho-Diaz, M E [Centro de Investigacion en IngenierIa y Ciencias Aplicadas. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)
2008-02-21
In this work we report the modification in the thermoluminescent (TL) response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation of Czochralski-grown NaCl : Eu crystals when they are pre-heated. The crystals were pre-heated at 273, 473, 573, 673, 773 and 873 K for 2 h in an inert atmosphere, observing the highest response in crystals pre-heated at 573 K and the lowest in crystals pre-heated at 473 K. To correlate the TL response with the thermal treatment and, in a certain way, with the microstructure developed in the crystals, they were observed with a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. At 373 K the crystals showed spherical precipitates of 100 nm size homogeneously distributed, whereas at 473 and 573 K, the crystals showed, besides spherical precipitates, wire-like precipitates from 1.0 to 7.0 {mu}m in length. The precipitates changed to a square 4 {mu}m in size at 673 K which diminished to 1.0 {mu}m in size in crystals heated at 773 and 873 K. Clearly the shape of the precipitates has an influence on the TL response of the NaCl : Eu crystals.
Transport of heat in caloric vestibular stimulation. Conduction, convection or radiation?
Feldmann, H; Hüttenbrink, K B; Delank, K W
1991-01-01
Experiments in temporal bone specimens were carried out under strictly controlled conditions: temperature (37 degrees C) and humidity kept constant; standardized irrigation of the external ear canal by an automated system (in 15 s, 50 ml of water, 11 degrees C above temperature of specimen), thermistor probes of 0.2 mm diameter placed in different parts of the specimens. In the intact temporal bone such an irrigation causes a rise in temperature with a gradient from the external ear canal across the bony bridge to the lateral semicircular canal as expected with heat conduction. After removal of the bony bridge, which is the main route for heat conduction, the rise in temperature in the lateral semicircular canal is greater and faster than in the intact specimen. This effect again is drastically reduced by placing a reflecting shield between tympanic membrane and labyrinth. In the intact middle ear inserting a reflecting shield or filling the cavity with gel also reduces the heat transfer to the labyrinth, although the bony routes for heat conduction are left untouched. The experiments prove that radiation plays an important part in heat transfer in caloric stimulation.
Amosov, A. A.
2016-07-01
A nonstationary initial boundary value problem describing the radiative-conductive heat exchange in a system of semitransparent bodies is considered. The radiation transfer equation with boundary conditions of mirror reflection and refraction according to the Fresnel laws is used to describe the propagation of radiation. The dependence of the radiation intensity and the optical properties of bodies on the radiation frequency is taken into account. The existence and uniqueness of a weak solution are proved. A comparison theorem is proved. Some a priori estimates for the weak solution are derived and its regularity is proved.
Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.
2014-05-01
The propagation of a spherical (or cylindrical) shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, in the presence of a spacially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field, driven out by a moving piston is investigated. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow-field behind the shock and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas, both, decreases the compressibility of the gas and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that with an increase in the parameters of radiative and conductive heat transfer the tendency of formation of maxima in the distributions of heat flux, density and isothermal speed of sound decreases. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is form at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, chemical detonation, rupture of a pressurized vessels, in the analysis of data from exploding wire experiments, and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or reentry vehicles, etc. The findings of the present works provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter, conductive and radiative heat transfer parameters and the magnetic field affect the flow behind the shock
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Shi, E-mail: sjin@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Mathematics, MOE-LSEC and SHL-MAC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing@math.wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2017-04-01
In this paper, we develop an Asymptotic-Preserving (AP) stochastic Galerkin scheme for the radiative heat transfer equations with random inputs and diffusive scalings. In this problem the random inputs arise due to uncertainties in cross section, initial data or boundary data. We use the generalized polynomial chaos based stochastic Galerkin (gPC-SG) method, which is combined with the micro–macro decomposition based deterministic AP framework in order to handle efficiently the diffusive regime. For linearized problem we prove the regularity of the solution in the random space and consequently the spectral accuracy of the gPC-SG method. We also prove the uniform (in the mean free path) linear stability for the space-time discretizations. Several numerical tests are presented to show the efficiency and accuracy of proposed scheme, especially in the diffusive regime.
Heat distribution function for motion in a general potential at low temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogedby, Hans; Imparato, Alberto
2009-01-01
We consider the 1D motion of an over-damped Brownian particle in a general potential in the low temperature limit. We derive an explicit expression for the probability distribution for the heat transferred to the particle. We find that the local minima in the potential yield divergent side bands...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.
A study of three-dimensional LES of turbulent combustion with radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, R. Goncalves dos, E-mail: roger7@fem.unicamp.br [Universidade de Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecania; Ducruix, S.; Gicquel, O.; Veynate, D. [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295, Châtenay-Malabry (France)
2016-01-15
Combustion, one of the main forms of energy production nowadays, is a complex phenomenon in which turbulent flow, chemical reactions, different phases and heat transfer phenomena can interact. A better understanding of these interactions is essential to improve existing combustion systems and develop new ones. The aim of this work was to study the interaction of turbulent combustion with thermal radiation with the aid of three-dimensional numerical simulation. Using the CORBA computational tool, a code for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of combustion was coupled with a radiative heat transfer code. This technique allows information to be exchanged between the two codes without major changes in their structure, so that advantage can be taken of the different characteristic time of each phenomenon in a high-performance parallel-computing environment. This study is the continuation of an earlier two-dimensional study. The results show a change in the temperature and species fields as well as in the flame dynamics when thermal radiation is taken into account. (author)
Transient Coupled Radiative and Conductive Heat Transfer in a Composite of Semitransparent Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping－YangWang; He－PingTan; 等
1999-01-01
The transient coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer in semitransparent composite under the complex boundary conditions is investigated by the ray tracing method in combination with Hottel's zonal method and the control-volume method.The composite is composed of two plane layers of nonscattering semitransparent media with the different thermophysical properties in each layer,Both boundary surfaces and the intermal interface are semitransparent.The reflections are assumed diffuse or specular.The transient temperature distributions in the composite are obtained for the combined thermal boundary conditions of incident radiation and convective heat transfer,Under diffuse reflection.the results in this paper are seqarately compared with the steady and transient results of previous work.The comparison shows the reliability and the high calculating accuracy of the formulas berived in this paper.the present analysis includes the effects of the optical thickness.the conduction-radiation parameter,the spectral property and the reflective mode on the transient temperature distributions.
Casimir friction and near-field radiative heat transfer in graphene structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volokitin, A.I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Peter Gruenberg Inst.; Samara State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Physical Dept.
2017-05-01
The dependence of the Casimir friction force between a graphene sheet and a (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate on the drift velocity of the electrons in the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that the Casimir friction is strongly enhanced for the drift velocity above the threshold velocity when the friction is determined by the resonant excitation of the surface phonon-polaritons in the SiO{sub 2} substrate and the electron-hole pairs in graphene. The theory agrees well with the experimental data for the current-voltage dependence for unsuspended graphene on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. The theories of the Casimir friction and the near-field radiative energy transfer are used to study the heat generation and dissipation in graphene due to the interaction with phonon-polaritons in the (amorphous) SiO{sub 2} substrate and acoustic phonons in graphene. For suspended graphene, the energy transfer coefficient at nanoscale gap is ∝ three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the blackbody radiation limit.
Casimir Friction and Near-field Radiative Heat Transfer in Graphene Structures
Volokitin, A. I.
2017-02-01
The dependence of the Casimir friction force between a graphene sheet and a (amorphous) SiO2 substrate on the drift velocity of the electrons in the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that the Casimir friction is strongly enhanced for the drift velocity above the threshold velocity when the friction is determined by the resonant excitation of the surface phonon-polaritons in the SiO2 substrate and the electron-hole pairs in graphene. The theory agrees well with the experimental data for the current-voltage dependence for unsuspended graphene on the SiO2 substrate. The theories of the Casimir friction and the near-field radiative energy transfer are used to study the heat generation and dissipation in graphene due to the interaction with phonon-polaritons in the (amorphous) SiO2 substrate and acoustic phonons in graphene. For suspended graphene, the energy transfer coefficient at nanoscale gap is three orders of magnitude larger than the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the blackbody radiation limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Zhaohui; Xing Huawei; Zhou Yingbiao; Zheng Chuguang [National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Wuhan (China)
1997-12-31
This paper investigates the possible effect of residue char on the radiative heat transfer in a pilot furnace. Firstly, a program is constructed to incorporate radiative properties of particles in solving the radiative heat transfer, based on a computer code for predicting turbulent gas-solid flow and combustion. The radiative properties of single unburnt char are modeled by coated sphere model of Mie theory, while the local Planck average radiative properties of particle could be obtained by a scheme based on Lagrangian approach with particle turbulent dispersion, and the radiative heat transfer is solved by Discrete Transfer method. Then, comparisons are made among predicted results for a pilot-scale pulverized coal furnace by several particulate radiative properties models. It shows even for the pilot-scale furnace, the effect of particle concentration is more important than that of distinguishing between particles of char and ash. The residue carbon in ash has a tendency to enhance the radiative heat transfer for this case. The optimized burn-off rate to separate ash from char is near 0.65.
Heat transfer enhancement of automobile radiator using H2O–CuO nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sabeel Khan
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study heat transfer enhancement of water based nanofluids with application to automotive radiators. In this respect, we consider here three types of different nanoparticles viz. copper oxide (CuO, Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Aluminum oxide (Al2O3. The dynamics of the flow in a radiator is governed by set of partial differential equations (PDEs along with boundary conditions which are formulated. Suitable similarity transformations are utilized to convert the PDEs into their respective system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The boundary value problem is solved using Shooting method embedded with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RK-5 numerical scheme. Effects of different physical parameters are studied on profiles of velocity and temperature fields at boundary. In addition, influence of nanoparticle concentration factor on the local coefficient of skin-friction and Nusselt number is analyzed. We conclude that water based nanofluids with copper oxide nano-particles have a much higher heat transfer rate than the Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Moreover, larger the concentration of the CuO nanoparticles in the base fluid higher is the heat transfer rate of CuO-water nanofluid.
Otani, Hidenori; Goto, Takayuki; Goto, Heita; Shirato, Minayuki
2017-09-14
High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer. Eight healthy, high school baseball players, heat-acclimatised male volunteers completed a 3-h outdoor baseball trainings under the clear sky in the heat. The trainings were commenced at 0900 h in AM trial and at 1600 h in PM trial each on a separate day. Solar radiation and solar elevation angle during exercise continued to increase in AM (672-1107 W/m(2) and 44-69°) and decrease in PM (717-0 W/m(2) and 34-0°) and were higher on AM than on PM (both P 0.05). Tympanic temperature measured by an infrared tympanic thermometer and mean skin temperature were higher in AM than PM at 120 and 180 min (P 0.05). The current study demonstrates a greater thermoregulatory strain in the morning than in the afternoon resulting from a higher body temperature and heart rate in relation to an increase in environmental heat stress with rising solar radiation and solar elevation angle during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat. This response is associated with a lesser net heat loss at the skin and a greater body heat gain from the sun in the morning compared with the afternoon.
