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Sample records for generalized em wave

  1. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. General method for designing wave shape transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu

    2008-12-22

    An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.

  3. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  4. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  5. Wave dynamics of generalized continua

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdoev, Alexander G; Shekoyan, Ashot V

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to problems of propagation and stability of linear and nonlinear waves in continuous media with complex structure. It considers the different media, such as solid with cavities, preliminary deformed disperse medium, solid with porosity filled by the electrically conductive and non-conductive liquid, magnetoelastic, piezo-semiconductors, crystals with dislocations, composites with inclusions, an electrically conductive asymmetrical liquid, a mixture of gas with a drop liquid. The book also considers the propagation of a laser beam through a two-level medium. The presented results are based on methods of evolution and modulation equations that were developed by the authors. The book is intended for scientific and technical researchers, students and post-graduate students specializing in mechanics of continuous media, physical acoustics, and physics of the solid state.

  6. Spherical shock waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutku, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We present the metric appropriate to a spherical shock wave in the framework of general relativity. This is a Petrov type-N vacuum solution of the Einstein field equations where the metric is continuous across the shock and the Riemann tensor suffers a step-function discontinuity. Spherical gravitational waves are described by type-N Robinson-Trautman metrics. However, for shock waves the Robinson-Trautman solutions are unacceptable because the metric becomes discontinuous in the Robinson-Trautman coordinate system. Other coordinate systems that have so far been introduced for describing Robinson-Trautman solutions also suffer from the same defect. We shall present the C 0 -form of the metric appropriate to spherical shock waves using Penrose's approach of identification with warp. Further extensions of Penrose's method yield accelerating, as well as coupled electromagnetic-gravitational shock-wave solutions

  7. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-02-01

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  8. Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...

  9. Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.

  10. Multi wave method for the generalized form of BBM equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildik, Necdet; Tandogan, Yusuf Ali

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we apply the multi-wave method to find new multi wave solutions for an important nonlinear physical model. This model is well known as generalized form of Benjamin Bona Mahony (BBM) equation. Using the mathematics software Mathematica, we compute the traveling wave solutions. Then, the multi wave solutions including periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions are obtained by the multi wave method. It is seen that this method is very useful mathematical approach for generalized form of BBM equation.

  11. Exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized shallow water wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; El-labany, S.K.; Zahran, M.A.; Sabry, R.

    2003-01-01

    Using homogeneous balance method an auto-Baecklund transformation for the generalized shallow water wave equation is obtained. Then solitary wave solutions are found. Also, modified extended tanh-function method is applied and new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained. The obtained solutions include rational, periodical, singular and solitary wave solutions

  12. Exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized shallow water wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwakil, S.A.; El-labany, S.K.; Zahran, M.A.; Sabry, R

    2003-07-01

    Using homogeneous balance method an auto-Baecklund transformation for the generalized shallow water wave equation is obtained. Then solitary wave solutions are found. Also, modified extended tanh-function method is applied and new exact travelling wave solutions are obtained. The obtained solutions include rational, periodical, singular and solitary wave solutions.

  13. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  14. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  15. Traveling wave behavior for a generalized fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2008-01-01

    There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, chemistry and biology. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In the present paper, we study a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation, which can be regarded as a generalized Fisher equation. Applying the Cole-Hopf transformation and the first integral method, we obtain a class of traveling solitary wave solutions for this generalized Fisher equation

  16. Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, Paul M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-21

    In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.

  17. EM-wave absorption properties of hollow spiral iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    Hollow iron spiral particles were fabricated successfully by thermal decomposition method, and they were heat-treated at different temperatures in N 2 atmosphere. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of hollow iron spiral particles were investigated ranging between 1 GHz and 18 GHz. The results indicated that the phase structures of the particles changed from amorphous to nanocrystal with the treating temperature rising, also causing the significant change in electromagnetic parameters and the reflection loss. The reflection loss could reach −33 dB at 16.2 GHz, indicating that the hollow iron spiral particles had the potential to be used in prepare the a high property EM-wave absorber. - Highlights: • Hollow iron spiral particles were fabricated by thermal decomposition method. • The particles changed from amorphous to nanocrystals with heat-treatment. • Particles’ EM-parameters have a great change after high temperature heat-treatment. • RL results show the particles have potential to be high property EM-wave absorber

  18. On wave propagation in a random micropolar generalized thermoelastic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Manindra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavours to study aspects of wave propagation in a random generalized-thermal micropolar elastic medium. The smooth perturbation technique conformable to stochastic differential equations has been employed. Six different types of waves propagate in the random medium. The dispersion equations have been derived. The effects due to random variations of micropolar elastic and generalized thermal parameters have been computed. Randomness causes change of phase speed and attenuation of waves. Attenuation coefficients for high frequency waves have been computed. Second moment properties have been briefly discussed with application to wave propagation in the random micropolar elastic medium. Integrals involving correlation functions have been transformed to radial forms. A special type of generalized thermo-mechanical auto-correlation functions has been used to approximately compute effects of random variations of parameters. Uncoupled problem has been briefly outlined.

  19. If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Stanley J.

    2012-10-01

    Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

  20. Classification of single travelling wave solutions to the generalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 80, No. 5. — journal of. May 2013 physics pp. 771–783. Classification of single travelling wave solutions to the generalized Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation ... linear ion-acoustic waves in a strongly magnetized lossless plasma composed of cold ions and hot isothermal electrons [10].

  1. On wave propagation in a random micropolar generalized thermoelastic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Manindra; Bhattacharyya Rabindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This paper endeavours to study aspects of wave propagation in a random generalized-thermal micropolar elastic medium. The smooth perturbation technique conformable to stochastic differential equations has been employed. Six different types of waves propagate in the random medium. The dispersion equations have been derived. The effects due to random variations of micropolar elastic and generalized thermal parameters have been computed. Randomness causes change of phase speed and attenuation of...

  2. Nonlinear approximation with general wave packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten

    2005-01-01

    We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete...

  3. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those......We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  4. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  5. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 88; Issue 4. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  6. Testing General Relativity Using Gravitational-Wave Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing General Relativity Using Gravitational-Wave. Observations. Parameswaran Ajith ICTS-TIFR, Bangalore. On behalf of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and. Virgo Collaboration. 27th Mid-Year Meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 1 July 2016, IISc Bangalore. LIGO-G1601410-v2 indig ...

  7. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 4. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium: Biot's theories and homogenisation theory. M D Sharma. Volume 116 Issue 4 August ... Keywords. Anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid; Biot's theory; homogenisation theory; phase velocity.

  8. Impulsive gravitational waves in general massive 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Ahmet; Dereli, Tekin

    2017-10-01

    Impulsive, nondiverging, Petrov-Segre type-N gravitational wave solutions to a general massive three-dimensional gravity in the de Sitter, anti-de Sitter, and flat Minkowski backgrounds are constructed in a unified manner by using the exterior algebra of differential forms.

  9. Gravitational Waves and Gravitational Inertial Waves in the General Theory of Relativity: A Theory and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that gravitational waves and gravitational inertial waves are linked to a special structure of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor. Proceeding from this a classification of the waves is given, according to Petrov’s classification of Einstein spaces and gravitational fields located therein. The world-lines deviation equation for two free particles (the Synge equation is deduced and that for two force- interacting particles (the Synge-Weber equation in the terms of chronometric invariants - physical observable quantities in the General Theory of Relativity. The main result drawn from the deduced equations is that in the field of a falling gravitational wave there are not only spatial deviations between the particles but also deviations in the time flow. Therefore an effect from a falling gravitational wave can manifest only if the particles located on the neighbouring world-lines (both geodesics and non- geodesics are in motion at the initial moment of time: gravitational waves can act only on moving neighbouring particles. This effect is purely parametric, not of a resonance kind. Neither free-mass detectors nor solid-body detectors (the Weber pigs used in current experiments can register gravitational waves, because the experimental statement (freezing the pigs etc. forces the particles of which they consist to be at rest. In aiming to detect gravitational waves other devices should be employed, where neighbouring particles are in relative motion at high speeds. Such a device could, for instance, consist of two parallel laser beams.

  10. Generalized Sagdeev potential theory for shock waves modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an innovative approach to study the shock wave propagation using the Sagdeev potential method. We also present an analytical solution for Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB equation families with a generalized form of the nonlinearity term which agrees well with the numerical one. The novelty of the current approach is that it is based on a simple analogy of the particle in a classical potential with the variable particle energy providing one with a deeper physical insight into the problem and can easily be extended to more complex physical situations. We find that the current method well describes both monotonic and oscillatory natures of the dispersive-diffusive shock structures in different viscous fluid configurations. It is particularly important that all essential parameters of the shock structure can be deduced directly from the Sagdeev potential in small and large potential approximation regimes. Using the new method, we find that supercnoidal waves can decay into either compressive or rarefactive shock waves depending on the initial wave amplitude. Current investigation provides a general platform to study a wide range of phenomena related to nonlinear wave damping and interactions in diverse fluids including plasmas.

  11. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves: General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    An outstanding issue in the computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  12. Asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    An outstanding issue in computational analysis of time dependent problems is the imposition of appropriate radiation boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. Accurate conditions are developed which are based on the asymptotic analysis of wave propagation over long ranges. Employing the method of steepest descents, dominant wave groups are identified and simple approximations to the dispersion relation are considered in order to derive local boundary operators. The existence of a small number of dominant wave groups may be expected for systems with dissipation. Estimates of the error as a function of domain size are derived under general hypotheses, leading to convergence results. Some practical aspects of the numerical construction of the asymptotic boundary operators are also discussed.

  13. A Generalized Representation Formula for Systems of Tensor Wave Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Arick

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we generalize the Kirchhoff-Sobolev parametrix of Klainerman and Rodnianski (Hyperbolic Equ. 4(3):401-433, 2007) to systems of tensor wave equations with additional first-order terms. We also present a different derivation, which better highlights that such representation formulas are supported entirely on past null cones. This generalization of (Hyperbolic Equ. 4(3):401-433, 2007) is a key component for extending Klainerman and Rodnianski's breakdown criterion result for Einstein-vacuum spacetimes in (J. Amer. Math. Soc. 23(2):345-382, 2009) to Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills spacetimes.

  14. Gravitational waves from orbiting binaries without general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert C.

    2018-03-01

    Using analogies with electromagnetic radiation, we present a calculation of the properties of gravitational radiation emitted by orbiting binary objects. The calculation produces results that have the same dependence on the masses of the orbiting objects, the orbital frequency, and the mass separation as do the results from the linear version of general relativity (GR). However, the calculation yields polarization, angular distributions, and overall power results that differ from those of GR. Nevertheless, the calculation produces waveforms that are very similar to those observed by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-VIRGO) gravitational wave collaboration in 2015 up to the point at which the binary merger occurs. The details of the calculation should be understandable by upper-level physics students and physicists who are not experts in GR.

  15. General traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids via the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method is significant, powerful and straightforward mathematical tool for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs arise in the field of engineering, applied mathematics and physics. Dispersive effects due to microstructure of materials combined with nonlinearities give rise to solitary waves. In this article, the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method has been applied to construct general traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids. Abundant exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions have been found. These solutions might play important role in engineering fields.

  16. Waves in plasmas (part 1 - wave-plasma interaction general background)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers a series of transparencies presented in the framework of the week-long lectures 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to the physics of wave-plasma interaction. The structure of this document is as follows: 1) wave and diverse plasmas, 2) basic equations (Maxwell equations), 3) waves in a fluid plasma, and 4) waves in a kinetic plasma (collisionless plasma)

  17. Travelling Solitary Wave Solutions for Generalized Time-delayed Burgers-Fisher Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xijun; Han Libo; Li Xi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, travelling wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation are studied. By using the first-integral method, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, we obtain a class of travelling solitary wave solutions for the generalized time-delayed Burgers-Fisher equation. A minor error in the previous article is clarified. (general)

  18. Persistence of travelling waves in a generalized Fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrychko, Yuliya N.; Blyuss, Konstantin B.

    2009-01-01

    Travelling waves of the Fisher equation with arbitrary power of nonlinearity are studied in the presence of long-range diffusion. Using analogy between travelling waves and heteroclinic solutions of corresponding ODEs, we employ the geometric singular perturbation theory to prove the persistence of these waves when the influence of long-range effects is small. When the long-range diffusion coefficient becomes larger, the behaviour of travelling waves can only be studied numerically. In this case we find that starting with some values, solutions of the model lose monotonicity and become oscillatory

  19. General characteristics of long waves around the South African Coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available and their effect on moored ships. Measurements indicate that the South African coast and ports are exposed to relatively high levels of long wave energy. This exposure can lead to significant mooring problems in some of the ports. Data on long waves have been...

  20. Wave-Breaking Phenomena and Existence of Peakons for a Generalized Compressible Elastic-Rod Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration in this paper is the Cauchy problem of a generalized hyperelastic-rod wave equation. We first derive a wave-breaking mechanism for strong solutions, which occurs in finite time for certain initial profiles. In addition, we determine the existence of some new peaked solitary wave solutions.

  1. Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Frans

    We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string

  2. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. I - General asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.

  3. A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave...... to the previous theory of two-wave mixing, the theory presented here is more general and the application of the theory to the photorefractive materials, Kerr media and semiconductor broad-area amplifiers are described....

  4. EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.

  5. Maximum Likelihood in a Generalized Linear Finite Mixture Model by Using the EM Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    A generalized linear finite mixture model and an EM algorithm to fit the model to data are described. By this approach the finite mixture model is embedded within the general framework of generalized linear models (GLMs). Implementation of the proposed EM algorithm can be readily done in statistical

  6. New exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized F-expansion method with a computerized symbolic computation is used for constructing a new exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a source. As a result, many exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which include new periodic wave solution, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in physics

  7. Generalized plane waves in Poincaré gauge theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Milutin; Cvetković, Branislav; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2017-09-01

    A family of exact vacuum solutions, representing generalized plane waves propagating on the (anti-)de Sitter background, is constructed in the framework of Poincaré gauge theory. The wave dynamics is defined by the general Lagrangian that includes all parity even and parity odd invariants up to the second order in the gauge field strength. The structure of the solution shows that the wave metric significantly depends on the spacetime torsion.

  8. Tunneling-time calculations for general finite wave packets based on the presence-time formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barco, O. del; Ortuno, M.; Gasparian, V.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the tunneling-time problem via the presence time formalism. With this method we reproduce previous results for very long wave packets and we are able to calculate the tunneling time for general wave packets of arbitrary shape and length. The tunneling time for a general wave packet is equal to the average over the energy components of the standard phase time. With this approach we can also calculate the time uncertainty. We have checked that the results obtained with this approach agree extremely well with numerical simulations of the wave packet evolution

  9. Generalizations of pp-wave spacetimes in higher dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coley, A.; Milson, R.; Pelavas, N.; Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Zalaletdinov, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2003), s. 104020-1-104020-4 ISSN 0556-2821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : scalar invariants * pp-wave spacetimes * curvature invariants Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.599, year: 2003

  10. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... which is one model in plasma physics and solid physics. [3]. Hamdi et al [4] obtained an exact solitary wave solution to eq. (1.2). They also derived three conserva- tion laws and three invariants of motion for eq. (1.2). [5]. Antonova and Biswas [6] exploited the soliton perturbation theory to eq. (1.2) with γ = 1.

  11. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  12. Exact periodic wave solutions to the generalized Nizhnik–Novikov ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    f(ξ) = tanh ξ, g(ξ) = sech ξ, and the method is called the two-family truncation method [11,12]. It is worth noticing that when Bi ... its many doubly periodic wave solutions and study their limit cases. Substituting u = u(ξ),v = v(ξ),w = w(ξ),ξ = kx + ly ..... ematical Society, Providence, 1997). [11] R Conte and M Musette, Physica D69, ...

  13. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation .... will be used in §3 for our purpose. For convenience, we use a version of this theory due to Jones [2]. For the system. { x (t) = f (x, y, ε), y (t) = εg(x, y, ε),. (2.1) where x ∈ Rn, y ...

  14. A class of doubly periodic wave solutions for the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yanze

    2005-01-01

    A general solution including two arbitrary functions is first obtained for the generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation by means of WTC truncation method. A class of doubly periodic wave solutions, which are expressed as rational functions of the Jacobi elliptic functions with different moduli, result from the general solution. Limit cases are considered and some new solitary structures are revealed. The interaction properties of periodic waves are numerically studied and found to be nonelastic. Under long wave limit, a two-dromion solution with the new solution structure is obtained and interaction between the two dromions is completely elastic

  15. Polarisations of quasi-waves in a general anisotropic porous solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave propagation is studied in a general anisotropic poroelastic solid saturated with a viscous fluid flowing through its pores of anisotropic permeability. The extended version of Biot's theory is used to derive a system of modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in such media.

