WorldWideScience

Sample records for generalized markup language

  1. A Leaner, Meaner Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium developed and released a simpler form of markup language, Extensible Markup Language (XML), combining the flexibility of standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Web suitability of HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Reviews SGML and discusses XML's suitability for journal…

  2. SuML: A Survey Markup Language for Generalized Survey Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, MW; Lober, WB; Karras, BT

    2002-01-01

    There is a need in clinical and research settings for a sophisticated, generalized, web based survey tool that supports complex logic, separation of content and presentation, and computable guidelines. There are many commercial and open source survey packages available that provide simple logic; few provide sophistication beyond “goto” statements; none support the use of guidelines. These tools are driven by databases, static web pages, and structured documents using markup languages such as eXtensible Markup Language (XML). We propose a generalized, guideline aware language and an implementation architecture using open source standards.

  3. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  4. Geography Markup Language

    OpenAIRE

    Burggraf, David S

    2006-01-01

    Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML application that provides a standard way to represent geographic information. GML is developed and maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), which is an international consortium consisting of more than 250 members from industry, government, and university departments. Many of the conceptual models described in the ISO 19100 series of geomatics standards have been implemented in GML, and it is itself en route to becoming an ISO Standard (TC/2...

  5. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  6. Geography Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Burggraf

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Geography Markup Language (GML is an XML application that provides a standard way to represent geographic information. GML is developed and maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, which is an international consortium consisting of more than 250 members from industry, government, and university departments. Many of the conceptual models described in the ISO 19100 series of geomatics standards have been implemented in GML, and it is itself en route to becoming an ISO Standard (TC/211 CD 19136. An overview of GML together with its implications for the geospatial web is given in this paper.

  7. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  8. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  9. The Geometry Description Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RadovanChytracek

    2001-01-01

    Currently,a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors.A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier.A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment.However,no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files,source code (C/C++/FORTRAN),to XML and database solutions.The XML(Extensible Markup Language)has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries,with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing.Therefore,interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present.This article introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions.Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data.Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML.

  10. Corrosion science general-purpose data model and interface (Ⅱ): OOD design and corrosion data markup language (CDML)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With object oriented design/analysis, a general purpose corrosion data model (GPCDM) and a corrosion data markup language (CDML) are created to meet the increasing demand of multi-source corrosion data integration and sharing. "Cor- rosion data island" is proposed to model the corrosion data of comprehensiveness and self-contained. The island of tree-liked structure contains six first-level child nodes to characterize every important aspect of the corrosion data. Each first-level node holds more child nodes recursively as data containers. The design of data structure inside the island is intended to decrease the learning curve and break the acceptance barrier of GPCDM and CDML. A detailed explanation about the role and meaning of the first-level nodes are presented with examples chosen carefully in order to review the design goals and requirements proposed in the previous paper. Then, CDML tag structure and CDML application programming interface (API) are introduced in logic order. At the end, the roles of GPCDM, CDML and its API in the multi-source corrosion data integration and information sharing are highlighted and projected.

  11. Corrosion science general-purpose data model and interface (Ⅱ): OOD design and corrosion data markup language (CDML)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG ZiLong

    2008-01-01

    With object oriented design/analysis, a general purpose corrosion data model (GPCDM) and a corrosion data markup language (CDML) are created to meet the increasing demand of multi-source corrosion data integration and sharing. "Cor-rosion data island" is proposed to model the corrosion data of comprehensiveness and self-contained. The island of tree-liked structure contains six first-level child nodes to characterize every important aspect of the corrosion data. Each first-level node holds more child nodes recursively as data containers. The design of data structure inside the island is intended to decrease the learning curve and break the acceptance barrier of GPCDM and CDML. A detailed explanation about the role and meaning of the first-level nodes are presented with examples chosen carefully in order to review the design goals and requirements proposed in the previous paper. Then, CDML tag structure and CDML application programming interface (API) are introduced in logic order. At the end, the roles of GPCDM, CDML and its API in the multi-source corrosion data integration and information sharing are highlighted and projected.

  12. Extensible Markup Language Data Mining System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The existing data mining methods are mostly focused on relational databases and structured data, but not on complex structured data (like in extensible markup language(XML)). By converting XML document type description to the relational semantic recording XML data relations, and using an XML data mining language, the XML data mining system presents a strategy to mine information on XML.

  13. Definition of an XML markup language for clinical laboratory procedures and comparison with generic XML markup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadawi, Gilan M; Harrison, James H

    2006-10-01

    Clinical laboratory procedure manuals are typically maintained as word processor files and are inefficient to store and search, require substantial effort for review and updating, and integrate poorly with other laboratory information. Electronic document management systems could improve procedure management and utility. As a first step toward building such systems, we have developed a prototype electronic format for laboratory procedures using Extensible Markup Language (XML). Representative laboratory procedures were analyzed to identify document structure and data elements. This information was used to create a markup vocabulary, CLP-ML, expressed as an XML Document Type Definition (DTD). To determine whether this markup provided advantages over generic markup, we compared procedures structured with CLP-ML or with the vocabulary of the Health Level Seven, Inc. (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) narrative block. CLP-ML includes 124 XML tags and supports a variety of procedure types across different laboratory sections. When compared with a general-purpose markup vocabulary (CDA narrative block), CLP-ML documents were easier to edit and read, less complex structurally, and simpler to traverse for searching and retrieval. In combination with appropriate software, CLP-ML is designed to support electronic authoring, reviewing, distributing, and searching of clinical laboratory procedures from a central repository, decreasing procedure maintenance effort and increasing the utility of procedure information. A standard electronic procedure format could also allow laboratories and vendors to share procedures and procedure layouts, minimizing duplicative word processor editing. Our results suggest that laboratory-specific markup such as CLP-ML will provide greater benefit for such systems than generic markup.

  14. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A; Olsen, Karen J; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this "scientific meta-data" and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML-a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML.

  15. AllerML: markup language for allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Gendel, Steven M; Power, Trevor D; Schein, Catherine H; Braun, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential allergenicity of novel, recombinant proteins into food crops. Guidelines, proposed by WHO/FAO and EFSA, include the use of bioinformatics screening to assess the risk of potential allergenicity or cross-reactivities of all proteins introduced, for example, to improve nutritional value or promote crop resistance. However, there are no universally accepted standards that can be used to encode data on the biology of allergens to facilitate using data from multiple databases in this screening. Therefore, we developed AllerML a markup language for allergens to assist in the automated exchange of information between databases and in the integration of the bioinformatics tools that are used to investigate allergenicity and cross-reactivity. As proof of concept, AllerML was implemented using the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP; http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/) database. General implementation of AllerML will promote automatic flow of validated data that will aid in allergy research and regulatory analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HGML: a hypertext guideline markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, C G; Pickens, D; Kulikowski, C; Sonnenberg, F

    2000-01-01

    Existing text-based clinical practice guidelines can be difficult to put into practice. While a growing number of such documents have gained acceptance in the medical community and contain a wealth of valuable information, the time required to digest them is substantial. Yet the expressive power, subtlety and flexibility of natural language pose challenges when designing computer tools that will help in their application. At the same time, formal computer languages typically lack such expressiveness and the effort required to translate existing documents into these languages may be costly. We propose a method based on the mark-up concept for converting text-based clinical guidelines into a machine-operable form. This allows existing guidelines to be manipulated by machine, and viewed in different formats at various levels of detail according to the needs of the practitioner, while preserving their originally published form.

  17. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  18. Genomic Sequence Variation Markup Language (GSVML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Jun; Kimura, Michio; Hiroi, Kaei; Ido, Keisuke; Yang, Woosung; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    With the aim of making good use of internationally accumulated genomic sequence variation data, which is increasing rapidly due to the explosive amount of genomic research at present, the development of an interoperable data exchange format and its international standardization are necessary. Genomic Sequence Variation Markup Language (GSVML) will focus on genomic sequence variation data and human health applications, such as gene based medicine or pharmacogenomics. We developed GSVML through eight steps, based on case analysis and domain investigations. By focusing on the design scope to human health applications and genomic sequence variation, we attempted to eliminate ambiguity and to ensure practicability. We intended to satisfy the requirements derived from the use case analysis of human-based clinical genomic applications. Based on database investigations, we attempted to minimize the redundancy of the data format, while maximizing the data covering range. We also attempted to ensure communication and interface ability with other Markup Languages, for exchange of omics data among various omics researchers or facilities. The interface ability with developing clinical standards, such as the Health Level Seven Genotype Information model, was analyzed. We developed the human health-oriented GSVML comprising variation data, direct annotation, and indirect annotation categories; the variation data category is required, while the direct and indirect annotation categories are optional. The annotation categories contain omics and clinical information, and have internal relationships. For designing, we examined 6 cases for three criteria as human health application and 15 data elements for three criteria as data formats for genomic sequence variation data exchange. The data format of five international SNP databases and six Markup Languages and the interface ability to the Health Level Seven Genotype Model in terms of 317 items were investigated. GSVML was developed as

  19. Chemical Markup, XML and the World-Wide Web. 8. Polymer Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nico; Winter, Jerry; Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S

    2008-11-01

    Polymers are among the most important classes of materials but are only inadequately supported by modern informatics. The paper discusses the reasons why polymer informatics is considerably more challenging than small molecule informatics and develops a vision for the computer-aided design of polymers, based on modern semantic web technologies. The paper then discusses the development of Polymer Markup Language (PML). PML is an extensible language, designed to support the (structural) representation of polymers and polymer-related information. PML closely interoperates with Chemical Markup Language (CML) and overcomes a number of the previously identified challenges.

  20. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  1. STMML. A markup language for scientific, technical and medical publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available STMML is an XML-based markup language covering many generic aspects of scientific information. It has been developed as a re-usable core for more specific markup languages. It supports data structures, data types, metadata, scientific units and some basic components of scientific narrative. The central means of adding semantic information is through dictionaries. The specification is through an XML Schema which can be used to validate STMML documents or fragments. Many examples of the language are given.

  2. PIML: the Pathogen Information Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Vines, Richard R; Wattam, Alice R; Abramochkin, Georgiy V; Dickerman, Allan W; Eckart, J Dana; Sobral, Bruno W S

    2005-01-01

    A vast amount of information about human, animal and plant pathogens has been acquired, stored and displayed in varied formats through different resources, both electronically and otherwise. However, there is no community standard format for organizing this information or agreement on machine-readable format(s) for data exchange, thereby hampering interoperation efforts across information systems harboring such infectious disease data. The Pathogen Information Markup Language (PIML) is a free, open, XML-based format for representing pathogen information. XSLT-based visual presentations of valid PIML documents were developed and can be accessed through the PathInfo website or as part of the interoperable web services federation known as ToolBus/PathPort. Currently, detailed PIML documents are available for 21 pathogens deemed of high priority with regard to public health and national biological defense. A dynamic query system allows simple queries as well as comparisons among these pathogens. Continuing efforts are being taken to include other groups' supporting PIML and to develop more PIML documents. All the PIML-related information is accessible from http://www.vbi.vt.edu/pathport/pathinfo/

  3. On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

    CERN Document Server

    Loia, Vincenzo; Lee, Chang-Shing; Wang, Mei-Hui

    2013-01-01

    One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible;  consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here.  The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms...

  4. The Next Step towards a Function Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Kopp, S.; Marsella, S.C.; Pelachaud, C.; Vilhjálmson, H.; Prendinger, H.; Lester, J.; Ishizuka, M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable collaboration and exchange of modules for generating multimodal communicative behaviours of robots and virtual agents, the SAIBA initiative envisions the definition of two representation languages. One of these is the Function Markup Language (FML). This language specifies the

  5. Systems biology markup language: Level 2 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, A; Hucka, M

    2003-12-01

    The SBML (systems biology markup language) is a standard exchange format for computational models of biochemical networks. We continue developing SBML collaboratively with the modelling community to meet their evolving needs. The recently introduced SBML Level 2 includes several enhancements to the original Level 1, and features under development for SBML Level 3 include model composition, multistate chemical species and diagrams.

  6. The WANDAML Markup Language for Digital Document Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, K.; Guyon, I.; Schomaker, L.; Vuurpijl, L.

    2004-01-01

    WANDAML is an XML-based markup language for the annotation and filter journaling of digital documents. It addresses in particular the needs of forensic handwriting data examination, by allowing experts to enter information about writer, material (pen, paper), script and content, and to record chains

  7. The WANDAML Markup Language for Digital Document Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, K.; Guyon, I.; Schomaker, L.; Vuurpijl, L.

    2004-01-01

    WANDAML is an XML-based markup language for the annotation and filter journaling of digital documents. It addresses in particular the needs of forensic handwriting data examination, by allowing experts to enter information about writer, material (pen, paper), script and content, and to record chains

  8. Field Data and the Gas Hydrate Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Löwner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Data and information exchange are crucial for any kind of scientific research activities and are becoming more and more important. The comparison between different data sets and different disciplines creates new data, adds value, and finally accumulates knowledge. Also the distribution and accessibility of research results is an important factor for international work. The gas hydrate research community is dispersed across the globe and therefore, a common technical communication language or format is strongly demanded. The CODATA Gas Hydrate Data Task Group is creating the Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML, a standard based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML to enable the transport, modeling, and storage of all manner of objects related to gas hydrate research. GHML initially offers an easily deducible content because of the text-based encoding of information, which does not use binary data. The result of these investigations is a custom-designed application schema, which describes the features, elements, and their properties, defining all aspects of Gas Hydrates. One of the components of GHML is the "Field Data" module, which is used for all data and information coming from the field. It considers international standards, particularly the standards defined by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium and the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium. Various related standards were analyzed and compared with our requirements (in particular the Geographic Markup Language (ISO19136, GML and the whole ISO19000 series. However, the requirements demanded a quick solution and an XML application schema readable for any scientist without a background in information technology. Therefore, ideas, concepts and definitions have been used to build up the modules of GHML without importing any of these Markup languages. This enables a comprehensive schema and simple use.

  9. The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; /Cornell U., LNS; Bates, D.A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Walker, N.J.; /DESY; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; /Jefferson Lab; Pelaia, T.; /Oak Ridge; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

    2006-10-06

    A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

  10. Modeling Hydrates and the Gas Hydrate Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates, as an important potential fuels, flow assurance hazards, and possible factors initiating the submarine geo-hazard and global climate change, have attracted the interest of scientists all over the world. After two centuries of hydrate research, a great amount of scientific data on gas hydrates has been accumulated. Therefore the means to manage, share, and exchange these data have become an urgent task. At present, metadata (Markup Language is recognized as one of the most efficient ways to facilitate data management, storage, integration, exchange, discovery and retrieval. Therefore the CODATA Gas Hydrate Data Task Group proposed and specified Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML as an extensible conceptual metadata model to characterize the features of data on gas hydrate. This article introduces the details of modeling portion of GHML.

  11. The Accelerator Markup Language and the Universal Accelerator Parser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D.; Forster, M.; /Cornell U., LNS; Bates, D.A.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wolski, A.; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Schmidt, F.; /CERN; Walker, N.J.; /DESY; Larrieu, T.; Roblin, Y.; /Jefferson Lab; Pelaia, T.; /Oak Ridge; Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Reiche, S.; /UCLA

    2006-10-06

    A major obstacle to collaboration on accelerator projects has been the sharing of lattice description files between modeling codes. To address this problem, a lattice description format called Accelerator Markup Language (AML) has been created. AML is based upon the standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format; this provides the flexibility for AML to be easily extended to satisfy changing requirements. In conjunction with AML, a software library, called the Universal Accelerator Parser (UAP), is being developed to speed the integration of AML into any program. The UAP is structured to make it relatively straightforward (by giving appropriate specifications) to read and write lattice files in any format. This will allow programs that use the UAP code to read a variety of different file formats. Additionally, this will greatly simplify conversion of files from one format to another. Currently, besides AML, the UAP supports the MAD lattice format.

  12. Experimental Applications of Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; McCartney, Patrick; Gorringe, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe challenging use-cases for Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML), and evaluate solutions. The first case uses ATML Test Results to deliver active features to support test procedure development and test flow, and bridging mixed software development environments. The second case examines adding attributes to Systems Modelling Language (SysML) to create a linkage for deriving information from a model to fill in an ATML document set. Both cases are outside the original concept of operations for ATML but are typical when integrating large heterogeneous systems with modular contributions from multiple disciplines.

  13. Hypertext markup language as an authoring tool for CD-ROM production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P J; Horton, S

    1998-01-01

    The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) used to create Web pages is an attractive alternative to the proprietary authoring software that is now widely used to produce multimedia content for CD-ROMs. This paper describes the advantages and limitations of HTML as a non-proprietary and cross-platform CD-ROM authoring system, and the more general advantages of HTML as data standard for biocommunications content.

  14. Field Markup Language: biological field representation in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H; Dokos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of biological models available on the internet, a standardized modeling framework is required to allow information to be accessed or visualized. Based on the Physiome Modeling Framework, the Field Markup Language (FML) is being developed to describe and exchange field information for biological models. In this paper, we describe the basic features of FML, its supporting application framework and its ability to incorporate CellML models to construct tissue-scale biological models. As a typical application example, we present a spatially-heterogeneous cardiac pacemaker model which utilizes both FML and CellML to describe and solve the underlying equations of electrical activation and propagation.

  15. Standard protocol for exchange of health-checkup data based on SGML: the Health-checkup Data Markup Language (HDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, H; Yoshida, K; Hara, S; Furumi, K; Tofukuji, I; Kubodera, T; Yoda, T; Kawai, M

    2002-01-01

    To develop a health/medical data interchange model for efficient electronic exchange of data among health-checkup facilities. A Health-checkup Data Markup Language (HDML) was developed on the basis of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), and a feasibility study carried out, involving data exchange between two health checkup facilities. The structure of HDML is described. The transfer of numerical lab data, summary findings and health status assessment was successful. HDML is an improvement to laboratory data exchange. Further work has to address the exchange of qualitative and textual data.

  16. Development of Markup Language for Medical Record Charting: A Charting Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Chae, Younbyoung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of trials for collecting electronic medical records (EMRs) exist. However, structuring data format for EMR is an especially labour-intensive task for practitioners. Here we propose a new mark-up language for medical record charting (called Charting Language), which borrows useful properties from programming languages. Thus, with Charting Language, the text data described in dynamic situation can be easily used to extract information.

  17. Pathology data integration with eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jules J

    2005-02-01

    It is impossible to overstate the importance of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) as a data organization tool. With XML, pathologists can annotate all of their data (clinical and anatomic) in a format that can transform every pathology report into a database, without compromising narrative structure. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of XML for pathologists. Examples will demonstrate how pathologists can use XML to annotate individual data elements and to structure reports in a common format that can be merged with other XML files or queried using standard XML tools. This manuscript gives pathologists a glimpse into how XML allows pathology data to be linked to other types of biomedical data and reduces our dependence on centralized proprietary databases.

  18. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  19. Visualizing Scientific Data Using Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcic, L.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2006-12-01

    Over the last five years there has been a proliferation in the development of virtual globe programs. Programs such as Google Earth, NASA World Wind, SkylineGlobe, Geofusion and ArcGIS Explorer each have their own strengths and weaknesses, and whether a market will remain for all tools will be determined by user application. This market is currently led by Google Earth, the release of which on 28 Jun 2005 helped spark a revolution in virtual globe technology, by bringing it into the public view and imagination. Many would argue that such a revolution was due, but it was certainly aided by the world-wide name recognition of Google, and the creation of a user-friendly interface. Google Earth is an updated version of a program originally called Earth Viewer, which was developed by Keyhole Inc. It was renamed after Google purchased Keyhole and their technology in 2001. In order to manage the geospatial data within these viewers, the developers created a new XML-based (Extensible Markup Language) called Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Through manipulation of KML scientists are finding increasingly creative and more visually appealing methods to display and manipulate their data. A measure of the success of Google Earth and KML is demonstrated by the fact that other virtual globes are now including various levels of KML compatibility. This presentation will display examples of how KML has been applied to scientific data. It will offer a forum for questions pertaining to how KML can be applied to a user's dataset. Interested parties are encouraged to bring examples of projects under development or being planned.

  20. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-dimensional spatial and 1-dimensional temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological "deep time" analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep

  1. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-D spatial and 1-D temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological deep time analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep-time spatio

  2. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chytracek, R.; /CERN; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Pokorski, W.; /CERN; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  3. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  4. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    .... In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments...

  5. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  6. The basics of CrossRef extensible markup language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lammey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CrossRef is an association of scholarly publishers that develops shared infrastructure to support more effective scholarly communications. Launched in 2000, CrossRef’s citation-linking network today covers over 68 million journal articles and other content items (books chapters, data, theses, and technical reports from thousands of scholarly and professional publishers around the globe. CrossRef has over 4,000 member publishers who join as members in order to avail of a number of CrossRef services, reference linking via the Digital Object Identifier (DOI being the core service. To deposit CrossRef DOIs, publishers and editors need to become familiar with the basics of extensible markup language (XML. This article will give an introduction to CrossRef XML and what publishers need to do in order to start to deposit DOIs with CrossRef and thus ensure their publications are discoverable and can be linked to consistently in an online environment.

  7. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  8. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  9. Systematic reconstruction of TRANSPATH data into cell system markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Masao; Saito, Ayumu; Li, Chen; Jeong, Euna; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-23

    Many biological repositories store information based on experimental study of the biological processes within a cell, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic pathways, signal transduction pathways, or regulations of transcription factors and miRNA. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly use such information when generating simulation-based models. Thus, modeling rules for encoding biological knowledge into system-dynamics-oriented standardized formats would be very useful for fully understanding cellular dynamics at the system level. We selected the TRANSPATH database, a manually curated high-quality pathway database, which provides a plentiful source of cellular events in humans, mice, and rats, collected from over 31,500 publications. In this work, we have developed 16 modeling rules based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe), which is suitable for graphical representing and simulating biological processes. In the modeling rules, each Petri net element is incorporated with Cell System Ontology to enable semantic interoperability of models. As a formal ontology for biological pathway modeling with dynamics, CSO also defines biological terminology and corresponding icons. By combining HFPNe with the CSO features, it is possible to make TRANSPATH data to simulation-based and semantically valid models. The results are encoded into a biological pathway format, Cell System Markup Language (CSML), which eases the exchange and integration of biological data and models. By using the 16 modeling rules, 97% of the reactions in TRANSPATH are converted into simulation-based models represented in CSML. This reconstruction demonstrates that it is possible to use our rules to generate quantitative models from static pathway descriptions.

  10. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  11. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  12. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  13. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  14. Developing a Markup Language for Encoding Graphic Content in Plan Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghuan

    2009-01-01

    While deliberating and making decisions, participants in urban development processes need easy access to the pertinent content scattered among different plans. A Planning Markup Language (PML) has been proposed to represent the underlying structure of plans in an XML-compliant way. However, PML currently covers only textual information and lacks…

  15. ICAAP eXtended Markup Language: Exploiting XML and Adding Value to the Journals Production Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosteric, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the technological advances attained by the International Consortium for Alternative Academic Publication (ACAAP) aimed at reforming the scholarly communication system and providing an alternative to high-priced commercial publishing. Describes the eXtended markup language, based on SGML and HTML, that provides indexing and…

  16. A primer on the Petri Net Markup Language and ISO/IEC 15909-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillah, L. M.; Kindler, Ekkart; Kordon, F.

    2009-01-01

    Standard, defines a transfer format for high-level nets. The transfer format defined in Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909 is (or is based on) the \\emph{Petri Net Markup Language} (PNML), which was originally introduced as an interchange format for different kinds of Petri nets. In ISO/IEC 15909-2, however...

  17. A primer on the Petri Net Markup Language and ISO/IEC 15909-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillah, L. M.; Kindler, Ekkart; Kordon, F.

    2009-01-01

    Standard, defines a transfer format for high-level nets. The transfer format defined in Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909 is (or is based on) the \\emph{Petri Net Markup Language} (PNML), which was originally introduced as an interchange format for different kinds of Petri nets. In ISO/IEC 15909-2, however...

  18. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  19. Coding practice of the Journal Article Tag Suite extensible markup language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, the Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS extensible markup language (XML coding is processed automatically by an XML filtering program. In this article, the basic tagging in JATS is explained in terms of coding practice. A text editor that supports UTF-8 encoding is necessary to input JATS XML data that works in every language. Any character representable in Unicode can be used in JATS XML, and commonly available web browsers can be used to view JATS XML files. JATS XML files can refer to document type definitions, extensible stylesheet language files, and cascading style sheets, but they must specify the locations of those files. Tools for validating JATS XML files are available via the web sites of PubMed Central and ScienceCentral. Once these files are uploaded to a web server, they can be accessed from all over the world by anyone with a browser. Encoding an example article in JATS XML may help editors in deciding on the adoption of JATS XML.

  20. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  1. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  2. ArdenML: The Arden Syntax Markup Language (or Arden Syntax: It's Not Just Text Any More!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, R. Matthew

    2001-01-01

    It is no longer necessary to think of Arden Syntax as simply a text-based knowledge base format. The development of ArdenML (Arden Syntax Markup Language), an XML-based markup language allows structured access to most of the maintenance and library categories without the need to write or buy a compiler may lead to the development of simple commercial and freeware tools for processing Arden Syntax Medical Logic Modules (MLMs)

  3. The medical simulation markup language - simplifying the biomechanical modeling workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Stoll, Markus; Schalck, Sebastian; Schoch, Nicolai; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Bendl, Rolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the human body by means of continuum mechanics has become an important tool in diagnostics, computer-assisted interventions and training. This modeling approach seeks to construct patient-specific biomechanical models from tomographic data. Usually many different tools such as segmentation and meshing algorithms are involved in this workflow. In this paper we present a generalized and flexible description for biomechanical models. The unique feature of the new modeling language is that it not only describes the final biomechanical simulation, but also the workflow how the biomechanical model is constructed from tomographic data. In this way, the MSML can act as a middleware between all tools used in the modeling pipeline. The MSML thus greatly facilitates the prototyping of medical simulation workflows for clinical and research purposes. In this paper, we not only detail the XML-based modeling scheme, but also present a concrete implementation. Different examples highlight the flexibility, robustness and ease-of-use of the approach.

  4. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  5. Development of the Plate Tectonics and Seismology markup languages with XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H.; Babaei, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) and its specifications such as the XSD Schema, allow geologists to design discipline-specific vocabularies such as Seismology Markup Language (SeismML) or Plate Tectonics Markup Language (TectML). These languages make it possible to store and interchange structured geological information over the Web. Development of a geological markup language requires mapping geological concepts, such as "Earthquake" or "Plate" into a UML object model, applying a modeling and design environment. We have selected four inter-related geological concepts: earthquake, fault, plate, and orogeny, and developed four XML Schema Definitions (XSD), that define the relationships, cardinalities, hierarchies, and semantics of these concepts. In such a geological concept model, the UML object "Earthquake" is related to one or more "Wave" objects, each arriving to a seismic station at a specific "DateTime", and relating to a specific "Epicenter" object that lies at a unique "Location". The "Earthquake" object occurs along a "Segment" of a "Fault" object, which is related to a specific "Plate" object. The "Fault" has its own associations with such things as "Bend", "Step", and "Segment", and could be of any kind (e.g., "Thrust", "Transform'). The "Plate" is related to many other objects such as "MOR", "Subduction", and "Forearc", and is associated with an "Orogeny" object that relates to "Deformation" and "Strain" and several other objects. These UML objects were mapped into XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) formats, which were then converted into four XSD Schemas. The schemas were used to create and validate the XML instance documents, and to create a relational database hosting the plate tectonics and seismological data in the Microsoft Access format. The SeismML and TectML allow seismologists and structural geologists, among others, to submit and retrieve structured geological data on the Internet. A seismologist, for example, can submit peer-reviewed and

  6. Root system markup language: toward a unified root architecture description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow.

  7. SGML-Based Markup for Literary Texts: Two Problems and Some Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) as the best basis for a markup standard for encoding literary texts. Outlines solutions to problems using SGML and discusses the problem of maintaining multiple views of a document. Examines several ways of reducing the burden of markups. (GEA)

  8. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  9. cluML: A markup language for clustering and cluster validity assessment of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Nadia; Cunningham, Pádraig

    2005-01-01

    cluML is a new markup language for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. The XML-based format has been designed to address some of the limitations observed in traditional formats, such as inability to store multiple clustering (including biclustering) and validation results within a dataset. cluML is an effective tool to support biomedical knowledge representation in gene expression data analysis. Although cluML was developed for DNA microarray analysis applications, it can be effectively used for the representation of clustering and for the validation of other biomedical and physical data that has no limitations.