Effects of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations in a general circulation model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-Ho Lee
Full Text Available Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR general circulation model (CCM2, a suite of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations has been tested. Our methodology relies on perpetual July integrations driven by ±2 K sea surface temperature forcing. The tested parameterizations include relative humidity based clouds and versions of schemes involving a prognostic cloud water budget. We are especially interested in testing the effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks on global climate sensitivity. All schemes exhibit negative cloud radiation feedbacks, i.e., cloud moderates the global warming. However, these negative net cloud radiation feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between a scheme with interactive cloud radiative properties and several schemes with specified cloud water paths. An increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle- and low-level clouds and in turn negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative scheme, while a decrease in cloud amount leads to a positive shortwave feedback for the other schemes. For the longwave feedbacks, a decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while no distinct changes in effective high cloudiness and the resulting feedback are exhibited for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. The resulting magnitude of negative net cloud radiation feed-back is largest for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. Even though the simulated values of cloud radiative forcing for the present climate using this method differ most from the observational data, the approach shows great promise for the future.
Diagnostic Dental Radiation Risk during Pregnancy: Awareness among General Dentists in Tabriz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahmineh Razi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Background and aims. Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care in emergency visits due to a lack of awareness of the effect of radiation doses and the involved risks for the fetus. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of general dentists practicing in Tabriz, Iran, of the risks involved during exposure to diagnostic dental radiation in pregnant women. Materials and methods. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 250 general dentists, who had attended continuing education courses under the supervision of the Faculty of Dentistry, filled out questionnaires on their awareness of radiation risks. Data was analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. Results. The mean of correct answers was 6.47±1.66, with the least and highest correct answers of 2 and 10, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of awareness were related to the use of a lead apron (92% and a long rectangular collimator (3.2%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of practitioners and awareness of radiation risks (P=0.02. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between job experience (P=0.25 and the number of continuing education courses attended (P=0.16 and awareness of radiation risks. Conclusion. The studied population of dentists does not seem to have the sufficient knowledge regarding the diagnostic dental radiation risk during pregnancy. Further educational courses and pamphlets are recommended for increasing their awareness of this subject.
Diagnostic Dental Radiation Risk during Pregnancy: Awareness among General Dentists in Tabriz.
Razi, Tahmineh; Bazvand, Leila; Ghojazadeh, Morteza
2011-01-01
Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care in emergency visits due to a lack of awareness of the effect of radiation doses and the involved risks for the fetus. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of general dentists practicing in Tabriz, Iran, of the risks involved during exposure to diagnostic dental radiation in pregnant women. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 250 general dentists, who had attended continuing education courses under the supervision of the Faculty of Dentistry, filled out questionnaires on their awareness of radiation risks. Data was analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. The mean of correct answers was 6.47±1.66, with the least and highest correct answers of 2 and 10, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of awareness were related to the use of a lead apron (92%) and a long rectangular collimator (3.2%), respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of practitioners and awareness of radiation risks (P=0.02). However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between job experience (P=0.25) and the number of continuing education courses attended (P=0.16) and awareness of radiation risks. The studied population of dentists does not seem to have the sufficient knowledge regarding the diagnostic dental radiation risk during pregnancy. Further educational courses and pamphlets are recommended for increasing their awareness of this subject.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Bingyu; Zheng, Liancun, E-mail: liancunzheng@ustb.edu.cn; Chen, Shengting [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)
2015-10-15
This paper presents an investigation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscoelastic fluid boundary layer flow and radiation heat transfer over an unsteady stretching sheet in presence of heat source. Time dependent fractional derivative is first introduced in formulating the boundary layer equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the finite difference scheme and L1-algorithm approximation. Results indicate that the proposed model describes a basic delaying times framework for viscoelastic flow and radiation heat transfer. The effects of involved parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingyu Shen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD viscoelastic fluid boundary layer flow and radiation heat transfer over an unsteady stretching sheet in presence of heat source. Time dependent fractional derivative is first introduced in formulating the boundary layer equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the finite difference scheme and L1-algorithm approximation. Results indicate that the proposed model describes a basic delaying times framework for viscoelastic flow and radiation heat transfer. The effects of involved parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. P. Vishwakarma; Arvind K. Singh
2009-03-01
The propagation of a spherical shock wave in an ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, and with or without self-gravitational effects, is investigated. The initial density of the gas is assumed to obey a power law. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density, and the total energy of the wave to vary with time. Similarity solutions are obtained and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the variation of initial density and the presence of self-gravitational field are investigated.
Metri, Prashant G; Abel, M Subhash
2016-01-01
In this paper we present a mathematical analysis of thin film flow and heat transfer to a laminar liquid film from a horizontal stretching sheet. The flow of thin liquid film and subsequent heat transfer from the stretching surface is investigated with the aid of similarity transformations. Similarity transformations are used to convert unsteady boundary layer equations to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-kutta-Fehlberg and Newton-Raphson schemes. A relationship between film thickness $\\beta$ and the unsteadiness parameter $S$ is found, the effect of unsteadiness parameter $S$, and the Prandtl number $Pr$, Magnetic field parameter $Mn$, Radiation parameter $Nr$ and viscous dissipation parameter $Ec$ and heat source parameter $\\gamma$ on the temperature distributions are presented and discussed in detail. Present analysis shows that the combined effect of magnetic field, thermal radiation, heat source and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elsayed M. A Elbashbeshy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of thermal radiation and heat transfer over an unsteady stretching surface embedded in a porous medium in the presence of heat source or sink are studied. The governing time dependent boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations containing radiation parameter, permeability parameter, heat source or sink parameter, Prandtl number, and unsteadiness parameter. These equations are solved numerically by applying Nachtsheim-Swinger shooting iteration technique together with Rung-Kutta fourth order integration scheme. The velocity profiles, temperature profiles, the skin friction coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer are computed and discussed in details for various values of the different parameters. Comparison of the obtained numerical results is made with previously published results.
Gupta, Siddhartha; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri
2016-01-01
Energetic winds and radiation from massive star clusters push the surrounding gas and blow superbubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM). Using 1-D hydrodynamic simulations, we study the role of radiation in the dynamics of superbubbles driven by a young star cluster of mass $10^{6}$ M$_{\\odot}$. We have considered a realistic time evolution of the mechanical power as well as radiation power of the star cluster, and detailed heating and cooling processes. We find that the ratio of the radiation pressure on the shell (shocked ISM) to the thermal pressure ($\\sim10^{7}$ K) of the shocked wind region is almost independent of the ambient density, and it is greater than unity before $\\lesssim 1$ Myr. We explore the parameter space of density and dust opacity of the ambient medium, and find that the size of the hot gas ($\\sim$ 10$^{7}$ K) cavity is insensitive to the dust opacity ($\\sigma_{d}\\approx(0.1-1.5)\\times 10^{-21}$ cm$^{2}$), but the structure of the photoionized ($\\sim10^4$ K) gas depends on it. Most of th...
Temperature of a nanoparticle above a substrate under radiative heating and cooling
Kallel, Houssem; Joulain, Karl
2016-01-01
Controlling the temperature in architectures involving nanoparticles and substrates is a key issue for applications involving micro and nanoscale heat transfer. We study the thermal behavior of a single nanoparticle interacting with a flat substrate under external monochromatic illumination, and with thermal radiation as the unique heat loss channel. We develop a model to compute the temperature of the nanoparticle, based on an effective dipole-polarizability approach. Using numerical simulations, we thoroughly investigate the impacts of various parameters affecting the NP temperature, such as the nanoparticle-substrate gap distance, the incident wavelength and polarization, or the material resonances. This study provides a tool for the thermal characterization and design of micro or nanoscale systems coupling substrates with nanoparticles or optical antennas.
Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.
Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E
2014-07-01
The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Narayan, Ramesh; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Sadowski, Aleksander
2015-01-01
We describe HEROIC, an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in the short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic MHD simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below ...
HERO - A 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor for accretion discs around black holes
Zhu, Yucong; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2015-08-01
HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analysing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a post-processor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: (1) a short-characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self-consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with (2) a long-characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. We present tests of HERO on a range of 1D, 2D, and 3D problems in flat space and show that the results agree well with both analytical and benchmark solutions. We also test the ability of the code to handle relativistic problems in curved space. Finally, we discuss the important topic of ray defects, a major limitation of the SC method, and describe our strategy for minimizing the induced error.
HERO: A 3D General Relativistic Radiative Postprocessor for Accretion Discs around Black Holes
Zhu, Yucong; Sadowski, Aleksander; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2015-01-01
HERO (Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects) is a 3D general relativistic radiative transfer code which has been tailored to the problem of analyzing radiation from simulations of relativistic accretion discs around black holes. HERO is designed to be used as a postprocessor. Given some fixed fluid structure for the disc (i.e. density and velocity as a function of position from a hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics simulation), the code obtains a self-consistent solution for the radiation field and for the gas temperatures using the condition of radiative equilibrium. The novel aspect of HERO is that it combines two techniques: 1) a short characteristics (SC) solver that quickly converges to a self consistent disc temperature and radiation field, with 2) a long characteristics (LC) solver that provides a more accurate solution for the radiation near the photosphere and in the optically thin regions. By combining these two techniques, we gain both the computational speed of SC and the high accuracy of LC. W...
A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Institut für Computergestützte Wissenschaften, Universität Zürich Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars, E-mail: klassm@mcmaster.ca [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)
2014-12-10
Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.
A General Hybrid Radiation Transport Scheme for Star Formation Simulations on an Adaptive Grid
Klassen, Mikhail; Kuiper, Rolf; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars
2014-12-01
Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.
Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.
COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODELLING OF FORMULA-SAE SIDEPODS FOR OPTIMUM RADIATOR HEAT MANAGEMENT
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C. M. DE SILVA
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Formula SAE vehicles, over the program’s history have showcased a myriad of aerodynamic packages, each claiming specific quantitative and qualitative features. This paper attempts to critique differing aerodynamic sidepod designs and their effect upon radiator heat management. Various features from inlet size, sidepod shape and size, presence of an undertray, suspension cover, gills and chimneys are analysed for their effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analyses are performed in the FLUENT environment, with the aid of GAMBIT meshing software and SolidWorks modelling.
Incorporation of polarization effects in Monte Carlo simulations of radiative heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lo, C.; Palmer, B.J.; Drost, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
1995-02-01
The electric field vector of individual photons has been incorporated into Monte Carlo simulations of radiative heat transfer to examine the effects of polarization on the optical properties of arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. Simulations are performed on arrays that have specular surfaces with high and low reflectivity. Two different arrays are illuminated by polarized and unpolarized light and compared with conventional Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that if the initial illumination is either partially or fully polarized, polarization effects are substantial, especially for low-reflectivity surfaces and for arrays that favor a large number of grazing-angle reflections.