  16. Solution of damped generalized regularized long-wave equation using a modified homotopy analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Ghazala; Sadaf, Maasoomah

    2018-02-01

    A modified algorithm for homotopy analysis method (MHAM) is presented for the solution of nonlinear damped generalized regularized long-wave equation. The modified algorithm has less computational cost than standard HAM and also overcomes the difficulty in calculating complicated integrals. The MHAM is applied on different cases of the damped generalized regularized long-wave equation subject to suitable initial conditions. The numerical results show that the approximate solutions are in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  17. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  18. Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G

    2013-01-01

    We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10 -5 - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.

  19. Vector soliton of self-induced transparency of a generalized love wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamashvili, G. T.

    2017-09-01

    A theory of acoustic self-induced transparency of a two-component vector soliton for a generalized Love wave is constructed. The three-layer system contains a resonance transition layer with paramagnetic impurity atoms or quantum dots. It is shown that, under these conditions, a vector soliton of the generalized Love wave can be formed. It oscillates at the sum and difference frequencies in the vicinity of the carrier wave frequency. Explicit analytical expressions for the parameters of a nonlinear surface acoustic wave are presented. The parameters depend on the elastic properties of the contacting media, the resonance transition layer, and the transverse structure of the wave. Numerical calculations are carried out for the three-layer Al2O3/ZnO/SiO2 system. The significant difference between the two-component vector soliton and singlecomponent soliton is shown.

  20. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  1. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: Part I. The time-independent case

    CERN Document Server

    Killingbeck, J P

    2003-01-01

    This is part 1 of a two-part review on wave operator theory and methods. The basic theory of the time-independent wave operator is presented in terms of partitioned matrix theory for the benefit of general readers, with a discussion of the links between the matrix and projection operator approaches. The matrix approach is shown to lead to simple derivations of the wave operators and effective Hamiltonians of Loewdin, Bloch, Des Cloizeaux and Kato as well as to some associated variational forms. The principal approach used throughout stresses the solution of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator, leading to the construction of the effective Hamiltonians of Bloch and of Des Cloizeaux. Several mathematical techniques which are useful in implementing this approach are explained, some of them being relatively little known in the area of wave operator calculations. The theoretical discussion is accompanied by several specimen numerical calculations which apply the described techniques to a selection ...

  2. Travelling wave solutions in a class of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a new generalization of KdV equation u t = u x u l-2 + α[2u xxx u p + 4pu p-1 u x u xx + p(p - 1)u p-2 (u x ) 3 ] and investigate its bifurcation of travelling wave solutions. From the above analysis, we know that there exists compacton and cusp waves in the system. We explain the reason that these non-smooth travelling wave solution arise by using the bifurcation theory

  3. A Possible Generalization of Acoustic Wave Equation Using the Concept of Perturbed Derivative Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard version of acoustic wave equation is modified using the concept of the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative. Some properties of the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. Some theorems are generalized. The modified equation is approximately solved by using the variational iteration method and the Green function technique. The numerical simulation of solution of the modified equation gives a better prediction than the standard one.

  4. Generalized Plane Waves and Waveguide Modes in a Moving Isotropic Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalund, Mogens; Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The Lorentz transformation of plane-wave-like solutions and general waveguide modes is analyzed. A propagation and attenuation tensor is introduced. General Doppler equations and invariant phase quantities are shown to be simple consequences of the formalism. The concept of dispersion is discussed...... and a covariant condition connected with this concept is given. Covariant wave equations and dispersion relations are derived in a simple manner. The dispersion relations are used to analyze some special waveguide solutions including cutoff phenomena. ©1971 The American Institute of Physics...

  5. Single Peak Soliton and Periodic Cusp Wave of the Generalized Schrodinger-Boussinesq Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li-Jing; Tang, Sheng-Qiang; Zhao, Hai-Xia

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study peakon, cuspon, smooth soliton and periodic cusp wave of the generalized Schrödinger-Boussinesq equations. Based on the method of dynamical systems, the generalized Schrödinger-Boussinesq equations are shown to have new the parametric representations of peakon, cuspon, smooth soliton and periodic cusp wave solutions. Under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11361017, 11161013 and Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi under Grant Nos. 2012GXNSFAA053003, 2013GXNSFAA019010, and Program for Innovative Research Team of Guilin University of Electronic Technology

  6. Analysis of ray trajectories of flexural waves propagating over generalized acoustic black hole indentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Cheng, Li

    2018-03-01

    An Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) indentation embedded in thin-walled structures has been proved remarkably useful for broadband flexural wave focalization, in which the phase velocity of the flexural waves and the refractive index of the media undergo gradual changes from the outside towards the center of the indentation. A generalized two-dimensional ABH indentation can be defined by three geometric parameters: a power index, an extra thickness and a radius of a plateau at the indentation center. The dependence of the energy focalization on these parameters as well as the energy focalization process is of paramount importance for the understanding and design of effective ABH indentations. This work aims at investigating the energy focalization characteristics of flexural waves in such generalized ABH indentations. The calculation of the flexural ray trajectories is conducted to reveal and analyze the wave propagation features through numerical integration of the eikonal equation from the Geometric Acoustics Approximation (GAA). The theoretical results are verified by both experiment using wave visualization technique based on laser acoustic scanning method and finite element (FE) simulations. Finally, the influence of the geometric parameters on the flexural wave focalization characteristics in ABH indentations is discussed in detail.

  7. Effectiveness of radio waves application in modern general dental procedures: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Arslan; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Pikos, Michael A; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review indexed literature and provide an update on the effectiveness of high-frequency radio waves (HRW) application in modern general dentistry procedures. Indexed databases were searched to identify articles that assessed the efficacy of radio waves in dental procedures. Radiosurgery is a refined form of electrosurgery that uses waves of electrons at a radiofrequency ranging between 2 and 4 MHz. Radio waves have also been reported to cause much less thermal damage to peripheral tissues compared with electrosurgery or carbon dioxide laser-assisted surgery. Formation of reparative dentin in direct pulp capping procedures is also significantly higher when HRW are used to achieve hemostasis in teeth with minimally exposed dental pulps compared with traditional techniques for achieving hemostasis. A few case reports have reported that radiosurgery is useful for procedures such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, stage-two surgery for implant exposure, operculectomy, oral biopsy, and frenectomy. Radiosurgery is a relatively modern therapeutic methodology for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia; however, its long-term efficacy is unclear. Radio waves can also be used for periodontal procedures, such as gingivectomies, coronal flap advancement, harvesting palatal grafts for periodontal soft tissue grafting, and crown lengthening. Although there are a limited number of studies in indexed literature regarding the efficacy of radio waves in modern dentistry, the available evidence shows that use of radio waves is a modernization in clinical dentistry that might be a contemporary substitute for traditional clinical dental procedures.

  8. The Investigation of EM Scattering from the Time-Varying Overturning Wave Crest Model by the IEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electromagnetic (EM scattering of time-varying overturning wave crests is a worthwhile endeavor. Overturning wave crest is one of the reasons of sea spike generation, which increases the probability of false radar alarms and reduces the performance of multitarget detection in the environment. A three-dimensional (3D time-varying overturning wave crest model is presented in this paper; this 3D model is an improvement of the traditional two-dimensional (2D time-varying overturning wave crest model. The integral equation method (IEM was employed to investigate backward scattering radar cross sections (RCS at various incident angles of the 3D overturning wave crest model. The super phenomenon, where the intensity of horizontal polarization scattering is greater than that of vertical polarization scattering, is an important feature of sea spikes. Simulation results demonstrate that super phenomena may occur in some time samples as variations in the overturning wave crest.

  9. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: II. The time-dependent case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolicard, Georges [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Killingbeck, John P [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-10

    Part II of the review shows how the stationary Bloch wave operator of part I can be suitably modified to give a time-dependent wave operator. This operator makes it possible to use a relatively small active space in order to describe the dynamical processes which occur in quantum mechanical systems which have a time-dependent Hamiltonian. A close study is made of the links between the time-dependent and time-independent wave operators at the adiabatic limit; the analysis clarifies the way in which the wave operator formalism allows the time evolution of a system or a wave packet to be described in terms of a fast evolution inside the active space together with weak transitions out of this space which can be treated by perturbation methods. Two alternative wave operator equations of motion are derived and analysed. The first one is a non-linear differential equation in the usual Hilbert space; the second one is a differential equation in an extended Hilbert space with an extra time variable added and becomes equivalent to the usual Bloch equation when the Floquet Hamiltonian is taken in place of the ordinary Hamiltonian. A study is made of the close relationships between the time-dependent wave operator formalism, the Floquet theory and the (t, t') theory. Some original methods of solution of the two forms of wave operator equation are proposed and lead to new techniques of integration for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (e.g., the generalized Green equation procedure). Mixed procedures involving both the time-independent and time-dependent wave operators are shown to be applicable to the internal eigenstate problem for large complex matrices. A detailed account is given of the description of inelastic and photoreactive processes by means of the time-dependent wave operator formalism, with particular attention to laser-molecule interactions. The emphasis is on projection operator techniques, with special attention being given to the method of selection

  10. Generalized variational principles for ion acoustic plasma waves by He's semi-inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongmei

    2005-01-01

    Some generalized variational principles are obtained for ion-acoustic plasma waves by He's semi-inverse method. The obtained variational principle has profound implications in physical understandings, explaining the interaction between various variables in an energy view and the existence of conservation law

  11. Size-extensive wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo: A linear scaling generalized valence bond approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracchia, F.; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of multideterminantal Jastrow–Slater wave functions constructed with localized orbitals and designed to describe complex potential energy surfaces of molecular systems for use in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Inspired by the generalized valence bond formalism, we elaborate a

  12. New complex exact travelling wave solutions for the generalized-Zakharov equation with complex structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haci Mehmet Baskonus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the sine-Gordon expansion method which is one of the powerful methods to the generalized-Zakharov equation with complex structure. This algorithm yields new complex hyperbolic function solutions to the generalized-Zakharov equation with complex structure. Wolfram Mathematica 9 has been used throughout the paper for plotting two- and three-dimensional surface of travelling wave solutions obtained.

  13. GENERAL P, TYPE-I S, AND TYPE-II S WAVES IN ANELASTIC SOLIDS; INHOMOGENEOUS WAVE FIELDS IN LOW-LOSS SOLIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Wennerberg, Leif

    1985-01-01

    The physical characteristics for general plane-wave radiation fields in an arbitrary linear viscoelastic solid are derived. Expressions for the characteristics of inhomogeneous wave fields, derived in terms of those for homogeneous fields, are utilized to specify the characteristics and a set of reference curves for general P and S wave fields in arbitrary viscoelastic solids as a function of wave inhomogeneity and intrinsic material absorption. The expressions show that an increase in inhomogeneity of the wave fields cause the velocity to decrease, the fractional-energy loss (Q** minus **1) to increase, the deviation of maximum energy flow with respect to phase propagation to increase, and the elliptical particle motions for P and type-I S waves to approach circularity. Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous type-I S waves is shown to be greater than that for type-II S waves, with the deviation first increasing then decreasing with inhomogeneity. The mean energy densities (kinetic, potential, and total), the mean rate of energy dissipation, the mean energy flux, and Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous waves are shown to be greater than corresponding characteristics for homogeneous waves, with the deviations increasing as the inhomogeneity is increased for waves of fixed maximum displacement amplitude.

  14. Spiral waves in driven dusty plasma medium: Generalized hydrodynamic fluid description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Patel, Bhavesh; Das, Amita

    2018-04-01

    Spiral waves are observed in many natural phenomena. They have been extensively represented by the mathematical FitzHugh-Nagumo model [Barkley et al., Phys. Rev. A 42, 2489 (1990)] of excitable media. Also, in incompressible fluid simulations, the excitation of thermal spiral waves has been reported by Li et al. [Phys. of Fluids 22, 011701 (2010)]. In the present paper, the spatiotemporal development of spiral waves in the context of weak and strong coupling limits has been shown. While the weakly coupled medium has been represented by a simple fluid description, for strong coupling, a generalized visco-elastic fluid description has been employed. The medium has been driven by an external force in the form of a rotating electric field. It is shown that when the amplitude of force is small, the density perturbations in the medium are also small. In this case, the excitations do not develop as a spiral wave. Only when the amplitude of force is high so as to drive the density perturbations to nonlinear amplitudes does the spiral density wave formation occurs. The role of the forcing frequency and the effect of strong coupling and the sound velocity of medium in the formation and evolution of spiral waves have been investigated in detail.

  15. Higher-Order Squeezing of Quantum Field and the Generalized Uncertainty Relations in Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia

    1996-01-01

    It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of non-degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations in this process are also presented.

  16. Real time EM waves monitoring system for oil industry three phase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hajeri, S; Wylie, S R; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring fluid flow in a dynamic pipeline is a significant problem in the oil industry. In order to manage oil field wells efficiently, the oil industry requires accurate on line sensors to monitor the oil, gas, and water flow in the production pipelines. This paper describes a non-intrusive sensor that is based on an EM Waves cavity resonator. It determines and monitors the percentage volumes of each phase of three phase (oil, gas, and water) in the pipeline, using the resonant frequencies shifts that occur within an electromagnetic cavity resonator. A laboratory prototype version of the sensor system was constructed, and the experimental results were compared to the simulation results which were obtained by the use of High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS) software package.

  17. The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: Part I. The time-independent case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Jolicard, Georges [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2003-05-23

    This is part 1 of a two-part review on wave operator theory and methods. The basic theory of the time-independent wave operator is presented in terms of partitioned matrix theory for the benefit of general readers, with a discussion of the links between the matrix and projection operator approaches. The matrix approach is shown to lead to simple derivations of the wave operators and effective Hamiltonians of Loewdin, Bloch, Des Cloizeaux and Kato as well as to some associated variational forms. The principal approach used throughout stresses the solution of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator, leading to the construction of the effective Hamiltonians of Bloch and of Des Cloizeaux. Several mathematical techniques which are useful in implementing this approach are explained, some of them being relatively little known in the area of wave operator calculations. The theoretical discussion is accompanied by several specimen numerical calculations which apply the described techniques to a selection of test matrices taken from the previous literature on wave operator methods. The main emphasis throughout is on the use of numerical methods which use iterative or perturbation algorithms, with simple Pade approximant methods being found sufficient to deal with most of the cases of divergence which are encountered. The use of damping factors and relaxation parameters is found to be effective in stabilizing calculations which use the energy-dependent effective Hamiltonian of Loewdin. In general the computations suggest that the numerical applications of the nonlinear equation for the reduced wave operator are best carried out with the equation split into a pair of equations in which the Bloch effective Hamiltonian appears as a separate entity. The presentation of the theoretical and computational details throughout is accompanied by references to and discussion of many works which have used wave operator methods in physics, chemistry and engineering. Some of

  18. An FMM-FFT Accelerated SIE Simulator for Analyzing EM Wave Propagation in Mine Environments Loaded with Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2018-02-05

    A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field surface integral equations (SIEs) to account for scattering from mine walls and conductors, respectively. During the iterative solution of the system of SIEs, the simulator uses a fast multipole method - fast Fourier transform (FMM-FFT) scheme to reduce CPU and memory requirements. The memory requirement is further reduced by compressing large data structures via singular value and Tucker decompositions. The efficiency, accuracy, and real-world applicability of the simulator are demonstrated through characterization of EM wave propagation in electrically large mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conducting cables and mine carts.

  19. On the Generalized Maxwell Equations and Their Prediction of Electroscalar Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab A. I.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have formulated the basic laws of electromagnetic theory in quaternion form. The formalism shows that Maxwell equations and Lorentz force are derivable from just one quaternion equation that only requires the Lorentz gauge. We proposed a quaternion form of the continuity equation from which we have derived the ordinary continuity equation. We introduce new transformations that produces a scalar wave and generalize the continuity equation to a set of three equations. These equations imply that both current and density are waves. Moreover, we have shown that the current can not cir- culate around a point emanating from it. Maxwell equations are invariant under these transformations. An electroscalar wave propagating with speed of light is derived upon requiring the invariance of the energy conservation equation under the new transforma- tions. The electroscalar wave function is found to be proportional to the electric field component along the charged particle motion. This scalar wave exists with or without considering the Lorentz gauge. We have shown that the electromagnetic fields travel with speed of light in the presence or absence of free charges.