  10. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  11. SBRML: a markup language for associating systems biology data with models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Joseph O; Spasić, Irena; Paton, Norman W; Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Research in systems biology is carried out through a combination of experiments and models. Several data standards have been adopted for representing models (Systems Biology Markup Language) and various types of relevant experimental data (such as FuGE and those of the Proteomics Standards Initiative). However, until now, there has been no standard way to associate a model and its entities to the corresponding datasets, or vice versa. Such a standard would provide a means to represent computational simulation results as well as to frame experimental data in the context of a particular model. Target applications include model-driven data analysis, parameter estimation, and sharing and archiving model simulations. We propose the Systems Biology Results Markup Language (SBRML), an XML-based language that associates a model with several datasets. Each dataset is represented as a series of values associated with model variables, and their corresponding parameter values. SBRML provides a flexible way of indexing the results to model parameter values, which supports both spreadsheet-like data and multidimensional data cubes. We present and discuss several examples of SBRML usage in applications such as enzyme kinetics, microarray gene expression and various types of simulation results. The XML Schema file for SBRML is available at http://www.comp-sys-bio.org/SBRML under the Academic Free License (AFL) v3.0.

  12. Semantic markup of nouns and adjectives for the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajlak Ch. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the progress of semantic markup of the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language (ECTTL, which is another stage of adding Tuvan texts to the database and marking up the corpus. ECTTL is a collaborative project by researchers from Tuvan State University (Research and Education Center of Turkic Studies and Department of Information Technologies. Semantic markup of Tuvan lexis will come as a search engine and reference system which will help users find text snippets containing words with desired meanings in ECTTL. The first stage of this process is setting up databases of basic lexemes of Tuvan language. All meaningful lexemes were classified into the following semantic groups: humans, animals, objects, natural objects and phenomena, and abstract concepts. All Tuvan object nouns, as well as both descriptive and relative adjectives, were assigned to one of these lexico-semantic classes. Each class, sub-class and descriptor is tagged in Tuvan, Russian and English; these tags, in turn, will help automatize searching. The databases of meaningful lexemes of Tuvan language will also outline their lexical combinations. The automatized system will contain information on semantic combinations of adjectives with nouns, adverbs with verbs, nouns with verbs, as well as on the combinations which are semantically incompatible.

  13. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML): an open format for representing quantitative biological dynamics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Tohsato, Yukako; Ho, Kenneth H L; Onami, Shuichi

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in live-cell imaging and modeling techniques has resulted in generation of a large amount of quantitative data (from experimental measurements and computer simulations) on spatiotemporal dynamics of biological objects such as molecules, cells and organisms. Although many research groups have independently dedicated their efforts to developing software tools for visualizing and analyzing these data, these tools are often not compatible with each other because of different data formats. We developed an open unified format, Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML; current version: 0.2), which provides a basic framework for representing quantitative biological dynamics data for objects ranging from molecules to cells to organisms. BDML is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML). Its advantages are machine and human readability and extensibility. BDML will improve the efficiency of development and evaluation of software tools for data visualization and analysis. A specification and a schema file for BDML are freely available online at http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/bdml/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  15. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org.

  16. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T.; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M.; Le Novére, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J.; Olivier, Brett G.; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C.; Smith, Lucian P.; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528569

  17. A New Standard of Data Exchanging and Processing over the Web: Extensible Markup Language%网络数据交换和处理的新标准--可扩展标签语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琪; 张静; 张瑶; 梁颖红; 王育英

    2001-01-01

    XML(Extensible Markup Language.可扩展标签语言)是一种源于SGML(standard Generalized Markup language)的Web数据格式描述语言.它的数据内容具独立性和自解释性.使它的信息可以被任何应用程序利用.介绍了XML的概念、特点.并通过一个XML文档来说明此类文档的书写方式及独立设计原则.

  18. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the Single Source Delivery of Educational Resources by Print and Online: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to Extensible Markup Language (XML) by looking at its use in a single source publishing approach to the provision of teaching resources in both hardcopy and online. Using the development of the International Baccalaureate Organisation's online Economics Subject Guide as a practical example, this…

  19. Extensible Markup Language: How Might It Alter the Software Documentation Process and the Role of the Technical Communicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battalio, John T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the influence that Extensible Markup Language (XML) will have on the software documentation process and subsequently on the curricula of advanced undergraduate and master's programs in technical communication. Recommends how curricula of advanced undergraduate and master's programs in technical communication ought to change in order to…

  20. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the Single Source Delivery of Educational Resources by Print and Online: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to Extensible Markup Language (XML) by looking at its use in a single source publishing approach to the provision of teaching resources in both hardcopy and online. Using the development of the International Baccalaureate Organisation's online Economics Subject Guide as a practical example, this…

  1. SBML-PET-MPI: a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Zhike

    2011-04-01

    Parameter estimation is crucial for the modeling and dynamic analysis of biological systems. However, implementing parameter estimation is time consuming and computationally demanding. Here, we introduced a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-based models (SBML-PET-MPI). SBML-PET-MPI allows the user to perform parameter estimation and parameter uncertainty analysis by collectively fitting multiple experimental datasets. The tool is developed and parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol, which provides good scalability with the number of processors. SBML-PET-MPI is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.bioss.uni-freiburg.de/cms/sbml-pet-mpi.html or http://sites.google.com/site/sbmlpetmpi/.

  2. SBML-SAT: a systems biology markup language (SBML) based sensitivity analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Zhike; Zheng, Yanan; Rundell, Ann E; Klipp, Edda

    2008-08-15

    It has long been recognized that sensitivity analysis plays a key role in modeling and analyzing cellular and biochemical processes. Systems biology markup language (SBML) has become a well-known platform for coding and sharing mathematical models of such processes. However, current SBML compatible software tools are limited in their ability to perform global sensitivity analyses of these models. This work introduces a freely downloadable, software package, SBML-SAT, which implements algorithms for simulation, steady state analysis, robustness analysis and local and global sensitivity analysis for SBML models. This software tool extends current capabilities through its execution of global sensitivity analyses using multi-parametric sensitivity analysis, partial rank correlation coefficient, SOBOL's method, and weighted average of local sensitivity analyses in addition to its ability to handle systems with discontinuous events and intuitive graphical user interface. SBML-SAT provides the community of systems biologists a new tool for the analysis of their SBML models of biochemical and cellular processes.

  3. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML) for computational chemistry : CompChem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Kraft, Markus; Townsend, Joe A; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2012-08-07

    : This paper introduces a subdomain chemistry format for storing computational chemistry data called CompChem. It has been developed based on the design, concepts and methodologies of Chemical Markup Language (CML) by adding computational chemistry semantics on top of the CML Schema. The format allows a wide range of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of individual molecules to be stored. These calculations include, for example, single point energy calculation, molecular geometry optimization, and vibrational frequency analysis. The paper also describes the supporting infrastructure, such as processing software, dictionaries, validation tools and database repositories. In addition, some of the challenges and difficulties in developing common computational chemistry dictionaries are discussed. The uses of CompChem are illustrated by two practical applications.

  4. The gel electrophoresis markup language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2010-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.

  5. Extending the Concepts of Normalization from Relational Databases to Extensible-Markup-Language Databases Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. F. El-Sofany

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have studied the problem of how to extend the concepts of Functional Dependency (FD and normalization in relational databases to include the eXtensible Markup Language (XML model. We shown that, like relational databases, XML documents may contain redundant information and this redundancy may cause update anomalies. Furthermore, such problems are caused by certain functional dependencies among paths in the document. Our goal is to find a way for converting an arbitrary XML Schema to a well-designed one, that avoids these problems. We introduced new definitions of FD and normal forms of XML Schema (X-1NF, X-2NF, X-3NF and X-BCNF. We shown that our normal forms are necessary and sufficient to ensure all conforming XML documents have no redundancies.

  6. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML for computational chemistry : CompChem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadungsukanan Weerapong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper introduces a subdomain chemistry format for storing computational chemistry data called CompChem. It has been developed based on the design, concepts and methodologies of Chemical Markup Language (CML by adding computational chemistry semantics on top of the CML Schema. The format allows a wide range of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of individual molecules to be stored. These calculations include, for example, single point energy calculation, molecular geometry optimization, and vibrational frequency analysis. The paper also describes the supporting infrastructure, such as processing software, dictionaries, validation tools and database repositories. In addition, some of the challenges and difficulties in developing common computational chemistry dictionaries are discussed. The uses of CompChem are illustrated by two practical applications.

  7. Gene Fusion Markup Language: a prototype for exchanging gene fusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Shanmugam, Achiraman; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2012-10-16

    An avalanche of next generation sequencing (NGS) studies has generated an unprecedented amount of genomic structural variation data. These studies have also identified many novel gene fusion candidates with more detailed resolution than previously achieved. However, in the excitement and necessity of publishing the observations from this recently developed cutting-edge technology, no community standardization approach has arisen to organize and represent the data with the essential attributes in an interchangeable manner. As transcriptome studies have been widely used for gene fusion discoveries, the current non-standard mode of data representation could potentially impede data accessibility, critical analyses, and further discoveries in the near future. Here we propose a prototype, Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) as an initiative to provide a standard format for organizing and representing the significant features of gene fusion data. GFML will offer the advantage of representing the data in a machine-readable format to enable data exchange, automated analysis interpretation, and independent verification. As this database-independent exchange initiative evolves it will further facilitate the formation of related databases, repositories, and analysis tools. The GFML prototype is made available at http://code.google.com/p/gfml-prototype/. The Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) presented here could facilitate the development of a standard format for organizing, integrating and representing the significant features of gene fusion data in an inter-operable and query-able fashion that will enable biologically intuitive access to gene fusion findings and expedite functional characterization. A similar model is envisaged for other NGS data analyses.

  8. 自动测试描述语言标准研究及其应用%Study on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML) Standards And Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康占祥; 戴嫣青; 杨占才

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, several major problems for automatic test markup language (ATML) standard are discussed, such as background, purpose, and model structure. Secondly, all the model definition methods and the expression manner for ATML standard are discussed, such as common, test results and session information markup language (TRML), diagnostics model markup language (DML), test description markup language (TDML), instrument description markup language (IDML), test configuration description markup language (TCML), UUT description markup language (UDML), test station markup language ( TSML), and test adapter markup language (TAML). Lastly, the automatic test system application method of ATML standards is introduced. The technology foundation is supplied for the testing resources share of the maintenance level.%分析了制定ATML标准的背景、目的及模型结构,并且对构成ATML标准所有子模型定义方法和表示方式进行了说明,其中主要包括通用要素模型(Common)、测试结果和会话信息模型(TRML)、诊断模型(DML)、测试描述模型(TDML)、仪器描述模型(IDML)、测试配置模型(TCML)、UUT描述模型(UDML)、测试站模型(TSML)及测试适配器模型(TAML)等,最后给出了ATML在自动测试系统中的应用方法,为实现武器装备各种维护级别的测试资源的共享奠定了技术基础.

  9. XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) Industrial Standard, Determining Architecture of the Next Generation of the Internet Software

    CERN Document Server

    Galaktionov, V V

    2000-01-01

    The past 1999 became the period of standing of the new Internet technology - XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language), the language of sectoring established by a Consortium WWW (http://www.w3.org) as a new industrial standard, determining architecture of the next generation Internet software. In this message the results of a research of this technology, basic opportunities XML, rules and recommendations for its application are given.

  10. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Tchuvatkina, Olga; Spidlen, Josef; Wilkinson, Peter; Gasparetto, Maura; Jones, Andrew R; Manion, Frank J; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2009-06-16

    Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE) formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM) according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML). We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow), which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets. Additional project documentation, including

  11. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manion Frank J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. Methods We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML. We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. Results The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow, which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets

  12. SBMLeditor: effective creation of models in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Donizelli, Marco; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2007-03-06

    The need to build a tool to facilitate the quick creation and editing of models encoded in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML) has been growing with the number of users and the increased complexity of the language. SBMLeditor tries to answer this need by providing a very simple, low level editor of SBML files. Users can create and remove all the necessary bits and pieces of SBML in a controlled way, that maintains the validity of the final SBML file. SBMLeditor is written in JAVA using JCompneur, a library providing interfaces to easily display an XML document as a tree. This decreases dramatically the development time for a new XML editor. The possibility to include custom dialogs for different tags allows a lot of freedom for the editing and validation of the document. In addition to Xerces, SBMLeditor uses libSBML to check the validity and consistency of SBML files. A graphical equation editor allows an easy manipulation of MathML. SBMLeditor can be used as a module of the Systems Biology Workbench. SBMLeditor contains many improvements compared to a generic XML editor, and allow users to create an SBML model quickly and without syntactic errors.

  13. Evolution of Web-Based Applications Using Domain-Specific Markup Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntram Graef

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The lifecycle of Web-based applications is characterized by frequent changes to content, user interface, and functionality. Updating content, improving the services provided to users, drives further development of a Web-based application. The major goal for the success of a Web-based application becomes therefore its evolution. Though, development and maintenance of Web-based applications suffers from the underlying document-based implementation model. A disciplined evolution of Web based applications requires the application of software engineering practice for systematic further development and reuse of software artifacts. In this contribution we suggest to adopt the component paradigm to development and evolution of Web-based applications. The approach is based on a dedicated component technology and component-software architecture. It allows abstracting from many technical aspects related to the Web as an application platform by introducing domain specific markup languages. These languages allow the description of services, which represent domain components in our Web-component-software approach. Domain experts with limited knowledge of technical details can therefore describe application functionality and the evolution of orthogonal aspects of the application can be de-coupled. The whole approach is based on XML to achieve the necessary standardization and economic efficiency for the use in real world projects.

  14. The Effect of using Facebook Markup Language (FBML) for Designing an E-Learning Model in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Amasha; Salem Alkhalaf

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of Facebook Markup Language (FBML) to design an e-learning model to facilitate teaching and learning in an academic setting. The qualitative research study presents a case study on how, Facebook is used to support collaborative activities in higher education. We used FBML to design an e-learning model called processes for e-learning resources in the Specialist Learning Resources Diploma (SLRD) program. Two groups drawn from the SLRD program were used; First were th...

  15. Standardization of seismic tomographic models and earthquake focal mechanisms data sets based on web technologies, visualization with keyhole markup language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postpischl, Luca; Danecek, Peter; Morelli, Andrea; Pondrelli, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We present two projects in seismology that have been ported to web technologies, which provide results in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) visualization layers. These use the Google Earth geo-browser as the flexible platform that can substitute specialized graphical tools to perform qualitative visual data analyses and comparisons. The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) Tomographic Earth Model Repository contains data sets from over 20 models from the literature. A hierarchical structure of folders that represent the sets of depths for each model is implemented in KML, and this immediately results into an intuitive interface for users to navigate freely and to compare tomographic plots. The KML layer for the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid-Moment Tensor Catalog displays the focal mechanism solutions or moderate-magnitude Earthquakes from 1997 to the present. Our aim in both projects was to also propose standard representations of scientific data sets. Here, the general semantic approach of an XML framework has an important impact that must be further explored, although we find the KML syntax to more emphasis on aspects of detailed visualization. We have thus used, and propose the use of, Javascript Object Notation (JSON), another semantic notation that stems from the web-development community that provides a compact, general-purpose, data-exchange format.

  16. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  17. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  18. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltemath Dagmar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML. SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s used

  19. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.

  20. A two-way interface between limited Systems Biology Markup Language and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas

    2004-12-07

    Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is gaining broad usage as a standard for representing dynamical systems as data structures. The open source statistical programming environment R is widely used by biostatisticians involved in microarray analyses. An interface between SBML and R does not exist, though one might be useful to R users interested in SBML, and SBML users interested in R. A model structure that parallels SBML to a limited degree is defined in R. An interface between this structure and SBML is provided through two function definitions: write.SBML() which maps this R model structure to SBML level 2, and read.SBML() which maps a limited range of SBML level 2 files back to R. A published model of purine metabolism is provided in this SBML-like format and used to test the interface. The model reproduces published time course responses before and after its mapping through SBML. List infrastructure preexisting in R makes it well-suited for manipulating SBML models. Further developments of this SBML-R interface seem to be warranted.

  1. Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language 1.0: Reporting next generation sequencing-based HLA and KIR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milius, Robert P; Heuer, Michael; Valiga, Daniel; Doroschak, Kathryn J; Kennedy, Caleb J; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Schneider, Joel; Pollack, Jane; Kim, Hwa Ran; Cereb, Nezih; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J; Maiers, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We present an electronic format for exchanging data for HLA and KIR genotyping with extensions for next-generation sequencing (NGS). This format addresses NGS data exchange by refining the Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) to conform to the proposed Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines (miring.immunogenomics.org). Our refinements of HML include two major additions. First, NGS is supported by new XML structures to capture additional NGS data and metadata required to produce a genotyping result, including analysis-dependent (dynamic) and method-dependent (static) components. A full genotype, consensus sequence, and the surrounding metadata are included directly, while the raw sequence reads and platform documentation are externally referenced. Second, genotype ambiguity is fully represented by integrating Genotype List Strings, which use a hierarchical set of delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in a complete and accurate fashion. HML also continues to enable the transmission of legacy methods (e.g. site-specific oligonucleotide, sequence-specific priming, and Sequence Based Typing (SBT)), adding features such as allowing multiple group-specific sequencing primers, and fully leveraging techniques that combine multiple methods to obtain a single result, such as SBT integrated with NGS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A two-way interface between limited Systems Biology Markup Language and R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoyevitch Tomas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is gaining broad usage as a standard for representing dynamical systems as data structures. The open source statistical programming environment R is widely used by biostatisticians involved in microarray analyses. An interface between SBML and R does not exist, though one might be useful to R users interested in SBML, and SBML users interested in R. Results A model structure that parallels SBML to a limited degree is defined in R. An interface between this structure and SBML is provided through two function definitions: write.SBML( which maps this R model structure to SBML level 2, and read.SBML( which maps a limited range of SBML level 2 files back to R. A published model of purine metabolism is provided in this SBML-like format and used to test the interface. The model reproduces published time course responses before and after its mapping through SBML. Conclusions List infrastructure preexisting in R makes it well-suited for manipulating SBML models. Further developments of this SBML-R interface seem to be warranted.

  3. Patient information exchange guideline MERIT-9 using medical markup language MML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Ohe, K; Yoshihara, H; Ando, Y; Kawamata, F; Hishiki, T; Ohashi, K; Sakusabe, T; Tani, S; Akiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    To realize clinical data exchange between healthcare providers, there must be many standards in many layers. Terms and codes should be standardized, syntax to wrap the data must be mutually parsable, then transfer protocol or exchange media should be agreed. Among many standards for the syntax, HL7 and DICOM are most successful. However, everything could not be handled by HL7 solely. DICOM is good for radiology images, but, other clinical images are already handled by other "lighter" data formats like JPEG, TIFF. So, it is not realistic to use only one standard for every area of clinical information. For description of medical records, especially for narrative information, we created SGML DTD for medical information, called MML (Medical Markup Language). It is already implemented in more than 10 healthcare providers in Japan. As it is a hierarchical description of information, it is easily used as a basis of object request brokering. It is again not realistic to use MML solely for clinical information in various level of detail. Therefore, we proposed a guide-line for use of available medical standards to facilitate clinical information exchange between healthcare providers. It is called MERIT-9 (MEdical Records, Images, Texts,--Information eXchange). A typical use is HL7 files, DICOM files, referred from an MML file in a patient record, as external entities. Both MML and MERIT-9 are research projects of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the purpose is to facilitate clinical data exchanges. They are becoming to be used in technical specifications for new hospital information systems in Japan.

  4. 简单介绍可扩展标记语言XML%A Brief Introduction to XML Extensible Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    源艳芬; 梁慎青

    2010-01-01

    XML全称EXtensible Markup Language,翻译为扩展的标记语言,是Intemet环境中跨平台的,依赖于内容的技术,是当前处理结构化文档信息的有力工具.它与HTML一样,都是SOML(Standard Generalized Markup Language,标准通用标记语言).比SGML简单得多,比HTML更令编程人员喜爱,它包含了很多SGML特性,继承了SGML的优点,文档结构严谨,层次分明,语义更加明确,具有良好的可读性、易编写和易维护等特性,而且使得多媒体信息在不同的系统之间相互交流成为现实.本文通过例子,简单介绍XML的使用,从中感受XML极其简单易于掌握和使用.

  5. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...... other users may decide on all sorts of markup languages, eg HTML or LaTex. The key is that markup of Stata code and Stata output can be set by the options....

  6. XML Based Virtual Instrument Markup Language--VIML%基于XML的虚拟仪器标记语言--VIML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟莹; 陈祥献

    2002-01-01

    详细讨论了如何基于XML语言来定义一套用于描述虚拟仪器系统的特定领域的标记语言--VIML(Virtual Instrument Markup Language).通过分析虚拟仪器系统的特点和运行方式,在元语言XML的基础上对虚拟仪器组件、端口、连接关系等进行了元素定义,规范了虚拟仪器系统的描述方法.

  7. UOML: An Unstructured Operation Markup Language%UOML:一种非结构化操作标记语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东临; 姜海峰; 张常有

    2007-01-01

    书面文档是非结构化信息的主要表现形式之一.本文提出了一种非结构化文档的互操作标准,并完成了其规范语言UOML(Unstructured Operation Markup Language)方案,定义了详尽的操作接口规范.操作接口基于XML表达,实现平台无关性.

  8. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  9. The feature and analysis of GML--Geography Markup Language%GML-地理标记语言特征与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁明; 鲍艳; 黄朝华

    2002-01-01

    针对GIS行业中的数据交换与共享的困难,在讨论了XML(Extensible Markup Language)这一Web新行业标准的出现给GIS带来了希望的基础上,进一步详细地论述和分析了GML(Geography Markup Language)的特征,讨论了GML已逐渐成为大家所接受并容易理解的一种空间信息的交换格式.

  10. Using commercially available off-the-shelf software and hardware to develop an intranet-based hypertext markup language teaching file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, G J

    1999-05-01

    This presentation describes the technical details of implementing a process to create digital teaching files stressing the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software and hardware and standard hypertext markup language (HTML) to keep development costs to a minimum.

  11. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities’ libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries’ Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. Results: The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). Conclusion: It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers

  12. Hyper Text Mark-up Language and Dublin Core metadata element set usage in websites of Iranian State Universities' libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Ramezan-Shirazi, Mahtab; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Nouri, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in providing innovative solutions in the organization of electronic resources and research in this area shows a global trend in the use of new strategies such as metadata to facilitate description, place for, organization and retrieval of resources in the web environment. In this context, library metadata standards have a special place; therefore, the purpose of the present study has been a comparative study on the Central Libraries' Websites of Iran State Universities for Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) and Dublin Core metadata elements usage in 2011. The method of this study is applied-descriptive and data collection tool is the check lists created by the researchers. Statistical community includes 98 websites of the Iranian State Universities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and method of sampling is the census. Information was collected through observation and direct visits to websites and data analysis was prepared by Microsoft Excel software, 2011. The results of this study indicate that none of the websites use Dublin Core (DC) metadata and that only a few of them have used overlaps elements between HTML meta tags and Dublin Core (DC) elements. The percentage of overlaps of DC elements centralization in the Ministry of Health were 56% for both description and keywords and, in the Ministry of Science, were 45% for the keywords and 39% for the description. But, HTML meta tags have moderate presence in both Ministries, as the most-used elements were keywords and description (56%) and the least-used elements were date and formatter (0%). It was observed that the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science follows the same path for using Dublin Core standard on their websites in the future. Because Central Library Websites are an example of scientific web pages, special attention in designing them can help the researchers to achieve faster and more accurate information resources

  13. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  14. Evolving a lingua franca and associated software infrastructure for computational systems biology: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, M; Finney, A; Bornstein, B J; Keating, S M; Shapiro, B E; Matthews, J; Kovitz, B L; Schilstra, M J; Funahashi, A; Doyle, J C; Kitano, H

    2004-06-01

    Biologists are increasingly recognising that computational modelling is crucial for making sense of the vast quantities of complex experimental data that are now being collected. The systems biology field needs agreed-upon information standards if models are to be shared, evaluated and developed cooperatively. Over the last four years, our team has been developing the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) in collaboration with an international community of modellers and software developers. SBML has become a de facto standard format for representing formal, quantitative and qualitative models at the level of biochemical reactions and regulatory networks. In this article, we summarise the current and upcoming versions of SBML and our efforts at developing software infrastructure for supporting and broadening its use. We also provide a brief overview of the many SBML-compatible software tools available today.

  15. Restructuring an EHR system and the Medical Markup Language (MML) standard to improve interoperability by archetype technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, we developed an EHR system for regional healthcare information inter-exchange and to provide individual patient data to patients. This system was adopted in three regions in Japan. We also developed a Medical Markup Language (MML) standard for inter- and intra-hospital communications. The system was built on a legacy platform, however, and had not been appropriately maintained or updated to meet clinical requirements. To improve future maintenance costs, we reconstructed the EHR system using archetype technology on the Ruby on Rails platform, and generated MML equivalent forms from archetypes. The system was deployed as a cloud-based system for preliminary use as a regional EHR. The system now has the capability to catch up with new requirements, maintaining semantic interoperability with archetype technology. It is also more flexible than the legacy EHR system.

  16. The Biological Connection Markup Language: a SBGN-compliant format for visualization, filtering and analysis of biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Luca; Calura, Enrica; Popovici, Razvan R; Rizzetto, Lisa; Guedez, Damariz Rivero; Donato, Michele; Romualdi, Chiara; Draghici, Sorin; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2011-08-01

    Many models and analysis of signaling pathways have been proposed. However, neither of them takes into account that a biological pathway is not a fixed system, but instead it depends on the organism, tissue and cell type as well as on physiological, pathological and experimental conditions. The Biological Connection Markup Language (BCML) is a format to describe, annotate and visualize pathways. BCML is able to store multiple information, permitting a selective view of the pathway as it exists and/or behave in specific organisms, tissues and cells. Furthermore, BCML can be automatically converted into data formats suitable for analysis and into a fully SBGN-compliant graphical representation, making it an important tool that can be used by both computational biologists and 'wet lab' scientists. The XML schema and the BCML software suite are freely available under the LGPL for download at http://bcml.dc-atlas.net. They are implemented in Java and supported on MS Windows, Linux and OS X.

  17. The latest MML (Medical Markup Language) version 2.3--XML-based standard for medical data exchange/storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Araki, Kenji; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Takada, Akira; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    As a set of standards, Medical Markup Language (MML) has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers MML version 2.21 was characterized by XML as metalanguage and was announced in 1999, at which time full-scale implementation tests were carried out; subsequently, various information and functional inadequacies were discovered in this version. MML was therefore updated to version 2.3 in 2001. At present, MML contains 12 MML modules including the new referral, test result, and report modules. In version 2.3, the group ID element was added; the access right definition and health insurance module were amended.

  18. The evolution of the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Maidment, D.; Tarboton, D. G.; Whiteaker, T.; Hooper, R.; Kirschtel, D.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS, his.cuahsi.org) uses web services as the core data exchange mechanism which provides programmatic connection between many heterogeneous sources of hydrologic data and a variety of online and desktop client applications. The service message schema follows the CUAHSI Water Markup Language (WaterML) 1.x specification (see OGC Discussion Paper 07-041r1). Data sources that can be queried via WaterML-compliant water data services include national and international repositories such as USGS NWIS (National Water Information System), USEPA STORET (Storage & Retrieval), USDA SNOTEL (Snowpack Telemetry), NCDC ISH and ISD(Integrated Surface Hourly and Daily Data), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and DAYMET (Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries). Besides government data sources, CUAHSI HIS provides access to a growing number of academic hydrologic observation networks. These networks are registered by researchers associated with 11 hydrologic observatory testbeds around the US, and other research, government and commercial groups wishing to join the emerging CUAHSI Water Data Federation. The Hydrologic Information Server (HIS Server) software stack deployed at NSF-supported hydrologic observatory sites and other universities around the country, supports a hydrologic data publication workflow which includes the following steps: (1) observational data are loaded from static files or streamed from sensors into a local instance of an Observations Data Model (ODM) database; (2) a generic web service template is configured for the new ODM instance to expose the data as a WaterML-compliant water data service, and (3) the new water data service is registered at the HISCentral registry (hiscentral.cuahsi.org), its metadata are harvested and semantically tagged using concepts from a hydrologic ontology. As a result, the new service is indexed in the CUAHSI central metadata catalog, and becomes

  19. ART-ML: a new markup language for modelling and representation of biological processes in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvounis, E C; Exarchos, T P; Fotiou, E; Sakellarios, A I; Iliopoulou, D; Koutsouris, D; Fotiadis, D I

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of biological models available on the internet, a standardized modelling framework is required to allow information to be accessed and visualized. In this paper we propose a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling, exported by any cardiovascular disease modelling software. ART-ML has been developed and tested using ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in 3D representations. All the above described procedures integrate disparate data formats, protocols and tools. ART-ML proposes a representation way, expanding ARTool, for interpretability of the individual resources, creating a standard unified model for the description of data and, consequently, a format for their exchange and representation that is machine independent. More specifically, ARTool platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulations and atherosclerotic plaque evolution modelling. Integration of data layers between different modules within ARTool are based upon the interchange of information included in the ART-ML model repository. ART-ML provides a markup representation that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the cardiovascular disease modelling platform, the storage and interchange of well-defined information. The corresponding ART-ML model incorporates all relevant information regarding geometry, blood flow, plaque progression and stent modelling procedures. All created models are stored in a model repository database which is accessible to the research community using efficient web interfaces, enabling the interoperability of any cardiovascular disease modelling software

  20. PENGUKURAN KINERJA BEBERAPA SISTEM BASIS DATA RELASIONAL DENGAN KEMAMPUAN MENYIMPAN DATA BERFORMAT GML (GEOGRAPHY MARKUP LANGUAGE YANG DAPAT DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENDASARI APLIKASI-APLIKASI SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Nugroho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available If we want to represent spatial data to user using GIS (Geographical Information System applications, we have 2 choices about the underlying database, that is general RDBMS (Relational Database Management System for saving general spatial data (number, char, varchar, etc., or saving spatial data in GML (Geography Markup Language format. (GML is an another XML’s special vocabulary for spatial data. If we choose GML for saving spatial data, we also have 2 choices, that is saving spatial data in XML Enabled Database (relational databases that can be use for saving XML data or we can use Native XML Database (NXD, that is special databases that can be use for saving XML data. In this paper, we try to make performance comparison for several XML Enabled Database when we do GML’s CRUD (Create-Read-Update-Delete operations to these databases. On the other side, we also want to see flexibility of XML Enabled Database from programmers view.