Radiative heat transfer in strongly forward scattering media of circulating fluidized bed combustors
Ates, Cihan; Ozen, Guzide; Selçuk, Nevin; Kulah, Gorkem
2016-10-01
Investigation of the effect of particle scattering on radiative incident heat fluxes and source terms is carried out in the dilute zone of the lignite-fired 150 kWt Middle East Technical University Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (METU CFBC) test rig. The dilute zone is treated as an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure containing grey/non-grey, absorbing, emitting gas with absorbing, emitting non/isotropically/anisotropically scattering particles surrounded by grey diffuse walls. A two-dimensional axisymmetric radiation model based on Method of Lines (MOL) solution of Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) coupled with Grey Gas (GG)/Spectral Line-Based Weighted Sum of Grey Gases Model (SLW) and Mie theory/geometric optics approximation (GOA) is extended for incorporation of anisotropic scattering by using normalized Henyey-Greenstein (HG)/transport approximation for the phase function. Input data for the radiation model is obtained from predictions of a comprehensive model previously developed and benchmarked against measurements on the same CFBC burning low calorific value indigenous lignite with high volatile matter/fixed carbon (VM/FC) ratio in its own ash. Predictive accuracy and computational efficiency of nonscattering, isotropic scattering and forward scattering with transport approximation are tested by comparing their predictions with those of forward scattering with HG. GG and GOA based on reflectivity with angular dependency are found to be accurate and CPU efficient. Comparisons reveal that isotropic assumption leads to under-prediction of both incident heat fluxes and source terms for which discrepancy is much larger. On the other hand, predictions obtained by neglecting scattering were found to be in favorable agreement with those of forward scattering at significantly less CPU time. Transport approximation is as accurate and CPU efficient as HG. These findings indicate that negligence of scattering is a more practical choice in solution of the radiative
Kinetic and radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of x-ray heating in laboratory photoionized plasmas
Mancini, Roberto
2017-06-01
In experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories a cm-scale cell filled with neon gas was driven by the burst of broadband x-rays emitted at the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch turning the gas into a photoionized plasma. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the plasma. The data show a highly-ionized neon plasma with a rich line absorption spectrum that permits the extraction of the ionization distribution among Be-, Li-, He- and H-like ions. Analysis of the spectra produced atomic ground and low excited state areal densities in these ions, and from the ratio of first-excited to ground state populations in Li-like neon a temperature of 19±4eV was extracted to characterize the x-ray heating of the plasma. To interpret this observation, we have performed data-constrained view-factor calculations of the spectral distribution of the x-ray drive, self-consistent modeling of electron and atomic kinetics, and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For the conditions of the experiment, the electron distribution thermalizes quickly, has a negligible high-energy tail, and is very well approximated by a single Maxwellian distribution. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with either LTE or NLTE (i.e. non-equilibrium) atomic physics provide a more complete modeling of the experiment. We found that in order to compute electron temperatures consistent with observation inline non-equilibrium collisional-radiative neon atomic kinetics needs to be taken into account. We discuss the details of LTE and NLTE simulations, and the impact of atomic physics on the radiation heating and cooling rates that determine the plasma temperature. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.
Murray, K. A.
1988-01-01
A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).
Antithermal shield for rockets with heat evacuation by infrared radiation reflection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioan RUSU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available At high speed, the friction between the air mass and the rocket surface causes a localheating of over 1000 Celsius degrees. For the heat protection of the rocket, on its outside surfacethermal shields are installed.Studying the Coanda effect, the fluid flow on solids surface, respectively, the author Ioan Rusuhas discovered by simply researches that the Coanda effect could be /extended also to the fluid flowon discontinuous solids, namely, on solids provided with orifices. This phenomenon was named by theauthor, the expanded Coanda effect. Starting with this discovery, the author has invented a thermalshield, registered at The State Office for inventions and Trademarks OSIM, deposit F 2010 0153This thermal shield:- is built as a covering rocket sheet with many orifices installed with a minimum space fromthe rocket body- takes over the heat fluid generated by the frontal part of the rocket and avoids the directcontact between the heat fluid and the rocket body- ensures the evacuation of the infrared radiation, generated by the heat fluid flowing overthe shield because of the extended Coanda effect by reflection from the rocket bodysurface.
General circulation and thermal structure simulated by a Venus AGCM with a two-stream radiative code
Yamamoto, Masaru; Ikeda, Kohei; Takahashi, Masaaki
2016-10-01
Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding Venus climate and atmospheric dynamics. At the present stage, however, the full-physics model is under development. Ikeda (2011) developed a two-stream radiative transfer code, which covers the solar to infrared radiative processes due to the gases and aerosol particles. The radiative code was applied to Venus AGCM (T21L52) at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Univ. Tokyo. We analyzed the results in a few Venus days simulation that was restarted after nudging zonal wind to a super-rotating state until the equilibrium. The simulated thermal structure has low-stability layer around 105 Pa at low latitudes, and the neutral stability extends from ˜105 Pa to the lower atmosphere at high latitudes. At the equatorial cloud top, the temperature lowers in the region between noon and evening terminator. For zonal and meridional winds, we can see difference between the zonal and day-side means. As was indicated in previous works, the day-side mean meridional wind speed mostly corresponds to the poleward component of the thermal tide and is much higher than the zonal mean. Toward understanding dynamical roles of waves in UV cloud tracking and brightness, we calculated the eddy heat and momentum fluxes averaged over the day-side hemisphere. The eddy heat and momentum fluxes are poleward in the poleward flank of the jet. In contrast, the fluxes are relatively weak and equatorward at low latitudes. The eddy momentum flux becomes equatorward in the dynamical situation that the simulated equatorial wind is weaker than the midlatitude jet. The sensitivity to the zonal flow used for the nudging will be also discussed in the model validation.
Kovtanyuk, Andrey E.
2012-01-01
Radiative-conductive heat transfer in a medium bounded by two reflecting and radiating plane surfaces is considered. This process is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations: an equation of the radiative heat transfer and an equation of the conductive heat exchange. The problem is characterized by anisotropic scattering of the medium and by specularly and diffusely reflecting boundaries. For the computation of solutions of this problem, two approaches based on iterative techniques are considered. First, a recursive algorithm based on some modification of the Monte Carlo method is proposed. Second, the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation is utilized. Numerical comparisons of the approaches proposed are given in the case of isotropic scattering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dun-ming Liao
2016-03-01
Full Text Available For the sake of a more accurate shell boundary and calculation of radiation heat transfer in the Directional Solidification (DS process, a radiation heat transfer model based on the Finite Element Method (FEM is developed in this study. Key technologies, such as distinguishing boundaries automatically, local matrix and lumped heat capacity matrix, are also stated. In order to analyze the effect of withdrawing rate on DS process, the solidification processes of a complex superalloy turbine blade in the High Rate Solidification (HRS process with different withdrawing rates are simulated; and by comparing the simulation results, it is found that the most suitable withdrawing rate is determined to be 5.0 mm昺in-1. Finally, the accuracy and reliability of the radiation heat transfer model are verified, because of the accordance of simulation results with practical process.
Lee, Chun Beom; Shin, Hyun Dong
The effects of radiation heat transfer on the soot formation and oxidation process in laminar diffusion flames have been studied experimentally using a “radiation shield” for an ethylene flame and a laser heating technique for propylene flames. The soot volume fraction of ethylene diffusion flames was measured for two different radiation boundary conditions. One is the “radiation shield” boundary condition (AL), established by placing the flame inside a highly polished aluminum cylinder, and the other is the fully absorbing radiation boundary condition (BB), obtained with a “black body cylinder enclosure”. The soot formation and oxidation processes are enhanced under the “radiation shield” boundary condition. A second set of experiments was conducted for propylene diffusion flames around the sooting conditions. A non-sooting flame can be converted to a sooting flame when a laser light heats up a flame at a height of 7mm above the burner (HAB), where soot particles are formed. On the contrary, a sooting flame can be changed to a non-sooting flame when the flame is heated with a laser light at 13mm HAB, where soot particles are oxidized. In this study, the absorbed amounts of radiation energy, the soot volume fraction, and the increased soot temperatures were measured.
Hu, Zhang-Mao; Tian, Hong; Li, Ben-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Yan-Shan; Ruan, Min; Chen, Dong-Lin
2017-10-01
The ray-effect is a major discretization error in the approximate solution method for the radiative transfer equation (RTE). To overcome this problem, the incident energy transfer equation (IETE) is proposed. The incident energy, instead of radiation intensity, is obtained by directly solving this new equation. Good numerical properties are found for the incident energy transfer equation. To show the properties of numerical solution, the collocation spectral method (CSM) is employed to solve the incident energy transfer equation. Three test cases are taken into account to verify the performance of the incident energy transfer equation. The result shows that the radiative heat flux obtained based on IETE is much more accurate than that based on RTE, which means that the IETE is very effective in eliminating the impacts of ray-effect on the heat flux. However, on the contrary, the radiative intensity obtained based on IETE is less accurate than that based on RTE due to the ray-effect. So, this equation is more suitable for those radiative heat transfer problems, in which the radiation heat flux and incident energy are needed rather than the radiation intensity.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1995-03-01
Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.
An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark Borland; Steve Frank
2009-06-01
For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.
General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10
George, T. G.; Pavone, D.
1985-09-01
The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO2 (ALPHA)-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15(0) and 30(0).
General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13
George, T. G.; Pavone, D.
1986-05-01
The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of Pu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹通; 王烨; 孙鹏宝
2015-01-01
To study the adaptability of different heating modes to different floors, based on the analysis on the heating transfer mechanisms of floor radiation heating and radiator convection heat transfer heating, respectively, three rooms were chosen to discuss the heating load under two types of heating modes. The three rooms are located in the first floor, the third floor and the sixth floor (the top floor) of a civil building in Lanzhou, respectively, but the three rooms have the same structure. For the two types of heating modes, comparisons were performed from aspects of energy consumption, thermal comfort, thermal stability, indoor air quality and running management mode. The results indicate that the floor radiation heating mode is superior to the radiator heating mode for the first floor and the top floor from viewpoint of energy consumption while the discrepancy between the two types of heating modes is very small for the third floor. The floor radiation heating mode is superior to the radiator heating mode from viewpoint of thermal comfort and thermal stability. However, under the floor radiation heating, the floor must be much cleaner than that of the radiator heating mode. In addition, the maintenance cost is very high for the floor radiation heating mode during operation. This study is full of theoretical meaning for reasonably choosing heating mode, objectively evaluating building energy consumption.%为研究供暖方式对不同楼层的适应性，在对地板供暖和散热器供暖传热机理进行分析的基础上，以兰州某民用住宅为研究对象，对其一层、三层和六层（顶层）房间分别采用两种供暖方式，计算了房间热负荷及供暖能耗，并从能耗、热舒适性、热稳定性、空气品质、运行管理等方面对两种供暖方式进行了对比分析。结果表明：从能耗方面考虑，顶层及一层的房间采用地板供暖优于散热器供暖，中间层两种方式较为接近。从热舒
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wenfei Wu; Yanhui Feng; Xinxin Zhang
2007-01-01
A radiative heat transfer mathematical model for a one-dimensional long furnace was set up in a through-type roller-hearth furnace (TTRHF) in compact strip production (CSP). To accurately predict the heat exchange in the furnace, modeling of the complex gas energy-balance equation in volume zones was considered, and the heat transfer model of heating slabs and wall lines was coupled with the radiative heat transfer model to identify the surface zonal temperature. With numerical simulation, the temperature fields of gas, slabs, and wall lines in the furnace under one typical working condition were carefully accounted and analyzed. The fundamental theory for analyzing the thermal process in TTRHF was provided.