  20. Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid

    2014-11-01

    The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.

  1. Constraining the generalized uncertainty principle with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we show that the dimensionless parameters in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP can be constrained by the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations. Firstly, according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (HUP and the data of gravitational wave event GW150914, we derive the standard energy–momentum dispersion relation and calculate the difference between the propagation speed of gravitons and the speed of light, i.e., Δυ. Next, using two proposals regarding the GUP, we also generalize our study to the quantum gravity case and obtain the modified speed of gravitons. Finally, based on the modified speed of gravitons and Δυ, the improved upper bounds on the GUP parameters are obtained. The results show that the upper limits of the GUP parameters β0 and α0 are 2.3×1060 and 1.8×1020.

  2. Interactions of Soliton Waves for a Generalized Discrete KdV Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tong; Zhu Zuo-Nong

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that soliton interactions in discrete integrable systems often possess new properties which are different from the continuous integrable systems, e.g., we found that there are such discrete solitons in a semidiscrete integrable system (the time variable is continuous and the space one is discrete) that the shorter solitary waves travel faster than the taller ones. Very recently, this kind of soliton was also observed in a full discrete generalized KdV system (the both of time and space variables are discrete) introduced by Kanki et al. In this paper, for the generalized discrete KdV (gdKdV) equation, we describe its richer structures of one-soliton solutions. The interactions of two-soliton waves to the gdKdV equation are studied. Some new features of the soliton interactions are proposed by rigorous theoretical analysis. (paper)

  3. Experiences of first wave general practice fundholders in South East Thames Regional Health Authority.

    OpenAIRE

    Corney, R

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purchasing power given to general practitioner fundholders has important longterm implications. AIM. A study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of a group of fundholders. METHOD. All 15 first wave fundholders in South East Thames Regional Health Authority were sent a questionnaire asking about their experiences towards the end of the first year of fundholding. RESULTS. The practices varied considerably in the degree of changes made. Nine had developed consultant out...

  4. LIGO GW150914 and GW151226 gravitational wave detection and generalized gravitation theory (MOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Moffat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of gravitational waves in a generalized gravitation theory is investigated. The linearized field equations and the metric tensor quadrupole moment power and the decrease in radius of an inspiralling binary system of two compact objects are derived. The generalized Kerr metric describing a spinning black hole is determined by its mass M and the spin parameter a=cS/GM2. The LIGO-Virgo collaboration data is fitted with smaller binary black hole masses in agreement with the current electromagnetic, observed X-ray binary upper bound for a black hole mass, M≲10M⊙.

  5. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  6. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth

  7. Basic full-wave generalization of the real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-05-01

    The linearly polarized real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam is investigated by the Fourier transform method. The complex power is obtained and the reactive power of the paraxial beam is found to be zero. The complex space source required for the full-wave generalization of the real-argument Hermite-Gauss beam is deduced. The resulting basic full real-argument Hermite-Gauss wave is determined. The real and the reactive powers of the full wave are evaluated. The reactive power of the basic full real-argument Hermite-Gauss wave is infinite, and the reasons for this singularity are described. The real power depends on kw(0), m, and n, where k is the wavenumber, w(0) is the e-folding distance of the Gaussian part of the input distribution, and m and n are the mode numbers. The variation in the real power with respect to changes in kw(0) for specified m and n as well as with respect to changes in m and n for a specified kw(0) is examined.

  8. Working With the Wave Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.

    2007-01-01

    The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized function (GF) theory to the wave equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing functions as continuous linear functionals. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the wave equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s function and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s function of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s function is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.

  9. Backscattered EM-wave manipulation using low cost 1-bit reflective surface at W-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-Nuaimi, Mustafa K.; Hong, Wei; He, Yejun

    2018-04-01

    The design of low cost 1-bit reflective (non-absorptive) surfaces for manipulation of backscattered EM-waves and radar cross section (RCS) reduction at W-band is presented in this article. The presented surface is designed based on the reflection phase cancellation principle. The unit cell used to compose the proposed surface has an obelus (division symbol of short wire and two disks above and below) like shape printed on a grounded dielectric material. Using this unit cell, surfaces that can efficiently manipulate the backscattered RCS pattern by using the proposed obelus-shaped unit cell (as ‘0’ element) and its mirrored unit cell (as ‘1’ element) in one surface with a 180°  ±  35° reflection phase difference between their reflection phases are designed. The proposed surfaces can generate various kinds of backscattered RCS patterns, such as single, three, or four lobes or even a low-level (reduced RCS) diffused reflection pattern when those two unit cells are distributed randomly across the surface aperture. For experimental characterization purposes, a 50  ×  50 mm2 surface is fabricated and measured.

  10. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Abd-Alla, A. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  11. New multidimensional partially integrable generalization of S-integrable N-wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenchuk, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a modification of the dressing method based on the inhomogeneous linear integral equation with integral operator having nonempty kernel. The method allows one to construct the systems of multidimensional partial differential equations having differential polynomial structure in any dimension n. The associated solution space is not full, although it is parametrized by certain number of arbitrary functions of (n-1) variables. We consider four-dimensional generalization of the classical (2+1)-dimensional S-integrable N-wave equation as an example

  12. A Nonlinear Coupled-Mode System for Water Waves over a General Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassoulis, G. A.; Belibassakis, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    In the present work we consider the problem of non-linear gravity waves propagating over a general bathymetry. The simpler two dimensional problem (one horizontal dimension) is first examined. An essential feature of this problem is that the wave field is not spatially periodic. Extra difficulties are introduced by the fact that we wish to drop the assumptions of smallness of the free-surface and bottom slope. The interaction of free-surface gravity waves with uneven bottom topography requires, in principle, the solution of a complicated nonlinear boundary value problem. Under the assumptions of incompressibility and irrotationality, the problem of evolution of water waves, over a variable bathymetry region, admits of at least two different varia-tional formulations: A Hamiltonian one, proposed by Petrov (1964) and exploited further by Zakharov (1968) and various other authors thenceforth, and an unconstrained one, proposed by Luke (1967). Our main concern herewith is to develop a non-linear theory for the case of a smooth, generally shaped bathymetry, without imposing any mild-slope type assumptions neither on the free-surface nor on the bottom boundary. The present development is based on Luke's variational principle, in which the admissible fields are free of essential conditions, except, of course, for the smoothness and completeness (compatibility) prerequisites. The vertical structure of the wave field is exactly represented by means of a modal-type series expansion of the wave potential (Athanassoulis and Belibassakis 2000). This series expansion contains the usual propagating and evanescent modes, plus two additional modes, called the free-surface mode and the sloping-bottom mode, introduced in order to consistently treat the non-vertical end-conditions at the free-surface and the bottom boundaries. A similar technique has been successfully applied to the solution of the linearised (Athanassoulis and Belibassakis 1999) and the second-order (Belibassakis and

  13. Enhanced Next Generation Millimeter-Wave Multicarrier System with Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Shimodaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a popular multicarrier technique used to attain high spectral efficiencies. It also has other advantages such as multipath tolerance and ease of implementation. However, OFDM based systems suffer from high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR problem. Because of the nonlinearity of the power amplifiers, the high PAPR causes significant distortion in the transmitted signal for millimeter-wave (mmWave systems. To alleviate the high PAPR problem, this paper utilizes Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing (GFDM which can achieve high spectral efficiency as well as low PAPR. In this paper, we show the performance of GFDM using the IEEE 802.11ad multicarrier frame structures. IEEE 802.11ad is considered one of the most successful industry standards utilizing unlicensed mmWave frequency band. In addition, this paper indicates the feasibility of using GFDM for the future standards such as IEEE 802.11ay. This paper studies the performance improvements in terms of PAPR reduction for GFDM. Based on the performance results, the optimal numbers of subcarriers and subsymbols are calculated for PAPR reduction while minimizing the Bit Error Rate (BER performance degradation. Moreover, transmitter side ICI (Intercarrier Interference reduction is introduced to reduce the receiver load.

  14. New generalized phase shift approach to solve the Helmholtz acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeykoon, Sameera K. (Nee Rajapakshe)

    2008-10-01

    We have developed and given some proof of concept applications of a new method of solving the Helmholtz wave equation in order to facilitate the exploration of oil and gas. The approach is based on a new way to generalize the "one-way" wave equation, and to impose correct boundary conditions. The full two-way nature of the Helmholtz equation is considered, but converted into a pseudo "one-way" form with a generalized phase shift structure for propagation in the depth z. Two coupled first order partial differential equations in the depth variable z are obtained from the Helmholtz wave equation. Our approach makes use of very simple, standard ideas from differential equations and early ideas on the non-iterative solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in quantum scattering. In addition, a judicious choice of operator splitting is introduced to ensure that only explicit solution techniques are required. This avoids the need for numerical matrix inversions. The initial conditions are more challenging due to the need to ensure that the solution satisfies proper boundary conditions associated with the waves traveling in two directions. This difficulty is resolved by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation in an explicit, non-iterative fashion. It is solved by essentially "factoring out" the physical boundary conditions, thereby converting the inhomogeneous Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation of the second kind into a Volterra integral equation of the second kind. Due to the special structure of the kernel, which is a consequence of the causal nature of the Green's function in the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, this turns out to be extremely efficient. The coupled first order differential equations will be solved using the "modified Cayley method" developed in Kouri's group some years ago. The Feshbach projection operator technique is used for constructing a solution that is stable with respect to "evanescent" or "non-propagating" waves. This method is

  15. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Generalized Pareto Distribution to Estimate Extreme Significant Wave Height in The Banda Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang

    2018-02-01

    The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.

  16. Interactions of Soliton Waves for a Generalized Discrete KdV Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that soliton interactions in discrete integrable systems often possess new properties which are different from the continuous integrable systems, e.g., we found that there are such discrete solitons in a semidiscrete integrable system (the time variable is continuous and the space one is discrete) that the shorter solitary waves travel faster than the taller ones. Very recently, this kind of soliton was also observed in a full discrete generalized KdV system (the both of time and space variables are discrete) introduced by Kanki et al. In this paper, for the generalized discrete KdV (gdKdV) equation, we describe its richer structures of one-soliton solutions. The interactions of two-soliton waves to the gdKdV equation are studied. Some new features of the soliton interactions are proposed by rigorous theoretical analysis. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11501353, 11271254, 11428102, and 11671255, also supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain under contracts MTM2012-37070 and MTM2016-80276-P (AEI/FEDER, EU)

  17. Ecocardiografia modo Doppler pulsado em gatos clinicamente sadios Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in clinically healthy cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o fluxo sangüíneo através das quatro valvas cardíacas em 30 gatos clinicamente sadios, com idade entre um e cinco anos e peso médio de 4,08kg, por meio da ecocardiografia modo Doppler pulsado. Foram medidas a velocidade máxima e a velocidade média dos fluxos, e realizou-se uma análise qualitativa dos seus perfis. Os animais foram sedados pela combinação de quetamina (12mg/kg e acepromazina (0,04mg/kg, aplicados por via intramuscular. Observou-se correlação positiva entre os parâmetros avaliados e a freqüência cardíaca, com exceção daqueles medidos no fluxo da valva aórtica. Não se observou correlação entre velocidades máxima e média e freqüência cardíaca e entre aquelas e peso corporal, e não houve diferença entre sexos.Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography was used to study blood flow across the cardiac valves in 30 five-year-old cats (average body weight = 4.08kg. Animals were sedated using a combination of ketamin (12mg/kg, IM and acepromazin (0.04mg/kg, IM. Peak and mean velocities were determined, and blood flow patterns were recorded at the four cardiac valves. All variables, except those characterizing aortic valve flow, were positively correlated with heart rate. Blood flow variables were not correlated, however, with body weight; and there were no differences between males and females.

  18. A generalized multiscale finite element method for elastic wave propagation in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we consider elastic wave propagation in fractured media applying a linear-slip model to represent the effects of fractures on the wavefield. Fractured media, typically, are highly heterogeneous due to multiple length scales. Direct numerical simulations for wave propagation in highly heterogeneous fractured media can be computationally expensive and require some type of model reduction. We develop a multiscale model reduction technique that captures the complex nature of the media (heterogeneities and fractures) in the coarse scale system. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method, where the multiscale basis functions are constructed to capture the fine-scale information of the heterogeneous, fractured media and effectively reduce the degrees of freedom. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method, which provides a block-diagonal mass matrix. The latter is needed for fast computation in an explicit time discretization, which is used in our simulations. Numerical results are presented to show the performance of the presented multiscale method for fractured media. We consider several cases where fractured media contain fractures of multiple lengths. Our numerical results show that the proposed reduced-order models can provide accurate approximations for the fine-scale solution.

  19. Holistic genetic optimization of a Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation for wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Hendrik L.; Grumbine, Robert W.

    2013-10-01

    A key element of wind wave models is the parameterization of the resonant nonlinear interactions between spectral wave components. In a companion paper a new Generalized Multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation (GMD) has been developed. The present paper addresses the optimization of the free parameters of the GMD. A holistic optimization approach is used where full model integration results are optimized. Fifteen objective metrics are used, defined to measure the accuracy of a model using the GMD relative to a model using the full (exact) interactions. Due to the large number of free parameters to be optimized, and due to the existence of many local error minima in parameter space, traditional error mapping or steepest descent search algorithms are not suitable to optimize the GMD. The focus of the present study is on establishing genetic optimization techniques as a feasible and economical way to optimize the free parameters in the GMD. The behavior of the GMD with optimized parameters is outside the scope of this study, and is discussed in detail in the companion paper.

  20. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs: General framework and canonical perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a general framework for solving the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on a network of one-dimensional wires modeled by a metric graph with suitable matching conditions at the vertices. A formal solution is given that expresses the wave function and its derivative at one end of an edge (wire) nonlinearly in terms of the values at the other end. For the cubic NLSE this nonlinear transfer operation can be expressed explicitly in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Its application reduces the problem of solving the corresponding set of coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations to a finite set of nonlinear algebraic equations. For sufficiently small amplitudes we use canonical perturbation theory, which makes it possible to extract the leading nonlinear corrections over large distances.

  1. Viscoelastic characterization of dispersive media by inversion of a general wave propagation model in optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Rolland, Jannick P.; Grygotis, Emma; Wayson, Sarah; Helguera, Maria; Dalecki, Diane; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-02-01

    Determining the mechanical properties of tissue such as elasticity and viscosity is fundamental for better understanding and assessment of pathological and physiological processes. Dynamic optical coherence elastography uses shear/surface wave propagation to estimate frequency-dependent wave speed and Young's modulus. However, for dispersive tissues, the displacement pulse is highly damped and distorted during propagation, diminishing the effectiveness of peak tracking approaches. The majority of methods used to determine mechanical properties assume a rheological model of tissue for the calculation of viscoelastic parameters. Further, plane wave propagation is sometimes assumed which contributes to estimation errors. To overcome these limitations, we invert a general wave propagation model which incorporates (1) the initial force shape of the excitation pulse in the space-time field, (2) wave speed dispersion, (3) wave attenuation caused by the material properties of the sample, (4) wave spreading caused by the outward cylindrical propagation of the wavefronts, and (5) the rheological-independent estimation of the dispersive medium. Experiments were conducted in elastic and viscous tissue-mimicking phantoms by producing a Gaussian push using acoustic radiation force excitation, and measuring the wave propagation using a swept-source frequency domain optical coherence tomography system. Results confirm the effectiveness of the inversion method in estimating viscoelasticity in both the viscous and elastic phantoms when compared to mechanical measurements. Finally, the viscoelastic characterization of collagen hydrogels was conducted. Preliminary results indicate a relationship between collagen concentration and viscoelastic parameters which is important for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Ion and electron beam effects on kinetic Alfven wave with general loss-cone distribution function-kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nidhi; Mishra, Ruchi; Varma, P; Tiwari, M S

    2008-01-01

    This work studies the effect of ion and electron beam on kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) with general loss-cone distribution function. The kinetic theory has been adopted to evaluate the dispersion relation and damping rate of the wave in the presence of loss-cone distribution indices J. The variations in wave frequency ω and damping rate with perpendicular wave number k perpendicular ρ i (k perpendicular is perpendicular wave number and ρ i is ion gyroradius) and parallel wave number k parallel are studied. It is found that the distribution index J and ion beam velocity enhance the wave frequency at lower k perpendicular ρ i , whereas the electron beam velocity enhances the wave frequency at higher k perpendicular ρ i . The calculated values of frequency correspond to the observed values in the range 0.1-4 Hz. Increase in damping rate due to higher distribution indices J and ion beam velocity is observed. The effect of electron beam is to reduce the damping rate at higher k perpendicular ρ i . The plasma parameters appropriate to plasma sheet boundary layer are used. The results may explain the transfer of Poynting flux from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. It is also found that in the presence of the loss-cone distribution function the ion beam becomes a sensitive parameter to reduce the Poynting flux of KAW propagating towards the ionosphere