  1. Supporting Online Video-Based Correction for Language Learning through Markup-Based Video Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Yoshiaki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo

    This paper focuses on an online video based correction system for language learning. The prototype system using the proposed model supports learning between a native English teacher and a non-native learner using a videoconference system. It extends the videoconference system so that it can record the conversation of a learning scene. If a teacher…

  2. A program code generator for multiphysics biological simulation using markup languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akira; Kawabata, Masanari; Yamashita, Yoshiharu; Rusty Punzalan, Florencio; Shimayoshi, Takao; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    To cope with the complexity of the biological function simulation models, model representation with description language is becoming popular. However, simulation software itself becomes complex in these environment, thus, it is difficult to modify the simulation conditions, target computation resources or calculation methods. In the complex biological function simulation software, there are 1) model equations, 2) boundary conditions and 3) calculation schemes. Use of description model file is useful for first point and partly second point, however, third point is difficult to handle for various calculation schemes which is required for simulation models constructed from two or more elementary models. We introduce a simulation software generation system which use description language based description of coupling calculation scheme together with cell model description file. By using this software, we can easily generate biological simulation code with variety of coupling calculation schemes. To show the efficiency of our system, example of coupling calculation scheme with three elementary models are shown.

  3. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Wibe A; Walker, Andrew M; Hanwell, Marcus D

    2013-05-24

    Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper an end-to-end use of semantically rich data in computational chemistry is demonstrated utilizing the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Semantically rich data is generated by the NWChem computational chemistry software with the FoX library and utilized by the Avogadro molecular editor for analysis and visualization. The NWChem computational chemistry software has been modified and coupled to the FoX library to write CML compliant XML data files. The FoX library was expanded to represent the lexical input files and molecular orbitals used by the computational chemistry software. Draft dictionary entries and a format for molecular orbitals within CML CompChem were developed. The Avogadro application was extended to read in CML data, and display molecular geometry and electronic structure in the GUI allowing for an end-to-end solution where Avogadro can create input structures, generate input files, NWChem can run the calculation and Avogadro can then read in and analyse the CML output produced. The developments outlined in this paper will be made available in future releases of NWChem, FoX, and Avogadro. The production of CML compliant XML files for computational chemistry software such as NWChem can be accomplished relatively easily using the FoX library. The CML data can be read in by a newly developed reader in Avogadro and analysed or visualized in various ways. A community-based effort is needed to further develop the CML CompChem convention and dictionary. This will enable the long-term goal of allowing a researcher to run simple "Google-style" searches of chemistry and physics and have the results of computational calculations returned in a comprehensible form alongside articles from the published literature.

  4. THE DESIGN OF INSTALLATION AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY MARKUP LANGUAGE AND SCHEMA%设施农业技术标记语言及其Schema的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桦; 杨悦欣; 孙波

    2005-01-01

    详细讨论了如何基于XML来定义一套用于描述设施农业技术的特定领域的标记语言--IATML(Installation Agriculture Technology Markup Language),在元语言XML的基础上对设施农业技术的基本构成元素进行了分析、定义,建立了IATMLSchema,规范了设施农业技术的描述.

  5. 基于扩展标记语言的Internet市场的服务描述%Describing Services on an Internet Marketplace Using Extensible Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑波; 杜鹏; 陈贵海; 陈道蓄; 谢立

    2000-01-01

    作为一种应用系统从位于Internet上的远程服务结点获取数据和计算性服务并进行集成处理的机制,Internet市场受到了广泛重视.该文给出了一种基于扩展标记语言(extensible markup language,简称XML)的Internet市场服务描述方式.它较好地权衡了市场构架与顾客及服务提供者的观点.

  6. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge...

  7. Analysis on the Standard of TTS Oriented Markup Language%面向文语转换的标记语言标准的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳东剑; 柴佩琪; 宣国荣

    2000-01-01

    目前大多数的语音合成系统都是独立的工作,它们之间互不兼容,不能共享界面.因为缺少相关标准,使得语音合成器与其他系统的集成变得很困难.制定一个面向文语转换或语音合成的文档标记语言标准是解决这个问题的有效方法.本文通过对语音合成标记语言SSML(Speech Synthesis Markup Language)、口语文本标记语言STML(Spoken Text Markup Language)、JSML和一个针对TTS的基于XML/SGML的标记语言方案标准草案SABLE的分析,研究了面向文语转换系统TTS的标记语言标准化的问题.

  8. An Attempt to Construct a Database of Photographic Data of Radiolarian Fossils with the Hypertext Markup Language

    OpenAIRE

    磯貝, 芳徳; 水谷, 伸治郎; Yoshinori, Isogai; Shinjiro, MIZUTANI

    1998-01-01

    放散虫化石の走査型電子顕微鏡写真のコレクションを,Hypertext Markup Languageを用いてデータベース化した.このデータベースは約千枚の放散虫化石の写真を現時点でもっており,化石名,地質学的年代,発掘地名など多様な視点から検索することができる.このデータベースの構築によって,計算機やデータベースについて特別な技術を持っていない通常の研究者が,自身のデータベースを自らの手で構築しようとするとき,Hypertext Markup Languageが有効であることを示した.さらにインターネットを経由して,誰でもこのデータベースを利用できる点は,Hypertext Markup Languageを用いたデータベースの特筆するき特徴である.データベース構築の過程を記述し,現況を報告する.さらに当データベース構築の背景にある考えや問題点について議論する....

  9. Research on Holistic Index Method of Geography Markup Language%地理标记语言的一体化索引方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 原立峰; 姜杰

    2009-01-01

    Currently,the OGC GML (Geography Markup Language) specification has been the de facto standard for GIS data sharing and exchanging and spatial interoperation.Adopting nested association expression approach of XML data,GML data documents can store both spatial information and semantic relationship information of geographical elements.To improve the efficiency of path query on GML two type information,the paper describes a holistic index method for GML data,which we call EKR+ (optimized R+-tree base on Extend Region Code and K-means extent partition of GML feature elements).The experi-ment results show that the efficiency of semantic-spatial query can be improved greatly by utilizing EKR+.

  10. Clu-GML. An algorithm for clustering geography markup language documents by structure%GML文档结构聚类算法Clu-GML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗建新; 吉根林

    2008-01-01

    提出了一种geography markup language(GML)文档结构聚类新算法CIu-GML,与其它相关算法不同,该算法在凝聚的层次聚类中引入代表树的计算,通过计算最大频繁Induced子树得到簇的代表树,通过对代表树的比较发现新的簇,并更新新簇的代表树来完成聚类,不仅减少了聚类的时间开销,而且为每个簇形成聚类描述.实验结果表明算法CIu-GML是有效的,且性能优于其它同类算法.

  11. The development of MML (Medical Markup Language) version 3.0 as a medical document exchange format for HL7 messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Medical Markup Language (MML), as a set of standards, has been developed over the last 8 years to allow the exchange of medical data between different medical information providers. MML Version 2.21 used XML as a metalanguage and was announced in 1999. In 2001, MML was updated to Version 2.3, which contained 12 modules. The latest version--Version 3.0--is based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). During the development of this new version, the structure of MML Version 2.3 was analyzed, subdivided into several categories, and redefined so the information defined in MML could be described in HL7 CDA Level One. As a result of this development, it has become possible to exchange MML Version 3.0 medical documents via HL7 messages.

  12. 基于超文本标记语言的信息隐藏方法研究与实现%Research and Implementation of the Information Hiding Technology Based on Hypertext Markup Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大胜

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the structure of the hypertext files,proposes a new information hiding technology based on hypertext markup language,and analyze the algorithm.%通过分析超文本的文件结构,提出了一种基于超文本标记语言的信息隐藏方法,并对该算法进行了分析。

  13. Network Application Server Using Extensible Mark-Up Language (XML) to Support Distributed Databases and 3D Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    xml:lang language code (as per XML 1.0 spec) dir direction for weak/neutral text --> <!ENTITY % i18n "lang %LanguageCode; #IMPLIED...34> 142 <!ENTITY % attrs "%coreattrs; % i18n ; %events;"> <!-- text alignment for p, div, h1-h6. The default is align="left" for ltr headings, "right...the namespace URI designates the document profile --> 143 <!ELEMENT html (head, body)> <!ATTLIST html % i18n ; xmlns

  14. What Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) could look like in common object request broker (CORBA) and extensible markup language (XML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, A; Avrin, D E; Tellis, W M; Andriole, K P; Arenson, R L

    2001-06-01

    Common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is a method for invoking distributed objects across a network. There has been some activity in applying this software technology to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), but no documented demonstration of how this would actually work. We report a CORBA demonstration that is functionally equivalent and in some ways superior to the DICOM communication protocol. In addition, in and outside of medicine, there is great interest in the use of extensible markup language (XML) to provide interoperation between databases. An example implementation of the DICOM data structure in XML will also be demonstrated. Using Visibroker ORB from Inprise (Scotts Valley, CA), a test bed was developed to simulate the principle DICOM operations: store, query, and retrieve (SQR). SQR is the most common interaction between a modality device application entity (AE) such as a computed tomography (CT) scanner, and a storage component, as well as between a storage component and a workstation. The storage of a CT study by invoking one of several storage objects residing on a network was simulated and demonstrated. In addition, XML database descriptors were used to facilitate the transfer of DICOM header information between independent databases. CORBA is demonstrated to have great potential for the next version of DICOM. It can provide redundant protection against single points of failure. XML appears to be an excellent method of providing interaction between separate databases managing the DICOM information object model, and may therefore eliminate the common use of proprietary client-server databases in commercial implementations of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).

  15. Markup in Engineering Design: A Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s engineering companies are facing unprecedented competition in a global market place. There is now a knowledge intensive shift towards whole product lifecycle support, and collaborative environments. It has become particularly important to capture information, knowledge and experiences about previous design and following stages during their product lifecycle, so as to retrieve and reuse such information in new and follow-on designs activities. Recently, with the rapid development and adoption of digital technologies, annotation and markup are becoming important tools for information communication, retrieval and management. Such techniques are being increasingly applied to an array of applications and different digital items, such as text documents, 2D images and 3D models. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of recent research in markup for engineering design, including a number of core markup languages and main markup strategies. Their applications and future utilization in engineering design, including multi-viewpoint of product models, capture of information and rationale across the whole product lifecycle, integration of engineering design processes, and engineering document management, are comprehensively discussed.

  16. GIBS Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The KML documentation standard provides a solution for imagery integration into mapping tools that utilize support the KML standard, specifically Google Earth. Using...

  17. Design and Optimization of Extensible Vector Graphics Markup Language and its Integration with Knowledge-based System%XvgML语言的设计、优化及其与知识系统的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国钢; 王建华; 武安波

    2003-01-01

    电气图是一种描述电气系统或装置的结构、原理、功能等的工程语言,在电气系统设计中具有十分重要的地位.为此,给出了一种基于XML(Extensible Markup Language)元语言实现的矢量电气图标记语言XvgML(Extensible Vector Graphics Markup Language),介绍了其设计、实现与优化过程.XvgML兼具表达几何特征和电气物理量,因而有效地克服了一些矢量图形语言对电气系统描述能力的不足.XvgML继承了XML的规范、简单、可扩展等特点,是一种对象化描述的信息语言,适合于与知识系统集成的应用.XvgML在基于Web的智能设计系统、产品报价系统和异构系统数据交换等方面有着较好的应用前景.

  18. 一个基于SGML的面向语音合成的标记语言的分析%Analysis of a SGML-based Markup Language for Speech Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳东剑; 柴佩琪; 宣国荣

    2000-01-01

    讨论了语音合成系统,在输入文档中加入注释标记的重要性和必要性;以及说明为了实现合成器之间的兼容,便于它们与其他系统集成,而制定一个统一的文本标记注释方案的重要性.在此基础上,着重分析和研究了一个基于SGML的面向语音合成的标记语言SSML( Speech Synthesis Markup Language)的标记设计,特别是实现韵律控制的标记设计等相关问题.

  19. 基于GML协同线路勘测设计信息传输的研究%Study on information transmission related to railway route reconnaissance design based on GML (Geographical Markup Language) coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开南

    2006-01-01

    铁路线路的勘测与设计是铁路建设中最主要的两个环节,文章提出了一种新的基于GML(Geography Markup Language)的数据交换及存储方法.应用GML描述设计中各图素、特征及其关系,以及将勘测者的勘测信息完整传输给设计者,以及将一个设计者的设计信息完整的传输给其它设计者,满足数据交换的要求.

  20. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2......) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...

  1. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...

  2. Managing and Querying Image Annotation and Markup in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Proprietary approaches for representing annotations and image markup are serious barriers for researchers to share image data and knowledge. The Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project is developing a standard based information model for image annotation and markup in health care and clinical trial environments. The complex hierarchical structures of AIM data model pose new challenges for managing such data in terms of performance and support of complex queries. In this paper, we present our work on managing AIM data through a native XML approach, and supporting complex image and annotation queries through native extension of XQuery language. Through integration with xService, AIM databases can now be conveniently shared through caGrid.

  3. The Multiscale Modeling Markup Language for Collaboration Research of Physiome%用于生理组学协同研究的跨层次建模标记语言(M3L)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩道; 明星; 李胜辉; 刘谦

    2011-01-01

    根据生理组学多领域多层次协同研究的需求,针对中国生理组学研究的特点,设计了一种跨层次建模标记语言(Multiscale Modeling Markup Language,简称M3L),规范研究过程中的信息描述方法,实现了数学模型和计算数据的开放式共享和重用.M3L包含结构化模型机制、数据存档机制、信息交互与重用机制、数学描述机制、可视化模型及附件描述机制.M3L中针对人体和小动物解剖结构数据的特殊设计实现了结构与功能信息的关联,促进了中国生理组学研究中模型和数据的标准化描述;M3L以跨层次结构化的方式描述模型,符合生理组学研究模型的特点,满足了协同开发的需求.%According to the requirements of multidisciplinary and multiscale collaboration research of physiome, the Multiscale Modeling Markup Language ( M3L) is designed to standardize the method of information description. Using the M3L, the sharing and reuse of mathematical models and computational data has been achieved. The mechanism of M3L consists of model structuring, data archiving, information exchanging and reuse, description of mathematieal algorithm and visualization files and others outcomes, The special designing in the M3L for anatomical data of human and small animals has constructed the connection between structural and functional information and facilitated the standardized description of models and data in Chinese physiome research; the description of models which is multiscale and structurized using the M3L meets the characteristics of models and collaboration development in physiome research.

  4. TEI Standoff Markup - A work in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.; Turska, Magdalena; Broughton, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Markup is said to be standoff, or external, when the markup data is placed outside of the text it is meant to tag” (). One of the most widely recognized limitations of inline XML markup is its inability to cope with element overlap; standoff has been considered as a possible solution to

  5. TEI Standoff Markup - A work in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.; Turska, Magdalena; Broughton, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Markup is said to be standoff, or external, when the markup data is placed outside of the text it is meant to tag” (). One of the most widely recognized limitations of inline XML markup is its inability to cope with element overlap; standoff has been considered as a possible solution to

  6. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  7. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  8. Broca and the General Language Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the important impact of Paul Broca on our understanding of language. Broca not only discovered the brain area responsible for language production, but he also highlighted the importance of a general language faculty – as Ferdinand de Saussure would later do in his Course in General Linguistics – considered as a kind of semiotic faculty that enables us to establish a constant relationship between an idea and a sign, between an entity that is situated on the level of content and an entity that is situated on the level of expression. Saussure later emphasized that this faculty of associating something on the level of content with something on the level of expression is a natural tendency in every human being. In this paper we will argue – with reference to the socio-constructivist theory of meaning – that the “generality” to which Broca refers should be understood to be closely correlated with the “naturalness” intended by Saussure. In particular, general and natural should be considered together, taking into account the ways in which human beings who live within a linguistic community put into practice, from childhood, their ability to build a language and, conversely, what happens when, in cases of aphasia, patients - so to speak - “lose the words”. Both children who are acquiring their mother tongue and aphasic patients who fail to “find the words” behave in a holistic way, within forms of life, that is, shared situations in which their own life experiences, habits, knowledge, words and so on come to life.

  9. Wine Price Markup in California Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Amspacher, William

    2011-01-01

    The study quantifies the relationship between retail wine price and restaurant mark-up. Ordinary Least Squares regressions were run to estimate how restaurant mark-up responded to retail price. Separate regressions were run for white wine, red wine, and both red and white combined. Both slope and intercept coefficients for each of these regressions were highly significant and indicated the expected inverse relationship between retail price and mark-up.

  10. Development of Classification Markup Language of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health%《国际功能、残疾和健康分类》管理信息平台的开发①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Management information platform of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was developed based on the Classification Markup Language (ClaML). The standard representative and management of the ICF structure, encoding system, classes and semantics had developed, and the functions such as the classification editing, modification, search, viewing and checking had been realized. This system can be used in classification import, export and application in other systems.%  应用当代医学知识管理架构,通过知识管理和文献研究,采用分类标识语言(ClaML)技术,开发世界卫生组织核心国际医学分类标准《国际功能、残疾和健康分类》(ICF)管理信息平台。管理信息平台对ICF的结构、编码系统、全部分类内容和内在语义实现了标准化的电子表征和管理,并在此基础上实现了ICF分类编辑、分类修改、分类查询、分类视图、分类合理性检查等功能,以及分类导入、分类输出、分类发布等应用。研究成果可以用于ICF维护、多语种对照更新以及ICF应用平台建设等领域。

  11. Usability of XML Query Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaumans, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language which enables re-use of information. Specific query languages for XML are developed to facilitate this. There are large differences between history, design goal, and syntax of the XML query languages. However, in practice these languages are

  12. Multi-Level Languages are Generalized Arrows

    CERN Document Server

    Megacz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The lambda calculus, subject to typing restrictions, provides a syntax for the internal language of cartesian closed categories. This paper establishes a parallel result: staging annotations, subject to named level restrictions, provide a syntax for the internal language of (the codomain of) a functor which preserves a premonoidal enrichment. Such functors are uniquely determined by functors from an {\\it enriching} category to an {\\it enriched} category. An equational axiomatization for the latter form is given, and Arrows are shown to constitute a special case. This result is most useful when the enrichment is that of a category of types and terms in a category of judgments. In such a scenario, the proof of correspondence yields a translation from well typed multi-level terms to well typed one-level terms which are parameterized over an instance of a {\\it generalized arrow} (GArrow). The translation is defined by induction on the structure of the proof that the multi-level program is well typed, relying on i...

  13. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    in empirical industrial organization often rely on the availability of very detailed market-level data with information on prices, quantities sold, characteristics of products and more recently supplemented with consumer-level attributes. Often, both researchers and government agencies cannot rely...... on such detailed data, but still need an assessment of whether changes in the operating environment of firms had an impact on markups and therefore on consumer surplus. In this paper, we derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using standard production plant-level data based on the insight of Hall (1986...... and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...

  14. Modeling Technology for Automatic Test System Software Based on Automatic Test Markup Language Standard%基于ATML标准的ATS软件建模技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占才; 王红; 范利花; 张桂英; 杨小辉

    2013-01-01

      论述了国外ATML标准体系结构和构成ATML标准所有子模型的描述方法,提出了在现有ATS软件平台基础上,实现兼容ATML标准所需的建模流程设计、模型识别及模型运行流程设计等技术途径,为实现ATS软件平台的通用性、开放性及武器装备各种维护级别的测试资源的共享奠定了技术基础。%  all the model definition method, system architecture and the expression manner for ATML standard are discussed. Several major technology problems for the existing automatic test system software platform compatible with ATML standard are presented, such as the design for modeling flow, model identification and model running flow. All the Technology Foundation is supplied for resolving the general and open issues of the automatic test system software platform, and the testing resources share for all the maintenance level.

  15. A general technique to train language models on language models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, MJ

    2005-01-01

    We show that under certain conditions, a language model can be trained oil the basis of a second language model. The main instance of the technique trains a finite automaton on the basis of a probabilistic context-free grammar, such that the Kullback-Leibler distance between grammar and trained auto

  16. A Content Markup Language for Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviello, C.; Acampa, P.; Mango Furnari, M.

    Network content delivery and documents sharing is possible using a variety of technologies, such as distributed databases, service-oriented applications, and so forth. The development of such systems is a complex job, because document life cycle involves a strong cooperation between domain experts and software developers. Furthermore, the emerging software methodologies, such as the service-oriented architecture and knowledge organization (e.g., semantic web) did not really solve the problems faced in a real distributed and cooperating settlement. In this chapter the authors' efforts to design and deploy a distribute and cooperating content management system are described. The main features of the system are a user configurable document type definition and a management middleware layer. It allows CMS developers to orchestrate the composition of specialized software components around the structure of a document. In this chapter are also reported some of the experiences gained on deploying the developed framework in a cultural heritage dissemination settlement.

  17. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    Estimating markups has a long tradition in industrial organization and international trade. Economists and policy makers are interested in measuring the effect of various competition and trade policies on market power, typically measured by markups. The empirical methods that were developed in em...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets.......Estimating markups has a long tradition in industrial organization and international trade. Economists and policy makers are interested in measuring the effect of various competition and trade policies on market power, typically measured by markups. The empirical methods that were developed...... in empirical industrial organization often rely on the availability of very detailed market-level data with information on prices, quantities sold, characteristics of products and more recently supplemented with consumer-level attributes. Often, both researchers and government agencies cannot rely...

  18. Chemical Markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 7. CMLSpect, an XML vocabulary for spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stefan; Helmus, Tobias; Lancashire, Robert J; Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Steinbeck, Christoph; Willighagen, Egon L

    2007-01-01

    CMLSpect is an extension of Chemical Markup Language (CML) for managing spectral and other analytical data. It is designed to be flexible enough to contain a wide variety of spectral data. The paper describes the CMLElements used and gives practical examples for common types of spectra. In addition it demonstrates how different views of the data can be expressed and what problems still exist.

  19. GENERAL ASPECTS OF NLP IN TEACHING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Niţă

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is focus on NLP as a tool helping to improve personal excellence in teaching languages. NLP states that learning begins in the students’ frame of reference and thus, it is important for teachers to increase their interpersonal skills and ability to recognize it. A map of how language operates is drawn by the Meta Model - a tool for a fuller understanding of what people say -, which deals with the concepts of surface structure and deep structure. The meta programs deal with deletions, distortions and generalisations which appear in language during communication. Establish rapport is a helpful method to create favourable teaching atmosphere and humanising teaching is a way to improve students’ performance.

  20. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and tech- ... This study examines four general dictionaries of English to see how they treat civil procedure ... menced (the figures do not include family cases such as divorce).

  1. 台灣圖書館網頁標記語言正確性之探討 The Study of Webs Markup Language Validations of Libraries in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 圖書館網站是圖書館服務的延伸,圖書館網頁之正確性與否必然關係著資訊倫理中之可及性及正確性,因此突顯出圖書館網頁是否符合網頁設計標準規範對讀者服務之重要性,而其中網頁標記語言為網頁設計標準規範的一種,透過圖書館網頁正確性檢測可清楚揭露網頁符合標準規範的程度,以協助圖書館開發或維護符合標準規範之網頁。本研究利用W3C所提供之網頁標記語言檢測服務(Markup Validation Service)檢測158所大專院校圖書館與 4間公共圖書館網站首頁,藉此探討國內公共圖書館與大專院校圖書館網頁標記語言正確性之現況。結果發現大專院校圖書館與公共圖書館網站首頁標記語言正確性之檢測通過率為0,且錯誤數超過100個以上者有1/3強,顯示國內圖書館網頁標記語言之正確性亟待改善。本研究亦對於網頁檢測發生錯誤且W3C無修改建議之處,以範例方式提出解決之建議,供圖書館製作維護網頁之參考。 Library website is the extended service of library; the correctness of library webpage is certainly related to accessibility and correctness of information ethics and also will manifest the importance of the compliance of library webpage with webpage design standard for reader service. Markup validation service is one kind among webpage design standard, and testing the correctness of library webpage can reveal the extent of the compliance of webpage with the standard in order to assist libraries to develop or maintain webpage conforming to the standard. This study utilized markup validation service provided by W3C to test the correctness of code of library homepage of 158 colleges and 24 public libraries in order to investigate the current status of the correctness of markup on webpage on the websites of domestic college and public libraries. The results showed that 0% of homepage markup

  2. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, General Language Learning Outcome, and Beliefs about Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the probable relationship between Iranian students' socioeconomic status, general language learning outcome, and their beliefs about language learning. To this end, 350 postgraduate students, doing English for specific courses at Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur participated in this study. They were…

  4. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Regier, Terry

    2012-05-25

    Languages vary in their systems of kinship categories, but the scope of possible variation appears to be constrained. Previous accounts of kin classification have often emphasized constraints that are specific to the domain of kinship and are not derived from general principles. Here, we propose an account that is founded on two domain-general principles: Good systems of categories are simple, and they enable informative communication. We show computationally that kin classification systems in the world's languages achieve a near-optimal trade-off between these two competing principles. We also show that our account explains several specific constraints on kin classification proposed previously. Because the principles of simplicity and informativeness are also relevant to other semantic domains, the trade-off between them may provide a domain-general foundation for variation in category systems across languages.

  5. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  6. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  7. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Williamson, Mark J; Willighagen, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS as a component of a World Wide Molecular Matrix of semantically rich chemical information.

  8. Step-Indexed Normalization for a Language with General Recursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Casinghino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Trellys project has produced several designs for practical dependently typed languages. These languages are broken into two fragments—a _logical_ fragment where every term normalizes and which is consistent when interpreted as a logic, and a _programmatic_ fragment with general recursion and other convenient but unsound features. In this paper, we present a small example language in this style. Our design allows the programmer to explicitly mention and pass information between the two fragments. We show that this feature substantially complicates the metatheory and present a new technique, combining the traditional Girard-Tait method with step-indexed logical relations, which we use to show normalization for the logical fragment.

  9. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  10. French native speakers in the making: from language-general to language-specific voicing boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonhorst, Ingrid; Colin, Cécile; Markessis, Emily; Radeau, Monique; Deltenre, Paul; Serniclaes, Willy

    2009-12-01

    By examining voice onset time (VOT) discrimination in 4- and 8-month-olds raised in a French-speaking environment, the current study addresses the question of the role played by linguistic experience in the reshaping of the initial perceptual abilities. Results showed that the language-general -30- and +30-ms VOT boundaries are better discriminated than the 0-ms boundary in 4-month-olds, whereas 8-month-olds better discriminate the 0-ms boundary. These data support explanations of speech development stressing the effects of both language-general boundaries and linguistic environment (attunement theory and coupling theory). Results also suggest that the acquisition of the adult voicing boundary (at 0 ms VOT in French vs. +30 ms VOT in English) is faster and more linear in French than in English. This latter aspect of the results might be related to differences in the consistency of VOT distributions of voiced and voiceless stops between languages.