Cummins, Patrick F.; Masson, Diane; Saenko, Oleg A.
2016-06-01
The net heat uptake by the ocean in a changing climate involves small imbalances between the advective and diffusive processes that transport heat vertically. Generally, it is necessary to rely on global climate models to study these processes in detail. In the present study, it is shown that a key component of the vertical heat flux, namely that associated with the large-scale mean vertical circulation, can be diagnosed over extra-tropical regions from global observational data sets. This component is estimated based on the vertical velocity obtained from the geostrophic vorticity balance, combined with estimates of absolute geostrophic flow. Results are compared with the output of a non-eddy resolving, coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Reasonable agreement is found in the latitudinal distribution of the vertical heat flux, as well as in the area-integrated flux below about 250 m depth. The correspondence with the coupled model deteriorates sharply at depths shallower than 250 m due to the omission of equatorial regions from the calculation. The vertical heat flux due to the mean circulation is found to be dominated globally by the downward contribution from the Southern Hemisphere, in particular the Southern Ocean. This is driven by the Ekman vertical velocity which induces an upward transport of seawater that is cold relative to the horizontal average at a given depth. The results indicate that the dominant characteristics of the vertical transport of heat due to the mean circulation can be inferred from simple linear vorticity dynamics over much of the ocean.
General collection efficiency for liquid isooctane and tetramethylsilane in pulsed radiation.
Johansson, B; Wickman, G; Bahar-Gogani, J
1997-10-01
The general collection efficiency in pulsed radiation was studied for isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4). These two liquids were used as sensitive media in a parallel-plate liquid ionization chamber with a 1 mm sensitive layer. Measurements were carried out using 20 MV photon radiation from a linear accelerator with a pulse repetition frequency of 30 pulses/second and a pulse length of 3.5 microseconds. The general collection efficiency was determined for polarizing voltages in the interval 1000-2000 V for isooctane and 500-2000 V for tetramethylsilane and for pulse doses in the interval 0.06-1.9 mGy/pulse. An air ionization chamber was used as a pulse dose reference monitor. The experimental results were compared with those predicted by the equation for the general collection efficiency for gases in pulsed radiation, using the permittivity of each of the liquids. It was found that for general collection efficiencies down to 80% the differences between the predicted and experimental general collection efficiencies in the two liquids were within +/- 1% at electric field strengths exceeding 10(6) V m-1.
Toward a general theory of adaptive radiation: insights from microbial experimental evolution.
Kassen, Rees
2009-06-01
The history of life has been punctuated by unusually spectacular periods of evolutionary diversification called adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches in the Galapagos, cichlid fishes in African Rift and Nicaraguan crater lakes, and the emergence of mammals at the end of the Cretaceous are hallmark examples. Although we have learned much from these and other case studies about the mechanisms thought to drive adaptive radiations, convincing experimental tests of theory are often lacking for the simple reason that it is usually impossible to "rewind the tape of life," as Stephen Jay Gould was fond of saying, and run it again. This situation has changed dramatically in recent years with the increasing emphasis on the use of microbial populations which, because of their small size and rapid generation times, make possible the construction of replicated, manipulative experiments to study evolution in the laboratory. Here I review the contributions that microbial experimental evolution has made to our understanding of the ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation. I focus on three major gaps in the theory of adaptive radiation--the paucity of direct tests of mechanism, the genetics of diversification, and the limits and constraints on the progress of radiations--with the aim of pointing the way toward the development of a more general theory of adaptive radiation.
Contrasting radiation and soil heat fluxes in Arctic shrub and wet sedge tundra
Juszak, Inge; Eugster, Werner; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela
2016-07-01
Vegetation changes, such as shrub encroachment and wetland expansion, have been observed in many Arctic tundra regions. These changes feed back to permafrost and climate. Permafrost can be protected by soil shading through vegetation as it reduces the amount of solar energy available for thawing. Regional climate can be affected by a reduction in surface albedo as more energy is available for atmospheric and soil heating. Here, we compared the shortwave radiation budget of two common Arctic tundra vegetation types dominated by dwarf shrubs (Betula nana) and wet sedges (Eriophorum angustifolium) in North-East Siberia. We measured time series of the shortwave and longwave radiation budget above the canopy and transmitted radiation below the canopy. Additionally, we quantified soil temperature and heat flux as well as active layer thickness. The mean growing season albedo of dwarf shrubs was 0.15 ± 0.01, for sedges it was higher (0.17 ± 0.02). Dwarf shrub transmittance was 0.36 ± 0.07 on average, and sedge transmittance was 0.28 ± 0.08. The standing dead leaves contributed strongly to the soil shading of wet sedges. Despite a lower albedo and less soil shading, the soil below dwarf shrubs conducted less heat resulting in a 17 cm shallower active layer as compared to sedges. This result was supported by additional, spatially distributed measurements of both vegetation types. Clouds were a major influencing factor for albedo and transmittance, particularly in sedge vegetation. Cloud cover reduced the albedo by 0.01 in dwarf shrubs and by 0.03 in sedges, while transmittance was increased by 0.08 and 0.10 in dwarf shrubs and sedges, respectively. Our results suggest that the observed deeper active layer below wet sedges is not primarily a result of the summer canopy radiation budget. Soil properties, such as soil albedo, moisture, and thermal conductivity, may be more influential, at least in our comparison between dwarf shrub vegetation on relatively dry patches and
An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models
Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.
2001-01-01
This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mizuno, Yosuke; /USRA, Huntsville; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; /USRA, Huntsville /Alabama U., Huntsville; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci.
2007-01-05
We calculate the emission from relativistic flows in black hole systems using a fully general relativistic radiative transfer formulation, with flow structures obtained by general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. We consider thermal free-free emission and thermal synchrotron emission. Bright filament-like features protrude (visually) from the accretion disk surface, which are enhancements of synchrotron emission where the magnetic field roughly aligns with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their visibility and morphology are robust. We propose that variations and drifts of the features produce certain X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in black-hole X-ray binaries.
Separating expansion and collapse in general fluid models with heat flux
Delliou, Morgan Le; Mena, Filipe C; Fontanini, Michele; Guariento, Daniel C; Abdalla, Elcio
2013-01-01
In this letter we consider spherically symmetric general fluids with heat flux and give the appropriate set of conditions that define the divide between expansion and collapse in the cases in which heat flux and its evolution vanish at the separating surface. We extend previous works with a fully non-linear analysis in the $3 + 1$ splitting, and present gauge-invariant results. The definition of the separating surface is inspired by the conservation of the Misner-Sharp mass, and is obtained by generalizing the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equilibrium and turnaround conditions. We emphasize the non-local character of these conditions as found in previous works and discuss connections to the phenomena of spacetime cracking and thermal peeling.
L'Ecuyer, T.; McGarragh, G.; Ellis, T.; Stephens, G.; Olson, W.; Grecu, M.; Shie, C.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D.; Li, J.; Tian, B.
2008-05-01
It is widely recognized that clouds and precipitation exert a profound influence on the propagation of radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. In fact, feedbacks between clouds, radiation, and precipitation represent one of the most important unresolved factors inhibiting our ability to predict the consequences of global climate change. Since its launch in late 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has collected more than a decade of rainfall measurements that now form the gold standard of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Although not as widely advertised, the instruments aboard TRMM are also well-suited to the problem of characterizing the distribution of atmospheric heating in the tropics and a series of algorithms have recently been developed for estimating profiles of radiative and latent heating from these measurements. This presentation will describe a new multi-sensor tropical radiative heating product derived primarily from TRMM observations. Extensive evaluation of the products using a combination of ground and satellite-based observations is used to place the dataset in the context of existing techniques for quantifying atmospheric radiative heating. Highlights of several recent applications of the dataset will be presented that illustrate its utility for observation-based analysis of energy and water cycle variability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales and evaluating the representation of these processes in numerical models. Emphasis will be placed on the problem of understanding the impacts of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric heating on large spatial scales, one of the primary benefits of satellite observations like those provided by TRMM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raitiere, C.; Maye, J.P.
1986-05-01
Heat storage of high temperature energy, especially through the use of a phase change material, raises specific technological problems for which a solution has been proposed and implemented in the form of a tubular acumulator of the ''spiral'' type, using Zamak 3 as a heat storage media and air as a heat transfer fluid. As a rule, in the general case, the numerical simulation of the operation of this type of accumulator, requires consideration of the local variations in the physical properties of the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage medium, as well as the different internal heat exchange modes (convective, radiative, conductive). A sensitivity analysis performed on different parameters shows that: - wide variations in the physical properties of the air inside the accumulator have very little effect on its overall operation; - radiative exchanges between tubes are low in comparison with convective exchanges in dynamic operating periods, but the properties (conductive and radiative) of the channel wall strongly condition the radiative exchanges between tubes and walls, and consequently the internal destratification of the heat storage.
Liquid droplet radiator development status. [waste heat rejection devices for future space vehicles
White, K. Alan, III
1987-01-01
Development of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) is described. Significant published results of previous investigators are presented, and work currently in progress is discussed. Several proposed LDR configurations are described, and the rectangular and triangular configurations currently of most interest are examined. Development of the droplet generator, collector, and auxiliary components are discussed. Radiative performance of a droplet sheet is considered, and experimental results are seen to be in very good agreement with analytical predictions. The collision of droplets in the droplet sheet, the charging of droplets by the space plasma, and the effect of atmospheric drag on the droplet sheet are shown to be of little consequence, or can be minimized by proper design. The LDR is seen to be less susceptible than conventional technology to the effects of micrometeoroids or hostile threats. The identification of working fluids which are stable in the orbital environments of interest is also made. Methods for reducing spacecraft contamination from an LDR to an acceptable level are discussed. Preliminary results of microgravity testing of the droplet generator are presented. Possible future NASA and Air Force missions enhanced or enabled by a LDR are also discussed. System studies indicate that the LDR is potentially less massive than heat pipe radiators. Planned microgravity testing aboard the Shuttle or space station is seen to be a logical next step in LDR development.