  3. Idosos asilados em hospitais gerais Long-term care elderly residents in general hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Gorzoni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Instituições de longa permanência para idosos interagem periodicamente com hospitais gerais para internações de casos agudos ou dos que necessitam de métodos diagnósticos complexos e da atenção de várias especialidades simultaneamente. A decisão de indicar hospitalização é multifatorial, sendo influenciada por circunstâncias como a gravidade do quadro clínico e a infra-estrutura das instituições de longa permanência para idosos. Internações hospitalares apresentam benefícios e riscos, como o desenvolvimento de iatrogenias, delirium e declínios funcionais, podendo resultar em piora do estado geral e da qualidade de vida do idoso asilado durante e/ou após a hospitalização. O objetivo do estudo foi abordar aspectos peculiares na avaliação, tratamento e manejo de idosos asilados em internações hospitalares, particularmente quanto a cuidados que os auxiliem efetivamente nessas circunstâncias. Discutiram-se situações freqüentes como delirium, iatrogenias, desnutrição, declínio funcional e cuidados paliativos e características próprias de residentes em instituições para idosos durante internações em hospitais gerais.Long-term care facilities for the elderly have regularly to work together with general hospitals to provide care to acutely ill residents or when they require all together more complex diagnostic procedures and multi-specialty care. The decision to hospitalize a nursing home elderly resident is multifactorial and it is based on factors such as illness severity and care facility infrastructure. Hospitalizations have benefits and risks such developing iatrogenic diseases, delirium, and functional decline, which may deteriorate patients' general condition and their quality of life during and/or after hospitalization. This study aimed at addressing specific aspects of assessment, treatment and management of nursing home elderly who require to be hospitalized, especially focusing on their effective care

  4. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  5. Solitary-wave propagation and interactions for a sixth-order generalized Boussinesq equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Feng Feng

    2005-01-01

    based on the phase plane analysis around the equilibrium point, is used to construct the solitary-wave solutions for this nonintegrable equation. A symmetric three-level implicit finite difference scheme with a free parameter θ is proposed to study the propagation and interactions of solitary waves. Numerical simulations show the propagation of a single solitary wave of SGBE, and two solitary waves pass by each other without changing their shapes in the head-on collisions.

  6. Polarisations of quasi-waves in a general anisotropic porous solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deresiewicz and. Rice (1962) studied reflection of plane waves in the elastic frame of porous solid saturated with a viscous fluid. Sharma and Gogna (1991) discussed wave propagation in porous solid with a viscoelas- tic frame filled with a viscous fluid. In recent years,. Gurevich (2002) discussed the elastic wave attenu-.

  7. Full wave model of image formation in optical coherence tomography applicable to general samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Curatolo, Andrea; Sampson, David D

    2015-02-09

    We demonstrate a highly realistic model of optical coherence tomography, based on an existing model of coherent optical microscopes, which employs a full wave description of light. A defining feature of the model is the decoupling of the key functions of an optical coherence tomography system: sample illumination, light-sample interaction and the collection of light scattered by the sample. We show how such a model can be implemented using the finite-difference time-domain method to model light propagation in general samples. The model employs vectorial focussing theory to represent the optical system and, thus, incorporates general illumination beam types and detection optics. To demonstrate its versatility, we model image formation of a stratified medium, a numerical point-spread function phantom and a numerical phantom, based upon a physical three-dimensional structured phantom employed in our laboratory. We show that simulated images compare well with experimental images of a three-dimensional structured phantom. Such a model provides a powerful means to advance all aspects of optical coherence tomography imaging.

  8. Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2014-11-13

    Numerical modeling of wave propagation in heterogeneous media is important in many applications. Due to their complex nature, direct numerical simulations on the fine grid are prohibitively expensive. It is therefore important to develop efficient and accurate methods that allow the use of coarse grids. In this paper, we present a multiscale finite element method for wave propagation on a coarse grid. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) (see [Y. Efendiev, J. Galvis, and T. Hou, J. Comput. Phys., 251 (2012), pp. 116--135]). To construct multiscale basis functions, we start with two snapshot spaces in each coarse-grid block, where one represents the degrees of freedom on the boundary and the other represents the degrees of freedom in the interior. We use local spectral problems to identify important modes in each snapshot space. These local spectral problems are different from each other and their formulations are based on the analysis. To the best of knowledge, this is the first time that multiple snapshot spaces and multiple spectral problems are used and necessary for efficient computations. Using the dominant modes from local spectral problems, multiscale basis functions are constructed to represent the solution space locally within each coarse block. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method which provides a block diagonal mass matrix and, consequently, results in fast computations in an explicit time discretization. Our methods\\' stability and spectral convergence are rigorously analyzed. Numerical examples are presented to show our methods\\' performance. We also test oversampling strategies. In particular, we discuss how the modes from different snapshot spaces can affect the proposed methods\\' accuracy.

  9. Generalized Bilinear Differential Operators, Binary Bell Polynomials, and Exact Periodic Wave Solution of Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhe Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce how to obtain the bilinear form and the exact periodic wave solutions of a class of (2+1-dimensional nonlinear integrable differential equations directly and quickly with the help of the generalized Dp-operators, binary Bell polynomials, and a general Riemann theta function in terms of the Hirota method. As applications, we solve the periodic wave solution of BLMP equation and it can be reduced to soliton solution via asymptotic analysis when the value of p is 5.

  10. Impact of Ion Acoustic Wave Instabilities in the Flow Field of a Hypersonic Vehicle on EM Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Saba; Sotnikov, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Flow associated with a high speed air vehicle (HSAV) can get partially ionized. In the absence of external magnetic field the flow field turbulence is due to ion acoustic wave (IAW) instabilities. Our interest is in studying the impact of this turbulence on the radiation characteristics of EM signals from the HSAV. We decompose the radiated signal into coherent and diffuse parts. We find that the coherent part has the same spectrum as that of the source signal, but it is distorted because of dispersive coherent attenuation. The diffuse part is expressed as a convolution (in wavenumber and frequency) of the source signal with the spectrum of electron density fluctuations. This is a constrained convolution in the sense that the spectrum has to satisfy the IAW dispersion relation. A quantity that characterizes the flow is the mean free path (MFP). When the MFP is large compared to the thickness of the flow the coherent part is significant. If the MFP is larger than the thickness of the flow the diffuse part is the dominant part of the received signal. In the special case when the source signal frequency is close the electron plasma frequency, there can exist in the flow region Langmuir modes in addition to the EM modes. The radiation characteristics of EM source signals from the HSAV in this case are quite different.

  11. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  12. Comparison between two alternative approaches for the analysis of polarization evolution of EM waves in a nonuniform, fully anisotropic medium. A magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison is made between two alternative approaches for the analysis of polarization evolution of em waves in a magnetized plasma. The two approaches are the Coupled Wave-Equation Formalism (CWF) and the Stokes Vector Formalism (SVF). After brief descriptions of the two formalisms the correspondence between them is spelled out. The two formalisms are then compared and their relative advantages and limitations are discussed [it

  13. Generalized thermoelastic wave band gaps in phononic crystals without energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Yu, Kaiping; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Haotian

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the thermoelastic wave propagation in the phononic crystals in the context of Green-Nagdhi theory by taking thermoelastic coupling into account. The thermal field is assumed to be steady. Thermoelastic wave band structures of 3D and 2D are derived by using the plane wave expansion method. For the 2D problem, the anti-plane shear mode is not affected by the temperature difference. Thermoelastic wave bands of the in-plane x-y mode are calculated for lead/silicone rubber, aluminium/silicone rubber, and aurum/silicone rubber phononic crystals. The new findings in the numerical results indicate that the thermoelastic wave bands are composed of the pure elastic wave bands and the thermal wave bands, and that the thermal wave bands can serve as the low boundary of the first band gap when the filling ratio is low. In addition, for the lead/silicone rubber phononic crystals the effects of lattice type (square, rectangle, regular triangle, and hexagon) and inclusion shape (circle, oval, and square) on the normalized thermoelastic bandwidth and the upper/lower gap boundaries are analysed and discussed. It is concluded that their effects on the thermoelastic wave band structure are remarkable.

  14. On the absence of reverse running waves in general displacement of lattice vibration in popular books on solid state theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shangda; Lou, Liren

    2018-05-01

    In this article we point out that there is a deficiency in the presentation of the general solution of harmonic lattice vibration, the omission of half of the allowed running waves, in many popular textbooks published since 1940, e.g. O Madelung’s 1978 Introduction to Solid-State Theory and J Solyom’s 2007 Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids, vol 1. So we provide a revised presentation, which gives a complete general solution and demonstrates clearly that the conventional complex normal coordinate should be a superposition of two coordinates (multiplied by a factor \\sqrt{1/2}) of running waves travelling oppositely along q and -q, not only a coordinate of a unidirectional running wave as many books considered. It is noticed that the book, Quantum Theory of the Solid State: An Introduction, by L Kantorovich, published in 2004, and the review article, ‘Phonons in perfect crystals’ by W Cochran and R A Cowly, published in 1967, for a one-dimensional single-atom chain gave correct (but not normalized) formulae for the general solution of lattice vibration and the normal coordinate. However, both of them stated still that each normal coordinate describes an independent mode of vibration, which in our opinion needs to be further discussed. Moreover, in books such as Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids, vol 1, by J Solyom, and The Physics and Chemistry of Solids, by S R Elliott, published in 2006 and 2007, respectively, the reverse waves were still lost. Hence, we also discuss a few related topics. In quantization of the lattice vibration, the introduction of the conventional two (not one) independent phonon operators in a normal coordinate is closely related to the ‘independence’ of the two constituent waves mentioned above, and we propose a simple propositional relation between the phonon operator and the corresponding running wave coordinate. Moreover, only the coordinate of the superposition wave (not the running wave), as the normal coordinate can

  15. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; Dooley, J M; Gordon, K; Jollymore, S; Weaver, D F

    1992-05-01

    There are anecdotal reports of increased seizures in humans after ingestion of aspartame. We studied 10 children with newly diagnosed but untreated generalized absence seizures. Ambulatory cassette recording of EEG allowed quantification of numbers and length of spike-wave discharges in a double-blind study on two consecutive days. On one day the children received 40 mg/kg aspartame and on the other day, a sucrose-sweetened drink. Baseline EEG was the same before aspartame and sucrose. Following aspartame compared with sucrose, the number of spike-wave discharges per hour and mean length of spike-wave discharges increased but not to a statistically significant degree. However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge. Aspartame appears to exacerbate the amount of EEG spike wave in children with absence seizures. Further studies are needed to establish if this effect occurs at lower doses and in other seizure types.

  16. No regularity singularities exist at points of general relativistic shock wave interaction between shocks from different characteristic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Moritz; Temple, Blake

    2015-05-08

    We give a constructive proof that coordinate transformations exist which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from C 0,1 to C 1,1 in a neighbourhood of points of shock wave collision in general relativity. The proof applies to collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result here implies that spacetime is locally inertial and corrects an error in our earlier Proc. R. Soc. A publication, which led us to the false conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to C 1,1 , cannot exist. Thus, our result implies that regularity singularities (a type of mild singularity introduced in our Proc. R. Soc. A paper) do not exist at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result generalizes Israel's celebrated 1966 paper to the case of such shock wave interactions but our proof strategy differs fundamentally from that used by Israel and is an extension of the strategy outlined in our original Proc. R. Soc. A publication. Whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein-Euler equations remains open.

  17. Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation of plane waves in a rotating thermo-elastic solid with voids has been studied. The theory for thermo-elastic materials with voids developed by Iesan in the context of thermo- elastic theory of Lord and Shulman has been employed for mathematical treatment. It has been found that there exist one transverse wave ...

  18. A multiple scattering theory for EM wave propagation in a dense random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Wong, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    For a dense medium of randomly distributed scatterers an integral formulation for the total coherent field has been developed. This formulation accounts for the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves including both the twoand three-particle terms. It is shown that under the Markovian assumption the total coherent field and the effective field have the same effective wave number. As an illustration of this theory, the effective wave number and the extinction coefficient are derived in terms of the polarizability tensor and the pair distribution function for randomly distributed small spherical scatterers. It is found that the contribution of the three-particle term increases with the particle size, the volume fraction, the frequency and the permittivity of the particle. This increase is more significant with frequency and particle size than with other parameters.

  19. An FDTD algorithm for simulation of EM waves propagation in laser with static and dynamic gain models

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods of simulating gain media in the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm utilizing a generalized polarization formulation. The gain can be static or dynamic. For static gain, Lorentzian and non-Lorentzian models are presented and tested. For the dynamic gain, rate equations for two-level and four-level models are incorporated in the FDTD scheme. The simulation results conform with the expected behavior of wave amplification and dynamic population inversion.

  20. Generalized SIMD algorithm for efficient EM-PIC simulations on modern CPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, Luis

    2012-10-01

    There are several relevant plasma physics scenarios where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate. Further understanding of these scenarios is generally explored through relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS [1], but this algorithm is computationally intensive, and efficient use high end parallel HPC systems, exploring all levels of parallelism available, is required. In particular, most modern CPUs include a single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) vector unit that can significantly speed up the calculations. In this work we present a generalized PIC-SIMD algorithm that is shown to work efficiently with different CPU (AMD, Intel, IBM) and vector unit types (2-8 way, single/double). Details on the algorithm will be given, including the vectorization strategy and memory access. We will also present performance results for the various hardware variants analyzed, focusing on floating point efficiency. Finally, we will discuss the applicability of this type of algorithm for EM-PIC simulations on GPGPU architectures [2]. [4pt] [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002)[0pt] [2] V. K. Decyk, T. V. Singh; Comput. Phys. Commun. 182, 641-648 (2011)

  1. Gravitational-Wave Tests of General Relativity with Ground-Based Detectors and Pulsar-Timing Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Siemens, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity with gravitational waves that are detectable by ground-based interferometers and pulsar-timing experiments. Einstein's theory has been greatly constrained in the quasi-linear, quasi-stationary regime, where gravity is weak and velocities are small. Gravitational waves will allow us to probe a complimentary, yet previously unexplored regime: the non-linear and dynamical strong-field regime . Such a regime is, for example, applicable to compact binaries coalescing, where characteristic velocities can reach fifty percent the speed of light and gravitational fields are large and dynamical. This review begins with the theoretical basis and the predicted gravitational-wave observables of modified gravity theories. The review continues with a brief description of the detectors, including both gravitational-wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays, leading to a discussion of the data analysis formalism that is applicable for such tests. The review ends with a discussion of gravitational-wave tests for compact binary systems.

  2. Gravitational-Wave Tests of General Relativity with Ground-Based Detectors and Pulsar-Timing Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Yunes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity with gravitational waves that are detectable by ground-based interferometers and pulsar-timing experiments. Einstein’s theory has been greatly constrained in the quasi-linear, quasi-stationary regime, where gravity is weak and velocities are small. Gravitational waves will allow us to probe a complimentary, yet previously unexplored regime: the non-linear and dynamical strong-field regime. Such a regime is, for example, applicable to compact binaries coalescing, where characteristic velocities can reach fifty percent the speed of light and gravitational fields are large and dynamical. This review begins with the theoretical basis and the predicted gravitational-wave observables of modified gravity theories. The review continues with a brief description of the detectors, including both gravitational-wave interferometers and pulsar-timing arrays, leading to a discussion of the data analysis formalism that is applicable for such tests. The review ends with a discussion of gravitational-wave tests for compact binary systems.