  11. Semantic Markup for Literary Scholars: How Descriptive Markup Affects the Study and Teaching of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. Grant

    2002-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study which investigated the attitudes of literary scholars towards the features of semantic markup for primary texts in XML format. Suggests that layout is a vital part of the reading process which implies that the standardization of DTDs (Document Type Definitions) should extend to styling as well. (Author/LRW)

  12. PENDEKATAN MODEL MATEMATIS UNTUK MENENTUKAN PERSENTASE MARKUP HARGA JUAL PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviliani Yenty Yuliana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design Mathematical models that can determine the selling volume as an alternative to improve the markup percentage. Mathematical models was designed with double regression statistic. Selling volume is a function of markup, market condition, and substitute condition variables. The designed Mathematical model has fulfilled by the test of: error upon assumption, accurate model, validation model, and multi collinear problem. The Mathematical model has applied in application program with expectation that the application program can give: (1 alternative to decide percentage markup for user, (2 Illustration of gross profit estimation that will be achieve for selected percentage markup, (3 Illustration of estimation percentage of the units sold that will be achieve for selected percentage markup, and (4 Illustration of total net income before tax will get for specific period. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang model Matematis guna menetapkan volume penjualan, sebagai alternatif untuk menentukan persentase markup harga jual produk. Model Matematis dirancang menggunakan Statistik Regresi Berganda. Volume penjualan merupakan fungsi dari variabel markup, kondisi pasar, dan kondisi pengganti. Model Matematis yang dirancang sudah memenuhi uji: asumsi atas error, akurasi model, validasi model, dan masalah multikolinearitas. Rancangan model Matematis tersebut diterapkan dalam program aplikasi dengan harapan dapat memberi: (1 alternatif bagi pengguna mengenai berapa besar markup yang sebaiknya ditetapkan, (2 gambaran perkiraan laba kotor yang akan diperoleh setiap pemilihan markup, (3 gambaran perkiraan persentase unit yang terjual setiap pemilihan markup, dan (4 gambaran total laba kotor sebelum pajak yang dapat diperoleh pada periode yang bersangkutan. Kata kunci: model Matematis, aplikasi program, volume penjualan, markup, laba kotor.

  13. Domain-specific markup languages and descriptive metadata: their functions in scientific resource discoveryLinguagens de marcação específicas por domínio e metadados descritivos: funções para a descoberta de recursos científicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lei Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While metadata has been a strong focus within information professionals‟ publications, projects, and initiatives during the last two decades, a significant number of domain-specific markup languages have also been developing on a parallel path at the same rate as metadata standards; yet, they do not receive comparable attention. This essay discusses the functions of these two kinds of approaches in scientific resource discovery and points out their potential complementary roles through appropriate interoperability approaches.Enquanto os metadados tiveram grande foco em publicações, projetos e iniciativas dos profissionais da informação durante as últimas duas décadas, um número significativo de linguagens de marcação específicas por domínio também se desenvolveram paralelamente a uma taxa equivalente aos padrões de metadados; mas ainda não recebem atenção comparável. Esse artigo discute as funções desses dois tipos de abordagens na descoberta de recursos científicos e aponta papéis potenciais e complementares por meio de abordagens de interoperabilidade apropriadas.

  14. A quality assessment tool for markup-based clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Erez; Shahar, Yuval; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Lunenfeld, Eitan

    2008-11-06

    We introduce a tool for quality assessment of procedural and declarative knowledge. We developed this tool for evaluating the specification of mark-up-based clinical GLs. Using this graphical tool, the expert physician and knowledge engineer collaborate to perform scoring, using pre-defined scoring scale, each of the knowledge roles of the mark-ups, comparing it to a gold standard. The tool enables scoring the mark-ups simultaneously at different sites by different users at different locations.

  15. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 4. CML schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S

    2003-01-01

    A revision to Chemical Markup Language (CML) is presented as a XML Schema compliant form, modularized into nonchemical and chemical components. STMML contains generic concepts for numeric data and scientific units, while CMLCore retains most of the chemical functionality of the original CML 1.0 and extends it by adding handlers for chemical substances, extended bonding models and names. We propose extension via new namespaced components for chemical queries, reactions, spectra, and computational chemistry. The conformance with XML schemas allows much greater control over datatyping, document validation, and structure.

  16. The caBIG annotation and image Markup project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Sepukar, Kastubh; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-04-01

    Image annotation and markup are at the core of medical interpretation in both the clinical and the research setting. Digital medical images are managed with the DICOM standard format. While DICOM contains a large amount of meta-data about whom, where, and how the image was acquired, DICOM says little about the content or meaning of the pixel data. An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human or machine observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. While DICOM is the standard for medical image acquisition, manipulation, transmission, storage, and display, there are no standards for image annotation and markup. Many systems expect annotation to be reported verbally, while markups are stored in graphical overlays or proprietary formats. This makes it difficult to extract and compute with both of them. The goal of the Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project is to develop a mechanism, for modeling, capturing, and serializing image annotation and markup data that can be adopted as a standard by the medical imaging community. The AIM project produces both human- and machine-readable artifacts. This paper describes the AIM information model, schemas, software libraries, and tools so as to prepare researchers and developers for their use of AIM.

  17. Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Language and General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Francois H.

    A survey of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's views on the phenomenology of language yields insight into the basic semiotic nature of language. Merleau-ponty's conceptions stand in opposition to Saussure's linguistic postulations and Korzybski's scientism. That is, if language is studied phenomenologically, the acts of speech and gesture take on greater…

  18. From specific examples to general knowledge in language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Jakke; Davis, Matthew H; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    The extraction of general knowledge from individual episodes is critical if we are to learn new knowledge or abilities. Here we uncover some of the key cognitive mechanisms that characterise this process in the domain of language learning. In five experiments adult participants learned new morphological units embedded in fictitious words created by attaching new affixes (e.g., -afe) to familiar word stems (e.g., "sleepafe is a participant in a study about the effects of sleep"). Participants' ability to generalise semantic knowledge about the affixes was tested using tasks requiring the comprehension and production of novel words containing a trained affix (e.g., sailafe). We manipulated the delay between training and test (Experiment 1), the number of unique exemplars provided for each affix during training (Experiment 2), and the consistency of the form-to-meaning mapping of the affixes (Experiments 3-5). In a task where speeded online language processing is required (semantic priming), generalisation was achieved only after a memory consolidation opportunity following training, and only if the training included a sufficient number of unique exemplars. Semantic inconsistency disrupted speeded generalisation unless consolidation was allowed to operate on one of the two affix-meanings before introducing inconsistencies. In contrast, in tasks that required slow, deliberate reasoning, generalisation could be achieved largely irrespective of the above constraints. These findings point to two different mechanisms of generalisation that have different cognitive demands and rely on different types of memory representations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact factor trends for general medical journals: non-English-language journals are lagging behind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) is a common citation metric used for evaluating and comparing scientific journals within a certain field. Previous studies have shown that IFs are increasing. However, rates may depend on journal publication language. The aim of this study was to determine IF values...... and trends for general medical journals, comparing non-English-language with English-language journals....

  20. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%).

  1. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  2. Normalized Relational Storage for Extensible Markup Language (XML Schema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of XML as the common formats for representing, exchanging, storing, integrating and accessing data posses many new challenges to database systems. Most of application data are stored in relational databases due to its popularity and rich development experiences over it. Therefore, how to provide a proper mapping approach from XML model to relational model become the major research problems. Current techniques for managing XML in relational technology consider only the structure of an XML document and ignore its semantics as expressed by keys and functional dependencies. Approach: In this study we present an algorithm for generating an optimal design for XML in relational setting. The algorithm is based on computing a set of minimum covers for all functional dependencies on a universal relation when given XML Functional Dependencies (XFDs and the schema information. However we need to deal with the hierarchical nature of XML and to define XFDs in this structure. Results: We show that our algorithm is efficient in terms of reducing data redundancy and preserving semantic expression. Conclusion/Recommendations: Being able to infer XML functional dependencies constraints to relational views of XML data is a first step towards establishing a connection between XML and its relational representation at the semantic level.

  3. PML:PAGE-OM Markup Language: About PAGE-OM [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nerating huge amounts of data, which typically must be shared amongst many collaborators and researchers. To... store and use such data efficiently, it is paramount that biomedical researchers

  4. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Townsend, Joe A; Adams, Sam E; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Thomas, Jens

    2011-10-14

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  5. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML: dictionaries and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray-Rust Peter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation. Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  6. PML:PAGE-OM Markup Language: About IBIC [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bility Conference (IBIC) to have international discussions on the standardization of genomic variation data ...st for proposal for the standardization of genomic variation data description form in January 2004. Because the 1st international... conference was fruitful, we decided such international conference to be executed conti

  7. Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-07-01

    Latent print examiners often differ in the number of minutiae they mark during analysis of a latent, and also during comparison of a latent with an exemplar. Differences in minutia counts understate interexaminer variability: examiners' markups may have similar minutia counts but differ greatly in which specific minutiae were marked. We assessed variability in minutia markup among 170 volunteer latent print examiners. Each provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of 22 latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. An average of 12 examiners marked each latent. The primary factors associated with minutia reproducibility were clarity, which regions of the prints examiners chose to mark, and agreement on value or comparison determinations. In clear areas (where the examiner was "certain of the location, presence, and absence of all minutiae"), median reproducibility was 82%; in unclear areas, median reproducibility was 46%. Differing interpretations regarding which regions should be marked (e.g., when there is ambiguity in the continuity of a print) contributed to variability in minutia markup: especially in unclear areas, marked minutiae were often far from the nearest minutia marked by a majority of examiners. Low reproducibility was also associated with differences in value or comparison determinations. Lack of standardization in minutia markup and unfamiliarity with test procedures presumably contribute to the variability we observed. We have identified factors accounting for interexaminer variability; implementing standards for detailed markup as part of documentation and focusing future training efforts on these factors may help to facilitate transparency and reduce subjectivity in the examination process. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  9. Estimation of service sector mark-ups determined by structural reform indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Thum-Thysen; Erik Canton

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of regulation on product sector mark-ups across the EU and confirms that less strict regulation tends to foster competition and reduce mark-up rates. The results also show that mark-ups in most EU countries and sectors have been declining over the last 15 years as a result of competition-friendly reforms. The paper also casts light on which areas of regulation are most important for mark-ups in individual sectors.

  10. Ontology aided modeling of organic reaction mechanisms with flexible and fragment based XML markup procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Aghila, Gnanasekaran

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism models for primary organic reactions encoding the structural fragments undergoing substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangements are developed. In the proposed models, each and every structural component of mechanistic pathways is represented with flexible and fragment based markup technique in XML syntax. A significant feature of the system is the encoding of the electron movements along with the other components like charges, partial charges, half bonded species, lone pair electrons, free radicals, reaction arrows, etc. needed for a complete representation of reaction mechanism. The rendering of reaction schemes described with the proposed methodology is achieved with a concise XML extension language interoperating with the structure markup. The reaction scheme is visualized as 2D graphics in a browser by converting them into SVG documents enabling the desired layouts normally perceived by the chemists conventionally. An automatic representation of the complex patterns of the reaction mechanism is achieved by reusing the knowledge in chemical ontologies and developing artificial intelligence components in terms of axioms.

  11. Generalization of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Amber Nasreen; Al-Othmany, Dheya Shujaa; Hussain, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is based on the analyses of the participants' responses provided in written form while filling the questionnaires. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze factors in individuals' experiences about second language acquisition. The study was conducted through a research questionnaire. The questions were designed for…

  12. Internationalizing General Education from within: Raising the Visibility of Heritage Language Students in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidova, Evguenia

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the findings of a pilot project conducted in 2008-2009 as a partnership between University Studies, Portland State University's interdisciplinary general education program, and the University's Russian Flagship Language Partner Program. The project proposes a new approach of integrating non-English speakers' language skills,…

  13. Language Acquisition without Universal Grammar: A General Nativist Proposal for L2 Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    1996-01-01

    Explores the prospects for a "general nativist" theory of first- and second-language acquisition (SLA), outlines a modular acquisition device not including Universal Grammar, and considers the role of universal grammar in the emergence of a first language (L1). (50 references) (Author/CK)

  14. Some Initial Reflections on XML Markup for an Image-Based Electronic Edition of the Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Dobbs-Allsopp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A collaborative project of the Brooklyn Museum and a number of allied institutions, including Princeton Theological Seminary and West Semitic Research, the Digital Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri (DBMAP is to be both an image-based electronic facsimile edition of the important collection of Aramaic papyri from Elephantine housed at the Brooklyn Museum and an archival resource to support ongoing research on these papyri and the public dissemination of knowledge about them. In the process of building out a (partial prototype of the edition, to serve as a proof of concept, we have discovered little field-specific discussion that might guide our markup decisions. Consequently, here our chief ambition is to initiate such a conversation. After a brief overview of DBMAP, we offer some initial reflection on and assessment of XML markup schemes specifically for Semitic texts from the ancient Near East that comply with TEI, CSE, and MEP guidelines. We take as our example BMAP 3 (=TAD B3.4 and we focus on markup as pertains to the editorial transcription of this documentary text and to the linguistic analysis of the text’s language.

  15. A Theory of Language Acquisition Based on General Learning Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-17

    N00014.79.C.ES1 from the Office of Naval Research. I would like to thank Steven Pinker , Lynne Reder, and Miriam Schustack for their comments on earlier...has its background in past work on language acquisition (for reviews, see Anderson, 1976; Pinker , 1979--see also Langley, 1981), especially in my...policy in that rules are quite specific to various lexical items (Bresnan, 1981; Maratsos & Chalkley, 1980; Pinker , 1981). This also is exactly how

  16. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  17. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  18. Internationalizing General Education from Within: Raising the Visibility of Heritage Language Students in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evguenia Davidova, PhD

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the findings of a pilot project conducted in 2008–2009 as a partnership between University Studies, Portland State University’s interdisciplinary general education program, and the University’s Russian Flagship Language Partner Program. The project proposes a new approach of integrating non-English speakers’ language skills, culture, and life experiences into classroom activities of general education courses. By engaging the students as facilitators in the exploration of their own cultures and languages, the project offers a model of enriching collaborative student teaching and learning that could be applied to various interdisciplinary courses.

  19. The interface between language and attention: prosodic focus marking recruits a general attention network in spoken language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Wang, Lin; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In spoken language, pitch accent can mark certain information as focus, whereby more attentional resources are allocated to the focused information. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study examined whether pitch accent, used for marking focus, recruited general attention networks during sentence comprehension. In a language task, we independently manipulated the prosody and semantic/pragmatic congruence of sentences. We found that semantic/pragmatic processing affected bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyrus. The prosody manipulation showed bilateral involvement of the superior/inferior parietal cortex, superior and middle temporal cortex, as well as inferior, middle, and posterior parts of the frontal cortex. We compared these regions with attention networks localized in an auditory spatial attention task. Both tasks activated bilateral superior/inferior parietal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and left precentral cortex. Furthermore, an interaction between prosody and congruence was observed in bilateral inferior parietal regions: for incongruent sentences, but not for congruent ones, there was a larger activation if the incongruent word carried a pitch accent, than if it did not. The common activations between the language task and the spatial attention task demonstrate that pitch accent activates a domain general attention network, which is sensitive to semantic/pragmatic aspects of language. Therefore, attention and language comprehension are highly interactive.

  20. Towards a Semantics for XML Markup%XML标记的语义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾兰•瑞尼尔; 戴维德•杜宾; 斯芬伯格•麦奎因; 克劳斯•惠特福德; 王晓光(译); 王俊芳(译)

    2016-01-01

    Although XML Document Type Definitions provide a mechanism for specifying, in machine-readable form, the syntax of an XML markup language, there is no comparable mechanism for specifying the semantics of an XML vocabulary. That is, there is no way to characterize the meaning of XML markup so that the facts and relationships represented by the occurrence of XML constructs can be explicitly, comprehensively, and mechanical y identified. This has serious practical and theoretical consequences. On the positive side, XML constructs can be assigned arbitrary semantics and used in application areas not foreseen by the original designers. On the less positive side, both content developers and application engineers must rely upon prose documentation, or, worse, conjectures about the intention of the markup language designer — a process that is time-consuming, error-prone, incomplete, and unverifiable, even when the language designer properly documents the language. In addition, the lack of a substantial body of research in markup semantics means that digital document processing is undertheorized as an engineering application area. Although there are some related projects underway (XML Schema, RDF, the Semantic Web) which provide relevant results, none of these projects directly and comprehensively address the core problems of XML markup semantics. This paper (i) summarizes the history of the concept of markup meaning, (i ) characterizes the specific problems that motivate the need for a formal semantics for XML and (i i) describes an ongoing research project :the BECHAMEL Markup Semantics Project —that is attempting to develop such a semantics.%尽管 XML 文档类型定义提供了一种机器可读形式的、能够说明 XML 语言语法的机制,但目前并没有类似的机制来指定 XML 词汇表的具体语义。这意味着没办法说明 XML 标记的意义,由 XML 形式呈现的事实和关系无法清晰、全面和规范地定义。这在实践和

  1. The markup is the model: reasoning about systems biology models in the Semantic Web era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Mendes, Pedro

    2008-06-07

    Metabolic control analysis, co-invented by Reinhart Heinrich, is a formalism for the analysis of biochemical networks, and is a highly important intellectual forerunner of modern systems biology. Exchanging ideas and exchanging models are part of the international activities of science and scientists, and the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) allows one to perform the latter with great facility. Encoding such models in SBML allows their distributed analysis using loosely coupled workflows, and with the advent of the Internet the various software modules that one might use to analyze biochemical models can reside on entirely different computers and even on different continents. Optimization is at the core of many scientific and biotechnological activities, and Reinhart made many major contributions in this area, stimulating our own activities in the use of the methods of evolutionary computing for optimization.

  2. Using descriptive mark-up to formalize translation quality assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kutuzov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with using descriptive mark-up to emphasize translation mistakes. The author postulates the necessity to develop a standard and formal XML-based way of describing translation mistakes. It is considered to be important for achieving impersonal translation quality assessment. Marked-up translations can be used in corpus translation studies; moreover, automatic translation assessment based on marked-up mistakes is possible. The paper concludes with setting up guidelines for further activity within the described field.

  3. A General Architecture for Language Engineering (GATE) - a new approach to Language Engineering R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Hamish; Gaizauskas, Robert J.; Wilks, Yorick

    1996-01-01

    This report argues for the provision of a common software infrastructure for NLP systems. Current trends in Language Engineering research are reviewed as motivation for this infrastructure, and relevant recent work discussed. A freely-available system called GATE is described which builds on this work.

  4. Using Inverse lambda and Generalization to Translate English to Formal Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Baral, Chitta; Gonzalez, Marcos Alvarez; Zhou, Jiayu

    2011-01-01

    We present a system to translate natural language sentences to formulas in a formal or a knowledge representation language. Our system uses two inverse lambda-calculus operators and using them can take as input the semantic representation of some words, phrases and sentences and from that derive the semantic representation of other words and phrases. Our inverse lambda operator works on many formal languages including first order logic, database query languages and answer set programming. Our system uses a syntactic combinatorial categorial parser to parse natural language sentences and also to construct the semantic meaning of the sentences as directed by their parsing. The same parser is used for both. In addition to the inverse lambda-calculus operators, our system uses a notion of generalization to learn semantic representation of words from the semantic representation of other words that are of the same category. Together with this, we use an existing statistical learning approach to assign weights to de...

  5. Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

  6. Generalized Transition Network Parsing for Language Study: The GPARS System for English, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Donald

    1992-01-01

    GPARS is a generalized transition network system designed for language study by both students and researchers. It generalizes the Augmented Transition Network formalism by allowing top-down, bottom-up, depth-first, breadth-first, determininistic, and nondeterministic parsing strategies to be freely intermixed. (26 references) (Author/LB)

  7. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the

  8. Fuzzy Context-Free Languages. Part 1: Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  9. Balancing Generalization and Lexical Conservatism: An Artificial Language Study with Child Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Successful language acquisition involves generalization, but learners must balance this against the acquisition of lexical constraints. Such learning has been considered problematic for theories of acquisition: if learners generalize abstract patterns to new words, how do they learn lexically-based exceptions? One approach claims that learners use…

  10. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free K-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the sit

  11. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  12. Rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia: evidence for within- and between-language generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant, three sets of stimuli were developed for each language: (a) English Set 1, (b) English Set 2 (semantically related to each item in English Set 1), (c) English Set 3 (unrelated control items), (d) Spanish Set 1 (translations of English Set 1), (e) Spanish Set 2 (translations of English Set 2; semantically related to each item in Spanish Set 1), and (f) Spanish Set 3 (translations of English Set 3; unrelated control items). A single-subject experimental multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. Treatment was conducted in 1 language, but generalization to within- and between-language untrained items was examined. Treatment for naming on Set 1 items resulted in significant improvement (i.e., effect size >4.0) on the trained items in 14/17 participants. Of the 14 participants who showed improvement, within-language generalization to semantically related items was observed in 10 participants. Between-language generalization to the translations of trained items was observed in 5 participants, and between-language generalization to the translations of the untrained semantically related items was observed in 6 participants. The results of this study demonstrated within- and between-language patterns that were variable across participants. These differences are indicative of the interplay between facilitation (generalization) and inhibition.

  13. Rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia: Evidence for within and between-language generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Gray, Teresa; Ascenso, Elsa; Kester, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this project was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical. Methods Seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals with aphasia participated in the therapy experiment. For each participant, three sets of stimuli were developed for each language: (a) English Set 1, (b) English Set 2 (semantically related to each item in English Set 1), (c) English Set 3 (unrelated control items), (d) Spanish Set 1 (translations of English Set 1), (e) Spanish Set 2 (translations of English Set 2; semantically related to each item in Spanish Set 1), and (f) Spanish Set 3 (translations of English Set 3; unrelated control items). A single subject experimental multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. Treatment was conducted in one language whereas generalization to within and between-language untrained items was examined. Results Treatment for naming on Set 1 items resulted in significant improvement (ES > 4.0) on the trained items in 14/17 participants. Of the 14 participants who showed improvement, within-language generalization to semantically related items was observed in 10 participants. Between-language generalization to the translations of trained items was observed for 5 participants; whereas between-language generalization to the translations of the untrained semantically related items was observed for 6 participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate within and between-language patterns that are variable across participants, these differences are indicative of the interplay between facilitation (generalization) and inhibition. PMID:23695906

  14. Reformulation of QCD in the language of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lunev, F A

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that there exists such collection of variables that the standard QCD Lagrangian can be represented as the sum of usual Palatini Lagrangian for Einstein general relativity and the Lagrangian of matter and some other fields where the tetrad fields and the metric are constructed from initial SU(3) Yang - Mills fields.

  15. Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponikvar Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

  16. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  17. The effect of domain-general inhibition-related training on language switching: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanhuan; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan; Fan, Ning; Chen, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibitory control ability could be improved by training, and the Inhibitory Control (IC) Model implies that enhanced domain-general inhibition may elicit certain changes in language switch costs. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of domain-general inhibition training on performance in a language switching task, including which phase of domain-general inhibitory control benefits from training during an overt picture naming task in L1 and L2, using the event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high inhibitory control (high-IC) were symmetrical in both pretest and posttest, and those of bilinguals with low inhibitory control (low-IC) were asymmetrical in the pretest, but symmetrical in the posttest. Moreover, the high-IC group showed a larger LPC (late positive component) for L2 switch trials than for L1 trials in both pretest and posttest. In contrast, the low-IC group only exhibited a similar pattern of LPC in the posttest, but not in the pretest. These results indicate that inhibition training could increase the efficiency of language switching, and inhibitory control may play a key role during the lexical selection response phase. Overall, the present study is the first one to provide electrophysiological evidence for individual differences in the domain-general inhibition impact on language switching performance in low-proficient bilinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The DSD Schema Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    XML (Extensible Markup Language), a linear syntax for trees, has gathered a remarkable amount of interest in industry. The acceptance of XML opens new venues for the application of formal methods such as specification of abstract syntax tree sets and tree transformations. A user domain may...

  19. Modelling general relativistic perfect fluids in field theoretic language

    CERN Document Server

    Mitskievich, N V

    1999-01-01

    Skew-symmetric massless fields, their potentials being $r$-forms, are close analogues of Maxwell's field (though the non-linear cases also should be considered). We observe that only two of them ($r=$2 and 3) automatically yield stress-energy tensors characteristic to normal perfect fluids. It is shown that they naturally describe both non-rotating ($r=2$) and rotating (then a combination of $r=2$ and $r=3$ fields is indispensable) general relativistic perfect fluids possessing every type of equations of state. Meanwile, a free $r=3$ field is completely equivalent to appearance of the cosmological term in Einstein's equations. Sound waves represent perturbations propagating on the background of the $r=2$ field. Some exotic properties of these two fields are outlined.

  20. Pragmatic language in deaf and hard of hearing students: correlation with success in general education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Elaine Kirk; Hilsmier, Amanda Strong; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2011-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing children have shown delays and difficulties in pragmatic behaviors due to insufficient exposure to common daily discourse and underlying impoverishment in all components of language development. In a study in a school district in a southeastern U.S. state, the researchers investigated the relationship between sociolinguistic pragmatic competence in 81 deaf and hard of hearing students and these students' degree of hearing loss, communication mode, and degree of success in general education. Two measures, one devised by the state's department of education and one developed within the local school system, were used: the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (Georgia Department of Education, 2000) and the Socio-Pragmatic Skills Checklist for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (Cobb County School District, 1997). The researchers found that whether the students used spoken language or signed language, socio-pragmatic language had a high, positive correlation with academic outcomes.

  1. A General Survey of Study on Gelao - language%仡佬语研究概观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占升平

    2013-01-01

    仡佬语是在中国西南地区的一种濒危语言,目前作为母语使用的人口很少,但内部方言土语众多。仡佬语研究从上个世纪50年代开始,前期研究集中在系属讨论和方言分区上,20年代90年代以后重在对语言材料的挖掘和对各方言土语的全面描写上,同时国内外学者为仡央语系调查方面进行了很好的合作。通过对仡佬语研究成果进行梳理的同时,还对仡佬语研究中存在的问题提出了一些意见。%In spite of the fact that it has various internal dialects ,Gelao -languague is a highly endangered language used by Gelao Nationality in the southwest of China ,with fewer and fewer native speakers .The study of Gelao -language ,started in 1950s ,can roughly divided into two stages with 1990 as the line of demarcation .The former focused on language system quality and dialect distribution of Gelao - language .The latter concentrates on the language material analysis and descriptive study of dialects of Gelao -languague .Cooperative study of Language investigation about Ge -Yang language family has also developed .Based upon the general survey of study on Gelao -language ,the paper offers some analysis of problems existing in the study of Gelao -language .

  2. Adult language use and infant comprehension of English: associations with encoding and generalization across cues at 20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Janice N; Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2014-11-01

    Adult-provided language shapes event memory in children who are preverbal and in those who are able to discuss the past using language. The research conducted to date, however, has not yet established whether infant language comprehension abilities moderate the extent to which preverbal infants benefit from adult-provided supportive language. The present study was conducted to address this question by examining immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues in 20-month-old infants as a function of (a) variability in adult-provided linguistic support at encoding and test, (b) infant language comprehension abilities, and (c) their interaction. The provision of supportive adult language at encoding and test was associated with delayed generalization across cues although supportive adult language at encoding did not influence performance at immediate imitation. Infant language comprehension abilities were associated with performance at immediate imitation and delayed generalization across cues. In addition, infant language comprehension abilities moderated the extent to which infants benefited from adult-provided supportive language at encoding and test. The findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that adult language use and infant language comprehension are independently and differentially associated with immediate imitation and 1-week delayed generalization across cues but also serve to jointly structure event memory in the second year of life.

  3. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  4. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  5. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  6. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  7. The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Anthony; Giles, Howard; Bradac, James J.; Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The gender-linked language effect (GLLE) is a phenomenon in which transcripts of female communicators are rated higher on Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality and male communicators are rated higher on Dynamism. This study proposed and tested a new general process model explanation for the GLLE, a central mediating element of which…

  8. An XML-Based Mission Command Language for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    for creating other languages) that is used to create markup languages, such as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).” (From Deitel , Deitel , Nieto, Lin...text, or any other text-based document. ( Deitel , Deitel , Neito, Lin, and Sadhu, 2001) One benefit of using XSLT for such a task is that XSLT has none...allows the user to select Execution Program: there are two different programs for the execution level (one in C and the other in Java ), so the users

  9. Trade reforms, mark-ups and bargaining power of workers: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trade reforms, mark-ups and bargaining power of workers: the case of ... from firms' market power; which is negatively associated with to decline with trade reforms. ... model of mark-up with labor bargaining power was estimated using random ...

  10. Planned growth as a determinant of the markup: the case of Slovenian manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maks Tajnikar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows the idea of heterodox economists that a cost-plus price is above all a reproductive price and growth price. The authors apply a firm-level model of markup determination which, in line with theory and empirical evidence, contains proposed firm-specific determinants of the markup, including the firm’s planned growth. The positive firm-level relationship between growth and markup that is found in data for Slovenian manufacturing firms implies that retained profits gathered via the markup are an important source of growth financing and that the investment decisions of Slovenian manufacturing firms affect their pricing policy and decisions on the markup size as proposed by Post-Keynesian theory. The authors thus conclude that at least a partial trade-off between a firm’s growth and competitive outcome exists in Slovenian manufacturing.