The effect of stellar radiation on exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss
Ojanen, Winonah; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja
2017-01-01
Our project aims to investigate the influence of stellar activity and high-energy radiation on short-period transiting exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss. Mass loss in closely orbiting gaseous exoplanets could be significant enough to evaporate a significant portion of the atmosphere over the total system lifetime. A current question of interest is how Neptune-class gas giants might change over time from being exposed to intense X-ray and UV flux radiated from the star. Our research aims to estimate current and total mass loss for four Neptune-class exoplanets that have both measured radii and masses. We use computer software to reduce and analyze Chandra X-ray observations of Neptune-class exoplanets, including HAT-P-11b and archival data of GJ 436b, to calculate the high-energy incident flux for each planet. We then estimate the current-epoch mass-loss rate and construct integrated mass-loss histories. We test whether planets receiving the greatest dose of high-energy radiation also tend to be the lowest mass and the most dense, suggestive of evaporation. These observations provide essential empirical input for understanding and modeling the potential evolutionary transformation of hot gas giants into less massive and more dense remnants.
HIFI observations of warm gas in DR21: Shock versus radiative heating
Ossenkopf, V; Simon, R; Schneider, N; Okada, Y; Stutzki, J; Gerin, M; Akyilmaz, M; Beintema, D; Benz, A O; Berne, O; Boulanger, F; Bumble, B; Coeur-Joly, O; Dedes, C; Diez-Gonzalez, M C; France, K; Fuente, A; Gallego, J D; Goicoechea, J R; Güsten, R; Harris, A; Higgins, R; Jackson, B; Jarchow, C; Joblin, C; Klein, T; Kramer, C; Lord, S; Martin, P; Martin-Pintado, J; Mookerjea, B; Neufeld, D A; Phillips, T; Rizzo, J R; van der Tak, F F S; Teyssier, D; Yorke, H
2010-01-01
The molecular gas in the DR21 massive star formation region is known to be affected by the strong UV field from the central star cluster and by a fast outflow creating a bright shock. The relative contribution of both heating mechanisms is the matter of a long debate. By better sampling the excitation ladder of various tracers we provide a quantitative distinction between the different heating mechanisms. HIFI observations of mid-J transitions of CO and HCO+ isotopes allow us to bridge the gap in excitation energies between observations from the ground, characterizing the cooler gas, and existing ISO LWS spectra, constraining the properties of the hot gas. Comparing the detailed line profiles allows to identify the physical structure of the different components. In spite of the known shock-excitation of H2 and the clearly visible strong outflow, we find that the emission of all lines up to > 2 THz can be explained by purely radiative heating of the material. However, the new Herschel/HIFI observations reveal ...
Cotgreave, Ian A
2005-03-01
Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.
Messina, Riccardo; Noto, Antonio; Guizal, Brahim; Antezza, Mauro
2017-03-01
We calculate the radiative heat transfer between two identical metallic one-dimensional lamellar gratings. To this aim we present and exploit a modification to the widely used Fourier modal method, known as adaptive spatial resolution, based on a stretch of the coordinate associated with the periodicity of the grating. We first show that this technique dramatically improves the rate of convergence when calculating the heat flux, allowing us to explore smaller separations. We then present a study of heat flux as a function of the grating height, highlighting a remarkable amplification of the exchanged energy, ascribed to the appearance of spoof-plasmon modes, whose behavior is also spectrally investigated. Differently from previous works, our method allows us to explore a range of grating heights extending over several orders of magnitude. By comparing our results to recent studies we find a consistent quantitative disagreement with some previously obtained results going up to 50%. In some cases, this disagreement is explained in terms of an incorrect connection between the reflection operators of the two gratings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruchi Bajargaan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Similarity solutions are obtained for unsteady adiabatic propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a self gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux in which variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. Azimuthal fluid velocity and axial fluid velocity in the ambient medium are taken to be variable. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained. The initial density is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is taken to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and the heat transfer parameters on the shock strength and the flow variables such as radial velocity, azimuthal velocity, axial velocity, density, pressure, total heat flux, mass behind the shock front, azimuthal vorticity vector, axial vorticity vector, isothermal speed of sound and adiabatic compressibility are studied. It is found that the presence of gravitation effect in the medium modify the radiation and conduction effect on the flow variables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damala Ch Kesavaiah
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The present study the free convection in unsteady Couette flow of a viscous incompressible fluid confined between two vertical parallel plates in the presence of thermal radiation with heat source in the presence of uniform magnetic field is presented. The flow is induced by means of Couette motion and free convection currents occurring as a result of application of constant heat flux on the wall with a uniform vertical motion in its own plane while constant temperature on the stationary wall. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium, and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the analysis. The dimensionless governing partial differential equations are solved by using regular perturbation technique. The results for the velocity, temperature and the skin-friction are shown graphically. The effects of different parameters are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mallet
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The present work analyses the effect of dust aerosols on the surface and top of atmosphere radiative budget, surface temperature, sensible heat fluxes, atmospheric heating rate and convective activity over West Africa. The study is focused on the regional impact of a major dust event over the period of 7–14 March 2006 through numerical simulations performed with the mesoscale, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model MesoNH. Due to its importance on radiative budgets, a specific attention has been paid to the representation of dust single scattering albedo (SSA in MesoNH by using inversions of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET. The radiative impacts are estimated using two parallel simulations, one including radiative effects of dust and the other without them. The simulations of dust aerosol impacts on the radiative budget indicate remarkable instantaneous (at midday decrease of surface shortwave (SW radiations over land, with regional (9°–17° N, 10° W–20° E mean of −137 W/m^{2} during the 9 to 12 March period. The surface dimming resulting from the presence of dust is shown to cause important reduction of both surface temperature (up to 4°C and sensible heat fluxes (up to 100 W/m^{2}, which is consistent with experimental observations. At the top of the atmosphere, the SW cooling (regional mean of −12.0 W/m^{2} induced by mineral dust is shown to dominate the total net (shortwave + longwave effect. The maximum SW heating occurs within the dusty layer with values comprised between 4 and 7° K by day and LW effect results in a cooling of −0.10/−0.20° K by day. Finally, the simulations suggest the decrease of the convective available potential energy (CAPE over the region in the presence of mineral dust.
Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor
2013-02-01
The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.
Viaene, S; Tamm, A; Tempel, E; Bendo, G; Blommaert, J A D L; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Camps, P; Cooray, A; De Looze, I; De Vis, P; Fernandez-Ontiveros, J A; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Gentile, G; Madden, S; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Verstocken, S
2016-01-01
The radiation of stars heats dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium and in star-forming regions in galaxies. Modelling this interaction provides information on dust in galaxies, a vital ingredient for their evolution. It is not straightforward to identify the stellar populations heating the dust, and to link attenuation to emission on a sub-galactic scale. Radiative transfer models are able to simulate this dust-starlight interaction in a realistic, three-dimensional setting. We investigate the dust heating mechanisms on a local and global galactic scale, using the Andromeda galaxy (M31) as our laboratory. We perform a series of panchromatic radiative transfer simulations of Andromeda with our code SKIRT. The high inclination angle of M31 complicates the 3D modelling and causes projection effects. However, the observed morphology and flux density are reproduced fairly well from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Our model reveals a realistic attenuation curve, compatible with previous, observational es...
Roedig, C.; Zanotti, O.; Alic, D.
2012-10-01
We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-(magneto)hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in most astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several simple 1D tests, we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in one spatial dimension, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the set-up of spherical accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work which included more radiation processes than we currently have available. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in two dimensions where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T ˜ 106 K or less. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicability. The main features of radiation hydrodynamics BHL flows manifest as (i) an effective adiabatic index approaching γeff ˜ 4/3; (ii) accretion rates two orders of magnitude lower than without radiation pressure, but still super-Eddington; (iii) luminosity estimates around the Eddington limit, hence with an overall radiative efficiency as small as ηBHL˜10-2; (iv) strong departures from thermal equilibrium in shocked regions; (v) no appearance of the flip-flop instability. We conclude that the current optically thick approximation to the radiation transfer does give physically substantial improvements over the pure hydro also in set-ups departing from equilibrium, and, once accompanied by an optically thin treatment, is likely to provide a fundamental tool for investigating accretion flows in a large variety of
Rogovtsov, Nikolai N.; Borovik, Felix
2016-11-01
A brief analysis of different properties and principles of invariance to solve a number of classical problems of the radiation transport theory is presented. The main ideas, constructions, and assertions used in the general invariance relations reduction method are described in outline. The most important distinctive features of this general method of solving a wide enough range of problems of the radiation transport theory and mathematical physics are listed. To illustrate the potential of this method, a number of problems of the scalar radiative transfer theory have been solved rigorously in the article. The main stages of rigorous derivations of asymptotical formulas for the smallest in modulo elements of the discrete spectrum and the eigenfunctions, corresponding to them, of the characteristic equation for the case of an arbitrary phase function and almost conservative scattering are described. Formulas of the same type for the azimuthal averaged reflection function, the plane and spherical albedos have been obtained rigorously. New analytical representations for the reflection function, the plane and spherical albedos have been obtained, and effective algorithms for calculating these values have been offered for the case of a practically arbitrary phase function satisfying the Hölder condition. New analytical representation of the «surface» Green function of the scalar radiative transfer equation for a semi-infinite plane-parallel conservatively scattering medium has been found. The deep regime asymptotics of the "volume" Green function has been obtained for the case of a turbid medium of cylindrical form.
Cornelison, Charles J.; Howe, John T.
1991-01-01
An analytic solution of the material response to combined radiative and convective heating is presented. The solution includes the equations of radiative transfer (within the material), coupled to a transient energy equation which contains both radiative and convective terms. The analysis allows for unlimited spectral detail, but assumes that within the range of applicability, the various material properties do not vary significantly with temperature. Also, to facilitate development of the analytic solution, it is assumed that scattering within the material dominates absorption, and the material exposed surface does not ablate. The exposed surface boundary condition includes convective heating and spectral radiation, some of which is absorbed by the surface and some which penetrates the surface.