  3. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both boundaries and the interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  4. Modeling wave trains in coastal regions; Modelagem de trens de ondas em regioes costeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Ana M.S.; Nachbin, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is to present a model that captures how the sea bottom topography or submarine structures can influence the evolution of water wave trains over a varying topography at intermediate depth. To obtain such a model, we consider Euler equations for inviscid fluids and we perform the asymptotic simplification of the nonlinear potential theory equations together with the method of multiple scales to get a reduced model. Such a model is called reduced because it simplifies nonlinear potential theory from two spatial dimensions to one dimension along the free boundary. We consider a varying topography at the bottom and/or the presence of submarine structures together with a free boundary at the surface of the sea. For modeling such a geometry we transform our Cartesian system into curvilinear coordinates through a conformal mapping that maps the original physical domain into a simpler domain (a strip). This modeling strategy allows us to capture and understand the dynamics of water waves in regions where offshore exploration activity already exists or not. Through an efficient model we can get important information regarding the dynamics of waves in coastal regions and also questions on the viability of oil and gas recovery in these regions. (author)

  5. Profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fuzinatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prática de profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa (TEV em pacientes em um hospital geral. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte transversal conduzido no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, localizado na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS, com uma amostra constituída de pacientes internados selecionados randomicamente entre outubro de 2008 e fevereiro de 2009. Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos e internados por mais de 48 h. Os critérios de exclusão foram pacientes em uso de anticoagulantes, história de doença tromboembólica, gestação e puerpério. A adequação da profilaxia foi avaliada seguindo as recomendações de um protocolo criado pela instituição e tendo como base principal a diretriz da American College of Chest Physician, oitava edição. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 262 pacientes com média de idade de 59,1 ± 16,6 anos. Os fatores de risco mais comuns foram imobilização (70,6%, infecção (44,3%, câncer (27,5%, obesidade (23,3% e cirurgia maior (14,1%. Na avaliação do nível de risco para TEV, 143 (54,6% e 117 pacientes (44,7%, respectivamente, foram classificados como de risco alto e moderado. No geral, 46,2% dos pacientes tiveram profilaxia adequada, assim como 25% dos pacientes com três ou mais fatores de risco e 18% dos pacientes com câncer, e houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre esses grupos quando comparados àqueles com menos de três fatores de risco e sem câncer (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism (VTE prophylaxis in a general hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study at the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, involving a random sample of patients admitted between October of 2008 and February of 2009. We included patients over 18 years of age and hospitalized for more than 48 h. The exclusion criteria were anticoagulant use, pregnancy, puerperium, and a history of thromboembolic disease. The

  6. Generalization of Ryan's theorem: Probing tidal coupling with gravitational waves from nearly circular, nearly equatorial, extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) - binaries in which a stellar-mass object spirals into a massive black hole or other massive, compact body - are important sources of gravitational waves for LISA and LIGO, respectively. Thorne has speculated that the waves from EMRIs and IMRIs encode, in principle, all the details of (i) the central body's spacetime geometry (metric), (ii) the tidal coupling (energy and angular momentum exchange) between the central body and orbiting object, and (iii) the evolving orbital elements. Fintan Ryan has given a first partial proof that this speculation is correct: Restricting himself to nearly circular, nearly equatorial orbits and ignoring tidal coupling, Ryan proved that the central body's metric is encoded in the waves. In this paper we generalize Ryan's theorem. Retaining Ryan's restriction to nearly circular and nearly equatorial orbits, and dropping the assumption of no tidal coupling, we prove that Thorne's conjecture is nearly fully correct: the waves encode not only the central body's metric but also the evolving orbital elements and (in a sense slightly different from Thorne's conjecture) the evolving tidal coupling.

  7. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system

  8. Ecocardiografia modo Doppler pulsado em gatos clinicamente sadios Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in clinically healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    R.O. Carvalho; R.B. Araújo; E.F. Silva

    2006-01-01

    Estudou-se o fluxo sangüíneo através das quatro valvas cardíacas em 30 gatos clinicamente sadios, com idade entre um e cinco anos e peso médio de 4,08kg, por meio da ecocardiografia modo Doppler pulsado. Foram medidas a velocidade máxima e a velocidade média dos fluxos, e realizou-se uma análise qualitativa dos seus perfis. Os animais foram sedados pela combinação de quetamina (12mg/kg) e acepromazina (0,04mg/kg), aplicados por via intramuscular. Observou-se correlação positiva entre os parâm...

  9. General method for eliminating wave reflection in 2D photonic crystal waveguides by introducing extra scatterers based on interference cancellation of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2018-01-01

    We propose a general method for eliminating the reflection of waves in 2 dimensional photonic crystal waveguides (2D-PCWs), a kind of 2D material, by introducing extra scatterers inside the 2D-PCWs. The intrinsic reflection in 2D-PCWs is compensated by the backward-scattered waves from these scatterers, so that the overall reflection is greatly reduced and the insertion loss is improved accordingly. We first present the basic theory for the compensation method. Then, as a demonstration, we give four examples of extremely-low-reflection and high-transmission 90°bent 2D-PCWs created according to the method proposed. In the four examples, it is demonstrated by plane-wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method that the 90°bent 2D-PCWs can have high transmission ratio greater than 90% in a wide range of operating frequency, and the highest transmission ratio can be greater than 99.95% with a return loss higher than 43 dB, better than that in other typical 90°bent 2D-PCWs. With our method, the bent 2D-PCWs can be optimized to obtain high transmission ratio at different operating wavelengths. As a further application of this method, a waveguide-based optical bridge for light crossing is presented, showing an optimum return loss of 46.85 dB, transmission ratio of 99.95%, and isolation rates greater than 41.77 dB. The method proposed provides also a useful way for improving conventional waveguides made of cables, fibers, or metal walls in the optical, infrared, terahertz, and microwave bands.

  10. Testing general relativity using Bayesian model selection: Applications to observations of gravitational waves from compact binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Veitch, John; Vecchio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, are expected to begin operation by 2015. Such instruments plan to reach sensitivities that will offer the unique possibility to test general relativity in the dynamical, strong-field regime and investigate departures from its predictions, in particular, using the signal from coalescing binary systems. We introduce a statistical framework based on Bayesian model selection in which the Bayes factor between two competing hypotheses measures which theory is favored by the data. Probability density functions of the model parameters are then used to quantify the inference on individual parameters. We also develop a method to combine the information coming from multiple independent observations of gravitational waves, and show how much stronger inference could be. As an introduction and illustration of this framework-and a practical numerical implementation through the Monte Carlo integration technique of nested sampling-we apply it to gravitational waves from the inspiral phase of coalescing binary systems as predicted by general relativity and a very simple alternative theory in which the graviton has a nonzero mass. This method can (and should) be extended to more realistic and physically motivated theories.

  11. Modelling irradiation by EM waves of multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and subsequent drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Calvayrac, Florent; Montembault, Véronique; Fontaine, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in the environment close to the periphery of the nanoparticle, from a few angstroms to less than a nanometer scale, is becoming increasingly important with the advent of several biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles, including drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, and hyperthermia therapy. We present a multiscale and multiphysics model of the irradiation by electromagnetic waves of radiofrequency of iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized by drug-releasing polymers used as new multifunctional therapeutic compounds against tumors. We compute ab initio the thermal conductivity of the polymer chains as a function of the length, model the unfolding of the polymer after heat transfer from the nanoparticle by molecular mechanics, and develop a multiscale thermodynamic and heat transfer model including the surrounding medium (water) in order to model the drug release. (paper)

  12. Fast integral equation algorithms for the solution of electromagnetic wave propagation over general terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim K. Abu Seif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fast numerical algorithm to solve an integral equation model for wave propagation along a perfectly conducting two-dimensional terrain is suggested. It is applied to different actual terrain profiles and the results indicate very good agreement with published work. In addition, the proposed algorithm has achieved considerable saving in processing time. The formulation is extended to solve the propagation over lossy dielectric surfaces. A combined field integral equation (CFIE for wave propagation over dielectric terrain is solved efficiently by utilizing the method of moments with complex basis functions. The numerical results for different cases of dielectric surfaces are compared with the results of perfectly conducting surface evaluated by the IE conventional algorithm.

  13. Simulation study of generalized electron cyclotron harmonic waves and nonlinear scattering in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Part One examines the properties of electron cyclotron harmonic waves by means of computer simulation. The electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic modes not previously observed in simulation are emphasized and compared with the better known electrostatic (Bernstein) modes for perpendicular propagation. The investigation is performed by a spectrum analysis (both wavelength and frequency) of the thermal equilibrium electromagnetic fluctuation fields present in the simulation. A numerical solution of the fully electromagnetic dispersion relation shows that extreme frequency resolution is necessary to discern shifts of the electromagnetic mode frequencies from the cyclotron harmonics except at high plasma density or temperature. The simulation results show that at high plasma pressure the amplitude of the electromagnetic modes can become greater than that of the electrostatic modes. Part Two examines the interaction of an external electromagnetic wave with the electrostatic cylotron harmonic modes. The stimulated Raman scattering with an extraordinary wave as the pump is observed to occur in a wavelength regime where it would be prevented by Landau damping in an unmagnetized plasma

  14. An EM Algorithm for Double-Pareto-Lognormal Generalized Linear Model Applied to Heavy-Tailed Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Calderín-Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear models might not be appropriate when the probability of extreme events is higher than that implied by the normal distribution. Extending the method for estimating the parameters of a double Pareto lognormal distribution (DPLN in Reed and Jorgensen (2004, we develop an EM algorithm for the heavy-tailed Double-Pareto-lognormal generalized linear model. The DPLN distribution is obtained as a mixture of a lognormal distribution with a double Pareto distribution. In this paper the associated generalized linear model has the location parameter equal to a linear predictor which is used to model insurance claim amounts for various data sets. The performance is compared with those of the generalized beta (of the second kind and lognorma distributions.

  15. Test of a General Formula for Black Hole Gravitational Wave Kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the gravitational wave kick velocity in the orbital plane of coalescing black holes has been understood for some time, apparently conflicting formulae have been proposed for the dominant outof- plane kick, each a good fit to different data sets. This is important to resolve because it is only the out-of-plane kicks that can reach more than 500 km s-l and can thus eject merged remnants from galaxies. Using a different ansatz for the out-of-plane kick, we show that we can fit almost all existing data to better than 5%. This is good enough for any astrophysical calculation and shows that the previous apparent conflict was only because the two data sets explored different aspects of the kick parameter space.

  16. General decay of solutions of a nonlinear system of viscoelastic wave equations

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2011-04-16

    This work is concerned with a system of two viscoelastic wave equations with nonlinear damping and source terms acting in both equations. Under some restrictions on the nonlinearity of the damping and the source terms, we prove that, for certain class of relaxation functions and for some restrictions on the initial data, the rate of decay of the total energy depends on those of the relaxation functions. This result improves many results in the literature, such as the ones in Messaoudi and Tatar (Appl. Anal. 87(3):247-263, 2008) and Liu (Nonlinear Anal. 71:2257-2267, 2009) in which only the exponential and polynomial decay rates are considered. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

  17. A simple way to test for collinearity in spin symmetry broken wave functions: general theory and application to generalized Hartree Fock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David W; Sundstrom, Eric J; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-03-07

    We introduce a necessary and sufficient condition for an arbitrary wavefunction to be collinear, i.e., its spin is quantized along some axis. It may be used to obtain a cheap and simple computational procedure to test for collinearity in electronic structure theory calculations. We adapt the procedure for Generalized Hartree Fock (GHF), and use it to study two dissociation pathways in CO2. For these dissociation processes, the GHF wave functions transform from low-spin Unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) type states to noncollinear GHF states and on to high-spin UHF type states, phenomena that are succinctly illustrated by the constituents of the collinearity test. This complements earlier GHF work on this molecule.

  18. The Statistical Analysis of General Processing Tree Models with the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangen; Batchelder, William H.

    1994-01-01

    The statistical analysis of processing tree models is advanced by showing how the parameters of estimation and hypothesis testing, based on the likelihood functions, can be accomplished by adapting the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The adaptation makes it easy to program a personal computer to accomplish the stages of statistical…

  19. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    plitude waves and finite amplitude waves. This article provides a brief introduction to finite amplitude wave theories. Some of the general characteristics of waves as well as the importance of finite amplitude wave theories are touched upon. 2. Small Amplitude Waves. The topmost and the lowest levels of the waves are re-.

  20. Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan

    2010-01-01

    A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found......, the perturbative solution is shown to yield the same result. The present technique allows the generalization of earlier results to arbitrary boundary conditions. The power of the method is illustrated using examples based on Maxwell’s and Schrödinger’s equations for applications in photonics and nanoelectronics....

  1. The General Traveling Wave Solutions of the Fisher Equation with Degree Three

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yuan

    2013-01-01

    degree three and the general meromorphic solutions of the integrable Fisher equations with degree three, which improves the corresponding results obtained by Feng and Li (2006, Guo and Chen (1991, and Ağırseven and Öziş (2010. Moreover, all wg,1(z are new general meromorphic solutions of the Fisher equations with degree three for c=±3/2. Our results show that the complex method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving a large number of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  2. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and metabolic syndrome in general population: the APAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anxin; Su, Zhaoping; Liu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Yuling; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Suzhen; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Xiuhua; Zhao, Xingquan; Wu, Shouling

    2016-11-18

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is correlated with arterial stiffness and can be evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). We investigated potential associations between MetS and baPWV in a Chinese community population. The community-based Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community study examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a Chinese population aged ≥40 years. The relationship between MetS and its components and baPWV was analyzed by multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Out of 5181 study participants, 1271 subjects (24.53%) had MetS. Mean values of baPWV in subjects with 0, 1, 2,3, 4, and 5 components of MetS were 1430, 1526, 1647, 1676,1740, and 1860 cm/s, respectively (p < 0.001 for trend). After adjusting for confounding risk factors, MetS was significantly associated with baPWV (odds ratio [OR]: 2.74; 95% CI: 2.28, 3.30). Among the five components of MetS, elevated blood pressure was the most important factor for baPWV. All models of multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the increasing numbers of MetS components and baPWV (p < 0.0001). baPWV was associated with MetS and was greater with increasing numbers of MetS components. Elevated blood pressure was the most important factor for baPWV.

  3. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  4. Modulational instability and higher-order rogue waves with parameters modulation in a coupled integrable AB system via the generalized Darboux transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2015-12-01

    We study higher-order rogue wave (RW) solutions of the coupled integrable dispersive AB system (also called Pedlosky system), which describes the evolution of wave-packets in a marginally stable or unstable baroclinic shear flow in geophysical fluids. We propose its continuous-wave (CW) solutions and existent conditions for their modulation instability to form the rogue waves. A new generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is proposed in terms of the Taylor series expansion for the spectral parameter in the Darboux matrix and its limit procedure and applied to the CW solutions to generate multi-rogue wave solutions of the coupled AB system, which satisfy the general compatibility condition. The dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rogue wave solutions demonstrate both strong and weak interactions by modulating parameters, in which some weak interactions can generate the abundant triangle, pentagon structures, etc. Particularly, the trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first-order RWs are explicitly analyzed. The generalized DT method used in this paper can be extended to other nonlinear integrable systems. These results may be useful for understanding the corresponding rogue-wave phenomena in fluid mechanics and related fields.