  11. Not lost in translation: generalization of the primary systems hypothesis to Japanese-specific language processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Saito, Akie; Tanida, Yuki; Patterson, Karalyn; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The emergentist-connectionist approach assumes that language processing reflects interaction between primary neural systems (Primary Systems Hypothesis). This idea offers an overarching framework that generalizes to various kinds of (English) language and nonverbal cognitive activities. The current study advances this approach with respect to language in two new and important ways. The first is the provision of a neuroanatomically constrained implementation of the theory. The second is a test of its ability to generalize to a language other than English (in this case Japanese) and, in particular, to a feature of that language (pitch accent) for which there is no English equivalent. A corpus analysis revealed the presence and distribution of typical and atypical accent forms in Japanese vocabulary, forming a quasiregular domain. Consequently, according to the Primary Systems Hypothesis, there should be a greater semantic impact on the processing of words with an atypical pitch accent. In turn, when word meaning is intrinsically less rich (e.g., abstract words), speakers should be prone to regularization errors of pitch accent. We explored these semantic-phonological interactions, first, in a neuroanatomically constrained, parallel-distributed processing model of spoken language processing. This model captured the accent typicality effect observed in nonword repetition in Japanese adults and children and exhibited the predicted semantic impact on repetition of words with atypical accent patterns. Second, also as predicted, in word repetition and immediate serial recall of spoken words, human participants exhibited reduced pitch-accent accuracy and/or slower RT for low imageability words with atypical accent patterns, and they generated accent errors reflecting the more typical accent patterns found in Japanese.

  12. Heritage Language Learners in First-Year Foreign Language Courses: A Report of General Data across Learner Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rachel R.; Howard, Kathryn M.; Deak, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of language study motivations for first-year language learners at two large private East Coast American universities. Surveys were completed by 401 students in courses for 19 different foreign languages. Forty percent of respondents were designated as heritage language learners (HLLs), and they were divided into…

  13. Generalization of an Active Electronic Notebook for Teaching Multiple Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Torabzadeh-Tari, Mohsen; Fritzson, Peter; Pop, Adrian; Sjölund, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the active electronic notebook, OMNotebook, for handling multiple programming languages for educational purposes. OMNotebook can be an alternative or complementary tool to the traditional teaching method with lecturing and reading textbooks. Experience shows that using such an electronic book will lead to more engagement from the students. OMNotebook can contain technical computations and text, as well as graphics. Hence it is a suitable tool for t...

  14. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-09-01

    The data in this article supports the research paper entitled "Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints" [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the "White Box Latent Print Examiner Study," in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  16. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Ulery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article supports the research paper entitled “Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints” [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the “White Box Latent Print Examiner Study,” in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  17. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacFarlane, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients\\' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. METHODS: Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. RESULTS: There was a 70% (n = 56\\/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. CONCLUSION: The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners\\' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  18. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosinkie Phillip I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients' relatives or friends. However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. Methods Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. Results There was a 70% (n = 56/80 response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77% said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. Conclusion The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  19. The Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish Language Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Champagne, Brian R.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a uni-dimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not be...

  20. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community.......Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...

  1. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  2. Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: fMRI evidence from trilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Fitzpatrick, Ian

    2014-04-15

    The prevailing theory of language switching states that unbalanced bilingual speakers use inhibition to switch between their languages (Inhibitory Control or IC model; Green, 1998). Using fMRI, we examined the brain mechanisms underlying language switching and investigated the role of domain-general inhibition areas such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Dutch-English-German trilinguals performed a picture naming task in the MRI scanner in both a blocked-language and a mixed-language context. The rIFG and pre-SMA showed more activation for switches to the second and third language (L2 and L3) compared to non-switch trials and blocked trials. No such difference was found for switches to the first language (L1). Our results indicate that language switching recruits brain areas related to domain-general inhibition. In this way, our study supports the claim that multilinguals use inhibition to switch between their languages.

  3. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals p...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community....... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0.......5-9.5, depending on the database searched). Conclusions 10.6% of the rejected manuscripts were eventually published in other journals, mainly English-language specialty journals. This proportion was considerably lower than that for other journals that have studied the fate of rejected manuscripts. Manuscript...

  4. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  5. THE GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF COMBINED OPTIONAL ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TRAINING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Zadorozhnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to demonstrate the implementation of general methodological principles of optional elementary school online foreign languages learning on an example of a virtual course for students of the second and third grades.Methods. The methods involve pedagogical modeling and projecting; the experience of foreign and Russian methodists, teachers and researchers is analysed, generalized and adjusted to the modern realias.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the requirements of the state educational standard and interest of pupils in computer games, the author’s technique of the combined facultative educational activities integrated to training in English at elementary school is developed. Online training in the form of games (additional to the major classroom activities gives a possibility of the choice of tasks interesting to children, studying the material at optimum comfortable and individual speed; it is possible to perform the tasks at home excluding the stressful situations that are specific to school examination, and allows pupils to master most effectively personal, metasubject and object competences. In general context of quality improvement of the general education, the modernization of educational process assumes not only justification of its new maintenance, but also restructuring of scientific and methodical support which has to meet essential needs of teachers and pupils, to facilitate access to necessary specific information. The lack of methodical base of creation of electronic distance resources for foreign-language education of younger school students has motivated the author to create own methodical concept of online training taking into account age of pupils. The complex of the general methodical principles is thoroughly considered; based on the general methodical principles, the proposed modular technique of the organization of an online class is created and implemented. Interactive blocks are

  6. Early lexical development in English- and Korean-speaking children: language-general and language-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; McGregor, K K; Thompson, C K

    2000-06-01

    The present study examined the composition of the early productive vocabulary of eight Korean- and eight English-learning children and the morpho-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics of their caregivers' input in order to determine parallels between caregiver input and early lexical development. Vocabulary acquisition was followed using maternal diary and checklists for the Korean-learning children (from a mean age of 1;6 to 1;9) and for the English-learning children (from a mean age of 1;4 to 1;8). Results showed that both Korean-learning and English-learning children acquired significantly more nouns than verbs at the 50-word mark. However, Korean children learned significantly more verbs than did English-learning children. The relative ease with which Korean learners, as compared to English learners, acquired verbs parallels several differences in the linguistic and socio-pragmatic characteristics of the input addressed to them. Korean-speaking caregivers presented more activity-oriented utterances, more verbs, and more salient cues to verbs than did English-speaking caregivers. These data suggest that both general and language-specific factors shape the early lexicon.

  7. Establishing generalized, productive verb-noun phrase usage in a manual language system with moderately handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, G R; Brenn-White, B; Lentz, A; Hodur, P; Egger, D; Frankoff, D

    1982-02-01

    Strategies for producing generalized language skills continue to be of considerable interest to those working with severely language-delayed children. Research on generalized instruction-following suggested that strategies employing linguistic elements (verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.) arranged in systematic combination matrices were successful in producing generalized and novel responses among handicapped children. The efficacy of a training matrix in the development of expressive verb-noun phrase usage was demonstrated. Two of the three students showed considerable gains in trained responses as well as predicted, novel responses, while a third who had much less training, showed some gains. Increases were also found in the overall development of expressive language tests. This approach is discussed in relation to other experimental approaches to language development.

  8. Skill-Based L2 Anxieties Revisited: Their Intra-Relations and the Inter-Relations with General Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Tae-IL

    2013-01-01

    Recently, research in foreign language anxiety has extended to the examination of more language-skill-specific anxieties. Existing research findings on the language-skill-specific anxieties indicate a consistent negative relationship between individual skill-based anxieties (e.g. listening anxiety) and more general foreign language classroom…

  9. Application of whole slide image markup and annotation for pathologist knowledge capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Walter S; Foster, Kirk W; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transfer image markup and annotation data from one scanned image of a slide to a newly acquired image of the same slide within a single vendor platform was investigated. The goal was to study the ability to use image markup and annotation data files as a mechanism to capture and retain pathologist knowledge without retaining the entire whole slide image (WSI) file. Accepted mathematical principles were investigated as a method to overcome variations in scans of the same glass slide and to accurately associate image markup and annotation data across different WSI of the same glass slide. Trilateration was used to link fixed points within the image and slide to the placement of markups and annotations of the image in a metadata file. Variation in markup and annotation placement between WSI of the same glass slide was reduced from over 80 μ to less than 4 μ in the x-axis and from 17 μ to 6 μ in the y-axis (P < 0.025). This methodology allows for the creation of a highly reproducible image library of histopathology images and interpretations for educational and research use.

  10. Using an iconic language to improve access to electronic medical records in general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Hassler, Sylvain; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Favre, Madeleine; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have difficulties to access and analyse information in a medical record. In a previous work on drug databanks, we have shown that with an iconic language as VCM, an icon-based presentation can help physicians to access medical information. Our objective, herein, is to study whether VCM can be used in an electronic medical record for facilitating physician access in general practice. We identify the data and the functionalities of an electronic medical record that could benefit from VCM icons representing clinical findings, patient history, etc. We also present a preliminary evaluation of this new icon-focused interface. We conclude by discussing the results like the assessment of the user's satisfaction and pointing out the importance of coding data.

  11. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  12. HTEL: a HyperText Expression Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    been submitted.A special tool has been used to build the HTEL-interpreter, as an example belonging a family of interpreters for domain specific languages. Members of that family have characteristics that are closely related to structural patterns found in the mark-ups of HTML. HTEL should also be seen...

  13. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  14. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US...... at the firm-product level. On average, adjustment on the profit margin does not appear to play a role. However, for more differentiated products, we find some evidence of an increase in markups, suggesting that firms do not fully pass-through increases in productivity on prices whenever they have enough...

  15. Languages, communication potential and generalized trust in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence based on the Afrobarometer Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzasi, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether speaking other than home languages in Sub-Saharan Africa promotes generalized trust. Based on various psychological and economic theories, a simple model is provided to illustrate how languages might shape trust through various channels. Relying on data from the Afrobarometer Project, which provides information on home and additional languages, the Index of Communication Potential (ICP) is introduced to capture the linguistic situation in the 20 sample countries. The ICP, which can be computed at any desired level of aggregation, refers to the probability that an individual can communicate with a randomly selected person in the society based on common languages. The estimated two-level hierarchical models show that, however, individual level communication potential does not seem to impact trust formation, but living in an area with higher average communication potential increases the chance of exhibiting higher trust toward unknown people.

  16. The psychometric properties of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Champagne, Brian R; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-07-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.

  17. Exploring Domain-General and Domain-Specific Linguistic Knowledge in the Assessment of Academic English Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romhild, Anja; Kenyon, Dorry; MacGregor, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of domain-general and domain-specific linguistic knowledge in the assessment of academic English language proficiency using a latent variable modeling approach. The goal of the study was to examine if modeling of domain-specific variance results in improved model fit and well-defined latent factors. Analyses were…

  18. A methodology for evaluation of a markup-based specification of clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Erez; Shahar, Yuval; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Lunenfeld, Eitan

    2008-11-06

    We introduce a three-phase, nine-step methodology for specification of clinical guidelines (GLs) by expert physicians, clinical editors, and knowledge engineers, and for quantitative evaluation of the specification's quality. We applied this methodology to a particular framework for incremental GL structuring (mark-up) and to GLs in three clinical domains with encouraging results.

  19. The Adoption of Mark-Up Tools in an Interactive e-Textbook Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Sam; Russell, Jae-eun; Schuh, Kathy L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have more often examined whether students prefer using an e-textbook over a paper textbook or whether e-textbooks provide a better resource for learning than paper textbooks, but students' adoption of mark-up tools has remained relatively unexamined. Drawing on the concept of Innovation Diffusion Theory, we used educational data mining…

  20. RELISH LMF: unlocking the full power of the Lexical Markup Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, Menzo

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 ISO TC 37 (ISO 24613:2008) published the Lexical Markup Framework (LMF) standard (www.lexicalmarkupframework.org). This standard was based on input of many experts in the field a core model and a whole series of extensions were specified in the form of UML class diagrams. For a specific

  1. Trade Reforms, Mark-Ups and Bargaining Power of Workers: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    model of mark-up with labor bargaining power was estimated using random effects and LDPDM. ... article and also Dar es Salaam University and African Economic Research. Consortium. .... up with a positive association between workers' rent sharing parameter and ... individual contract or through collective agreements.

  2. Towards Implementation of a Generalized Architecture for High-Level Quantum Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, El-Mahdy M.; Ali, Hesham A.; Salem, Mofreh M.; Badawy, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates a novel architecture to the problem of quantum computer programming. A generalized architecture for a high-level quantum programming language has been proposed. Therefore, the programming evolution from the complicated quantum-based programming to the high-level quantum independent programming will be achieved. The proposed architecture receives the high-level source code and, automatically transforms it into the equivalent quantum representation. This architecture involves two layers which are the programmer layer and the compilation layer. These layers have been implemented in the state of the art of three main stages; pre-classification, classification, and post-classification stages respectively. The basic building block of each stage has been divided into subsequent phases. Each phase has been implemented to perform the required transformations from one representation to another. A verification process was exposed using a case study to investigate the ability of the compiler to perform all transformation processes. Experimental results showed that the efficacy of the proposed compiler achieves a correspondence correlation coefficient about R ≈ 1 between outputs and the targets. Also, an obvious achievement has been utilized with respect to the consumed time in the optimization process compared to other techniques. In the online optimization process, the consumed time has increased exponentially against the amount of accuracy needed. However, in the proposed offline optimization process has increased gradually.

  3. A Query Language for Formal Mathematical Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rabe, Florian

    2012-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of mathematical knowledge management is search: Even if we restrict attention to the tiny fragment of mathematics that has been formalized, the amount exceeds the comprehension of an individual human. Based on the generic representation language MMT, we introduce the mathematical query language QMT: It combines simplicity, expressivity, and scalability while avoiding a commitment to a particular logical formalism. QMT can integrate various search paradigms such as unification, semantic web, or XQuery style queries, and QMT queries can span different mathematical libraries. We have implemented QMT as a part of the MMT API. This combination provides a scalable indexing and query engine that can be readily applied to any library of mathematical knowledge. While our focus here is on libraries that are available in a content markup language, QMT naturally extends to presentation and narration markup languages.

  4. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  5. Development and Assessment of the Effectiveness of an Undergraduate General Education Foreign Language Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Walther, Ingeborg; Tufts, Clare; Lee, Kunshan Carolyn; Paredes, Liliana; Fellin, Luciana; Andrews, Edna; Serra, Matt; Hill, Jennifer L.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Schlosberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a faculty-led, multiyear process of formulating learning objectives and assessing the effectiveness of a foreign language requirement for all College of Arts and Sciences undergraduates at a research university. Three interrelated research questions were addressed: (1) What were the levels and patterns of language courses…

  6. A General Investigation of the In-Service Training of English Language Teachers at Elementary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Melek KOÇ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a critical diagnosis of in-service teacher-training activities offered to English-language teachers in Turkey and aims to investigate whether those teachers are satisfied with the activities. Thirty-two English-language teachers participated in this study. Data were collected from 32 elementary-school teachers of English as a foreign language, using a general evaluation form prepared by the researcher. The results indicate that the teachers are not satisfied with their in-service teacher-training activities and that in-service training does not fulfil their needs. The study also proposes an in-service teacher training model in distance format.

  7. Genetic biasing through cultural transmission: do simple Bayesian models of language evolution generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2009-08-07

    The recent Bayesian approaches to language evolution and change seem to suggest that genetic biases can impact on the characteristics of language, but, at the same time, that its cultural transmission can partially free it from these same genetic constraints. One of the current debates centres on the striking differences between sampling and a posteriori maximising Bayesian learners, with the first converging on the prior bias while the latter allows a certain freedom to language evolution. The present paper shows that this difference disappears if populations more complex than a single teacher and a single learner are considered, with the resulting behaviours more similar to the sampler. This suggests that generalisations based on the language produced by Bayesian agents in such homogeneous single agent chains are not warranted. It is not clear which of the assumptions in such models are responsible, but these findings seem to support the rising concerns on the validity of the "acquisitionist" assumption, whereby the locus of language change and evolution is taken to be the first language acquirers (children) as opposed to the competent language users (the adults).

  8. LINGUISTIC POETICS AND GENERAL THEORY OF LANGUAGE. (ON CONTEXT-DEPENDENT SEMANTICS AND TEXT-ORIENTED LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suren Zolyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to reconsider the generally accepted conceptions on the relationship between the general theory of language, on the one hand, and the poetic semantics and linguistic poetics, on the other. Based on the concepts of ekspressema, createma and evristema were introduced by V.P.Grigoryev we try to demonstrate the inadequacy of the traditional dichotomy between the poetic usage of language - as if it were the only creative sphere of linguistic activity - and all another types. The matter is that the text-oriented methods of linguistic poetics have anticipated the lexical-oriented approaches in the general linguistic theory. Thus, linguistic poetics and poetic semantics are grounded on the idea that text is a basic unit of processing and lexical meanings are dependent on contextual and intertextual connections. In accordance of this approach V. Grigoryev had coined the new terminology and elaborated the special principles of compiling the dictionary of the Russian poetry. This was considered as a manifestation of the peculiarity of poetic language. Meanwhile, in the modern corpus linguistics the notion of any lexical unit is treated on similar way. Using the experience of poetic semantics, we put forward some principles of the text-oriented theory of language where word is not seen as a constant semantic entity predetermined through lexicon, but as a context-dependent variable. If meaning is identified as a function dependent on text, intertext and context, so the language proficiency is considered as a creative ability to determine what meaning can express the given word, including neologisms, in a particular context. 

  9. Language-General Biases and Language-Specific Experience Contribute to Phonological Detail in Toddlers' Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sho; Fikkert, Paula; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Although toddlers in their 2nd year of life generally have phonologically detailed representations of words, a consistent lack of sensitivity to certain kinds of phonological changes has been reported. The origin of these insensitivities is poorly understood, and uncovering their cause is crucial for obtaining a complete picture of early…

  10. On the Computational Complexity of the Languages of General Symbolic Dynamical Systems and Beta-Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2009-01-01

    We consider the computational complexity of languages of symbolic dynamical systems. In particular, we study complexity hierarchies and membership of the non-uniform class P/poly. We prove: 1.For every time-constructible, non-decreasing function t(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system...... with language decidable in deterministic time O(n^2t(n)), but not in deterministic time o(t(n)). 2.For every space-constructible, non-decreasing function s(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system with language decidable in deterministic space O(s(n)), but not in deterministic space o(s(n)). 3.There...... are symbolic dynamical systems having hard and complete languages under @?"m^l^o^g^s- and @?"m^p-reduction for every complexity class above LOGSPACE in the backbone hierarchy (hence, P-complete, NP-complete, coNP-complete, PSPACE-complete, and EXPTIME-complete sets). 4.There are decidable languages of symbolic...

  11. Semi-automated XML markup of biosystematic legacy literature with the GoldenGATE editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Guido; Böhm, Klemens; Agosti, Donat

    2007-01-01

    Today, digitization of legacy literature is a big issue. This also applies to the domain of biosystematics, where this process has just started. Digitized biosystematics literature requires a very precise and fine grained markup in order to be useful for detailed search, data linkage and mining. However, manual markup on sentence level and below is cumbersome and time consuming. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GoldenGATE editor, which is designed for the special needs of marking up OCR output with XML. It is built in order to support the user in this process as far as possible: Its functionality ranges from easy, intuitive tagging through markup conversion to dynamic binding of configurable plug-ins provided by third parties. Our evaluation shows that marking up an OCR document using GoldenGATE is three to four times faster than with an off-the-shelf XML editor like XML-Spy. Using domain-specific NLP-based plug-ins, these numbers are even higher.

  12. Automated Text Markup for Information Retrieval from an Electronic Textbook of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Kehler, Andrew; Kim, David K.; Yu, Victor L.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1998-01-01

    The information needs of practicing clinicians frequently require textbook or journal searches. Making these sources available in electronic form improves the speed of these searches, but precision (i.e., the fraction of relevant to total documents retrieved) remains low. Improving the traditional keyword search by transforming search terms into canonical concepts does not improve search precision greatly. Kim et al. have designed and built a prototype system (MYCIN II) for computer-based information retrieval from a forthcoming electronic textbook of infectious disease. The system requires manual indexing by experts in the form of complex text markup. However, this mark-up process is time consuming (about 3 person-hours to generate, review, and transcribe the index for each of 218 chapters). We have designed and implemented a system to semiautomate the markup process. The system, information extraction for semiautomated indexing of documents (ISAID), uses query models and existing information-extraction tools to provide support for any user, including the author of the source material, to mark up tertiary information sources quickly and accurately.

  13. Describing Generic Ocean Environmental Data Objects Using the Geography Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    devrait rendre plus efficace la génération de produits avantageux pour la marine. GML est également important du point de vue de l’Organisation du...gml:description> BIO </gml:description> <gml:name codeSpace="www.meds.ca/namelist">Agency</gml:name> </additional_metadata...once we define a metadata property such as an “Agency”, we consider the content of the defined “Agency” to be “ BIO ”. 16 DRDC Atlantic TM 2004-087

  14. Development of Semantic Web - Markup Languages, Web Services, Rules, Explanation, Querying, Proof and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    KSL-06-16.html • J. William Murdock, Deborah L. McGuinness, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, Chris Welty , and David Ferrucci. Explaining Conclusions from...Christopher Welty , J. William Murdock, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, Deborah L. McGuinness, David Ferrucci, Richard Fikes. Tracking Information Extraction from...services/swsl/requirements/swsl-requirements.shtml. • J. William Murdock, Paulo Pinheiro da Silva, David Ferrucci, Christopher Welty and Deborah L

  15. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org .

  16. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  17. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Flux Balance Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Brett G; Bergmann, Frank T

    2015-09-04

    Constraint-based modeling is a well established modelling methodology used to analyze and study biological networks on both a medium and genome scale. Due to their large size, genome scale models are typically analysed using constraint-based optimization techniques. One widely used method is Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) which, for example, requires a modelling description to include: the definition of a stoichiometric matrix, an objective function and bounds on the values that fluxes can obtain at steady state. The Flux Balance Constraints (FBC) Package extends SBML Level 3 and provides a standardized format for the encoding, exchange and annotation of constraint-based models. It includes support for modelling concepts such as objective functions, flux bounds and model component annotation that facilitates reaction balancing. The FBC package establishes a base level for the unambiguous exchange of genome-scale, constraint-based models, that can be built upon by the community to meet future needs (e. g. by extending it to cover dynamic FBC models).

  18. KML (Keyhole Markup Language) : a key tool in the education of geo-resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltz, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Although going on the ground with pupils remains the best way to understand the geologic structure of a deposit, it is very difficult to bring them in a mining extraction site and it is impossible to explore whole regions in search of these resources. For those reasons the KML (with the Google earth interface) is a very complete tool for teaching geosciences. Simple and intuitive, its handling is quickly mastered by the pupils, it also allows the teachers to validate skills for IT certificates. It allows the use of KML files stemming from online banks, from personal productions of the teacher or from pupils' works. These tools offer a global approach in 3D as well as a geolocation-based access to any type of geological data. The resource on which I built this KML is taught in the curriculum of the 3 years of French high school, it is methane hydrate. This non conventional hydrocarbon molecule enters in this vague border between mineral an organic matter (as phosphate deposits). It has become for over ten year the subject of the race for the exploitation of the gas hydrates fields in order to try to supply to the world demand. The methane hydrate fields are very useful and interesting to study the 3 majors themes of geological resource: the exploration, the exploitation and the risks especially for environments and populations. The KML which I propose allows the pupils to put itself in the skin of a geologist in search of deposits or on the technician who is going to extract the resource. It also allows them to evaluate the risks connected to the effect of tectonics activity or climatic changes on the natural or catastrophic releasing of methane and its role in the increase of the greenhouse effect. This KML associated to plenty of pedagogic activities is directly downloadable for teachers at http://eduterre.ens-lyon.fr/eduterre-usages/actualites/methane/.

  19. FROM OPEN SOURCE TO OPEN INFORMATION: COLLABORATIVE METHODS IN CREATING XML-BASED MARKUP LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, G; H. Lobin

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the last decade, the Internet was primarily used by scientific, educational, and military organisations for the exchange of information such as data files and electronic mail. The introduction of the easy-to-use hypertext system World Wide Web (WWW) has, however, begun a new era of the world-spanning computer network. In this paper we examine a part of the Information Marketplace (Dertouzos, 1997) that will give users of the WWW a wide range of new possibilities for gat...

  20. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications. PMID:20677327

  1. XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, S.; et al, not CWI

    2000-01-01

    This specification defines XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the foundation for futur

  2. XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); not CWI et al

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis specification defines XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the

  3. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Agent Markup Language Computer Aided Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    rdfs:label> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#ItalianTank"/> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="CentauroB1"> <rdfs:comment> Centauro B-1</rdfs:comment...rdfs:label> Centauro B-1</rdfs:label> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#LightTankRecon"/> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID="M1985Lighttank

  4. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  5. Working Memory and Language: Skill-Specific or Domain-General Relations to Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Ganley, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early mathematics skills develop in a cumulative fashion; foundational skills form a basis for the acquisition of later skills. However, non-mathematical factors such as working memory and language skills have also been linked to mathematical development at a broad level. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate the…

  6. Clause, Sentence, and Discourse Patterns in Selected Languages of Nepal: Part I, General Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Austin

    This volume, the first in a series of four on the languages of Nepal, contains the following papers: "Toward the Systematization of Display Grammar,""Clause Patterns in Kham,""Tentative Systemic Organization of Nepali Sentences,""Maithili Sentences,""Notation for Simultaneous Representation of Grammatical and Sememic Components in Connected…

  7. Working memory and language: skill-specific or domain-general relations to mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Ganley, Colleen M

    2014-06-01

    Children's early mathematics skills develop in a cumulative fashion; foundational skills form a basis for the acquisition of later skills. However, non-mathematical factors such as working memory and language skills have also been linked to mathematical development at a broad level. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate the specific relations of these two non-mathematical factors to individual aspects of early mathematics. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether working memory and language were related to only individual aspects of early mathematics or related to many components of early mathematics skills. A total of 199 4- to 6-year-old preschool and kindergarten children were assessed on a battery of early mathematics tasks as well as measures of working memory and language. Results indicated that working memory has a specific relation to only a few-but critically important-early mathematics skills and language has a broad relation to nearly all early mathematics skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pragmatic Language in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: Correlation with Success in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Elaine Kirk; Hilsmier, Amanda Strong; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing children have shown delays and difficulties in pragmatic behaviors due to insufficient exposure to common daily discourse and underlying impoverishment in all components of language development. In a study in a school district in a southeastern U.S. state, the researchers investigated the relationship between…

  9. English Second Language, General, Special Education, and Speech/Language Personal Teacher Efficacy, English Language Arts Scientifically-Validated Intervention Practice, and Working Memory Development of English Language Learners in High and Low Performing Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The researcher investigated teacher factors contributing to English language arts (ELA) achievement of English language learners (ELLs) over 2 consecutive years, in high and low performing elementary schools with a Hispanic/Latino student population greater than or equal to 30 percent. These factors included personal teacher efficacy, teacher…

  10. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  11. Non-definability of languages by generalized first-order formulas over (N,+)

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We consider first-order logic with monoidal quantifiers over words. We show that all languages with a neutral letter, definable using the addition numerical predicate are also definable with the order predicate as the only numerical predicate. Let S be a subset of monoids. Let LS be the logic closed under quantification over the monoids in S and N be the class of neutral letter languages. Then we show that: LS[<,+] cap N = LS[<] Our result can be interpreted as the Crane Beach conjecture to hold for the logic LS[<,+]. As a corollary of our result we get the result of Roy and Straubing that FO+MOD[<,+] collapses to FO+MOD[<]. For cyclic groups, we answer an open question of Roy and Straubing, proving that MOD[<,+] collapses to MOD[<]. Our result also shows that multiplication is necessary for Barrington's theorem to hold. All these results can be viewed as separation results for very uniform circuit classes. For example we separate FO[<,+]-uniform CC0 from FO[<,+]-uniform ACC0.

  12. Impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure in western rural China: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Shen, Qian; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Li, Zongjie; Wu, Lina; Fang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    To assess the long-term effects of the introduction of China's zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditures after reimbursement. An interrupted time series was used to evaluate the impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement at primary health institutions in Fufeng County of Shaanxi Province, western China. Two regression models were developed. Monthly average hospitalisation expenditure and monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement in primary health institutions were analysed covering the period 2009 through to 2013. For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -16.49, P = 0.009). For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -10.84, P = 0.064), and a significant decrease in the intercept was noted after the second intervention of changes in reimbursement schemes of the new rural cooperative medical insurance (coefficient = -220.64, P markup drug policy in western China. However, hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement were still increasing. More effective policies are needed to prevent these costs from continuing to rise. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosconi, Paola; Antes, Gerd; Barbareschi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ECRAN (European Communication on Research Awareness Needs) project was initiated in 2012, with support from the European Commission, to improve public knowledge about the importance of independent, multinational, clinical trials in Europe. METHODS: Participants in the ECRAN...... consortium included clinicians and methodologists directly involved in clinical trials; researchers working in partnership with the public and patients; representatives of patients; and experts in science communication. We searched for, and evaluated, relevant existing materials and developed additional...... was able to produce, and make freely available in many languages, new materials to promote public knowledge about the importance of independent and international clinical trials. Sustained funding for the ECRAN information platform could help to promote successful recruitment to independent clinical trials...