Large-eddy simulation of airflow and heat transfer in a general ward of hospital
Hasan, Md. Farhad; Himika, Taasnim Ahmed; Molla, Md. Mamun
2016-07-01
In this paper, a very popular alternative computational technique, the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been used for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of airflow and heat transfer in general ward of hospital. Different Reynolds numbers have been used to study the airflow pattern. In LES, Smagorinsky turbulence model has been considered and a discussion has been conducted in brief. A code validation has been performed comparing the present results with benchmark results for lid-driven cavity problem and the results are found to agree very well. LBM is demonstrated through simulation in forced convection inside hospital ward with six beds with a partition in the middle, which acted like a wall. Changes in average rate of heat transfer in terms of average Nusselt numbers have also been recorded in tabular format and necessary comparison has been showed. It was found that partition narrowed the path for airflow and once the air overcame this barrier, it got free space and turbulence appeared. For higher turbulence, the average rate of heat transfer increased and patients near the turbulence zone released maximum heat and felt more comfortable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jing Zhu; Lian-Cun Zheng; Xin-Xin Zhang
2011-01-01
This letter is concerned with the plane and axisymmetric stagnation-point flows and heat transfer of an electrically-conducting fluid past a stretching sheet in the presence of the thermal radiation and heat generation or absorption. The analytical solutions for the velocity distribution and dimensionless temperature profiles are obtained for the various values of the ratio of free stream velocity and stretching velocity,heat source parameter,Prandtl number,thermal radiation parameter,the suction and injection velocity parameter and magnetic parameter and dimensionality index in the series form with the help of homotopy analysis method(HAM). Convergence of the series is explicitly discussed. In addition,shear stress and heat flux at the surface are calculated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefanović Velimir P.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes work on two projects of the National Energy Efficiency Program NEEP 709300036 and NPEE 271003 titled "The model of solar collector for middle temperature conversion of solar radiation in heat" and "Development and investigation on hybrid solar collector for heat and electricity generation", respectively. This first project deals with solar collector that transfers solar radiation in heat in area of middle temperature conversion (at temperatures above 100 ºC. During entire year it can realize significant saving of electric energy used for preparation of warm water and in central and district heating. During work on the second project, two hybrid solar collectors, their installation, mathematical model, software, and experimental set-up were designed and realized. The first collector had the photovoltaic panel located above the absorber and the second collector had the panel located on the absorber. For both collectors, the results show that efficiency of fossil fuel replacement is 85%. .
Pandithurai, G.; Pinker, R. T.; Devara, P. C.; Raj, P. E.; Jayarao, Y.; Dani, K. K.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Saha, S. K.; Bhawar, R.; Shinde, U. P.
2005-12-01
Extensive aerosol observations were carried out at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, an urban site in the western part of the country, using a Prede (Model POM-01L) sun/sky radiometer and a bi-static Argon ion lidar since December 2000 and October 1986, respectively. The sun/sky radiometer was operated daily at every 15 minute interval during day-time to derive column aerosol optical parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), asymmetry parameter (ASY) while the lidar was operated weekly in the early-night period to derive vertical distributions of aerosol number density. The sun/sky radiance data collected during the above period have been analysed by using the radiative transfer model SkyRadPack version 3.0 (Nakajima et al. 1996) to retrieve AOD, SSA and ASY. AOD and SSA retrieved at 15-minutes interval were averaged to get monthly means. On every year from 2000 to 2005, monthly means of AOD show gradual increase of aerosol loading from December to April and Angstrom exponent decreases from March due to local as well as transported dust from African / Arabian regions through Arabian Sea. Monthly means of SSA show decrease from December to April and the wavelength dependence also indicate the abundance of dust from March to May. Lidar-derived vertical distributions yield minimum during the monsoon months, gradually builds up during the post-monsoon and winter months, and finally peaks during the pre-monsoon months in every year (Devara et al., 2002). The aerosol climatology of optical/radiative parameters and their vertical distribution are used for estimating aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and atmospheric heating rates by using a discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model (Ricchiazzi et al., 1998, Pandithurai et al. 2004). Details of the experimental methods, data, results of aerosol climatology and implications to radiative forcing and associated heating rates will be presented. References Devara, P
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conder, G.A.; Duszynski, D.W.
1977-04-01
Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria nieschulzi Dieben 1924, a rat coccidium, were exposed to radiation, heat, or both in an effort to attenuate the parasite. Moderate levels of each treatment or combination thereof attenuated the parasite, reduced pathogenesis (as judged by oocyst discharge during primary infection), and produced immunity to challenge when the oocysts were subsequently inoculated into rats. Thus, heat- and/or radiation-treated E. nieschulzi oocysts fed to rats could reduce pathogenesis during a primary infection and yet give good homologous protection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Penem Mohan KRISNA
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of thermal radiation and chemical reaction on the steady 2 dimensional stagnation point flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a stretching surface, with suction and heat generation. The partial differential equations governing the flow are solved numerically by using the shooting technique. The effects of various parameters on velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles, as well as Nusselt number, Skin friction coefficient, and Sherwood number, are examined, and presented graphically and through tables. It is found that velocity, temperature, and rate of heat transfer of the fluid are influenced more by radiation and chemical reaction parameters, along with applied magnetic field.
2015-07-16
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0241 DARPA ) OPTICAL RADIATION COOLING AND HEATING IN INTEGRATED DEVICES Hong Tang YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT Final Report 07/21... DARPA ) OPTICAL RADIATION COOLING AND HEATING IN INTEGRATED DEVICES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0297 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) DARPA ORCHID through AFOSR 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFOSR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S
Kulikov, Yu. Yu.; Grigor'ev, G. I.; Krasil'nikov, A. A.; Frolov, V. L.
2012-06-01
We present the results of microwave observations of ozone radiation in the middle atmosphere during modification of the ionosphere by high-power short radio waves on March 27-28, 2011. The modification was performed on the "Sura" heating facility of the Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) by using two ozone meters oriented towards different regions in the sky. The effect of a decrease in the radiation intensity in the ozone line when the ionosphere is heated with high-power short-wave radio emission, which was discovered earlier, has been confirmed, and new data related to its characteristic have been obtained. A possible interpretation of this phenomenon is discussed.
Tsuda, Shinichiro; Horinouchi, Katsuhiko; Yugami, Hiroo
2017-09-01
Radiative cooling accomplished by tailoring the properties of spectral thermal emission is an interesting method for energy harvesting and high-efficiency passive cooling of terrestrial structures. This strategy, however, has not been extended to cool enclosed heat sources, common in engineering applications, and heat sources in high-temperature environments where radiative transfer plays a dominant role. Here we show a radiative cooling scheme for a high-temperature gaseous medium, using radiative heat extraction with selective absorbers matched to the gas-selective emission properties. We used SF6 gas plasma as a model, because this gas is used in gas circuit breakers, which require effective cooling of the hot insulating gas. Our theoretical analysis confirms that a copper photonic absorber, matched to the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared-selective emission properties of the gas, effectively extracts heat from the high-temperature gas plasma and lowers the radiative equilibrium gas temperature by up to 1270 K, exceeding both blackbody-like and metallic surfaces in practical operating conditions.
General radiation via tunneling in Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Hawking radiation can be viewed as a process of quantum tunneling near the black hole horizon. When a particle with angular momentum L≠ω a tunnels across the event horizon of Kerr or Kerr-Newman black hole, the angular momentum per unit mass a should be changed. The emission rate of the massless particles under this general case is calculated, and the result is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Research of the radiation tolerance in space environment of general electronic devices
Maeda, Takahiro; Kakimi, Yukitaka; Akashi, Kenji; Oshima, Takeshi; Onoda, Shinobu
2013-01-01
In small satellite development, general electronic (COTS) devices are needed to use due to some severe restrictions of resource for installed components. For this reason, it is important to keep reliability for using COTS devices in small satellite development. Therefore, in order to ensure reliability for small satellite, our company has evaluated COTS devices mainly for tolerance of single event at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute from fiscal ...
Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Shoemaker, L.; McDougall, T.
The effects of heat and radiation on thiamine stability are being studied both singly and in combination. Heat, γ-radiation and a combination of them were applied to a model system consisting of 2 × 10 -5 M thiamine hydrochloride in 0.01N HC1 (pH=2.5), and their effects are reported. The effects of these two agents on thiamine in two food matrices, concentrated orange juice and green peas, are also reported. Heat was not found to have a significant effect on thiamine in the model system at temperatures up to 120°C for up to 60 min of treatment. A small, but significant heat effect was found in the two foods. The retention of thiamine in the model system and in the two foods decreased exponentially as the radiation dose increased. The degradation of thiamine by γ-radiation in both foods was a factor of 10 less than that observed in the model system. A small, but significant synergistic effect was found when samples of the model system were heated at 120°C for one hour 24 h after irradiation.
Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Bendo, G.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Camps, P.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; De Vis, P.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Gentile, G.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Verstocken, S.
2017-03-01
The radiation from stars heats dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium and in star-forming regions in galaxies. Modelling this interaction provides information on dust in galaxies, a vital ingredient for their evolution. It is not straightforward to identify the stellar populations heating the dust, and to link attenuation to emission on a sub-galactic scale. Radiative transfer models are able to simulate this dust-starlight interaction in a realistic, three-dimensional setting. We investigate the dust heating mechanisms on a local and global galactic scale, using the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) as our laboratory. We have performed a series of panchromatic radiative transfer simulations of Andromeda with our code SKIRT. The high inclination angle of M 31 complicates the 3D modelling and causes projection effects. However, the observed morphology and flux density are reproduced fairly well from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Our model reveals a realistic attenuation curve, compatible with previous, observational estimates. We find that the dust in M 31 is mainly (91% of the absorbed luminosity) heated by the evolved stellar populations. The bright bulge produces a strong radiation field and induces non-local heating up to the main star-forming ring at 10 kpc. The relative contribution of unevolved stellar populations to the dust heating varies strongly with wavelength and with galactocentric distance. The dust heating fraction of unevolved stellar populations correlates strongly with NUV-r colour and specific star formation rate. These two related parameters are promising probes for the dust heating sources at a local scale. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Assessment of Control Configurations for a General Heat Integrated Distillation Column
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The assessment of control configurations for an ideal heat integrated distillation column incorporated with an overhead condenser and a bottom reboiler (general HIDiC) is addressed in this work. It is found that double ratio control configuration, (L/D, V/B), is still the best one among all the possibilities. The control configuration, (Pr - Ps, q), appears to be a feasible one for the general HIDiC and the pressure difference between the rectifying and the stripping sections and feed thermal condition are expected to be consistent manipulative variables for the process. The performance of the general HIDiC can be substantially improved by employing effective multivariable control algorithms.
Nonlinear Radiative Heat Transfer in Blasius and Sakiadis Flows Over a Curved Surface
Naveed, M.; Abbas, Z.; Sajid, M.
2017-01-01
This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics for Blasius and Sakiadis flows over a curved surface coiled in a circle of radius R having constant curvature. Effects of thermal radiation are also analyzed for nonlinear Rosseland approximation which is valid for all values of the temperature difference between the fluid and the surface. The considered physical situation is represented by a mathematical model using curvilinear coordinates. Similar solutions of the developed partial differential equations are evaluated numerically using a shooting algorithm. Fluid velocity, skin-friction coefficient, temperature and local Nusselt number are the quantities of interest interpreted for the influence of pertinent parameters. A comparison of the present and the published data for a flat surface validates the obtained numerical solution for the curved geometry.
Heat transfer with thermal radiation on MHD particle-fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave
Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.; Ellahi, R.
2017-09-01
In this article, effects of heat transfer on particle-fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave have been examined. The influence of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation are also taken into account with the help of Ohm's law and Roseland's approximation. The governing flow problem for Casson fluid model is based on continuity, momentum and thermal energy equation for fluid phase and particle phase. Taking the approximation of long wavelength and zero Reynolds number, the governing equations are simplified. Exact solutions are obtained for the coupled partial differential equations. The impact of all the embedding parameters is discussed with the help of graphs. In particular, velocity profile, pressure rise, temperature profile and trapping phenomena are discussed for all the emerging parameters. It is observed that while fluid parameter enhances the velocity profile, Hartmann number and particle volume fraction oppose the flow.