  5. Direct 4D parametric imaging for linearized models of reversibly binding PET tracers using generalized AB-EM reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmim, Arman; Zhou, Yun; Tang, Jing; Lu, Lijun; Sossi, Vesna; Wong, Dean F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to high noise levels in the voxel kinetics, development of reliable parametric imaging algorithms remains as one of most active areas in dynamic brain PET imaging, which in the vast majority of cases involves receptor/transporter studies with reversibly binding tracers. As such, the focus of this work has been to develop a novel direct 4D parametric image reconstruction scheme for such tracers. Based on a relative equilibrium (RE) graphical analysis formulation (Zhou et al., 2009b), we developed a closed-form 4D EM algorithm to directly reconstruct distribution volume (DV) parametric images within a plasma input model, as well as DV ratio (DVR) images within a reference tissue model scheme (wherein an initial reconstruction was used to estimate the reference tissue time-activity-curves). A particular challenge with the direct 4D EM formulation is that the intercept parameters in graphical (linearized) analysis of reversible tracers (e.g. Logan or RE analysis) are commonly negative (unlike for irreversible tracers; e.g. using Patlak analysis). Subsequently, we focused our attention on the AB-EM algorithm, derived by Byrne (1998) to allow inclusion of prior information about the lower (A) and upper (B) bounds for image values. We then generalized this algorithm to the 4D EM framework thus allowing negative intercept parameters. Furthermore, our 4D AB-EM algorithm incorporated, and emphasized the use of spatially varying lower bounds to achieve enhanced performance. As validation, the means of parameters estimated from 55 human 11C-raclopride dynamic PET studies were used for extensive simulations using a mathematical brain phantom. Images were reconstructed using conventional indirect as well as proposed direct parametric imaging methods. Noise vs. bias quantitative measurements were performed in various regions of the brain. Direct 4D EM reconstruction resulted in notable qualitative and quantitative accuracy improvements (over 35% noise reduction, with matched

  6. Study of a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in General Vedia, Province of Chaco, 1996 Surto de leishmaniose cutânea em General Vedia, Provincia de Chaco, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Daniel SALOMON

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Between March and July 1996, a focalized epidemic outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in General Vedia, province of Chaco, associated to the gallery forest of the Oro river was verified. The incidence rate in the area, which was 0-2/000 cases in preceding years, reached 8/000 cases in 1996. The risk of symptomatic infection was similar between sexes, but was different when analizing the different age groups by sex, suggesting a greater relative importance of the peridomestic transmission for the females and of the transmission in the subtropical forest for the males. Specimens of Lutzomyia intermedia, a species already incriminated as a vector of Leishmaniasis in other provinces of northern Argentina, were captured and identified in the focus locality in May 1996. The possible causes of the outbreak related to the climatic variables and the vector abundance are analyzed and the results in the framework of possible preventive and control activities are discussed.Entre março e julho de 1996, foi verificado um surto epidêmico focalizado de leishmaniose cutânea na localidade de Geral Vedia, província de Chaco, associado com a floresta de galeria do rio de Oro. A taxa de incidência na área que era 0-2/000 casos em anos anteriores, alcançou 8/000 casos em 1996. O risco de infecção sintomática era semelhante entre sexos, mas era diferente quando foram analizados os grupos de idade diferentes segundo sexo, sugerindo maior importância relativa da transmissão na área peridoméstica nas mulheres e da transmissão na floresta subtropical nos homens. Espécimes de Lutzomyia intermedia, espécie já incriminada como vetor de Leishmaniose em outras províncias do norte da Argentina, foram capturadas e identificadas na localidade em maio de 1996. São analisadas as possíveis causas do surto relacionadas às variáveis climáticas e a abundância do vetor e os resultados são discutidas na estrutura de possíveis atividades de prevenção e

  7. An integrative view of mechanisms underlying generalized spike-and-wave epileptic seizures and its implication on optimal therapeutic treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Yan

    Full Text Available Many types of epileptic seizures are characterized by generalized spike-and-wave discharges. In the past, notable effort has been devoted to understanding seizure dynamics and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, by taking an integrative view of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrate that epileptic seizures can be generated by many different combinations of synaptic strengths and intrinsic membrane properties. This integrative view has important medical implications: the specific state of a patient characterized by a set of biophysical characteristics ultimately determines the optimal therapeutic treatment. Through the same view, we further demonstrate the potentiation effect of rational polypharmacy in the treatment of epilepsy and provide a new angle to resolve the debate on polypharmacy. Our results underscore the need for personalized medicine and demonstrate that computer modeling and simulation may play an important role in assisting the clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment on an individual basis.

  8. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  9. Exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear PDEs in mathematical physics using the generalized Kudryashov method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayed El-Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Kudryashov method is applied in this article for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs in mathematical physics. Solitons and other solutions are given. To illustrate the validity of this method, we apply it to three nonlinear PDEs, namely, the diffusive predator-prey system, the nonlinear Bogoyavlenskii equations and the nonlinear telegraph equation. These equations are related to signal analysis for transmission and propagation of electrical signals. As a result, many analytical exact solutions of these equations are obtained including symmetrical Fibonacci function solutions and hyperbolic function solutions. Physical explanations for some solutions of the given three nonlinear PDEs are obtained. Comparison our new results with the well-known results are given.

  10. Psicoterapia psicodinâmica em grupo para fobia social generalizada Psychodynamic group treatment for generalized social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zippin Knijnik

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a efetividade do tratamento psicodinâmico em grupo de pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: 30 pacientes foram incluídos em um estudo randomizado, simples-cego, comparando Terapia Psicodinâmica de Grupo (TPG com um Grupo de Controle Placebo com Credibilidade (CPC. A TPG foi conduzida em 12 sessões de terapia de orientação psicodinâmica em grupo. Os pacientes do grupo controle receberam um pacote de aulas-discussões e tratamento de apoio por 12 semanas, que foi comparado à TPG. Todos os participantes preencheram a Escala de Liebowitz para Ansiedade Social (LSAS, a Escala Hamilton de Ansiedade (HAM-A e a Escala de Impressão Clínica Global (CGI, na entrevista inicial e na 12ª semana de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas. Pacientes em vigência de tratamento farmacológico ou psicoterápico foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora na maioria das medidas. Na LSAS, os pacientes da TPG obtiveram melhora superior aos do grupo controle, ao cabo de 12 semanas (F1,28=4.84, p=0.036. Nas medidas basais dos sujeitos que completaram o estudo, não houve diferença entre os grupos em variáveis demográficas e de desfecho. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a TPG foi superior ao tratamento placebo com credibilidade no tratamento da fobia social generalizada, em um ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, de 12 semanas.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychodynamic group therapy in patients with generalized social phobia. METHODS: Thirty patients were included in a randomized single-blind clinical trial comparing psychodynamic group treatment (PGT with a credible placebo control group (CPC. PGT was carried out within a 12-session psychodynamically-oriented group psychotherapy. Control patients received a treatment package of lecture-discussion and support group for 12 weeks which was compared to PGT

  11. Multiband Gravitational-Wave Astronomy: Parameter Estimation and Tests of General Relativity with Space- and Ground-Based Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-07-29

    With the discovery of the binary-black-hole (BBH) coalescence GW150914 the era of gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has started. It has recently been shown that BBH with masses comparable to or higher than GW150914 would be visible in the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) band a few years before they finally merge in the band of ground-based detectors. This would allow for premerger electromagnetic alerts, dramatically increasing the chances of a joint detection, if BBHs are indeed luminous in the electromagnetic band. In this Letter we explore a quite different aspect of multiband GW astronomy, and verify if, and to what extent, measurement of masses and sky position with eLISA could improve parameter estimation and tests of general relativity with ground-based detectors. We generate a catalog of 200 BBHs and find that having prior information from eLISA can reduce the uncertainty in the measurement of source distance and primary black hole spin by up to factor of 2 in ground-based GW detectors. The component masses estimate from eLISA will not be refined by the ground based detectors, whereas joint analysis will yield precise characterization of the newly formed black hole and improve consistency tests of general relativity.

  12. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  13. Semi-analytic calculation of the gravitational wave signal from the electroweak phase transition for general quartic scalar effective potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, John; Profumo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Upcoming gravitational wave (GW) detectors might detect a stochastic background of GWs potentially arising from many possible sources, including bubble collisions from a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. We investigate whether it is possible to connect, via a semi-analytical approximation to the tunneling rate of scalar fields with quartic potentials, the GW signal through detonations with the parameters entering the potential that drives the electroweak phase transition. To this end, we consider a finite temperature effective potential similar in form to the Higgs potential in the Standard Model (SM). In the context of a semi-analytic approximation to the three dimensional Euclidean action, we derive a general approximate form for the tunneling temperature and the relevant GW parameters. We explore the GW signal across the parameter space describing the potential which drives the phase transition. We comment on the potential detectability of a GW signal with future experiments, and physical relevance of the associated potential parameters in the context of theories which have effective potentials similar in form to that of the SM. In particular we consider singlet, triplet, higher dimensional operators, and top-flavor extensions to the Higgs sector of the SM. We find that the addition of a temperature independent cubic term in the potential, arising from a gauge singlet for instance, can greatly enhance the GW power. The other parameters have milder, but potentially noticeable, effects

  14. SciDAC - Center for Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD -- General Atomics Support of ORNL Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G

    2012-11-09

    The Center for Simulation of Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM) project is dedicated to conduct research on integrated multi-physics simulations. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) is a framework that was created by the SWIM team. It provides an integration infrastructure for loosely coupled component-based simulations by facilitating services for code execution coordination, computational resource management, data management, and inter-component communication. The IPS framework features improving resource utilization, implementing application-level fault tolerance, and support of the concurrent multi-tasking execution model. The General Atomics (GA) team worked closely with other team members on this contract, and conducted research in the areas of computational code monitoring, meta-data management, interactive visualization, and user interfaces. The original website to monitor SWIM activity was developed in the beginning of the project. Due to the amended requirements, the software was redesigned and a revision of the website was deployed into production in April of 2010. Throughout the duration of this project, the SWIM Monitoring Portal (http://swim.gat.com:8080/) has been a critical production tool for supporting the project's physics goals.

  15. Testing general relativity using gravitational wave signals from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K.; Ghosh, Archisman; Kant Mishra, Chandra; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Nielsen, Alex B.; London, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    Advanced LIGO’s recent observations of gravitational waves (GWs) from merging binary black holes have opened up a unique laboratory to test general relativity (GR) in the highly relativistic regime. One of the tests used to establish the consistency of the first LIGO event with a binary black hole merger predicted by GR was the inspiral-merger-ringdown consistency test. This involves inferring the mass and spin of the remnant black hole from the inspiral (low-frequency) part of the observed signal and checking for the consistency of the inferred parameters with the same estimated from the post-inspiral (high-frequency) part of the signal. Based on the observed rate of binary black hole mergers, we expect the advanced GW observatories to observe hundreds of binary black hole mergers every year when operating at their design sensitivities, most of them with modest signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Anticipating such observations, this paper shows how constraints from a large number of events with modest SNRs can be combined to produce strong constraints on deviations from GR. Using kludge modified GR waveforms, we demonstrate how this test could identify certain types of deviations from GR if such deviations are present in the signal waveforms. We also study the robustness of this test against reasonable variations of a variety of different analysis parameters.

  16. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  17. Interaction of a weak gravitational wave with the electromagnetic field of a neutron star in the field theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a weak gravitational wave and the electromagnetic field of a neutron star from the point of view of two theories: the linear variant of the field theory of gravitation and the general theory of relativity. The obtained solutions are used to analyze the possibilities of establishing experimentally which of the two theories describes reality adequately

  18. Transverse Field Dispersion in the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation: Four Wave Mixing in a Higher Order Mode Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Cheng, Ji; Xu, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived, which takes into account the correct dispersion of the transverse field distribution. The new improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is verified to give the same results as the standard...... implementation for a simple single mode soliton propagation example. As opposed to the standard implementation, the new implementation is able to reproduce pulsed four wave mixing observed experimentally in a higher order mode fiber....

  19. Interaction of low-frequency axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves with bends in pipes of arbitrary bend angle and general bend radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Bhupesh; Mishra, Tarun Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of pipes with elbow and U-type bends has received much attention in recent years, but studies for more general bend angles which may also occur commonly, for example in cross-country pipes, are limited. Here, we address this topic considering a general bend angle φ, a more general mean bend radius R in terms of the wavelength of the mode studied and pipe thickness b. We use 3D Finite Element (FE) simulation to understand the propagation of fundamental axisymmetric L(0,2) mode across bends of different angles φ. The effect of the ratio of the mean bend radius to the wavelength of the mode studied, on the transmission and reflection of incident wave is also considered. The studies show that as the bend angle is reduced, a progressively larger extent of mode-conversion affects the transmission and velocity characteristics of the L(0,2) mode. However the overall message on the potential of guided waves for inspection and monitoring of bent pipes remains positive, as bends seem to impact mode transmission only to the extent of 20% even at low bend angles. The conclusions seem to be valid for different typical pipe thicknesses b and bend radii. The modeling approach is validated by experiments and discussed in light of physics of guided waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-03-03

    We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4}  s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.

  1. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    are known as intermediate or transitional water waves and if the depth of the water column is less than 1/20 of wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the case of both these waves, the particle motion is elliptical. Particle motions are shown in Figure 1. The velocity of waves is generally referred to as wave.

  2. Transitory cognitive impairment with brief generalized spike-wave paroxysm: a clinical counterexample to the three-second rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, J E; Nowack, W J

    1996-10-01

    The topic of transitory impairment of consciousness with spike wave bursts has been of interest to neurologists for years. Based on some early experiments, a 3-second rule was formulated and has found its way into the conventional wisdom of neurology. It states that, in order to result in impairment of consciousness, a spike-wave burst must be of at least 3 seconds' duration. We discuss a case which poses a clinical counterexample to that rule.

  3. Frobenius’ Idea Together with Integral Bifurcation Method for Investigating Exact Solutions to a Water Wave Model of the Generalized mKdV Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Rui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By using Frobenius’ idea together with integral bifurcation method, we study a third order nonlinear equation of generalization form of the modified KdV equation, which is an important water wave model. Some exact traveling wave solutions such as smooth solitary wave solutions, nonsmooth peakon solutions, kink and antikink wave solutions, periodic wave solutions of Jacobian elliptic function type, and rational function solution are obtained. And we show their profiles and discuss their dynamic properties aim at some typical solutions. Though the types of these solutions obtained in this work are not new and they are familiar types, they did not appear in any existing literatures because the equation ut+ux+νuxxt+βuxxx + αuux+1/3να(uuxxx+2uxuxx+3μα2u2ux+νμα2(u2uxxx+ux3+4uuxuxx + ν2μα2(ux2uxxx+2uxuxx2 = 0 is very complex. Particularly, compared with the cited references, all results obtained in this paper are new.

  4. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...

  5. A presença do general (ou notícias da visita do presidente Charles de Gaulle ao Brasil em outubro de 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Afonso da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo – com base em documentação do Quai d’Orsay e do Élysée na França e do Itamaraty e do Arquivo de Getúlio Vargas no Brasil – reconstitui as premissas da visita oficial do general de Gaulle ao Brasil em outubro de 1964. Acentua as implicações diplomáticas e estratégicas bilaterais e globais da visita à França e ao Brasil. E pondera sobre as relações dos presidentes Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitschek, Jânio Quadros e João Goulart com a França e com o general de Gaulle.   Palavras-chave: Gaulle, Charles de, - 1890-1970; Brasil - Relações Exteriores - França (1964.

  6. The 2009–2010 Arctic stratospheric winter – general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively warm 2009–2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  7. Parametrized tests of the strong-field dynamics of general relativity using gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary black holes: Fast likelihood calculations and sensitivity of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidam, Jeroen; Tsang, Ka Wa; Goldstein, Janna; Agathos, Michalis; Ghosh, Archisman; Haster, Carl-Johan; Raymond, Vivien; Samajdar, Anuradha; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Del Pozzo, Walter; Field, Scott E.; Li, Tjonnie; Pürrer, Michael; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to the recent discoveries of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole mergers by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo, the genuinely strong-field dynamics of spacetime can now be probed, allowing for stringent tests of general relativity (GR). One set of tests consists of allowing for parametrized deformations away from GR in the template waveform models and then constraining the size of the deviations, as was done for the detected signals in previous work. In this paper, we construct reduced-order quadratures so as to speed up likelihood calculations for parameter estimation on future events. Next, we explicitly demonstrate the robustness of the parametrized tests by showing that they will correctly indicate consistency with GR if the theory is valid. We also check to what extent deviations from GR can be constrained as information from an increasing number of detections is combined. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity of the method to possible violations of GR.

  8. EFEITO DE ONDAS ULTRA-SÔNICAS SOBRE A POPULAÇÃO DE Leuconostoc mesenteroides EM CALDO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR THE EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND WAVES ON THE Leuconostoc mesenteroides POPULATION IN SUGARCANE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho, irradiou-se caldo de cana-de-açúcar de primeira extração, com ondas ultra-sônicas, com o objetivo de controlar a bactéria <em>Leuconostoc mesenteroidesem>. Foi aplicada a metodologia de superfície de resposta (modelo central composto, para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A variável resposta avaliada foi taxa de mortalidade (TM% da população de <em>L. mesenteroidesem>. Os resultados mostraram que a maior taxa de mortalidade, 10,55%, foi obtida com a potência de 50 W, por 225 segundos, em caldo de cana com 18° Brix, pH 4,5 e 45°C.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Indústria açucareira; cana-de-açúcar; ultra-som.

    In the present work, first extraction sugarcane juice was irradiated with ultrasound waves to control <em>Leuconostoc mesenteroidesem>. Surface response methodology (central composite model was used to evaluate the treatment effects. The response variable was the death rate (DR% of the <em>L. mesenteroidesem> population. The results showed that the highest rate of mortality, 10.55%, was obtained with a power of 50 W for 225 seconds, in sugarcane juice with 18° Brix, pH 4.5 and 45°C.

    KEY-WORDS: Sugar industry; sugarcane; ultrasound.

  9. Primordial non-Gaussianities of gravitational waves in the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2011-11-18

    We completely clarify the feature of primordial non-Gaussianities of tensor perturbations in the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. It is shown that the most general cubic action for the tensor perturbation h(ij) is composed only of two contributions, one with two spacial derivatives and the other with one time derivative on each h(ij). The former is essentially identical to the cubic term that appears in Einstein gravity and predicts a squeezed shape, while the latter newly appears in the presence of the kinetic coupling to the Einstein tensor and predicts an equilateral shape. Thus, only two shapes appear in the graviton bispectrum of the most general single-field inflation model, which could open a new clue to the identification of inflationary gravitational waves in observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as direct detection experiments.