  14. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  15. The Benchmarking Capacity of a General Outcome Measure of Academic Language in Science and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…

  16. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanya Dash; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate syste...

  18. Effects of differential reinforcement on the generalization of a replacement mand in three children with severe language delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasgow, E; Halle, J W; Ostrosky, M M

    1998-01-01

    We investigated variables that may influence the generalization of a replacement mand in 3 young children with severe language delays. A multiple baseline design consisting of one stimulus class of manding opportunities that we arbitrarily divided into three categories (i.e., food, toys, and events) was used for each child. During baseline probes, all children manded mainly by reaching, grabbing, or leading. We then taught each child a replacement mand using a single member of the stimulus class. Acquisition of the replacement mand occurred under highly restricted conditions in a setting that was completely isolated from the generalization settings. Postacquisition probes revealed almost exclusive use of old manding forms. Subsequently, extinction of the old forms and reinforcement of the replacement mand were introduced in a sequential fashion. Two children manifested a substantial increase, and 1 child displayed a moderate increase in the occurrence of the replacement mand (i.e., generalization occurred). These results suggest that a differential reinforcement procedure can alter the probability of the occurrence of response class members across a variety of stimulus conditions.

  19. The role of domain-general frontal systems in language comprehension: evidence from dual-task interference and semantic ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Davis, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) plays a critical role in semantic and syntactic aspects of speech comprehension. It appears to be recruited when listeners are required to select the appropriate meaning or syntactic role for words within a sentence. However, this region is also recruited during tasks not involving sentence materials, suggesting that the systems involved in processing ambiguous words within sentences are also recruited for more domain-general tasks that involve the selection of task-relevant information. We use a novel dual-task methodology to assess whether the cognitive system(s) that are engaged in selecting word meanings are also involved in non-sentential tasks. In Experiment 1, listeners were slower to decide whether a visually presented letter is in upper or lower case when the sentence that they are simultaneously listening to contains words with multiple meanings (homophones), compared to closely matched sentences without homophones. Experiment 2 indicates that this interference effect is not tied to the occurrence of the homophone itself, but rather occurs when listeners must reinterpret a sentence that was initially misparsed. These results suggest some overlap between the cognitive system involved in semantic disambiguation and the domain-general process of response selection required for the case-judgement task. This cognitive overlap may reflect neural overlap in the networks supporting these processes, and is consistent with the proposal that domain-general selection processes in inferior frontal regions are critical for language comprehension.

  20. Acquisition of Novel Perceptual Categories in a Third Language: The Role of Metalinguistic Awareness and Feature Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Divya Verma

    2009-01-01

    Many factors that contribute towards the perception of second language (L2) sounds and the subsequent establishment of L2 phonetic categories have been the focus of past research. However, learning a third language, unlike SLA, may be influenced by additional factors attributed to the presence of two language systems in a bilingual instead of one…

  1. Acquisition of Novel Perceptual Categories in a Third Language: The Role of Metalinguistic Awareness and Feature Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Divya Verma

    2009-01-01

    Many factors that contribute towards the perception of second language (L2) sounds and the subsequent establishment of L2 phonetic categories have been the focus of past research. However, learning a third language, unlike SLA, may be influenced by additional factors attributed to the presence of two language systems in a bilingual instead of one…

  2. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 1: Background Information and General/Pre-Flight Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air...Navigation Commission was directed to complete the task of strengthening relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to...language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English

  3. RDML: structured language and reporting guidelines for real-time quantitative PCR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefever, S.; Hellemans, J.; Pattyn, F.; Przybylski, D.R.; Taylor, C.; Geurts, R.; Untergasser, A.; Vandesompele, J.

    2009-01-01

    The XML-based Real-Time PCR Data Markup Language (RDML) has been developed by the RDML consortium (http://www.rdml.org) to enable straightforward exchange of qPCR data and related information between qPCR instruments and third party data analysis software, between colleagues and collaborators and be

  4. South African sign language human-computer interface in the context of the national accessibility portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Barker, “South African Sign Language Machine Translation System”, ACM, 2002 2. M del Puy Carretero and D Oyarzun et al, “Virtual characters facial and body animation through the edition and interpretation of mark-up languages”, Science Direct Computers...

  5. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  6. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  7. Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

  8. Treating metadata as annotations: separating the content markup from the content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Paulsson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital learning resources creates an increasing need for semantic metadata, describing the whole resource, as well as parts of resources. Traditionally, schemas such as Text Encoding Initiative (TEI have been used to add semantic markup for parts of resources. This is not sufficient for use in a ”metadata ecology”, where metadata is distributed, coherent to different Application Profiles, and added by different actors. A new methodology, where metadata is “pointed in” as annotations, using XPointers, and RDF is proposed. A suggestion for how such infrastructure can be implemented, using existing open standards for metadata, and for the web is presented. We argue that such methodology and infrastructure is necessary to realize the decentralized metadata infrastructure needed for a “metadata ecology".

  9. Precision markup modeling and display in a global geo-spatial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartell, Zachary J.; Ribarsky, William; Faust, Nickolas L.

    2003-08-01

    A data organization, scalable structure, and multiresolution visualization approach is described for precision markup modeling in a global geospatial environment. The global environment supports interactive visual navigation from global overviews to details on the ground at the resolution of inches or less. This is a difference in scale of 10 orders of magnitude or more. To efficiently handle details over this range of scales while providing accurate placement of objects, a set of nested coordinate systems is used, which always refers, through a series of transformations, to the fundamental world coordinate system (with its origin at the center of the earth). This coordinate structure supports multi-resolution models of imagery, terrain, vector data, buildings, moving objects, and other geospatial data. Thus objects that are static or moving on the terrain can be displayed without inaccurate positioning or jumping due to coordinate round-off. Examples of high resolution images, 3D objects, and terrain-following annotations are shown.

  10. Modeling of the positioning system and visual mark-up of historical cadastral maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jakopec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present of the possibilities of positioning and visual markup of historical cadastral maps onto Google maps using open source software. The corpus is stored in the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb, in the Maps Archive for Croatia and Slavonia. It is part of cadastral documentation that consists of cadastral material from the period of first cadastral survey conducted in the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia from 1847 to 1877, and which is used extensively according to the data provided by the customer service of the Croatian State Archives. User needs on the one side and the possibilities of innovative implementation of ICT on the other have motivated the development of the system which would use digital copies of original cadastral maps and connect them with systems like Google maps, and thus both protect the original materials and open up new avenues of research related to the use of originals. With this aim in mind, two cadastral map presentation models have been created. Firstly, there is a detailed display of the original, which enables its viewing using dynamic zooming. Secondly, the interactive display is facilitated through blending the cadastral maps with Google maps, which resulted in establishing links between the coordinates of the digital and original plans through transformation. The transparency of the original can be changed, and the user can intensify the visibility of the underlying layer (Google map or the top layer (cadastral map, which enables direct insight into parcel dynamics over a longer time-span. The system also allows for the mark-up of cadastral maps, which can lead to the development of the cumulative index of all terms found on cadastral maps. The paper is an example of the implementation of ICT for providing new services, strengthening cooperation with the interested public and related institutions, familiarizing the public with the archival material, and offering new possibilities for

  11. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals

  12. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Soucy, Lyne

    2010-07-13

    Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative

  13. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  14. RGG: a general GUI Framework for R scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visne, Ilhami; Dilaveroglu, Erkan; Vierlinger, Klemens; Lauss, Martin; Yildiz, Ahmet; Weinhaeusel, Andreas; Noehammer, Christa; Leisch, Friedrich; Kriegner, Albert

    2009-03-02

    R is the leading open source statistics software with a vast number of biostatistical and bioinformatical analysis packages. To exploit the advantages of R, extensive scripting/programming skills are required. We have developed a software tool called R GUI Generator (RGG) which enables the easy generation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) for the programming language R by adding a few Extensible Markup Language (XML) - tags. RGG consists of an XML-based GUI definition language and a Java-based GUI engine. GUIs are generated in runtime from defined GUI tags that are embedded into the R script. User-GUI input is returned to the R code and replaces the XML-tags. RGG files can be developed using any text editor. The current version of RGG is available as a stand-alone software (RGGRunner) and as a plug-in for JGR. RGG is a general GUI framework for R that has the potential to introduce R statistics (R packages, built-in functions and scripts) to users with limited programming skills and helps to bridge the gap between R developers and GUI-dependent users. RGG aims to abstract the GUI development from individual GUI toolkits by using an XML-based GUI definition language. Thus RGG can be easily integrated in any software. The RGG project further includes the development of a web-based repository for RGG-GUIs. RGG is an open source project licensed under the Lesser General Public License (LGPL) and can be downloaded freely at (http://rgg.r-forge.r-project.org).

  15. RGG: A general GUI Framework for R scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noehammer Christa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background R is the leading open source statistics software with a vast number of biostatistical and bioinformatical analysis packages. To exploit the advantages of R, extensive scripting/programming skills are required. Results We have developed a software tool called R GUI Generator (RGG which enables the easy generation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs for the programming language R by adding a few Extensible Markup Language (XML – tags. RGG consists of an XML-based GUI definition language and a Java-based GUI engine. GUIs are generated in runtime from defined GUI tags that are embedded into the R script. User-GUI input is returned to the R code and replaces the XML-tags. RGG files can be developed using any text editor. The current version of RGG is available as a stand-alone software (RGGRunner and as a plug-in for JGR. Conclusion RGG is a general GUI framework for R that has the potential to introduce R statistics (R packages, built-in functions and scripts to users with limited programming skills and helps to bridge the gap between R developers and GUI-dependent users. RGG aims to abstract the GUI development from individual GUI toolkits by using an XML-based GUI definition language. Thus RGG can be easily integrated in any software. The RGG project further includes the development of a web-based repository for RGG-GUIs. RGG is an open source project licensed under the Lesser General Public License (LGPL and can be downloaded freely at http://rgg.r-forge.r-project.org

  16. A General Investigation of the In-Service Training of English Language Teachers at Elementary Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ebru Melek

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a critical diagnosis of in-service teacher-training activities offered to English-language teachers in Turkey and aims to investigate whether those teachers are satisfied with the activities. Thirty-two English-language teachers participated in this study. Data were collected from 32 elementary-school teachers of English as a…

  17. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  18. A new instrument to assess physician skill at thoracic ultrasound, including pleural effusion markup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Matthew; McGrath, David; Steiler, Geoff; Ware, Robert; Colt, Henri; Fielding, David

    2013-09-01

    To reduce complications and increase success, thoracic ultrasound is recommended to guide all chest drainage procedures. Despite this, no tools currently exist to assess proceduralist training or competence. This study aims to validate an instrument to assess physician skill at performing thoracic ultrasound, including effusion markup, and examine its validity. We developed an 11-domain, 100-point assessment sheet in line with British Thoracic Society guidelines: the Ultrasound-Guided Thoracentesis Skills and Tasks Assessment Test (UGSTAT). The test was used to assess 22 participants (eight novices, seven intermediates, seven advanced) on two occasions while performing thoracic ultrasound on a pleural effusion phantom. Each test was scored by two blinded expert examiners. Validity was examined by assessing the ability of the test to stratify participants according to expected skill level (analysis of variance) and demonstrating test-retest and intertester reproducibility by comparison of repeated scores (mean difference [95% CI] and paired t test) and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Mean scores for the novice, intermediate, and advanced groups were 49.3, 73.0, and 91.5 respectively, which were all significantly different (P < .0001). There were no significant differences between repeated scores. Procedural training on mannequins prior to unsupervised performance on patients is rapidly becoming the standard in medical education. This study has validated the UGSTAT, which can now be used to determine the adequacy of thoracic ultrasound training prior to clinical practice. It is likely that its role could be extended to live patients, providing a way to document ongoing procedural competence.

  19. Self-efficacy, foreign language anxiety as predictors of academic performance among professional program students in a general English proficiency writing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2009-10-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.

  20. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers") have an advantage in executive functions (inhibition of irrelevant information, problem solving, planning efficiency, generative fluency and self-monitoring) compared to those bilinguals showing weaker language control abilities ("switchers"). Methods 29 late bilinguals (21 women) were evaluated using various cognitive control neuropsychological tests [e.g., Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Task, Divided Attention, Go/noGo] tapping executive functions as well as four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The analysis involved t-tests (two independent samples). Non-switchers (n = 16) were distinguished from switchers (n = 13) by their performance observed in a bilingual picture-naming task. Results The non-switcher group demonstrated a better performance on the Tower of Hanoi and Ruff Figural Fluency task, faster reaction time in a Go/noGo and Divided Attention task, and produced significantly fewer errors in the Tower of Hanoi, Go/noGo, and Divided Attention tasks when compared to the switchers. Non-switchers performed significantly better on two verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Information and Similarity), but not on the Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Block Design). Conclusions The present results suggest that bilinguals with stronger language control have indeed a cognitive advantage in the administered tests involving executive functions, in particular inhibition, self-monitoring, problem solving, and generative fluency, and in two of the intelligence tests. What

  1. Corrosion science general-purpose data model and interface (Ⅲ):Data integration and management environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A brand new Corrosion Data Integration and Management Environment(CDIME) is developed in Java programming language based on general-purpose corrosion data model(GPCDM) and corrosion data markup language(CDML) proposed in the previous works.In general,the functionalities and features of CDIME meet most of design requirements including composition,inheritance,self-contained,relatively independence and so on.An insight tutorial is introduced on the life circle of corrosion data islands from its creation,maintenance,and application like publishing.The template feature makes the building of comprehensive data island as simple as a few mouse clicks.Read-only publishing of data as e-Book and PDF hold their own places.Achieved document can be imported and exported freely on any running CDIME.The achieving feature is addressed in detail because it is critical to data sharing and integration in GPCDM.At the end,a real example is presented to help the understanding of data islands assembling and the advanced features offered by CDIME.

  2. Corrosion science general-purpose data model and interface (Ⅲ): Data integration and management environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG ZiLong

    2008-01-01

    A brand new Corrosion Data Integration and Management Environment (CDIME) is developed in Java programming language based on general-purpose corrosion data model (GPCDM) and corrosion data markup language (CDML) proposed in the previous works. In general, the functionalities and features of CDIME meet most of design requirements including composition, inheritance, self-contained, relatively independence and so on. An insight tutorial is introduced on the life circle of cor-rosion data islands from its creation, maintenance, and application like publishing. The template feature makes the building of comprehensive data island as simple as a few mouse clicks. Read-only publishing of data as e-Book and PDF hold their own places. Achieved document can be imported and exported freely on any running CDIME. The achieving feature is addressed in detail because it is critical to data sharing and integration in GPCDM. At the end, a real example is presented to help the understanding of data islands assembling and the advanced features offered by CDIME.

  3. The price of surgery: markup of operative procedures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Despite cost containment efforts, the price for surgery is not subject to any regulations. We sought to characterize and compare variability in pricing for commonly performed major surgical procedures across the United States. Medicare claims corresponding to eight major surgical procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aortic valvuloplasty, carotid endartectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, esophagectomy, pancreatectomy, liver resection, and colectomy) were identified using the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File for 2013. For each procedure, total charges, Medicare-allowable costs, and total payments were recorded. A procedure-specific markup ratio (MR; ratio of total charges to Medicare-allowable costs) was calculated and compared between procedures and across states. Variation in MR was compared using a coefficient of variation (CoV). Among all providers, the median MR was 3.5 (interquartile range: 3.1-4.0). MR was noted to vary by procedure; ranging from 3.0 following colectomy to 6.0 following carotid endartectomy (P < 0.001). MR also varied for the same procedure; varying the least after liver resection (CoV = 0.24), while coronary artery bypass grafting pricing demonstrated the greatest variation in MR (CoV = 0.53). Compared with the national average, MR varied by 36% between states ranging from 1.8 to 13.0. Variation in MR was also noted within the same state varying by 15% within the state of Arkansas (CoV = 0.15) compared with 51% within the state of Wisconsin (CoV = 0.51). Significant variation was noted for the price of surgery by procedure as well as between and within different geographical regions. Greater scrutiny and transparency in the price of surgery is required to promote cost containment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Analysis of English Language Learning Instruction Provided in Teacher Education and Inservice Training Programs for General and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Lidia E.

    2013-01-01

    It is essential that English language learners (ELLs) are able to effectively receive an education. Recent national data indicates that the achievement gap between English and non-English learners in school is approximately a two grade-level difference (NCES, 2012). The increase of students who are learning English and who have a disability is a…

  5. New graduates’ perceptions of preparedness to provide speech-language therapy services in general and dysphagia services in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajila Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upon graduation, newly qualified speech-language therapists are expected to provide services independently. This study describes new graduates’ perceptions of their preparedness to provide services across the scope of the profession and explores associations between perceptions of dysphagia theory and clinical learning curricula with preparedness for adult and paediatric dysphagia service delivery.Methods: New graduates of six South African universities were recruited to participate in a survey by completing an electronic questionnaire exploring their perceptions of the dysphagia curricula and their preparedness to practise across the scope of the profession of speechlanguage therapy. Results: Eighty graduates participated in the study yielding a response rate of 63.49%. Participants perceived themselves to be well prepared in some areas (e.g. child language: 100%; articulation and phonology: 97.26%, but less prepared in other areas (e.g. adult dysphagia: 50.70%; paediatric dysarthria: 46.58%; paediatric dysphagia: 38.36% and most unprepared to provide services requiring sign language (23.61% and African languages (20.55%. There was a significant relationship between perceptions of adequate theory and clinical learning opportunities with assessment and management of dysphagia and perceptions of preparedness to provide dysphagia services. Conclusion: There is a need for review of existing curricula and consideration of developing a standard speech-language therapy curriculum across universities, particularly in service provision to a multilingual population, and in both the theory and clinical learning of the assessment and management of adult and paediatric dysphagia, to better equip graduates for practice.

  6. The field representation language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  7. Do state minimum markup/price laws work? Evidence from retail scanner data and TUS-CPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chriqui, Jamie F; DeLong, Hillary; Mirza, Maryam; Diaz, Megan C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Minimum markup/price laws (MPLs) have been proposed as an alternative non-tax pricing strategy to reduce tobacco use and access. However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of MPLs in increasing cigarette prices is very limited. This study aims to fill this critical gap by examining the association between MPLs and cigarette prices. State MPLs were compiled from primary legal research databases and were linked to cigarette prices constructed from the Nielsen retail scanner data and the self-reported cigarette prices from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between MPLs and the major components of MPLs and cigarette prices. The presence of MPLs was associated with higher cigarette prices. In addition, cigarette prices were higher, above and beyond the higher prices resulting from MPLs, in states that prohibit below-cost combination sales; do not allow any distributing party to use trade discounts to reduce the base cost of cigarettes; prohibit distributing parties from meeting the price of a competitor, and prohibit distributing below-cost coupons to the consumer. Moreover, states that had total markup rates >24% were associated with significantly higher cigarette prices. MPLs are an effective way to increase cigarette prices. The impact of MPLs can be further strengthened by imposing greater markup rates and by prohibiting coupon distribution, competitor price matching, and use of below-cost combination sales and trade discounts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Producing a Data Dictionary from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schemain the Global Force Management Data Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    TYPE (a role name for objecttype-id). Rotary wing AIRRW A machine or device capable of atmospheric flight and dependent on rotating blades for lift...DS336_acft_type_cat_code Fixed wing FIXWNG A manned machine or device capable of atmospheric flight and dependent on wings for lift...table in place. The table type names are in mixed case, and the XSLT script adds a space before each capital letter to make the names more readable

  9. Federated Process Framework in a Virtual Enterprise Using an Object-Oriented Database and Extensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyoung-Il; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Soon-Young

    2003-01-01

    Discusses process information sharing among participating organizations in a virtual enterprise and proposes a federated process framework and system architecture that provide a conceptual design for effective implementation of process information sharing supporting the autonomy and agility of the organizations. Develops the framework using an…

  10. Federated Process Framework in a Virtual Enterprise Using an Object-Oriented Database and Extensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyoung-Il; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Soon-Young

    2003-01-01

    Discusses process information sharing among participating organizations in a virtual enterprise and proposes a federated process framework and system architecture that provide a conceptual design for effective implementation of process information sharing supporting the autonomy and agility of the organizations. Develops the framework using an…

  11. Informatics in radiology: An open-source and open-access cancer biomedical informatics grid annotation and image markup template builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Channin, David S; Kleper, Vladimir; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    In a routine clinical environment or clinical trial, a case report form or structured reporting template can be used to quickly generate uniform and consistent reports. Annotation and image markup (AIM), a project supported by the National Cancer Institute's cancer biomedical informatics grid, can be used to collect information for a case report form or structured reporting template. AIM is designed to store, in a single information source, (a) the description of pixel data with use of markups or graphical drawings placed on the image, (b) calculation results (which may or may not be directly related to the markups), and (c) supplemental information. To facilitate the creation of AIM annotations with data entry templates, an AIM template schema and an open-source template creation application were developed to assist clinicians, image researchers, and designers of clinical trials to quickly create a set of data collection items, thereby ultimately making image information more readily accessible.

  12. 标记系统及学术文本处理的未来(一)%Markup Systems and the Future of Scholarly Text Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·库姆斯; 艾兰·瑞尼尔; 史蒂芬·德罗斯; 王晓光(译); 李梦琳(译); 刘晶(译)

    2016-01-01

    标记事务影响着学者们对思考与写作系统的采纳使用。程序性标记和表示性标记会阻碍这一进程的发展,描述性标记则通过简化机械性任务,让学者们将注意力集中于内容上的做法,以加快这一进程。%Markup practices can affect the move toward systems that support scholars in the process of thinking and writing. Whereas procedural and presentational markup systems retard that movement, descriptive markup systems accelerate the pace by simplifying mechanical tasks and alowing the authors to focus their attention on the content.

  13. 英语中如何从特指否定转移到一般否定%From Specific Negation to General Negation in the English Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽云

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a special discussion on transferring from specific negation to general negation in the English language. With a great number of actual examples, it makes a profound analysis into two categories of transferred negation concerning this topic:that of absolute negatives and that of general negatives.%本文专门探讨英语中如何从特指否定转移到一般否定,并以大量的实例深入分析与此有关的两种转移否定:与绝对否定词有关的转移否定和与一般否定词有关的转移否定。

  14. Las restricciones de selección en los diccionarios generales de lengua española Lexical restrictions in the Spanish language general dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Serra Sepúlveda

    2009-01-01

    , which differ from one another by the directionality of lexical selection. Aditionally, an analysis of selectional restriction observed in the ‘entourage’ of lexical definitions from current semsiological Spanish dictionaries. Such analysis shows that the collocations do not differ in their syntactic-semantic behavior from the rest of language, inasmuch as the process of selection between the allocated seems to respond to the predicate > argument orientation.

  15. Theory of Mind and social functioning in schizophrenia: correlation with figurative language abnormalities, clinical symptoms and general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovan, Cristiano; Gava, Laura; Campeol, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Over past few decades, studies displayed Theory of Mind (ToM) as a system, including cognitive and affective features, rather than an unitary process. Within domains defining social cognition, ToM stands for the best predictor of poor social functioning in schizophrenia. The current study aimed to explore competence in ToM tasks, in metaphorical and idiomatic language identification tasks and in a conversational rules observance test, as well as relationship with social functioning, in a group of outpatients suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS.: 30 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 24 healthy subjects have been recruited. Both groups underwent TIB as premorbid IQ evaluation, PANSS, Theory of Mind Picture Sequencing Task, a metaphors and idiomatic expressions comprehension test and a conversational test. Social functioning was assessed with PSP. Results.Mean values of premorbid IQ showed no significant difference between patients and control group. In ToM and pragmatic competence tasks, differences between groups resulted in high significance, due to patients' lower performance. A correlation between metaphors and idiomatic expressions comprehension and second order false beliefs was detected. PSP showed a correlation with PANSS and cognitive-ToM, whereas leaving aside affective-ToM. Results showed how people affected with schizophrenia, in stable clinical condition, do have clear impairments in ToM and figurative language comprehension assignments. In our theoretical framework, correlation arisen between cognitive-ToM, pragmatic deficits, clinical status and social functioning level suggests usefulness of rehabilitative interventions to recover metacognitive functions and pragmatic abilities, in order to reduce social disability in schizophrenia.

  16. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  17. Semantically supporting data discovery, markup and aggregation in the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The semantic content of the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been developed over thirty years. It has been used to mark up metadata and data in a wide range of international projects, including the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 projects SeaDataNet and The Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR). Within the United States, the National Science Foundation projects Rolling Deck to Repository and Biological & Chemical Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) use concepts from NVS for markup. Further, typed relationships between NVS concepts and terms served by the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository. The vast majority of the concepts publicly served from NVS (35% of ~82,000) form the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). The PUV is instantiated on the NVS as a SKOS concept collection. These terms are used to describe the individual channels in data and metadata served by, for example, BODC, SeaDataNet and BCO-DMO. The PUV terms are designed to be very precise and may contain a high level of detail. Some users have reported that the PUV is difficult to navigate due to its size and complexity (a problem CSIRO have begun to address by deploying a SISSVoc interface to the NVS), and it has been difficult to aggregate data as multiple PUV terms can - with full validity - be used to describe the same data channels. Better approaches to data aggregation are required as a use case for the PUV from the EC European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Chemistry project. One solution, proposed and demonstrated during the course of the NETMAR project, is to build new SKOS concept collections which formalise the desired aggregations for given applications, and uses typed relationships to state which PUV concepts contribute to a specific aggregation. Development of these new collections requires input from a group of experts in the application domain who can decide which PUV

  18. The Financial Impact of the ‘Zero-Markup Policy for Essential Drugs’ on Patients in County Hospitals in Western Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan

    2015-01-01

    Objective With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Methods Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. Results In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Conclusion Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms. PMID:25790443

  19. The financial impact of the 'zero-markup policy for essential drugs' on patients in county hospitals in western rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Campbell, Benjamin; Zhou, Zhiying; Gao, Jianmin; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Jiuhao; Pan, Yishan

    2015-01-01

    With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED) reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China. Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments. In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD) for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD) for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD) for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD) for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits. Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms.

  20. The financial impact of the 'zero-markup policy for essential drugs' on patients in county hospitals in western rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Zhou

    Full Text Available With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China.Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments.In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits.Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms.

  1. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: a pattern language representation of a general architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordfeldt, Sam; Hanberger, Lena

    2008-11-28

    Chronic disease management is a global health concern. By the time they reach adolescence, 10-15% of all children live with a chronic disease. The role of educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease is receiving growing recognition, and current care policies advocate greater involvement of patients in self-care. Web 2.0 is an umbrella term for new collaborative Internet services characterized by user participation in developing and managing content. Key elements include Really Simple Syndication (RSS) to rapidly disseminate awareness of new information; weblogs (blogs) to describe new trends, wikis to share knowledge, and podcasts to make information available on personal media players. This study addresses the potential to develop Web 2.0 services for young persons with a chronic disease. It is acknowledged that the management of childhood chronic disease is based on interplay between initiatives and resources on the part of patients, relatives, and health care professionals, and where the balance shifts over time to the patients and their families. Participatory action research was used to stepwise define a design specification in the form of a pattern language. Support for children diagnosed with diabetes Type 1 was used as the example area. Each individual design pattern was determined graphically using card sorting methods, and textually in the form Title, Context, Problem, Solution, Examples and References. Application references were included at the lowest level in the graphical overview in the pattern language but not specified in detail in the textual descriptions. The design patterns are divided into functional and non-functional design elements, and formulated at the levels of organizational, system, and application design. The design elements specify access to materials for development of the competences needed for chronic disease management in specific community settings, endorsement of self-learning through online peer

  2. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: A pattern language representation of a general architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekberg Joakim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic disease management is a global health concern. By the time they reach adolescence, 10–15% of all children live with a chronic disease. The role of educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease is receiving growing recognition, and current care policies advocate greater involvement of patients in self-care. Web 2.0 is an umbrella term for new collaborative Internet services characterized by user participation in developing and managing content. Key elements include Really Simple Syndication (RSS to rapidly disseminate awareness of new information; weblogs (blogs to describe new trends, wikis to share knowledge, and podcasts to make information available on personal media players. This study addresses the potential to develop Web 2.0 services for young persons with a chronic disease. It is acknowledged that the management of childhood chronic disease is based on interplay between initiatives and resources on the part of patients, relatives, and health care professionals, and where the balance shifts over time to the patients and their families. Methods Participatory action research was used to stepwise define a design specification in the form of a pattern language. Support for children diagnosed with diabetes Type 1 was used as the example area. Each individual design pattern was determined graphically using card sorting methods, and textually in the form Title, Context, Problem, Solution, Examples and References. Application references were included at the lowest level in the graphical overview in the pattern language but not specified in detail in the textual descriptions. Results The design patterns are divided into functional and non-functional design elements, and formulated at the levels of organizational, system, and application design. The design elements specify access to materials for development of the competences needed for chronic disease management in specific community

  3. How Are Spoken Skills Assessed in Proficiency Tests of General English as a Foreign Language? A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…

  4. General Tendencies of English Language Learners in Using an Independent Learning Centre within the Turkish Higher Education Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Uzun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent Learning Centres (Self-Access Centres have become an essential component in language teaching institutions to aid learning and foster autonomous learning behaviour. To reach these goals, it is vital to ‘listen to the people’ in the target group. The efforts made and services offered need to be analysed systematically in each centre and centres should be organised and administered by taking students’ needs and expectations into consideration. The main aim of this study is to put forth a profile of how an Independent Learning Centre (ILC is used by English preparatory class students (n=715 in higher education in Turkey. The overall numbers concerning the ILC use, purposes of regular users in visiting the centre, reasons of non-users, materials they find most useful and their needs and suggestions related to the centre have been analysed. The most common purpose for using the centre was found to be ‘to do homework’. According to the users, ‘listening materials’ are the most useful type of resources. ‘More study space’, ‘more listening materials’ and ‘more guidance’ were the most notable needs of the students in the centre. Based on the findings and understanding of the field, suggestions are given to improve the services and materials within the centre.