Molecular mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to radiation, UV light, and heat.
Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo
2009-09-01
Viable organisms recognize and respond to environmental changes or stresses. When these environmental changes and their responses by organisms are extreme, they can limit viability. However, organisms can adapt to these different stresses by utilizing different possible responses via signal transduction pathways when the stress is not lethal. In particular, prior mild stresses can provide some aid to prepare organisms for subsequent more severe stresses. These adjustments or adaptations for future stresses have been called adaptive responses. These responses are present in bacteria, plants and animals. The following review covers recent research which can help describe or postulate possible mechanisms which may be active in producing adaptive responses to radiation, ultraviolet light, and heat.
Song, Jinlin; Cheng, Qiang
2016-09-01
We numerically investigate the near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) between graphene and anisotropic magneto-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials (AMDHMs) according to the fluctuational dissipation theorem. In this configuration, multiple modes, including the p - and s -polarized surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) and hyperbolic modes supported by AMDHMs as well as the high-frequency antisymmetric modes supported by graphene for p polarization, can be observed. These extraordinary propagating modes enable the total NFRHT flux between graphene and AMDHMs to exceed that between graphene and SiC nanowires by several times. Numerical results suggest that the hyperbolic modes and SPhPs for both polarizations effectively impact the NFRHT flux via tuning the geometry of AMDHMs and the conductivity of graphene. This study paves the way toward studying the NFRHT involving graphene and metamaterials and facilitates in-depth study of the s -polarized NFRHT.
Time-Resolved Measurement of Radiatively Heated Iron 2p-3d Transmission Spectra
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yang; SHANG Wan-Li; XIONG Gang; JIN Feng-Tao; HU Zhi-Min; WEI Min-Xi; YANG Guo-Hong; ZHANG Ji-Yan; YANG Jia-Min
2010-01-01
@@ An experimental measurement of radiatively heated iron plasma transmission spectra was performed on Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility.In the measurement,the self-emission spectrum,the backlighting spectrum,and the absorption spectrum were imaged with a fiat filed grating and recorded on a gated micro channel plate detector to obtain the time-resolved transmission spectra in the range 10-20 A (approximately 0.6-1.3 keV).Experimental results are compared with the calculation results of an unsolved transition array (UTA) code.The time-dependent relative shift in the positions of the 2p-3d transmission array is interpreted in terms of the plasma temperature variations.
Heat transfer with thermal radiation on MHD particle–fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M M BHATTI; A ZEESHAN; R ELLAHI
2017-09-01
In this article, effects of heat transfer on particle–fluid suspension induced by metachronal wave have been examined. The influence of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation are also taken into account with the help of Ohm’s law and Roseland’s approximation. The governing flow problem for Casson fluid model is based on continuity, momentum and thermal energy equation for fluid phase and particle phase. Taking the approximation of long wavelength and zero Reynolds number, the governing equations are simplified. Exact solutions are obtained for the coupled partial differential equations. The impact of all the embedding parameters is discussed with the help of graphs. In particular, velocity profile, pressure rise, temperature profile and trapping phenomena are discussed for all the emerging parameters. It is observed that while fluid parameter enhances the velocity profile, Hartmann number and particle volume fraction oppose the flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gautham Krishnamoorthy
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study assesses the required fidelities in modeling particle radiative properties and particle size distributions (PSDs of combusting particles in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD investigations of radiative heat transfer during oxy-combustion of coal and biomass blends. Simulations of air and oxy-combustion of coal/biomass blends in a 0.5 MW combustion test facility were carried out and compared against recent measurements of incident radiative fluxes. The prediction variations to the combusting particle radiative properties, particle swelling during devolatilization, scattering phase function, biomass devolatilization models, and the resolution (diameter intervals employed in the fuel PSD were assessed. While the wall incident radiative flux predictions compared reasonably well with the experimental measurements, accounting for the variations in the fuel, char and ash radiative properties were deemed to be important as they strongly influenced the incident radiative fluxes and the temperature predictions in these strongly radiating flames. In addition, particle swelling and the diameter intervals also influenced the incident radiative fluxes primarily by impacting the particle extinction coefficients. This study highlights the necessity for careful selection of particle radiative property, and diameter interval parameters and the need for fuel fragmentation models to adequately predict the fly ash PSD in CFD simulations of coal/biomass combustion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Ramachandra Prasad
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical solution of the unsteady radiative free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an impulsively started vertical plate with variable heat and mass flux is presented here. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, spacecraft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering. The fluid is gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, concentration, the local and average skinfriction, the Nusselt and Sherwood number are shown graphically, for different values of Prandtl number, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, radiation parameter, heat flux exponent and the mass flux exponent. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. The local and average skin-friction increases with the increase in radiation parameter. For increasing values of radiation parameter the local as well as average Nusselt number increases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Domiri Ganji, Davood [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Younus Javed, M. [National University of Sciences and Technology, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Islamabad (Pakistan); Ellahi, R., E-mail: rellahi@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Bourns Hall A373 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIUI, H-10 Sector, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-01-15
In this study, effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamics nanofluid flow between two horizontal rotating plates is studied. The significant effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis have been included in the model of nanofluid. By using the appropriate transformation for the velocity, temperature and concentration, the basic equations governing the flow, heat and mass transfer are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations, subjected to the associated boundary conditions are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The effects of Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, rotation parameter, Schmidt number, thermophoretic parameter, Brownian parameter and radiation parameter on heat and mass characteristics are examined. Results show that Nusselt number has direct relationship with radiation parameter and Reynolds number while it has reverse relationship with other active parameters. It can also be found that concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of radiation parameter. - Highlights: • This paper analyses thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid. • Fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is used. • The effects of Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, rotation parameter, Schmidt number thermophoretic parameter, Brownian parameter and radiation parameter on heat and mass characteristics are examined. • Comparison is also made with the existing literature.
Kot, V. A.
2016-07-01
On the basis of the consideration of the boundary-value problem for the generalized equation of heat conduction in bounded nonuniform spaces with Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions, corresponding sequences of boundary characteristics have been obtained. For each of these sequences, definite integro-differential representations (relations) have been constructed. It has been shown that approximate analytical solutions can be obtained for bounded nonuniform regions with variable transfer coefficients in the Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems. On the basis of systems of algebraic equations, approximate analytical solutions have been constructed with approximately equal accuracies independently of the calculation scheme used (with the introduction of the temperature-disturbance front or without it, i.e., by multiple integration of the heat-conduction equation over the whole computational region). These solutions have a negligibly small error and, therefore, can be considered as conditionally exact.
Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion in a Slow Convective Flow
Hicks, Michael C.; Kaib, Nathan; Easton, John; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.
2003-01-01
Radiative heat loss from burning droplets in a slow convective flow under microgravity conditions is measured using a broad-band (0.6 to 40 microns) radiometer. In addition, backlit images of the droplet as well as color images of the flame were obtained using CCD cameras to estimate the burning rates and the flame dimensions, respectively. Tests were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using n-heptane and methanol fuels with imposed forced flow velocities varied from 0 to 10 centimeters per second and initial droplet diameters varied from 1 to 3 millimeters. Slow convective flows were generated using three different experimental configurations in three different facilities in preparation for the proposed International Space Station droplet experiments. In the 2.2 Second Drop-Tower Facility a droplet supported on the leading edge of a quartz fiber is placed within a flow tunnel supplied by compressed air. In the Zero-Gravity Facility (five-second drop tower) a tethered droplet is translated in a quiescent ambient atmosphere to establish a uniform flow field around the droplet. In the KC 135 aircraft an electric fan was used to draw a uniform flow past a tethered droplet. Experimental results show that the burn rate increases and the overall flame size decreases with increases in forced-flow velocities over the range of flow velocities and droplet sizes tested. The total radiative heat loss rate, Q(sub r), decreases as the imposed flow velocity increases with the spherically symmetric combustion having the highest values. These observations are in contrast to the trends observed for gas-jet flames in microgravity, but consistent with the observations during flame spread over solid fuels where the burning rate is coupled to the forced flow as here.
Sdowski, Aleksander; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Zhu, Yucong
2012-01-01
A numerical scheme is described for including radiation in multi-dimensional general-relativistic conservative fluid dynamics codes. In this method, a covariant form of the M1 closure scheme is used to close the radiation moments, and the radiative source terms are treated semi-implicitly in order to handle both optically thin and optically thick regimes. The scheme has been implemented in a conservative general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics code KORAL. The robustness of the code is demonstrated on a number of test problems, including radiative relativistic shock tubes, static radiation pressure supported atmosphere, shadows, beams of light in curved spacetime, and radiative Bondi accretion. The advantages of M1 closure relative to other approaches such as Eddington closure and flux-limited diffusion are discussed, and its limitations are also highlighted.
Mullen, Steven L.
1986-07-01
Blocking anticyclones that appear in perpetual January simulations of a spectral general circulation model are examined. Blocks in three geographical regions are studied: the North Pacific, the North Atlantic and western North America. Local time-averaged balances of vorticity and heat are evaluated for composite cases of blocking. The following common relationships emerged from these budgets.The time-mean divergence term is, in general, a flat-order term in the vorticity balance throughout the troposphere and its pattern over severe orography is closely related to the underlying topography. Above the surface layer, the horizontal advection of time-mean absolute vorticity by the mean wind mainly balances the divergence term with the net effect of the time-mean vorticity forcing being a tendency for the blocking pattern to propagate downstream. The transient eddy vorticity transports act to shift the block upstream and hence they mainly offset the downstream tendency due to the time-mean flow; the magnitude of the eddy vorticity term is typically one-third to one-half that of the divergence or advection terms alone. Frictional dissipation is negligible everywhere except near the ground where it primarily offsets the divergence term.The horizontal advection of the time-mean temperature field by the mean wind throughout the troposphere is a first-order term in the beat balance and is mainly responsible for maintaining the block's thermal perturbations; it is predominately balanced by adiabatic heating in the free troposphere and by diabatic heating near the surface. Transient eddy heat transports act to dissipate the block's thermal perturbations at all levels, while diabatic heating does not exhibit a systematic relationship with the temperature field at any level.A quasi-geostrophic diagnosis of the ageostrophic motion field suggests that dynamical processes which strongly affect the vorticity balance may be more important to the maintenance of model blocks than
Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander
2016-03-01
We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.