  10. Finsler p p -waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Andrea; Pabst, Cornelia

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present Finsler gravitational waves. These are a Finslerian version of the well-known p p -waves, generalizing the very special relativity line element. Our Finsler p p -waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum and describe gravitational waves propagating in an anisotropic background.

  11. Utilização de medicamentos em crianças internadas em um hospital geral = Medication use in children admitted to a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, Camila Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil de medicamentos utilizados em crianças internadas em um hospital geral. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal, com dados coletados nos prontuários das crianças com idades entre zero e 12 anos, internadas no período de julho de 2013 a julho de 2014 no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, em Tubarão, Santa Catarina. Foram coletadas as variáveis idade, sexo, tempo de internação, Código Internacional de Doenças da internação e medicamentos utilizados. Os medicamentos foram classificados segundo a Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 1. 603 atendimentos de crianças até 12 anos no período estudado. O tempo de internação variou de um a 115 dias. O uso de medicamentos por internação variou de um a 77 medicamentos, com média de 9,84 medicamentos por paciente. Foram utilizados 211 diferentes tipos de medicamentos, sendo a maioria classificada como analgésicos atuantes no sistema nervoso central. Verificaram-se 303 códigos diferentes pelo Código Internacional de Doenças, sendo o diagnóstico mais prevalente a hipertrofia de amígdalas e de adenoides. Constatou-se a prescrição de sete tipos de fármacos não licenciados e 23 medicamentos com algum tipo de restrição para uso pediátrico. CONCLUSÕES: A média de medicamentos utilizados nas crianças internadas foi alta na amostra estudada, e a prescrição de fármacos não licenciados ou com algum tipo de restrição ao uso pediátrico foi um importante fator verificado neste estudo. Estes dados sugerem insuficiente atenção aos riscos e benefícios do uso de medicamentos em crianças, uma questão relevante que merece vigilância contínua e intensiva por diversos profissionais de saúde

  12. High‐order rotated staggered finite difference modeling of 3D elastic wave propagation in general anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.

  13. A Comuputerized DRBEM model for generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model, based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM for studying the generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in a rotating functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structure under pulsed laser irradiation is established. An implicit-implicit staggered algorithm was proposed and implemented for use with the DRBEM to get the solution for the temperature, displacement components and thermal stress components through the structure thickness. A comparison of the results for different theories is presented in the presence and absence of rotation. Some numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented.

  14. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    2014-01-01

    of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient and using Bloch’s theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wave-vector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high- k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal...... and explore the range of parameteres for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for materials with hyperbolic dispersion. The approach is applicable to a large variety of structures, such as continuous or structured microwave, terahertz, and optical metamaterials....

  15. Giant amplification in degenerate band edge slow-wave structures interacting with an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Figotin, Alexander [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a new amplification regime based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate electromagnetic (EM) modes in a slow-wave structure and the electron beam, referred to as super synchronization. These four EM modes arise in a Fabry-Pérot cavity when degenerate band edge (DBE) condition is satisfied. The modes interact constructively with the electron beam resulting in superior amplification. In particular, much larger gains are achieved for smaller beam currents compared to conventional structures based on synchronization with only a single EM mode. We demonstrate giant gain scaling with respect to the length of the slow-wave structure compared to conventional Pierce type single mode traveling wave tube amplifiers. We construct a coupled transmission line model for a loaded waveguide slow-wave structure exhibiting a DBE, and investigate the phenomenon of giant gain via super synchronization using the Pierce model generalized to multimode interaction.

  16. Transition operators in acoustic-wave diffraction theory. I - General theory. II - Short-wavelength behavior, dominant singularities of Zk0 and Zk0 exp -1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    A formal theory of the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic scalar waves from impenetrable, immobile obstacles is established. The time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, in particular the theory of the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator, provides the model. The quantum-mechanical approach is modified to allow the treatment of acoustic-wave scattering with imposed boundary conditions of impedance type on the surface (delta-Omega) of an impenetrable obstacle. With k0 as the free-space wavenumber of the signal, a simplified expression is obtained for the k0-dependent T operator for a general case of homogeneous impedance boundary conditions for the acoustic wave on delta-Omega. All the nonelementary operators entering the expression for the T operator are formally simple rational algebraic functions of a certain invertible linear radiation impedance operator which maps any sufficiently well-behaved complex-valued function on delta-Omega into another such function on delta-Omega. In the subsequent study, the short-wavelength and the long-wavelength behavior of the radiation impedance operator and its inverse (the 'radiation admittance' operator) as two-point kernels on a smooth delta-Omega are studied for pairs of points that are close together.

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in porcines performed with standard medical instruments used in a general hospital routine Gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica em suínos realizada com instrumentos de uso rotineiro em hospital geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto do Nascimento

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform a endoscopic gastrostomy by the introducer method with routine instruments used in a general hospital, without special instruments or special kits. METHODS: This procedure was performed in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus under observation for seven days and then submitted to euthanasia.The technique was evaluated for macroscopic and histologic parameters. RESULTS: All animals had a good evolution without major complications. Some minor complications occurred like a rupture of Foley catheter balloon and subcutaneous space abscess. CONCLUSION: The percutaneous gastrostomy with routine general hospital instruments is successful performed, is safe,cheap and must be performed by skilled endoscopists.OBJETIVO: Realizar uma gastrostomia endoscópica pelo método de punção, porém feita com instrumentos de uso rotineiro em um hospital geral, abolindo o uso de instrumentos especiais e de kits industrializados. MÉTODOS: O procedimento foi realizado em suinos da raça Landrace (Sus scrofa domesticus , que permaneceram em observação por sete dias, quando foram submetidos a eutanasia e avaliados por parâmetros macroscópicos e histológicos. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais tiveram boa evolução, não apresentando complicações importantes. Pequenas complicações, como ruptura do balão da sonda de Foley e abscesso subcutâneo ocorreram. CONCLUSÃO: A gastrostomia percutânea endoscópica é um procedimento seguro, barato e perfeitamente realizável com materiais de uso rotineiro em um hospital geral, porém deve ser realizada por endoscopistas devidamente treinados.

  18. General relativistic self-similar waves that induce an anomalous acceleration into the standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Smoller, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the Einstein equations in Standard Schwarzschild Coordinates close to form a system of three ordinary differential equations for a family of spherically symmetric, self-similar expansion waves, and the critical ($k=0$) Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology (FRW), is embedded as a single point in this family. Removing a scaling law and imposing regularity at the center, we prove that the family reduces to an implicitly defined one parameter family of distinct spacetimes determined by the value of a new {\\it acceleration parameter} $a$, such that $a=1$ corresponds to FRW. We prove that all self-similar spacetimes in the family are distinct from the non-critical $k\

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis of impact of non-orographic gravity waves drag of middle atmosphere in framework of a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity wave drag (GWD) is among the drivers of meridional overturning in the middle atmosphere, also known as the Brewer-Dobson Circulation, and of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The small spatial scales and complications due to wave breaking require their effects to be parameterised. GWD parameterizations are usually divided into two parts, orographic and non-orographic. The basic dynamical and physical processes of the middle atmosphere and the mechanism of the interactions between the troposphere and the middle atmosphere were studied in the frame of a general circulation model. The model for the troposphere was expanded to a global model considering middle atmosphere with the capability of describing the basic processes in the middle atmosphere and the troposphere-middle atmosphere interactions. Currently, it is too costly to include full non-hydrostatic and rotational wave dynamics in an operational parameterization. The hydrostatic non-rotational wave dynamics which allow an efficient implementation that is suitably fast for operation. The simplified parameterization of non-orographic GWD follows from the WM96 scheme in which a framework is developed using conservative propagation of gravity waves, critical level filtering, and non-linear dissipation. In order to simulate and analysis the influence of non-orographic GWD on the stratospheric wind and temperature fields, experiments using Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) event case occurred in January 2013 were carried out, and results of objective weather forecast verifications of the two months period were compared in detail. The verification of monthly mean of forecast anomaly correlation (ACC) and root mean square (RMS) errors shows consistently positive impact of non-orographic GWD on skill score of forecasting for the three to eight days, both in the stratosphere and troposphere, and visible positive impact on prediction of the stratospheric wind and temperature fields. Numerical simulation

  20. Refining Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation Risk in the General Population With Analysis of P-Wave Axis (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ankit; Norby, Faye L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Koene, Ryan; Rooney, Mary; O'Neal, Wesley T; Alonso, Alvaro; Chen, Lin Y

    2017-12-01

    Adverse atrial remodeling is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and can be detected by a shift in P-wave axis. We aimed to determine whether an analysis of P-wave axis can be used to improve risk prediction of AF. We included 15,102 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who were free of AF at baseline. Abnormal P-wave axis (aPWA) was defined as any value outside 0 to 75 degrees on study visit 12-lead electrocardiograms. AF was determined using study visit electrocardiograms, death certificates, and hospital discharge records. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of aPWA with AF. The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology-AF (CHARGE-AF) risk prediction model variables served as our benchmark. Improvement in 10-year AF prediction was assessed by C-statistic, category-based net reclassification improvement, and relative integrated discrimination improvement. During a mean follow-up of 20.2 years, there were 2,618 incident AF cases. aPWA was independently associated with a 2.34-fold (95% CI 2.12 to 2.58) increased risk of AF after adjusting for CHARGE-AF risk score variables. The use of aPWA improved the C-statistic from 0.719 (95% CI 0.702 to 0.736) to 0.722 (95% CI 0.705 to 0.739), which corresponded with a net reclassification improvement of 0.021 (95% CI 0.001, 0.040) and relative integrated discrimination improvement of 0.043 (95% CI 0.018, 0.069). In conclusion, aPWA is independently associated with AF in the general population. The use of this maker modestly improves AF prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfil de pacientes em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internados em um hospital geral Profile of patients using alternative feeding route in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serjana Cavalcante Jucá Nogueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a população em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internada em um hospital geral de referência. MÉTODO: estudo transversal prospectivo, tendo-se realizado coleta de dados em 229 prontuários de pacientes em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internados em enfermarias adultas de um hospital geral, identificando-se dados referentes à via alternativa de alimentação em uso, justificativas clínicas, doença(s de base e demais aspectos clínicos relacionados aos distúrbios de deglutição. RESULTADOS: houve predomínio do sexo masculino (55,02%; 70,3% dos pacientes apresentaram diagnóstico de alguma doença neurológica e a via de alimentação mais utilizada foi a sonda nasoenteral (82,53%. Embora a pneumonia e a desnutrição tenham sido diagnosticadas na minoria dos casos (35,08% e 10,04%, houve associação entre as variáveis pneumonia e disfagia (p=0,0098, não ocorrendo o mesmo entre desnutrição e disfagia (p=0,0759. A disfagia foi citada em apenas em 6,55% dos casos. Observou-se, ainda, alta frequência de ausência de dados referente aos sinais e sintomas de dificuldade de alimentação e de justificativas para indicação da via alternativa de alimentação prescrita. CONCLUSÃO: embora a população estudada tenha apresentado fatores de risco para desenvolvimento de distúrbios da deglutição, como doenças de base com alta ocorrência de disfagia e alteração do nível de consciência e/ou sonolência, a baixa frequência do diagnóstico da disfagia e a constante falta de dados relacionados ao contexto alimentar revelaram a pouca importância dada às manifestações funcionais pela unidade hospitalar estudada.PURPOSE: to characterize the population submitted to administration of alternative feeding route admitted to a general hospital in the state of Alagoas. METHOD: data from medical records of 229 patients admitted to adult infirmary were investigated. Data referring to the administration

  2. Some considerations of wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, P. L. F. M.

    The meaning of group velocity and its relation to conserved quantities are demonstrated. The origin of wave dispersion in terms of nonlocal and relaxation phenomena are clarified. The character of a wave described by an equation with a general type of nonlinearity and general dispersion terms is explained. The steepening of a wave flank and the occurrence of stationary waves are discussed.

  3. Morte de Aemilius Paullus em Cana. Fazendo de herói um general derrotado (Polybius 3.112-117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío N. Sánchez Vendramini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Os estudiosos modernos consideram Políbio uma fonte confiável de informação (por exemplo, WALBANK, 1957, p.16 e LEHMAN, 1967. O principal tema de sua nar­rativa são os acontecimentos políticos e militares que molda­ram a ascensão de Roma ao poder no mundo mediterrâneo; embora apenas porções das suas histórias sobreviveram, a sua superioridade em relação a outras fontes cobrindo este período é geralmente consensual. Em um estudo clássico, E. Marsden analisa Políbio como historiador militar e chegou à conclusão de que era um narrador preciso de eventos militares (MARS­DEN, 1974, p. 270-71. Seu relato da batalha de Canas é um bom exemplo, à medida que considera a descrição do combate melhor do que os relatos de Tito Lívio, assim como outras fon­tes posteriores. A reputação de Políbio como um historiador preciso é bem merecida, e não é o objetivo deste artigo afirmar o contrário. Sua reputação é provavelmente a razão pela qual os historiadores modernos aceitam sua descrição da função de Aemilius Paullus na luta em Canas, apesar de algumas contra­dições e adições fictícias. Na verdade, uma análise detalhada da sua descrição da batalha mostra que o historiador grego, de fato, amplia o enaltecimento de Paullus, e que sua versão das ações do cônsul no campo de batalha deve ser rejeitada.

  4. Atelectasia pulmonar em cães durante anestesia geral Pulmonary atelectasis in dogs during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Ferro Lopes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A pressão intrapleural normalmente é menor que a pressão intrapulmonar. Consequentemente , os pulmões tendem ao colapso e se retraem, afastando-se da parede torácica. No início do século XX, Pasteur descreveu a atelectasia pulmonar, que ocorre com frequência durante a indução anestésica, persiste no período pós-operatório e pode contribuir de maneira significativa para a morbidade e o aumento nos gastos com medicamentos. Em medicina veterinária, no entanto, a atelectasia não é frequentemente diagnosticada, apesar de que isso não implica afirmar que tal afecção não ocorra, visto que existem relatos do desenvolvimento desse quadro em cães e em outras espécies. No contexto da anestesia geral, essa complicação pulmonar pode ser encontrada em animais que respiram 80 a 100% de oxigênio. A partir dessas informações, torna-se necessário que o profissional da anestesiologia veterinária obtenha conhecimentos complementares sobre o tema. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se descrever alguns dos mecanismos da atelectasia e seus pontos relevantes, de modo a familiarizar os profissionais quanto aos pormenores dessa importante, e nem sempre bem compreendida, alteração fisiológica respiratória.Pleural pressure is usually lower than pulmonary pressure. Therefore, the lungs tend to collapse and increase its distance from thoracic walls. At the beginning of 20th century, Pasteur described the pulmonary atelectasis, which develops during induction of anesthesia and persists to the postoperative period. It can contribute significantly to morbidity and to increase the medical expenses. In veterinary medicine, pulmonary atelectasis is not frequently diagnosed, which doesn't rule out the occurrence of this disease, since there are reports of atelectsasis in dogs. This pulmonary complication can be found in animals that breathe 80% to 100% oxygen in anesthetic procedures. Based on this information, the veterinary anesthesiologist is required

  5. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  6. Reliability of the Core Items in the General Social Survey: Estimates from the Three-Wave Panels, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hout

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used standard and multilevel models to assess the reliability of core items in the General Social Survey panel studies spanning 2006 to 2014. Most of the 293 core items scored well on the measure of reliability: 62 items (21 percent had reliability measures greater than 0.85; another 71 (24 percent had reliability measures between 0.70 and 0.85. Objective items, especially facts about demography and religion, were generally more reliable than subjective items. The economic recession of 2007–2009, the slow recovery afterward, and the election of Barack Obama in 2008 altered the social context in ways that may look like unreliability of items. For example, unemployment status, hours worked, and weeks worked have lower reliability than most work-related items, reflecting the consequences of the recession on the facts of peoples lives. Items regarding racial and gender discrimination and racial stereotypes scored as particularly unreliable, accounting for most of the 15 items with reliability coefficients less than 0.40. Our results allow scholars to more easily take measurement reliability into consideration in their own research, while also highlighting the limitations of these approaches.