  5. Descriptive Analysis on the Impacts of Universal Zero-Markup Drug Policy on a Chinese Urban Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Yuan, Jiangfan; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Lanjing

    2016-01-01

    Universal Zero-Markup Drug Policy (UZMDP) mandates no price mark-ups on any drug dispensed by a healthcare institution, and covers the medicines not included in the China's National Essential Medicine System. Five tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China implemented UZMDP in 2012. Its impacts on these hospitals are unknown. We described the effects of UZMDP on a participating hospital, Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China (JST). This retrospective longitudinal study examined the hospital-level data of JST and city-level data of tertiary hospitals of Beijing, China (BJT) 2009-2015. Rank-sum tests and join-point regression analyses were used to assess absolute changes and differences in trends, respectively. In absolute terms, after the UZDMP implementation, there were increased annual patient-visits and decreased ratios of medicine-to-healthcare-charges (RMOH) in JST outpatient and inpatient services; however, in outpatient service, physician work-days decreased and physician-workload and inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges increased, while the inpatient physician work-days increased and inpatient mortality-rate reduced. Interestingly, the decreasing trend in inpatient mortality-rate was neutralized after UZDMP implementation. Compared with BJT and under influence of UZDMP, JST outpatient and inpatient services both had increasing trends in annual patient-visits (annual percentage changes[APC] = 8.1% and 6.5%, respectively) and decreasing trends in RMOH (APC = -4.3% and -5.4%, respectively), while JST outpatient services had increasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges (APC = 3.4%) and JST inpatient service had decreasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit medicine-charges (APC = -5.2%). Implementation of UZMDP seems to increase annual patient-visits, reduce RMOH and have different impacts on outpatient and inpatient services in a Chinese urban tertiary hospital.

  6. ODQ: A Fluid Office Document Query Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid office documents, as semi-structured data often represented by Extensible Markup Language (XML are important parts of Big Data. These office documents have different formats, and their matching Application Programming Interfaces (APIs depend on developing platform and versions, which causes difficulty in custom development and information retrieval from them. To solve this problem, we have been developing an office document query (ODQ language which provides a uniform method to retrieve content from documents with different formats and versions. ODQ builds common document model ontology to conceal the format details of documents and provides a uniform operation interface to handle office documents with different formats. The results show that ODQ has advantages in format independence, and can facilitate users in developing documents processing systems with good interoperability.

  7. Disseminating natural language processed clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, information can be extracted from clinical narratives for a variety of applications (e.g., patient management). While the complex and nested output of NLP systems can be expressed in standard formats, such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), these representations may not be directly suitable for certain end-users or applications. The availability of a âeuro tabular' format that simplifies the content and structure of NLP output may facilitate the dissemination and use by users who are more familiar with common spreadsheet, database, or statistical tools. In this paper, we describe the knowledge-based design of a tabular representation for NLP output and development of a transformation program for the structured output of MedLEE, an NLP system at our institution. Through an evaluation, we found that the simplified tabular format is comparable to existing more complex NLP formats in effectiveness for identifying clinical conditions in narrative reports.

  8. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  9. Language acquisition and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. On Language Anxiety and Countermeasures in University Spoken Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety is the anxiety or disconcerted feeling felt by language learners when they need to express in foreign languages or second foreign language. Anxiety is very important emotional barrier in language learning, and it has important im⁃pact on language learning, especially on spoken language learning. The general lack of spoken language capacity in university stu⁃dents is an incontrovertible fact, and language anxiety is one of the important reasons that cause the imperfect effect of spoken lan⁃guage teaching. This article generally talks about the main reasons for language anxiety, which include the barrier by self-esteem, risk-taking, competitiveness to spoken language learning of university students. This article also discusses a series of countermea⁃sure to ease the language anxiety, so as to reduce the anxiety effectively to promote the teaching of university spoken English.

  11. Towards the most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity: a unified approach in the language of differential form

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquiaga, Jose María; Zumalacárregui, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We use a description based on differential forms to systematically explore the space of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Within this formalism, we propose a basis for the scalar sector at the lowest order in derivatives of the field and in any number of dimensions. This minimal basis is used to construct a finite and closed set of Lagrangians describing general scalar-tensor theories invariant under Local Lorentz Transformations in a pseudo-Riemannian manifold, which contains ten physically distinct elements in four spacetime dimensions. Subsequently, we compute their corresponding equations of motion and find which combinations are at most second order in derivatives in four as well as arbitrary number of dimensions. By studying the possible exact forms (total derivatives) and algebraic relations between the basis components, we discover that there are only four Lagrangian combinations producing second order equations, which can be associated with Horndeski's theory. In this process, we identify a new seco...

  12. Towards the most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity: A unified approach in the language of differential forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, Jose María; García-Bellido, Juan; Zumalacárregui, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    We use a description based on differential forms to systematically explore the space of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. Within this formalism, we propose a basis for the scalar sector at the lowest order in derivatives of the field and in any number of dimensions. This minimal basis is used to construct a finite and closed set of Lagrangians describing general scalar-tensor theories invariant under local Lorentz transformations in a pseudo-Riemannian manifold, which contains ten physically distinct elements in four spacetime dimensions. Subsequently, we compute their corresponding equations of motion and find which combinations are at most second order in derivatives in four as well as an arbitrary number of dimensions. By studying the possible exact forms (total derivatives) and algebraic relations between the basis components, we discover that there are only four Lagrangian combinations producing second-order equations, which can be associated with Horndeski's theory. In this process, we identify a new second-order Lagrangian, named kinetic Gauss-Bonnet, that was not previously considered in the literature. However, we show that its dynamics is already contained in Horndeski's theory. Finally, we provide a full classification of the relations between different second-order theories. This allows us to clarify, for instance, the connection between different covariantizations of Galileons theory. In conclusion, our formulation affords great computational simplicity with a systematic structure. As a first step, we focus on theories with second-order equations of motion. However, this new formalism aims to facilitate advances towards unveiling the most general scalar-tensor theories.

  13. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  14. Semantic Web Services with Web Ontology Language (OWL-S) - Specification of Agent-Services for DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    needed. In addition, it will be important to conduct empirical evaluation of the applicability and benefits of OWL-S in developing and managing service...Sycara, and T. Nishimura, "Towards a Semantic Web Ecommerce ," in Proceedings of 6th Conference on Business Information Systems (BIS2003), Colorado...IEEE Computer Society . Also appears in IEEE Distributed Systems Online, Vol. 3(5), 2002. 24. Terry R. Payne, Rahul Singh, and Katia Sycara. "RCal

  15. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  16. FluxExplorer: A general platform for modeling and analyses of metabolic networks based on stoichiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometry-based analyses of meta- bolic networks have aroused significant interest of systems biology researchers in recent years. It is necessary to develop a more convenient modeling platform on which users can reconstruct their network models using completely graphical operations, and explore them with powerful analyzing modules to get a better understanding of the properties of metabolic systems. Herein, an in silico platform, FluxExplorer, for metabolic modeling and analyses based on stoichiometry has been developed as a publicly available tool for systems biology research. This platform integrates various analytic approaches, in- cluding flux balance analysis, minimization of meta- bolic adjustment, extreme pathways analysis, shadow prices analysis, and singular value decom- position, providing a thorough characterization of the metabolic system. Using a graphic modeling process, metabolic networks can be reconstructed and modi- fied intuitively and conveniently. The inconsistencies of a model with respect to the FBA principles can be proved automatically. In addition, this platform sup- ports systems biology markup language (SBML). FluxExplorer has been applied to rebuild a metabolic network in mammalian mitochondria, producing meaningful results. Generally, it is a powerful and very convenient tool for metabolic network modeling and analysis.

  17. Study on the Markup Ratio of Price-cost of Bamboo%竹材的价格—成本加成率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏新; 肖平

    2001-01-01

    The markup ratio of price-cost is often used as the indicators to judge the performance of a company or an industry. It reflects the competitiveness of the company or the industry. Author make the demonstration study on the markup ratio of price-cost of bamboo based on statistic data in Jiangxi province,and find the markup ratio is rather high and the price of labor and economic growth have a major impact on it.%价格—成本加成率是常用的企业或产业业绩衡量指标之一,它在某种程度上表现了企业或产业的市场竞争力。作者根据江西省林产品成本调查历史数据,对竹材生产的价格—成本加成率进行了实证研究。发现,竹材的价格—成本加成率有相当高的水平,农村劳动力价格以及经济增长状况对竹材的价格—成本加成水平及变动有着重要的影响。

  18. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  19. The British Sign Language versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.

  20. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  1. SGML as a Framework for Digital Preservation and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; Willis, Don

    This report explores the suitability of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) as a framework for building, managing, and providing access to digital libraries, with special emphasis on preservation and access issues. SGML is an international standard (ISO 8879) designed to promote text interchange. It is used to define markup languages,…

  2. Developing General Cultural Awareness in a Monocultural English as a Foreign Language Context in a Mexican University: A Wiki-Based Critical Incident Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo Vences, Paola; Fay, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article explores what the "intercultural turn" might mean in the case of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The discussion is contextualised in what has been termed the "expanding circle" of English and focuses on an English as a foreign language (EFL) class in a Mexican university, a context where…

  3. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  4. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  5. Language Planning and Monolingual Dictionaries:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    General dictionaries are the standard dictionaries for particular languages, assumed to be .... elaborating the various features of the language and the implementation of these plans ... also as repositories of a particular people's culture. Béjoint ...

  6. XML: Ejemplos de uso (presentación)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language, Lenguaje de marcas extensible) - Aplicación XML = Lenguaje de marcado = Vocabulario - Ejemplos: DocBook, Chemical Markup Language, Keyhole Markup Language, Mathematical Markup Language, Open Document, Open XML Format, Scalable Vector Graphics, Systems Byology Markup Language.

  7. XML: Ejemplos de uso

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    XML (eXtensible Markup Language, Lenguaje de marcas extensible) - Aplicación XML = Lenguaje de marcado = Vocabulario - Ejemplos: DocBook, Chemical Markup Language, Keyhole Markup Language, Mathematical Markup Language, Open Document, Open XML Format, Scalable Vector Graphics, Systems Byology Markup Language.

  8. Language Models With Meta-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Language modeling plays a critical role in natural language processing and understanding. Starting from a general structure, language models are able to learn natural language patterns from rich input data. However, the state-of-the-art language models only take advantage of words themselves, which

  9. 网络环境下的语言文字应用研究综述%A general study of internet language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆红丽

    2012-01-01

    网络环境下,语言文字有其独特的应用特征,网络语言的广泛流传对汉语言文字和人们的语言生活产生了正反两方面的影响。语言使用者和语言管理者都要积极行动起来,采取相应的规范措施使用和管理网络语言,从而扬其长避其短,为网络语言提供更好的发展前景。%The internet of language reveals its unique application features, and its spread has both positive and negative impacts on the language itself and people' s life. Language users and language management officials must take actions actively and take appropriate regulatory measures to make better use of internet language and also provide better prospects for the development of the internet language.

  10. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  11. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  12. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  13. Generalized Nuclear Data: A New Structure (with Supporting Infrastructure) for Handling Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA (United States); Beck, B.R.; Patel, N.R.; Summers, N.C.; Hedstrom, G.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA (United States); Brown, D.A. [National Nuclear Data Center, Upton NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format was designed in the 1960s to accommodate neutron reaction data to support nuclear engineering applications in power, national security and criticality safety. Over the years, the scope of the format has been extended to handle many other kinds of data including charged particle, decay, atomic, photo-nuclear and thermal neutron scattering. Although ENDF has wide acceptance and support for many data types, its limited support for correlated particle emission, limited numeric precision, and general lack of extensibility mean that the nuclear data community cannot take advantage of many emerging opportunities. More generally, the ENDF format provides an unfriendly environment that makes it difficult for new data evaluators and users to create and access nuclear data. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has begun the design of a new Generalized Nuclear Data (or 'GND') structure, meant to replace older formats with a hierarchy that mirrors the underlying physics, and is aligned with modern coding and database practices. In support of this new structure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has updated its nuclear data/reactions management package Fudge to handle GND structured nuclear data. Fudge provides tools for converting both the latest ENDF format (ENDF-6) and the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) format to and from GND, as well as for visualizing, modifying and processing (i.e., converting evaluated nuclear data into a form more suitable to transport codes) GND structured nuclear data. GND defines the structure needed for storing nuclear data evaluations and the type of data that needs to be stored. But unlike ENDF and ENDL, GND does not define how the data are to be stored in a file. Currently, Fudge writes the structured GND data to a file using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), as it is ASCII based and can be viewed with any text editor. XML is a meta-language, meaning that it

  14. Generalized Nuclear Data: A New Structure (with Supporting Infrastructure) for Handling Nuclear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Beck, B. R.; Patel, N. R.; Summers, N. C.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) format was designed in the 1960s to accommodate neutron reaction data to support nuclear engineering applications in power, national security and criticality safety. Over the years, the scope of the format has been extended to handle many other kinds of data including charged particle, decay, atomic, photo-nuclear and thermal neutron scattering. Although ENDF has wide acceptance and support for many data types, its limited support for correlated particle emission, limited numeric precision, and general lack of extensibility mean that the nuclear data community cannot take advantage of many emerging opportunities. More generally, the ENDF format provides an unfriendly environment that makes it difficult for new data evaluators and users to create and access nuclear data. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has begun the design of a new Generalized Nuclear Data (or 'GND') structure, meant to replace older formats with a hierarchy that mirrors the underlying physics, and is aligned with modern coding and database practices. In support of this new structure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has updated its nuclear data/reactions management package Fudge to handle GND structured nuclear data. Fudge provides tools for converting both the latest ENDF format (ENDF-6) and the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) format to and from GND, as well as for visualizing, modifying and processing (i.e., converting evaluated nuclear data into a form more suitable to transport codes) GND structured nuclear data. GND defines the structure needed for storing nuclear data evaluations and the type of data that needs to be stored. But unlike ENDF and ENDL, GND does not define how the data are to be stored in a file. Currently, Fudge writes the structured GND data to a file using the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), as it is ASCII based and can be viewed with any text editor. XML is a meta-language, meaning that it

  15. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested. General-purpose testing techniques and test case generation methods fall short in providing a low-threshold solution for test-driven language development. In this paper we introduce the notion of ...

  16. New Words Keep Emerging in Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that language-change is universal,continuous,and,to very considerable extent,regular.The universality and continuity of the process of language-change is noted greatly.All living languages are subject to it.The core of language-change is lexical,and a language's vocabulary change proves to be more revolutionary for the language's slow evolu-tion.

  17. A Review of Research on Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-jian

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review literature on language anxiety. It begins with a discussion of the concepts of general anxiety and language anxiety, and then continues with an introduction of the techniques for identifying language anxiety. Subsequently, litera-ture on the relationships of language anxiety to learner variables and language learning/using are covered. Finally the dispute and theories concerning language anxiety are presented.

  18. Language and imagery: effects of language modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P; Woolfe, Tyron; Dye, Matthew W G; Woll, Bencie

    2005-09-07

    Across spoken languages, properties of wordforms (e.g. the sounds in the word hammer) do not generally evoke mental images associated to meanings. However, across signed languages, many signforms readily evoke mental images (e.g. the sign HAMMER resembles the motion involved in hammering). Here we assess the relationship between language and imagery, comparing the performance of English speakers and British sign language (BSL) signers in meaning similarity judgement tasks. In experiment 1, we found that BSL signers used these imagistic properties in making meaning similarity judgements, in contrast with English speakers. In experiment 2, we found that English speakers behaved more like BSL signers when asked to develop mental images for the words before performing the same task. These findings show that language differences can bias users to attend more to those aspects of the world encoded in their language than to those that are not; and that language modality (spoken versus signed) can affect the degree to which imagery is involved in language.

  19. Two key concepts of language endangerment : language obsolescence and language death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary context of world-wide language endangerment, of linguistic imperialism and regression of minority languages, it is of vital importance to take initiatives for the maintenance and protection of linguistic biodiversity.  Languages that become extinct are a major loss, not only for the communities concerned but also for humanity in general. The role of linguists should not be confined to documentation and recording of threatened languages, but should be extended to policies  aimed at the revitalization of languages in the process of obsolescence and extinction, and to programs for stimulating language awareness and language cult. Although practical work and immediate political interventions remain the most urgent tasks, there is also need for a theoretical discussion on the value of language maintenance and preservation. It is important to define adequately the basic concepts to be used in discussions, as well as in scholarly and "bureaucratic" writings in the field of language endangerment. The aim of the present paper has been to clarify the concepts of 'language obsolescence' and 'language death', with an eye at offering a general characterization and typology of both phenomena. Accurate information on the causes and contextual factors involved in language obsolescence and language death can help to elaborate a theoretically coherent frame for construing open-minded language policies and for arousing a widespread feeling of respect for the linguistic rights of speech communities, however small and unprotected they may be.

  20. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  1. Interrogation: General vs. Local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette

    This paper proposes a set of hypotheses on the nature of interrogration as a possible language universal. Examples and phrase structure rules and diagrams are given. Examining Tamazight and English, genetically unrelated languages with almost no contact, the author distinguishes two types of interrogation: (1) general, querying acceptability to…

  2. Markedness and Salience in Language Contact and Second-Language Acquisition: Evidence from a Non-Canonical Contact Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the study of contact varieties of a language are relevant to understanding of second language acquisition and use, because non-canonical contact languages are often situated on a continuum between pidginization and the more general processes of untutored second language acquisition. Data on participle regularization in Namibian Black…

  3. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its spread around the world. At the same time, the Russian Government has approved a number of relevant documents, established the Council on the Russian language under the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as established the Council on the Russian language under the President of the Russian Federation. The large-scale package of measures aimed at promotion of the Russian language as an official language and as a language of international communication, as well as at supporting the Russian language abroad, has been implemented in the framework of the three federal target Russian language programs. However, the analysis of implementation of the mentioned above programs, as well as received social effects and current practice does not provide relevant solutions for the major problems and does not always correspond to the rapidly changing realities.Practical significance. The perspective directions of the state language policy in the field of the Russian language and literature are specified and formulated: the analysis of the programs and projects aimed at the development, distribution and support of the Russian language; providing coordination of actions of executive authorities in the presented study; improvement of the Russian language studying quality in schools in accordance with features of the general education in the national republics; professional level improvement of teachers of the Russian language; preservation of national languages of

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  5. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  6. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  7. Language Fluency and Study Abroad Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Arrúe, Carmen; Binder, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad programs require language proficiency, emphasize language learning, or otherwise support the development of language skills for their students. A general assumption underlying this attention to foreign language acquisition is that access to the host culture is increased as students are able to converse with host nationals using…

  8. A multiscale framework based on the physiome markup languages for exploring the initiation of osteoarthritis at the bone-cartilage interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Vickie B; Hunter, Peter J; Pivonka, Peter; Fernandez, Justin W

    2011-12-01

    The initiation of osteoarthritis (OA) has been linked to the onset and progression of pathologic mechanisms at the cartilage-bone interface. Most importantly, this degenerative disease involves cross-talk between the cartilage and subchondral bone environments, so an informative model should contain the complete complex. In order to evaluate this process, we have developed a multiscale model using the open-source ontologies developed for the Physiome Project with cartilage and bone descriptions at the cellular, micro, and macro levels. In this way, we can effectively model the influence of whole body loadings at the macro level and the influence of bone organization and architecture at the micro level, and have cell level processes that determine bone and cartilage remodeling. Cell information is then passed up the spatial scales to modify micro architecture and provide a macro spatial characterization of cartilage inflammation. We evaluate the framework by linking a common knee injury (anterior cruciate ligament deficiency) to proinflammatory mediators as a possible pathway to initiate OA. This framework provides a "virtual bone-cartilage" tool for evaluating hypotheses, treatment effects, and disease onset to inform and strengthen clinical studies.

  9. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  10. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  11. There is no language instinct There is no language instinct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Sampson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Steve Pinker’s arguments for the existence of a language instinct encoded in the genes of human beings as an explanation for the human language capacity. The analysis covers Pinker’s own arguments as well as those by Chomsky and by other authors in the nineties. All arguments in favour of a biologically-governed language capacity are refuted to show that, according to available evidence, there is no language instinct. The alternative view, namely, that language is a cultural artefact learned on the basis of a general capacity to formulate and test hypotheses, must be thus the best approach to understand language acquisition. This paper examines Steve Pinker’s arguments for the existence of a language instinct encoded in the genes of human beings as an explanation for the human language capacity. The analysis covers Pinker’s own arguments as well as those by Chomsky and by other authors in the nineties. All arguments in favour of a biologically-governed language capacity are refuted to show that, according to available evidence, there is no language instinct. The alternative view, namely, that language is a cultural artefact learned on the basis of a general capacity to formulate and test hypotheses, must be thus the best approach to understand language acquisition.

  12. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is twof

  13. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  14. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  15. SELECTION OF ONTOLOGY FOR WEB SERVICE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE TO ONTOLOGY WEB LANGUAGE CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mannar Mannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is to extend the current human readable web to encoding some of the semantic of resources in a machine processing form. As a Semantic web component, Semantic Web Services (SWS uses a mark-up that makes the data into detailed and sophisticated machine readable way. One such language is Ontology Web Language (OWL. Existing conventional web service annotation can be changed to semantic web service by mapping Web Service Description Language (WSDL with the semantic annotation of OWL-S. In this conversion of WSDL to OWL process, the ontology plays a vital role. Ontology can be stored and retrieved from local repository and selecting the appropriate ontology is a complicated process and this can be achieved by Ontology Searching and Property Matching (OSPM engine. Ontology is stored in the local repository as ontology document and exact matching of ontology for the requested query can be searched using semantic similarity ranking method. High ranked classes of ontology will undergo property matching; here requested concept will be matched with the resulting property. OSPM engine act as the backbone for selecting an exact ontology and reduce the conflict that occurs while selecting the ontology for annotation purpose.

  16. Japanese Language, Standard Language, National Language: Rethinking Language and Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka CULIBERG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old.

  17. Bigraphical Languages and their Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Espen

    for practical formal languages. However, while direct models of many process calculi have been constructed, it is unclear how suitable bigraphs are for more practical formal languages. Also, the generality of bigraphs comes at a price of complexity in the theory and simulation of bigraphical models is non......We study bigraphs as a foundation for practical formal languages and the problem of simulating such bigraphical languages. The theory of bigraphs is a foundational, graphical model of concurrent systems focusing on mobility and connectivity. It is a meta-model in the sense that it is parametrized......-trivial. A key problem is that of matching: deciding if and how a reaction rule applies to a bigraph. In this dissertation, we study bigraphs and their simulation for two types of practical formal languages: programming languages and languages for cell biology. First, we study programming languages and binding...

  18. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  19. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  20. Language teaching and its contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Byram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title of this new journal provides opportunity to review the many contexts which need to be taken into account in reflecting upon foreign language teaching. These contexts include the educational, the fact that much language teaching takes place within general educational and often compulsory educational settings and institutions. Learners thus encounter foreign languages alongside other languages – their language of the home, the official language of the country, languages of minorities and others – and this needs to be part of the thinking about learning and teaching. Furthermore, since language is the tool for learning throughout life and especially in educational institutions, where the languages of other subjects are languages in themselves which learners have to learn if they are to be successful in education, teachers of all subjects need to be aware of language as the tool of learning. Yet another issue is the relationship of language teaching with citizenship education and the development of ‘intercultural citizenship’. The title of the journal also refers to ‘research’ and here too there is potential for reflection on the modes and paradigms of research which are relevant to investigating language teaching and learning. Distinctions of quantitative and qualitative research are misleading and need to be reviewed. The higher order distinctions are between research which seeks explanation, that which seeks understanding and that which involves advocacy.

  1. Plain Language and Organizational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Pedersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changing the language in an organization is a major organizational change. In this article, I discuss some of the organizational challenges for one specific language change implementation, taking the stance that language change must be treated as any other organizational change for it to have an effect. I work with the case of the Danish tax authorities’ language project aimed at producing more readable letters. The empirical data that I work with are two qualitative informant interviews. One recorded at the language project’s headquarters where they lay out the general lines for the project, and the other at the payment center where they use the revised letters.

  2. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  3. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  4. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  5. 28 CFR 55.11 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.11 General. The requirements of section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) apply with respect to the languages of language minority groups....

  6. Preventive measures in speech and language therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Slokar, Polona

    2014-01-01

    Preventive care plays an important role in speech and language therapy. Through training, a speech and language therapist informs the expert and the general public about his efforts in the field of feeding, speech and language development, as well as about the missing elements that may appear in relation to communication and feeding. A speech and language therapist is also responsible for early detection of irregularities and of those factors which affect speech and language development. To a...

  7. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  8. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally. © 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved....

  9. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  10. Global Flows in Local Language Planning: Articulating Parallel Language Use in Swedish University Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Francis M.; Källkvist, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the language policies of three Swedish universities are examined as instances of language planning in local contexts. Although Sweden has the national Language Act of 2009 (SFS 2009:600) as well as a general Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 1993:100; SFS 2014:1096), language planning for higher education is left to the purview of…

  11. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...

  12. The Influence of Communicative Language Teaching on Teaching Material Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂娟

    2012-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the generally accepted norm in the field of second language teaching. The language teaching material design is influenced by the views of language and language teaching at the macro level, and restricted by specific syllabus at the micro level.

  13. Multi-Population Invariance with Dichotomous Measures: Combining Multi-Group and MIMIC Methodologies in Evaluating the General Aptitude Test in the Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al-harbi, Khaleel A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of measurement invariance by simultaneously estimating invariance across multiple populations in the dichotomous instrument case using multi-group confirmatory factor analytic and multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) methodologies. Using the Arabic version of the General Aptitude Test…

  14. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.

  15. The emancipation of the language learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The general trend in language education over the years has been to ascribe to language learners increasing power and responsibility for their own learning. While this is commendable, the autonomy of learners is still constrained by views of language that see learners as being mere “hosts” of another’s language. Such views restrict learners to roles as language learners who make errors not language users who innovate. This article argues for a more enlightened view of language and of learners, one inspired by a complexity theory perspective. It also proposes that such a perspective is respectful of learner agency.

  16. Community Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, John

    2001-01-01

    Presents historical and political contexts for discussing language maintenance and development in Scotland, explaining that research findings rarely have an impact on policy. While good practice exists in the maintenance of Gaelic and British Sign Language, these is a significant lack of support for other languages, and provision for all community…

  17. Learning Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  18. Instinctive Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  19. Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, John A.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

  20. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Language contact in heritage languages in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Muysken, P.; Duarte, J.; Gogolin, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses heritage languages (HLs) in the Netherlands. First, different types of motivations for the study of heritage languages in general are presented, since the type of motivation for the interest in heritage speakers has a large impact on the type of phenomenon researched. Formal, so

  2. On Explaining Language Shift: Sociology or Social Psychology of Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potentials and limits of sociolinguistic research on language shift. Starting from a position that the ultimate goal of the research must be to create a general theory of language shift of predictive power, the author examines the explanatory potential of current mainstream research methodology now regarded as canonical…

  3. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  4. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  5. Second Language Acquisition, Teacher Education and Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Various positions regarding the Second Language Acquisition (SLA)-Language Pedagogy (LP) nexus have been advanced. Taking these as a starting point, this article will examine the nature of the SLA/LP relationship both more generally and more concretely. First, it will place the debates evident in the different positions regarding the relationship…

  6. On Explaining Language Shift: Sociology or Social Psychology of Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potentials and limits of sociolinguistic research on language shift. Starting from a position that the ultimate goal of the research must be to create a general theory of language shift of predictive power, the author examines the explanatory potential of current mainstream research methodology now regarded as canonical…

  7. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  8. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  9. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  10. Optimizing literacy in English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

    2007-02-01

    Children in the United States who are English language learners characteristically do not exhibit the same levels of reading achievement as their peers. The article describes the development of English literacy in English language learners and the relationship between a child's second language (L2) and his or her native language (L1) in literacy development. It is organized first to consider the issue of language of instruction and language transfer, specifically the aspects of L1 literacy that appear to transfer to the second language (L2), English. It then discusses general principles for professionals working to optimize English literacy development in different models of literacy instruction for English language learners. We conclude that using the child's L1 provides the children with strong language and literacy skills in both languages.