Thermal Performance of Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer in Porous Fins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid SHAHBABAEI
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Forced and natural convection in porous fins with convective coefficient at the tips under radiation and convection effects are investigated in this paper. Aluminum and copper as fin materials are investigated. In forced and natural convection, air and water are applied as working fluids, respectively. In order to solve this nonlinear equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM and Variational Iteration Method (VIM are used. To verify the accuracy of the methods, a comparison is made to the exact solution (BVP. In this work, the effects of porosity parameter (, Radiation parameter (α and Temperature-Ratio parameter (µ on non-dimensional temperature distribution for both of the flows are shown. The results show that the effects of (α and (µ on temperature distribution in natural convection are based on porosity and in forced convection are uniform, approximately. Also, it is shown that both VIM and HPM are capable of being used to solve this nonlinear heat transfer equation.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.64
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X.H.Yuan; Y.Fang; D.C.Carroll; D.A.MacLellan; F.Du; N.Booth; M.Burza; M.Chen; R.J.Gray; Y.F.Jin; Y.T.Li; Y.Liu; D.Neely; H.Powell; G.Scott; C.-G.Wahlstrm; J.Zhang; P.McKenna; Z.M.Sheng
2014-01-01
The first experimental measurements of intense(～7 × 1019 W cm-2) laser-driven terahertz(THz) radiation from a solid target which is preheated by an intense pulse of laser-accelerated protons is reported. The total energy of the THz radiation is found to decrease by approximately a factor of 2 compared to a cold target reference. This is attributed to an increase in the scale length of the preformed plasma, driven by proton heating, at the front surface of the target,where the THz radiation is generated. The results show the importance of controlling the preplasma scale length for THz production.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoukhi Maatouk
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Combined nongray conductive and radiative heat transfer in single glass window using the Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model REM2, has been investigated in one dimensional case. The optical constants of the glass window have been determined by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR. The absorption and emission within the glass layer are taken into consideration. The boundary surfaces of the glass are specular. Spectral dependence of radiation properties of the glass is taken into account. Both collimated and diffuse solar and thermal irradiations are applied at boundary surfaces, using the spectral solar model proposed by Bird. The simulation has been performed for one position of the sun at noon true solar time on the 5th of July for three locations in Japan, Sendai, Tokyo, and Sapporo cities. Steady state temperature and heat flux distributions within the glass layer for each position of the sun of the three locations are obtained. The radiative heat flux through the glass mediums is the predominant mode compared with the conductive one. Therefore, the temperature distributions within the glass layer are not linear in shape.
The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex
Rumble, D; Pattle, K; Kirk, H; Wilson, T; Buckle, J; Berry, D S; Broekhoven-Fiene, H; Currie, M J; Fich, M; Jenness, T; Johnstone, D; Mottram, J C; Nutter, D; Pineda, J E; Quinn, C; Salji, C; Tisi, S; Walker-Smith, S; Di Francesco, J; Hogerheijde, M R; Ward-Thompson, D; Bastien, P; Bresnahan, D; Butner, H; Chen, M; Chrysostomou, A; Coude, S; Davis, C J; Drabek-Maunder, E; Duarte-Cabral, A; Fiege, J; Friberg, P; Friesen, R; Fuller, G A; Graves, S; Greaves, J; Gregson, J; Holland, W; Joncas, G; Kirk, J M; Knee, L B G; Mairs, S; Matthews, B C; Moriarty-Schieven, G; Mowat, C; Rawlings, J; Richer, J; Robertson, D; Rosolowsky, E; Sadavoy, S; Thomas, H; Tothill, N; Viti, S; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M
2016-01-01
We present SCUBA-2 450{\\mu}m and 850{\\mu}m observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, {\\beta} = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8" resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36K with a mean temperature of 20{\\pm}3K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm{^{-3}}. Thirteen of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 {\\mu}m images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850{\\mu}m band of up ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao Yang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Institute of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Institute of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jin Fengtao [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2009-04-15
Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.
Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Sinha
2009-04-01
Heat load studies have been performed for the ﬁrst crystal of a double crystal monochromator to be installed in a beamline of the 2·5 GeV synchrotron radiation source Indus-2. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to calculate the temperature distribution and the mechanical distortions on these crystals. Several cases of cooling schemes and heat loads have been studied. Based on these FEA results, the analytical relationships available in the literature have been modiﬁed. It is shown that modiﬁed analytical results compare well with the empirical results obtained from FEA. The optimisation of the cooling conditions can be achieved by doing FEA calculations for only one case. All other cases can then be calculated by using analytical relations proposed here. The proposed analytical equations are generic in nature and can be applied for any source—crystal combination and therefore would be useful for performance prediction of any new monochromator on a new synchrotron source without taking recourse to time consuming, computation-intensive FEA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)
Shit, G. C.; Mondal, A.; Sinha, A.; Kundu, P. K.
2016-11-01
A mathematical model has been developed for studying the electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer of bio-fluids in a micro-channel in the presence of Joule heating effects. The flow of bio-fluid is governed by the non-Newtonian power-law fluid model. The effects of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been examined in the case of hydrophobic channel. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation governing the electrical double layer field and a body force generated by the applied electric potential field are taken into consideration. The results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the channel is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the Stern and diffuse layers. The expressions for flow characteristics such as velocity, temperature, shear stress and Nusselt number have been derived analytically under the purview of the present model. The results estimated on the basis of the data available in the existing scientific literatures are presented graphically. The effects of thermal radiation have an important bearing on the therapeutic procedure of hyperthermia, particularly in understanding the heat transfer in micro-channel in the presence of electric potential. The dimensionless Joule heating parameter has a reducing impact on Nusselt number for both pseudo-plastic and dilatant fluids, nevertheless its impact on Nusselt number is more pronounced for dilatant fluid. Furthermore, the effect of viscous dissipation has a significant role in controlling heat transfer and should not be neglected.
Fracture response of several metals to fast heating of samples by intensive X-ray radiation
Golubev, Vladimir
2015-06-01
Results on studying the fracture response of metals samples in the form of thin disks to fast heating by the intensive pulse of X-ray radiation of a complete spectrum are presented in the paper. The samples of such metals as iron, copper, AMg6 aluminum, VT14 titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, cadmium, lead and zinc were tested. The samples were fixed in the special cartridges that were placed at such distances from the X-ray irradiator where the energy fluxes were 1.38, 0.90 and 0.29 kJ/cm2. The irradiating X-ray pulse was about 2 ns in duration. After testing, the depth of material ablation from a sample front surface and the degree and character of its spall damage were determined. The method of metallographic analysis was used for these purposes. The spectrum data were used for the calculations of samples heating. Numerical calculations of thermomechanical and shock wave loading conditions were made with the use of the equation of state taking into account the process of evaporation. The calculated value of maximum negative pressure in the sample at the coordinate corresponding to the depth of ablation and formation of spallation zones or spall cracks was conventionally accepted as the material resistance to spall fracture in such conditions. The comparison of obtained results with the data on the fracture of examined materials in the conditions of fast heating by the X-ray pulse with a hard spectrum and by the high-current electron beam of an electron pulse generator was conducted.
On the generalized d'Alambert and Fourier heat equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Cesarano, C. [Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics
2000-07-01
In this paper is proposed a method employing the pseudo-hyperbolic functions. Hermite-Kampe' de Feriet polynomials and operational techniques, to find general solutions for extended forms of the D'Alambert and of the Fourier heat equations. [Italian] Si propone l'utilizzo di un metodo basato sulle funzioni pseudo iperboliche sui polinomi di Kampe' de Feriet e su tecniche operazionali per la ricerca di soluzioni generali delle equazioni di D'Alambert e Fourier generalizzate.
Generalized source Finite Volume Method for radiative transfer equation in participating media
Zhang, Biao; Xu, Chuan-Long; Wang, Shi-Min
2017-03-01
Temperature monitoring is very important in a combustion system. In recent years, non-intrusive temperature reconstruction has been explored intensively on the basis of calculating arbitrary directional radiative intensities. In this paper, a new method named Generalized Source Finite Volume Method (GSFVM) was proposed. It was based on radiative transfer equation and Finite Volume Method (FVM). This method can be used to calculate arbitrary directional radiative intensities and is proven to be accurate and efficient. To verify the performance of this method, six test cases of 1D, 2D, and 3D radiative transfer problems were investigated. The numerical results show that the efficiency of this method is close to the radial basis function interpolation method, but the accuracy and stability is higher than that of the interpolation method. The accuracy of the GSFVM is similar to that of the Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) algorithm, while the time required by the GSFVM is much shorter than that of the BMC algorithm. Therefore, the GSFVM can be used in temperature reconstruction and improvement on the accuracy of the FVM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting Zhou
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Coated silicon carbide (SiC thin films can efficiently enhance near-field radiative heat transfer among metamaterials. In this study, the near-field heat transfer among graphene–SiC–metamaterial (GSM multilayer structures was theoretically investigated. Graphene plasmons could be coupled both with electric surface plasmons supported by the metamaterial and with symmetric and anti-symmetric surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs supported by SiC. The heat transfer among GSM structures was considerably improved compared to that among SiC-coated metamaterials when the chemical potential of graphene was not very high. In addition, the near-field heat transfer was enhanced among SiC–graphene–metamaterial multilayer structures, though the heat transfer among these structures was less than that among GSMs owing to the absence of coupling between symmetric SPhPs and graphene plasmons. Hence, heat transfer could be flexibly tuned by modifying the chemical potential of graphene in both configurations. These results provide a basis for active control of the near-field radiative heat transfer in the far-infrared region.
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; He, Xian
2011-10-01
We present a performance analysis of a two-state heat engine model working with a single-mode radiation field in a cavity. The heat engine cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic processes. Assuming the wall of the potential moves at a very slow speed, we determine the optimization region and the positive work condition of the heat engine model. Furthermore, we generalize the results to the performance optimization for a two-state heat engine with a one-dimensional power-law potential. Based on the generalized model with an arbitrary one-dimensional potential, we obtain the expression of efficiency as η=1-(EC)/(EH), with EH (EC) denoting the expectation value of the system Hamiltonian along the isoenergetic process at high (low) energy. This expression is an analog of the classical thermodynamical result of Carnot, ηc=1-(TC)/(TH), with TH (TC) being the temperature along the isothermal process at high (low) temperature. We prove that under the same conditions, the efficiency η=1-(EC)/(EH) is bounded from above the Carnot efficiency, ηc=1-(TC)/(TH), and even quantum dynamics is reversible.
Volokitin, A. I.; Dubas, E. V.
2017-06-01
The quantum heat generation, interaction force, and friction torque for two rotating spherical nanoparticles with the radius R are calculated. In contrast to a static case where an upper bound in the radiative heat transfer between two particles exists, the quantum heat generation for two rotating particles diverges at distances between particles d material of a particle at the resonance frequency ω0), when the rotation frequency coincides with poles in the excitation generation rate at Ω = 2ω0. These poles are due to the anomalous Doppler effect and the mutual polarization of particles and exist even in the presence of dissipation in particles. The anomalous heat generation is associated with the conversion of mechanical rotation energy into heat mediated by quantum friction. Similar singularities also exist for the interaction force and friction torque. The results can be of significant importance for biomedical applications.