  11. Language Attrition Research: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltens, Bert; Cohen, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews key issues generally addressed in studies of language attrition, including the effects of instructional methods on long-term retention, the effects of proficiency level on attrition, attrition's different effects on various language skills, typical forgetting curves, and typical attrition orders. 26 references.(CB)

  12. Psycholinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    A review of literature on foreign language testing indicates that the earliest approaches to language assessment were generally uninformed by contemporaneous linguistic and psychological theories and were characterized by a lack of psychometric sophistication. This trend was followed by the development of test instruments that were heavily…

  13. Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to elaborate on the general influences of some basic linguistic theories on the teaching of English as a foreign language. Meanwhile, it further makes a systematic analysis of how language teachers can draw benefit from different branches of linguistics.

  14. XML技术及其在WebGIS中的应用%XML Technology and its Application in WebGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大龙; 周振发

    2012-01-01

    XML(Extensible Markup Language)即可扩展标记语言,它与HTML一样,都是SGML(Standard Generalized Markup Language,标准通用标记语言).XML是Internet环境中跨平台的、依赖于内容的技术,是当前处理结构化文档信息的有力工具.作为GIS与Web结合的产物WebGIS,XML对其也会产生巨大影响.%As with HTML, XML (Extensible Markup Language) is also the SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). XML is a kind of technology which is cross -platform and content-dependent in Internet environment. XML is currently structured to deal with a powerful tool to document information. As the combination of GIS and Web, WebGIS is deeply affected by XML.

  15. TML:A General High-Performance Text Mining Language%TML:一种通用高效的文本挖掘语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳静; 李晓明; 孟涛

    2015-01-01

    实现了一种通用高效的文本挖掘编程语言,包括其编译器、运行虚拟机和图形开发环境。其工作方式是用户通过编写该语言的代码以定制抽取目标和抽取手段,然后将用户代码编译成字节码并进行优化,再将其与输入文本语义结构做匹配。该语言具有如下特点:1)提供了一种描述文本挖掘的范围、目标和手段的形式化方法,从而能通过编写该语言的代码来在不同应用领域做声明式文本挖掘;2)运行虚拟机以信息抽取技术为核心,高效地实现了多种常用文本挖掘技术,并将其组成一个文本分析流水线;3)通过一系列编译优化技术使得大量匹配指令能够充分并发执行,从而解决了该语言在处理海量规则和海量数据上的执行效率问题。实用案例说明了TML语言的描述能力以及它的实际应用情况。%This paper proposes a general‐purpose programming language named TML for text mining . TML is the abbreviation of “text mining language” ,and it aims at turning complicated text mining tasks into easy jobs . The implementation of TML includes a compiler ,a runtime virtual machine (interpreter ) , and an IDE . TML has supplied most usual text mining techniques , which are implemented as grammars and reserved words .Users can use TML to program ,and the code will be compiled into bytecodes ,which will be next interpreted in the virual runtime machine .TML has the following characteristics :1) It supplies a formal way to model the searching area ,object definition and mining methods of text mining jobs ,so users can program with it to make a declarative text mining easily ;2) The TML runtime machine implements usual text mining techniques ,and organizes them into an efficient text analysis pipeline ;3) The TML compiler fully explores the possibility of concurrently executing its byte codes , and the execution has good performance on very large collections of

  16. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel…

  17. A Study of Translation Strategies on Chinese Network Neologisms from a General Perspective on Language%语用综观论视角下汉语网络新词的翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧茹

    2014-01-01

    Chinese network neologisms have the unique features of Chinese characteristics. It introduces the correlation theories of the pragmatic perspective briefly, makes some studies of Chinese Network Neologisms translation based on the Jef Verschueren's General Perspective on Language, points out the necessity to translate the Chinese Network Neologisms from a general cog⁃nitive, social and cultural perspective.%汉语网络新词独具中国特色,在简要介绍了语用分相说与综观说之后,以维索尔伦的语用综观论为理论基础,对汉语网络新词的翻译进行探讨。指出从认知、社会和文化综观的视角出发,参照认知结构,顺应社会语境,注重文化衔接,最终提高汉语网络新词译文的准确性与得体性,从而有效达到跨文化交际的目的。

  18. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication......Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  19. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  20. Space between Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Michele I.

    2008-01-01

    What aspects of spatial relations influence speakers' choice of locative? This article presents a study of static spatial descriptions from 24 languages. The study reveals two kinds of spatial terms evident cross-linguistically: specific spatial terms and general spatial terms (GSTs). Whereas specific spatial terms--including English…

  1. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  2. Cross-language and second language speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2017-01-01

    in cross-language and second language speech perception research: The mapping issue (the perceptual relationship of sounds of the native and the nonnative language in the mind of the native listener and the L2 learner), the perceptual and learning difficulty/ease issue (how this relationship may or may...... not cause perceptual and learning difficulty), and the plasticity issue (whether and how experience with the nonnative language affects the perceptual organization of speech sounds in the mind of L2 learners). One important general conclusion from this research is that perceptual learning is possible at all......This chapter provides an overview of the main research questions and findings in the areas of second language and cross-language speech perception research, and of the most widely used models that have guided this research. The overview is structured in a way that addresses three overarching topics...

  3. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  4. Foreign Language Study and the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Provides information on foreign language study and the brain and highlights a Web site called Foreign Language Study and the Brain. The Web site is in Spanish and English and provides information on brain-sensitive activities that foster memory storage and language retrieval. Recent research on the brain and general recommendations for classroom…

  5. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The...

  6. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  7. 14 CFR 221.4 - English language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false English language. 221.4 Section 221.4... REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.4 English language. All tariffs and other documents and material filed with the Department pursuant to this part shall be in the English language. ...

  8. CLT in the Chinese Language Teaching Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2009-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching is considered as an efficient approach to second language acquisition,.This article tries to give a general introduction to CLT and its current situation in English teaching in China by pointing out the difficulties CLT faces in China as well as giving some suggestions for the perfection of CLT in Chinese language teaching context.

  9. Conceptualising "Communication" in Foreign Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenchlas, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of communicative language teaching as the dominant paradigm in foreign language pedagogy cast "communication" in a central role in language acquisition, both as an aim and as a medium of instruction. Despite its centrality, the concept of "communication" is generally taken as widely understood and is seldom defined. This paper…

  10. Is There a European Language History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus J.

    2010-01-01

    The thoughts on a language history within a European context sketched out here represent an attempt to extend the concepts of regional and particularly national language history by adding a third dimension: transnational language history in Europe. After a few general thoughts on the extended area of research, in which so-called external language…

  11. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  12. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  13. What sign language creation teaches us about language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie

    2013-03-01

    How do languages emerge? What are the necessary ingredients and circumstances that permit new languages to form? Various researchers within the disciplines of primatology, anthropology, psychology, and linguistics have offered different answers to this question depending on their perspective. Language acquisition, language evolution, primate communication, and the study of spoken varieties of pidgin and creoles address these issues, but in this article we describe a relatively new and important area that contributes to our understanding of language creation and emergence. Three types of communication systems that use the hands and body to communicate will be the focus of this article: gesture, homesign systems, and sign languages. The focus of this article is to explain why mapping the path from gesture to homesign to sign language has become an important research topic for understanding language emergence, not only for the field of sign languages, but also for language in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:201-211. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1212 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  15. Research of the Language of Special Information's Description in Grid GIS%网格GIS中空间信息描述语言的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建英; 徐爱萍

    2006-01-01

    在网格GIS系统中,分布在不同位置的数据、信息、互操作、协同等需要具有一种标准的语言,使相互之间能够进行对话和交流,GridGML(Grid Geographic Markup Language)将是解决这些问题的关键技术.在XML技术、网格体系结构技术及OGC的GML3标准的基础上,对GridGML进行了研究,提出了其设计思想.

  16. The Nature of Language Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Arzoz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on language rights is affected by some confusion on the nature and status of rights. In this paper, a rigorous characterisation of language rights is proposed. It is argued that the general assimilation or equation between language rights and human rights is not only erroneous as far as it is inaccurate, but it leads to a distorted image of the relationship between law and politics. While human rights do limit (at least, ideally state behaviour, language rights are, more often than not, an issue devolved to the political process. The point being made in this paper is that recognition of language rights (as such or as part of minority rights is based primarily on contingent historical reasons. Some tentative explanations on the poor status or unequal recognition of language rights in international and domestic law will also be offered throughout the paper.

  17. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  18. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  19. Language dominance assessment in a bilingual population: validity of fMRI in the second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Maria; Koepp, Matthias J; Vollmar, Christian; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka; Michallef, Caroline; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a standard tool to estimate the risk of language function decline after epilepsy surgery. Although there has been considerable research in the characterization of language networks in bilingual individuals; little is known about the clinical usefulness of language mapping in a secondary language in patients with epilepsy, and how language lateralization assessed by fMRI may differ by the use of native or a secondary language paradigms. In this study we investigate language representation in a population of nonnative English speakers to assess differences in fMRI language lateralization between the first (native) and second language (English). Sixteen nonnative English-speaking patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent language fMRI in their first (native) language (L1) and in English (L2). Differences between language maps using L1 and L2 paradigms were examined at the single subject level by comparing within-subject lateralization indexes obtained for each language. Differences at the group level were examined for each of the tasks and languages. Group maps for the second language (English) showed overlapping areas of activation with the native language, but with larger clusters, and more bilaterally distributed than for the first language. However, at the individual level, lateralization indexes were concordant between the two languages, except for one patient with bilateral hippocampal sclerosis who was left dominant in English and showed bilateral dominance for verb generation and right dominance for verbal fluency in his native tongue. Language lateralization can generally be reliably derived from fMRI tasks in a second language provided that the subject can follow the task. Subjects with greater likelihood of atypical language representation should be evaluated more carefully, using more than one language paradigm. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International

  20. An ecological theory of language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Lacerda; Ulla Sundberg

    2006-01-01

    An ecological approach to early language acquisition is presented in this article. The general view is that the ability of language communication must have arisen as an evolutionary adaptation to the representational needs of Homo sapiens and that about the same process is observed in language acquisition, although under different ecological settings. It is argued that the basic principles of human language communication are observed even in non-human species and that it is possible to accoun...

  1. EVALUATION OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY FOR SENTENCES IN NATURAL LANGUAGE BY MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pismak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper is focused on Wiktionary articles structural organization in the aspect of its usage as the base for semantic network. Wiktionary community references, article templates and articles markup features are analyzed. The problem of numerical estimation for semantic similarity of structural elements in Wiktionary articles is considered. Analysis of existing software for semantic similarity estimation of such elements is carried out; algorithms of their functioning are studied; their advantages and disadvantages are shown. Methods. Mathematical statistics methods were used to analyze Wiktionary articles markup features. The method of semantic similarity computing based on statistics data for compared structural elements was proposed.Main Results. We have concluded that there is no possibility for direct use of Wiktionary articles as the source for semantic network. We have proposed to find hidden similarity between article elements, and for that purpose we have developed the algorithm for calculation of confidence coefficients proving that each pair of sentences is semantically near. The research of quantitative and qualitative characteristics for the developed algorithm has shown its major performance advantage over the other existing solutions in the presence of insignificantly higher error rate. Practical Relevance. The resulting algorithm may be useful in developing tools for automatic Wiktionary articles parsing. The developed method could be used in computing of semantic similarity for short text fragments in natural language in case of algorithm performance requirements are higher than its accuracy specifications.

  2. Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  3. LANGUAGE DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Linguists and the government hope to preserve the diversity of China’s languages When Xu Shixuan, a linguist from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, returned to a southwestern county bordering Myanmar in 2002 to study the local language after a nine

  4. Teaching Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Laura F.

    1986-01-01

    The article details on three classroom projects using computers and synthesized speech software to foster expressive language and facilitate language comprehension in severely visually handicapped preschoolers and in preschool- and school-age Downs syndrome children. Computer use with a cerebral palsied child for story comprehension and…

  5. Secretary General Xi Jinping’s Language Power and Profound Meaning of Anti-Corruption and Advocacy of Clean Government%习近平反腐倡廉论述的语言力量及深刻意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡娟

    2015-01-01

    Language is the blouse of thought; power of language is derived from deep understanding and accurate grasp of the problem. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, Secretary General Xi Jinping has delivered a series of important speeches about the construction of clean and honest administration and struggle against corruption, using vivid and profound metaphors, sharp and simple vernaculars and slangs, vivid and philosophical poetical quotations, in which are contained subtle allusions delightful to hear and see, and which, looking far ahead and aiming high, and in that enormous language power, contain pro-found thoughts. Xi’s language power of anti-corruption and advocacy of clean government come from his strong awareness of development, denoting the importance of anti-corruption and advocacy of clean government, from his strong sense of responsi-bility, from his profound studies of Chinese ancient civilization, implying humanitarian care in anti-corruption and clean gov-ernment;the power comes from his sincere compassion with the mass, implying the popularity of anti-corruption. Xi’s elabora-tions of clean government and anti-corruption, which are meaningful and charismatic, have a charm in the management of state affairs; they show the position, attitudes, willingness and emotions of the Chinese communists, and are to be continuously re-newed, sure to have a far-reaching influence.%语言是思想的外衣,语言的力量源自于对问题的深刻理解和准确把握。党的十八大以来,习近平总书记就党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争发表了一系列重要讲话,运用形象而又深刻的比喻,犀利而又易懂的俗文俚语,生动而又富有哲理的古文诗句,既用典精妙、喜闻乐见,又高瞻远瞩、思想深邃,呈现出巨大的语言力量。习近平总书记反腐倡廉论述的语言力量源于他强烈的忧患意识,蕴含反腐倡廉的重要性;源于他强烈的问题意识,蕴含反腐倡廉

  6. An Ever Evolving Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    In Beijing,everyone speaks Mandarin,but elsewhere in China people speak a variety of regional dialects.Generally speaking,everyone can read and write Chinese.China is a linguistically conservative country.In fact,up until the beginning of the 20th century,Chinese was written the same way as it had been from the 7th to 10th centuries during the Tang Dynasty.Moreover,Tang officials wrote a language that differed from their spoken language.These courtiers wcre the educated elite,while over 90 percent of the population was illiterate.

  7. Generalization: The Nature of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Judith R.

    1988-01-01

    Children's knowledge and control of a language pattern changes throughout the course of its acquisition. Language interventionists concerned about generalization may need to distinguish between activities that will promote rule learning and activities that will promote effortless rule utilization. (Author/DB)

  8. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Judith F; Bobb, Susan C; Hoshino, Noriko

    2014-06-01

    A series of discoveries in the last two decades has changed the way we think about bilingualism and its implications for language and cognition. One is that both languages are always active. The parallel activation of the two languages is thought to give rise to competition that imposes demands on the bilingual to control the language not in use to achieve fluency in the target language. The second is that there are consequences of bilingualism that affect the native as well as the second language. The native language changes in response to second language use. The third is that the consequences of bilingualism are not limited to language but appear to reflect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally. The focus of recent research on bilingualism has been to understand the relation between these discoveries and the implications they hold for language, cognition, and the brain across the lifespan.

  10. ORCODE. 77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.

    1977-03-29

    ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.

  11. From Language Revival to Language Removal? The Teaching of Titular Languages in the National Republics of Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Zamyatin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Minority language education has been planned in post-Soviet Russia for two decades. During this period, language policy in education has shifted from compulsory to voluntary study of native languages in school. The effect of this move in policy and its relation to general trends on language education has not yet been systematically evaluated. Addressing this gap,the current article employs a quantitative method to calculate dynamics in the relative share of native language learners attending school. This study demonstrates that, after the breakdown of the Soviet Union, the significant investments by regional authorities to extend titular language teaching resulted in the provision of native language teaching to most of the titular students in some autonomous republics, notably the Turkic republics in the Volga and Ural areas. In contrast, steps for the promotion of titular languages in the Finno-Ugric republics have had less impact on native language teaching. Throughout the two post-Soviet decades, the insufficient amount of teaching of the Finno-Ugric languages in titular republics failed to ensure the transfer of language competence to a considerable proportion of children. This failure to ensure revival of the titular languages may accelerate the language shift from minority languages towards Russian.

  12. 28 CFR 55.14 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.14 General. (a) This...) and section 203(c) concerning the provision of minority language materials and assistance and some...

  13. Towards a Theory of Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, Jacqueline van

    2008-01-01

    "We have seen at the workshop a diversity of measurements and a no less diverse amount of different phenomena. Shared areas were acquisition phenomena in Romance languages and more general: the beginnings for a true theory of language acquisition. I will not attempt to evaluate the various contributions here. All of this must get its time to sink in. Yet, the general point of our endeavors, - the theory of language acquisition -, may be underlined to gain a further outlook"

  14. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  15. Language policy from below:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    internationalisation, and English is accordingly promoted as the ‘obvious’ language of instruction for international education in many university policies. This article argues that the idea that university internationalisation should equal the exclusive use of English as a lingua franca is essentially misguided...... groups at an international study programme in Denmark were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis shows that although there is a quantitative preference for English in the three groups which matches the general pro-English language ideology at the programme, the groups have nevertheless......, to varying degrees, developed practice-based language policies ‘from below’ that allow for alternating and sometimes syncretic use of English and Danish....

  16. Implications of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis on Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹冬伟; 齐茜

    2011-01-01

    @@ Foreign language teaclung generally refers to the theory and practice of teaching a foreign language.It has close connection with linguistics, psychology, education, philosophy, sociology and other disciplines.Since linguistics and foreign language teaching both study language phenomena on the aspects of theory and practice, the two are much closely related to each other.

  17. Language Change and Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present diachronic changes in terms of the conditions of first language acquisition. Grammars, seen as mental organs, may change between two generations. A change is initiated when (a population of learners converge on a grammatical system which differs in at least one parameter value from the system internalized by the speakers of the previous generation. Learnability issues then connect to both language acquisition and language change, and understanding language changes depends on understanding how children acquire their native language. Acquisition is a process in which Universal Grammar (UG interacts with a context-specific set of Primary Linguistic Data (PLD: the linguistic input to the child-learner and uses these PLD as the source for triggers or cues that map the innate (preexperience knowledge to a mature grammar. If a certain phenomenon has survived through many generations, it must have been reflected clearly in the PLD. Then, if we note that it has changed, something in the language performance of the previous generation must have changed, and thereby paved the way for a new interpretation. Innovation leading to linguistic variation in the PLD and gradual changes in PLD play a central role in the explanation here: the immediate cause of a grammar change must lie in some alternation in the PLD. We will look at how the language spoken in a certain community (E-language may gradually become different from the language that originally served as the triggering experience. These changes in the E-language also mean changes in the input available to the child-learners of the next generation and a motivation for a different parameter setting has arisen.

  18. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  19. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Raymond C.

    This handbook is a general introduction to the handbooks, methods, and materials used in Peace Corps language training classes. The first part of the handbook introduces the reader to the nature of language teaching and gives a general introduction to the handbooks. It also provides a more detailed description of the handbooks on (1) communication…

  20. Dichotic listening performance predicts language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Helland, Turid

    2006-05-01

    Dichotic listening performance is considered a reliable and valid procedure for the assessment of language lateralisation in the brain. However, the documentation of a relationship between language functions and dichotic listening performance is sparse, although it is accepted that dichotic listening measures language perception. In particular, language comprehension should show close correspondence to perception of language stimuli. In the present study, we tested samples of reading-impaired and normally achieving children between 10 and 13 years of age with tests of reading skills, language comprehension, and dichotic listening to consonant-vowel (CV) syllables. A high correlation between the language scores and the dichotic listening performance was expected. However, since the left ear score is believed to be an error when assessing language laterality, covariation was expected for the right ear scores only. In addition, directing attention to one ear input was believed to reduce the influence of random factors, and thus show a more concise estimate of left hemisphere language capacity. Thus, a stronger correlation between language comprehension skills and the dichotic listening performance when attending to the right ear was expected. The analyses yielded a positive correlation between the right ear score in DL and language comprehension, an effect that was stronger when attending to the right ear. The present results confirm the assumption that dichotic listening with CV syllables measures an aspect of language perception and language skills that is related to general language comprehension.

  1. General purpose modeling languages for configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit

    In the later years, there has been an important need for companies to reduce their costs while proposing highly customized products. Indeed, today's customers demand products with lower prices, higher quality and faster delivery, but they also want products customized to match their unique needs....

  2. The Neurobiology of Affect in Language. A Supplement to "Language Learning."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a theory of how the psychology and neurobiology of stimulus appraisal influence variability in second language acquisition, and extends the notion of affect developed for second language acquisition to primary language acquisition and to cognition in general. The first chapter lays out a psychological framework that develops…

  3. Cognitive predictors of language development in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impair? ment (SLI) was followed over a 2

  4. Cognitive predictors of language development in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Language development is generally viewed as a multifactorial process. There are increasing indications that this similarly holds for the problematic language development process. Aims: A population of 97 young Dutch children with specific language impair? ment (SLI) was followed over a

  5. Retailer’s fixed markup of chain-to-chain competition under demand uncer-tainty and vertical restraints%需求不确定和纵向约束的链与链竞争固定加价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海霞; 艾兴政; 马建华; 何雪峰

    2015-01-01

    基于需求不确定和纵向约束的链与链竞争环境,识别固定加价合同选择的绩效改进条件和博弈均衡特征,并进一步分析市场需求波动风险、市场规模、市场份额、价格竞争、零售商预测能力及固定加价比例对合同选择行为的影响。研究发现:当横向价格竞争相对较弱,零售终端的市场份额相对较大时,基于纵向约束的固定加价合同是实现供应链系统绩效改进的贝叶斯占优均衡;若此时固定加价的比例相对适中且市场需求波动风险不是很高,或者固定加价的比例较大但市场需求波动的风险相对适中,则固定加价合同是实现制造商和零售商Pareto绩效均改进的贝叶斯均衡;而若价格竞争非常激烈,则无纵向约束的批发价格合同能形成实现供应链系统绩效Pareto改进的占优贝叶斯均衡。%Based on chain-to-chain price competition model which was defined by two manufacturers and two exclusive retailers under demand uncertainty and vertical restraints,this paper not only identified the market conditions of performance improvement equilibriums for supply chain’s members when the manufacturer adopt-ed the contract of the retailer’s fixed markup,but also investigated the impact of demand risk,market size, market share,price competition,demand forecast ability and markup ratio on the performance improvement e-quilibriums. The results show that:when price competition between the two competing supply chains is weaker relatively and market share is bigger relatively,the retailer ’s fixed markup will improve the whole supply chain’s performance and produce a dominant equilibrium and Bayesian equilibrium for the whole supply chain;what is more,if the markup ratio is relatively modest and the demand risk is not very high,or the markup ratio is bigger relatively and the demand risk is relatively modest at the same time,the retailer’s fixed markup will realize a

  6. Spoken Language Activation Alters Subsequent Sign Language Activation in L2 Learners of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.

  7. Using abstract language signals power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  8. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the ro

  9. The road to language learning is iconic: evidence from British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L; Vinson, David P; Woll, Bencie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    An arbitrary link between linguistic form and meaning is generally considered a universal feature of language. However, iconic (i.e., nonarbitrary) mappings between properties of meaning and features of linguistic form are also widely present across languages, especially signed languages. Although recent research has shown a role for sign iconicity in language processing, research on the role of iconicity in sign-language development has been mixed. In this article, we present clear evidence that iconicity plays a role in sign-language acquisition for both the comprehension and production of signs. Signed languages were taken as a starting point because they tend to encode a higher degree of iconic form-meaning mappings in their lexicons than spoken languages do, but our findings are more broadly applicable: Specifically, we hypothesize that iconicity is fundamental to all languages (signed and spoken) and that it serves to bridge the gap between linguistic form and human experience.

  10. Automatic Language Identification with Discriminative Language Characterization Based on SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hongbin; Li, Ming; Lu, Ping; Yan, Yonghong

    Robust automatic language identification (LID) is the task of identifying the language from a short utterance spoken by an unknown speaker. The mainstream approaches include parallel phone recognition language modeling (PPRLM), support vector machine (SVM) and the general Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These systems map the cepstral features of spoken utterances into high level scores by classifiers. In this paper, in order to increase the dimension of the score vector and alleviate the inter-speaker variability within the same language, multiple data groups based on supervised speaker clustering are employed to generate the discriminative language characterization score vectors (DLCSV). The back-end SVM classifiers are used to model the probability distribution of each target language in the DLCSV space. Finally, the output scores of back-end classifiers are calibrated by a pair-wise posterior probability estimation (PPPE) algorithm. The proposed language identification frameworks are evaluated on 2003 NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) databases and the experiments show that the system described in this paper produces comparable results to the existing systems. Especially, the SVM framework achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 4.0% in the 30-second task and outperforms the state-of-art systems by more than 30% relative error reduction. Besides, the performances of proposed PPRLM and GMMs algorithms achieve an EER of 5.1% and 5.0% respectively.

  11. How general is general information construct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Zarevski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a small number of constructs in the field of differential psychology that have raised so much debate between psychologists and professionals in related disciplines as is the case of general (verbal information construct. It seemed reasonable to test the validity of this construct measured with general information test in comparison with other measures of knowledge (cultural knowledge, vocabulary, knowledge of the most recent events, foreign language knowledge, and a standard verbal type g test. A sample of 376 candidates for state services was tested in a selection situation. Three analyses were conducted to determine the position of general information test in the space of other verbal competency measures. The first analysis questioned latent structure of the space of four tests having the same format and asking about the knowledge of international terms, general culture, knowledge of most recent events, and general information. The second analysis included the g-factor intelligence test so to see how the above described structure changes when this new test is introduced. The third analysis introduced an English language test. In all of the three component analyses only one eigenvalue was larger than 1 and it explained between 52 and 64% of variance. In all analyses general information test had the highest projection on the only significant latent dimension of these cognitive spaces. In other words, it can be concluded that the construct of general information is in the center of this hyperconus. That is why we consider measurement of general information knowledge, as well as the construct itself, to be an important question in psychological diagnostics. Thus, it is important to go further with the investigation of this construct because it does not seem that it is named general information by accident.

  12. Language Editing at Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.

    2011-07-01

    In 2002, the A&A Board of Directors voted that all articles must be written in English and decided to improve the overall quality of the language in the articles with the help of a team of language editors. This article reviews the general advantages of editing the English expression and describes both the aims of this effort and its place in the full publication process. This is followed by the Guide to language editing that has been available on the Journal's website for several years now.

  13. The language of integrative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Stephen Budgell

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical language,also known as biomedical English,is sufficiently different from general English to warrant treatment as a distinct language.Biomedical language has its own conventions of grammar,phraseology and discourse,as well as a lexicon which is complex and esoteric.Furthermore,each sub-discipline,such as integrative medicine,has a unique vocabulary which must be mastered in order to achieve fluency.In this article,the vocabulary specific to acupuncture is identified,and strategies are introduced to master the use of that vocabulary.

  14. Critical language awareness and English language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋灵

    2007-01-01

    Critical Language Awareness (CLA) is an approach to language teaching based on a critical sociocultural theory of language and critical discourse analysis. CLA has a great relationship with English language teaching, but there are few articles talking about it. So the author here will present her understanding of the relationship between CLA and English language.

  15. Thru but not wisht: language, writing, and universal reading theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Languages may get the writing system they deserve or merely a writing system they can live with-adaption without optimization. A universal theory of reading reflects the general dependence of writing on language and the adaptations required by the demands of specific languages and their written forms. The theory also can be informed by research that addresses a specific language and orthography, gaining universality through demonstrating adaptations to language and writing input.

  16. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS –AN OVER VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the brief history of English language teaching (ELT) methods in general and the type of ELT methods. It also presents the recent research on English language teaching methods and the debates that move towards the post-method pedagogy in second language teaching/learning. The paper deals with the brief summary of the methods and approaches in language teaching from Grammar-translation method to Communicative Language Teaching. It also looks the debate on post-method pedagogy.

  17. Implications of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis on Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹冬伟; 齐茜

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction Foreign language teaching generally refers to the theory and practice of teaching a foreign language.It has close connection with linguistics,psychology,education,philosophy,sociology and other disciplines.Since linguistics and foreign lan

  18. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    eclecticism in the teaching and learning of basic and elementary Igbo for general ... approaches to language teaching and learning, like, learner-centeredness. ...... Ahmad M. & Yakasai, H. M. (Eds.) Language, literature and culture in a.

  19. The Influence of Gender Differences on Language Learning Styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟萍

    2009-01-01

    Generally language learning styles are classified as sensory style and cognitive style. This thesis analyzes the different characteristics of male and female college students in their language learning styles, thus put forwards the strategy of teaching through individuality.

  20. Second Language Education in Canada: Innovation, Research, and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. H. (David)

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of language teaching in Canada today and describes some general trends in language pedagogy. Current issues in the field are highlighted. Included is a two-page comment by Birgit Harley. (MT)