  7. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    polarization of incident EM waves by favoring the transmission of waves of a particular polarization. The interaction of some materials with incident...polarization of the waves after they have passed through the test material or object. Using the measured transmission intensity values, the...resolution. Shorter wavelength EM waves , such as visual light , have poor penetration ability but produce high-resolution images. However, the

  8. Impact of a simple parameterization of convective gravity-wave drag in a stratosphere-troposphere general circulation model and its sensitivity to vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bossuet

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the

  9. Impact of a simple parameterization of convective gravity-wave drag in a stratosphere-troposphere general circulation model and its sensitivity to vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bossuet

    Full Text Available Systematic westerly biases in the southern hemisphere wintertime flow and easterly equatorial biases are experienced in the Météo-France climate model. These biases are found to be much reduced when a simple parameterization is introduced to take into account the vertical momentum transfer through the gravity waves excited by deep convection. These waves are quasi-stationary in the frame of reference moving with convection and they propagate vertically to higher levels in the atmosphere, where they may exert a significant deceleration of the mean flow at levels where dissipation occurs. Sixty-day experiments have been performed from a multiyear simulation with the standard 31 levels for a summer and a winter month, and with a T42 horizontal resolution. The impact of this parameterization on the integration of the model is found to be generally positive, with a significant deceleration in the westerly stratospheric jet and with a reduction of the easterly equatorial bias. The sensitivity of the Météo-France climate model to vertical resolution is also investigated by increasing the number of vertical levels, without moving the top of the model. The vertical resolution is increased up to 41 levels, using two kinds of level distribution. For the first, the increase in vertical resolution concerns especially the troposphere (with 22 levels in the troposphere, and the second treats the whole atmosphere in a homogeneous way (with 15 levels in the troposphere; the standard version of 31 levels has 10 levels in the troposphere. A comparison is made between the dynamical aspects of the simulations. The zonal wind and precipitation are presented and compared for each resolution. A positive impact is found with the finer tropospheric resolution on the precipitation in the mid-latitudes and on the westerly stratospheric jet, but the general impact on the model climate is weak, the physical parameterizations used appear to be mostly independent to the

  10. Os efeitos da idade na percepção visual de grades senoidais em luminância baixa The effects of age on visual perception of sine-wave gratings at low luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a função de sensibilidade ao contraste (FSC de adultos e idosos (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 anos para grades senoidais de 0,25 a 2 cpg em luminância baixa. Todos os participantes apresentavam acuidade visual normal e se encontravam livres de doenças oculares identificáveis. Foram estimados limiares de contraste para 30 participantes (seis em cada faixa etária utilizando o método psicofísico da escolha forçada. Neste método, os participantes tinham que escolher um estímulo contendo uma freqüência de teste (grade senoidal em baixo contraste ou um estímulo neutro com luminância média de 0,7 cd/m². Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 anos apresentaram prejuízos significativos na FSC nas freqüências espaciais de 1 e 2 cpg comparados ao grupo de 20-23 anos. Estes resultados sugerem alterações relacionadas à idade na FSC de freqüências espaciais em níveis baixos de luminância.The aim of this work was to investigate the contrast sensitivity function for sine-wave gratings in the range between 0.25-2 cpd in young and older adults (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years old using low luminance. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. We measured the contrast thresholds for 30 participants (six volunteers in each age using the psychophysical forced-choice staircase method. In this method the volunteers had to choose the stimulus containing a test frequency at low contrast (e.g., a sine-wave grating, or another neutral stimulus at mean luminance (0.7 cd/m². The results showed significant changes of CSF for sine-wave gratings at 1 and 2 cpd for the adults 50-59 and 60-69 years old compared to the adults of 20-23 years old. These results suggest age-related changes in the CSF for sine-wave grating at low luminance levels.

  11. Confiabilidade do teste da caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com miastenia gravis generalizada Reliability of the six-minute walk test in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regiane Resqueti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a confiabilidade do teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M como um teste de capacidade funcional em pacientes com miastenia gravis generalizada (MG. Foram selecionados 11 pacientes com MG - 5 homens, 6 mulheres - com idade de 55±9 anos, avaliados inicialmente quanto à função fulmonar, que se submeteram a três TC6M em dias diferentes. Durante e/ou após cada teste foram medidas freqüência cardíaca e saturação de oxigênio (por oxímetro portátil, sensação de dispnéia (pela escala de Borg e distância percorrida. Nos três testes as distâncias percorridas foram 498 m, 517 m e 520 m (respectivamente 99%, 103% e 104% do valor predito. Em média, a freqüência cardíaca, dispnéia e saturação de oxigênio mostraram comportamento constante nos três testes. Foram encontradas alta confiabilidade relativa, com coeficiente de correlação interclasse maior que 0,90 entre os testes (TC6M1-TC6M2, 0,960; TC6M1-TC6M3, 0,945; e TC6M2-TC6M3, 0,970 e confiabilidade absoluta de 4%, 3,5% e 4,8%, com reprodutibilidade de 11%, 9,8% e 13,4%, respectivamente para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro testes. Os limites superiores e inferiores de concordância e o valor médio das médias das diferenças (bias calculados pelo teste de Bland-Altman mostraram-se clinicamente aceitáveis. Conclui-se que o TC6M se mostrou seguro, confiável e reprodutível, podendo ser aplicado para avaliação e seguimento da tolerância ao exercício em pacientes com MG generalizada.The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the six minutes walking test (6MWT as a functional capacity test for patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG. Eleven patients with generalized MG (5 men, six women, aged 55±9 years, were first assessed as to pulmonary function and then submitted to three 6MWT in different days. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured (by means of portable oxymeter during, and dyspnea (by the Borg scale and

  12. General DFT + + method implemented with projector augmented waves: electronic structure of SrVO3 and the Mott transition in Ca2-xSrxRuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolak, M; Wehling, T O; Lechermann, F; Lichtenstein, A I

    2011-01-01

    The realistic description of correlated electron systems took an important step forward a few years ago as the combination of density functional methods and dynamical mean-field theory was conceived. This framework allows access to both high and low energy physics and is capable of the description of the specific physics of strongly correlated materials, like the Mott metal-insulator transition. A very important step in the procedure is the interface between the band structure method and the dynamical mean-field theory and its impurity solver. We present a general interface between a projector augmented-wave-based density functional code and many-body methods based on Wannier functions obtained from a projection on local orbitals. The implementation is very flexible and allows for various applications. Quantities like the momentum-resolved spectral function are accessible. We present applications to SrVO 3 and the metal-insulator transition in Ca 2-x Sr x RuO 4 .

  13. Comparison of the effects of millimeter wave irradiation, general bath heating, and localized heating on neuronal activity in the leech ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Sergii; Siegel, Peter H.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Pikov, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The use of electrically-induced neuromodulation has grown in importance in the treatment of multiple neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, cluster headaches and others. While electrical current can be applied locally, it requires placing stimulation electrodes in direct contact with the neural tissue. Our goal is to develop a method for localized application of electromagnetic energy to the brain without direct tissue contact. Toward this goal, we are experimenting with the wireless transmission of millimeter wave (MMW) energy in the 10-100 GHz frequency range, where penetration and focusing can be traded off to provide non-contact irradiation of the cerebral cortex. Initial experiments have been conducted on freshly-isolated leech ganglia to evaluate the real-time changes in the activity of individual neurons upon exposure to the MMW radiation. The initial results indicate that low-intensity MMWs can partially suppress the neuronal activity. This is in contrast to general bath heating, which had an excitatory effect on the neuronal activity. Further studies are underway to determine the changes in the state of the membrane channels that might be responsible for the observed neuromodulatory effects.

  14. Continuous spike-waves during slow waves sleep: a clinical and electroencephalografic study in fifteen children Ponta-onda contínua do sono lento: estudo clínico e eletrencefalográfico em quinze crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA A. F. DJABRAIAN

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the clinical and EEG features of 15 patients with the syndrome of "continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep" (CSWSS. The differential diagnosis of CSWSS includes benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes, and Landau-Kleffner and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. We found normal CT and MRI features in 6 cases, periventricular leukomalacia with and without diffuse brain atrophy in 4 cases and hydrocephalus in 1 case. There was no association between specific neurological findings and CSWSS. Nine of our cases had relatively focal discharges, like some cases from the literature. The occurrence of CSWSS appears to be age-related, generaly between the ages of 5 to 12 years, with a strong temporal relation to the neupsychological deterioration in its nature, severity and prognosis. We believe that this striking disorder has been overlooked and that routine sleep EEG studies on epileptic children may disclose additional cases of CSWSS.Relatamos as características clínicas e eletroencefalográficas de 15 patientes com a síndrome de ponta-onda contínua do sono não-REM (POCSNR. O diagnóstico diferencial da POCSNR inclue a epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centro-temporais e as síndromes de Landau-Kleffner e Lennox-Gastaut. Encontramos TC e RNM de crânio normais em 6 casos, leucomalácia periventricular em 4 e hidrocefalia em 1. Não houve associação de achados neurológicos específicos e a POCSNR. Nove dos nossos casos tinham descargas relativamente focais, como alguns casos da literatura. A ocorrência da POCSNR parece ser idade-dependente, geralmente entre 5 e 12 anos, com forte relação temporal à deteriorização neurocognitiva, em sua natureza, severidade e prognóstico. Acreditamos que esta síndrome tem sido pouco diagnosticada e que a realização rotineira de EEG em sono em crianças epilépticas possa revelar novos casos de POCSNR.

  15. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  16. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  17. Viabilidade de unidades psiquiátricas em hospitais gerais no Brasil Viabilidad de unidades psiquiátricas en hospitales generales en Brasil Feasibility of general hospitals psychiatric units in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lucchesi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender o estigma voltado aos portadores de transtornos mentais na cultura de hospitais gerais enquanto fator limitante para a implantação de unidades psiquiátricas em hospitais gerais no Brasil. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Foi delineada uma pesquisa social, de natureza qualitativa. Adotou-se como estratégia a pesquisa-ação para a implantação de uma unidade psiquiátrica em um hospital geral em Taubaté, SP, 2005-2006. As evidências foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas, observação participante e palestras sobre o projeto da unidade psiquiátrica para o corpo clínico do hospital. RESULTADOS: O investimento do órgão gestor possibilitou que as concepções estigmatizantes presentes na cultura do hospital estudado (violência, fraqueza moral e intratabilidade fossem ressignificadas por meio de discussões clínicas e sanitárias, viabilizando a implantação da unidade psiquiátrica. A análise mostrou que essas concepções eram reatualizadas pelo contexto assistencial, no qual o acesso dos portadores de transtornos mentais era restrito. CONCLUSÕES: A postura assumida pelo órgão gestor, que decidiu pelo financiamento adequado da unidade psiquiátrica e exerceu sua ascendência sobre o hospital prestador, foi decisiva para o desfecho do caso. A principal dificuldade para a implantação das unidades psiquiátricas não é o estigma presente na cultura dos hospitais gerais, mas uma limitação de ordem estratégica: a falta de uma política afirmativa para essas unidades.OBJETIVO: Comprender el estigma dirigido a los portadores de trastornos mentales en la cultura de hospitales generales con relación al factor limitante para la implantación de unidades psiquiátricas en hospitales generales en Brasil. PROCEDIMIENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Fue delineada una pesquisa social, de naturaleza cualitativa. Se adoptó como estrategia la pesquisa-acción para la implantación de una unidad psiquiátrica en un hospital general en

  18. O impacto do uso de álcool em pacientes admitidos em um pronto-socorro geral universitário The impact of alcohol use in patients attended in the emergency room of a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Segatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O uso abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas é um dos fatores provocadores significativos de causas externas em pacientes atendidos na emergência. OBJETIVOS: Investigar o padrão de uso de álcool em pacientes atendidos nos serviços de pronto-socorro (PS e analisar a associação desse consumo com os motivos da procura ao serviço. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal. A amostra foi constituída por 418 pacientes que procuraram o PS do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HCUFU/MG, no período de outubro de 2003 a março de 2004. Os procedimentos consistiram na coleta de informações sociodemográficas e de dados gerais sobre o motivo da procura ao serviço de saúde e na aplicação de um questionário de rastreamento de abuso de álcool, o AUDIT. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de uso problemático de álcool em 36,2% (N = 151 pacientes. O consumo maior foi em vítimas de atropelamentos (60%, (N = 9, acidente de trânsito (40%, (N = 40 e acidentes gerais (44%, (N = 51, entre indivíduos do sexo masculino, solteiros, com idade entre 18 e 44 anos (mediana 36. A análise de regressão logística indicou que embora o uso abusivo de álcool esteja mais associado ao grupo de traumas físicos, essa relação é especialmente importante com os pedestres (OR = 1,05 IC 95%: 1,01-1,09 e os acidentes gerais (agressões, quedas, afogamentos, entre outros (OR = 1,03 IC 95%: 1,00-1,05. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas entre os pacientes atendidos neste serviço de PS em decorrência de acidentes de transporte e outros tipos de acidentes é elevado, especialmente no que diz respeito aos atropelamentos. Nesse sentido, são indispensáveis medidas preventivas para diminuir o custo individual e social do consumo de álcool e a reincidência desses eventos.BACKGROUND: The abusive alcoholic beverage use is one of significant the provoking factors of external causes in patients taken care of in the

  19. Generalized transmissibilities for corner point rids in reservoir simulation; Transmissibilidades generalizadas em malhas corner point na simulacao de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Mauricio P.; Silva, Antonio Fabio C. da; Maliska, Clovis R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao Numerica em Mecanica dos Fluidos e Transferencia de Calor (SINMEC)

    2008-07-01

    It is common to use five points schemes in reservoir simulation, since it simplifies the computational implementation and takes the linear resultant system simplest to be solved, giving more process velocity and robust to simulator. However, the use of these schemes may introduce significant errors solutions as function of volume's non orthogonality and medium anisotropy. These errors do not disappear with grid refinement since they are not truncate errors, it is a flux calculus approximation in the control volume faces. In order to get a correct solution and with no errors of these kind, it must be used a nine point scheme based on the correct flux calculus. The objective of this work is to present a new methodology to calculate the transmissibility on simulation reservoir that use a five and nine points scheme with corner-points grids. This mode considers full tensor anisotropy and the heterogeneity. The transmissibility presented are derivative of the discrete flux expression through control volume faces, where a generalized curvilinear coordinate system, located inner to the control volume, it is adopted. The transmissibility is then written on vector form and may to be used for any coordinate system. (author)

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  1. An insight into the general relationship between the three dimensional structures of enzymes and their electronic wave functions: Implication for the prediction of functional sites of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K; Wada, M; Sakurai, M

    2008-06-01

    In this study, we explored the general relationship between the three-dimensional (3D) structures of enzymes and their electronic wave functions. Furthermore, we developed a method for the prediction of their functionally important sites. For this purpose, we first performed linear-scaling molecular orbital calculations for 112 nonredundant, non-homologous enzymes with known structure and function. In consequence, we showed that the canonical molecular orbitals (MOs) of the enzymes could be classified into three groups according to the degree of electron delocalization: highly localized orbitals (Group A), highly delocalized orbitals whose electrons are distributed over almost the whole molecule (Group B), and moderately delocalized orbitals (Group C). The MOs belonging to Group A are located near the HOMO-LUMO band gap, and thereby include the frontier orbitals of a given enzyme. We inferred that the MOs of Group B play a role in stabilizing the 3D structure of the enzyme, while those of Group C contribute to constructing the covalent bond framework of the enzyme. Next, we investigated whether the frontier orbitals of enzymes could be used for identifying their potential functional sites. As a result, we found that the frontier orbitals of the 112 enzymes have a high propensity to be colocalized with the known functional sites, especially when the enzymes are hydrated. Such a propensity is shown to be remarkable when Glu or Asp is a functional site residue. On the basis of these results, we finally propose a protocol for the prediction of functional sites of enzymes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiyong; Liu, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Yue, Xigui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-28

    A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure, morphology, porosity and magnetic properties of WPC/MNPs-80 were investigated in detail. To evaluate its EM wave attenuation performance, the EM parameters of the absorber and wax composite were measured at 2-18 GHz. WPC/MNPs-80 has an excellent EM wave absorbency with a wide absorption band at a relatively low loading and thin absorber thickness. At the absorber thickness of 1.5 and 2.0 mm, minimum RL values of -29.2 and -47.9 dB were achieved with the RL below -10 dB in 12.8-18 and 9.2-13.3 GHz, respectively. The Co and Fe nanoparticles derived from the chemical reduction of Co0.2Fe2.8O4 can enhance the graphitization process of carbon and thus improve dielectric loss ability. Polarizations in the nanocomposite absorber also play an important role in EM wave absorption. Thus, EM waves can be effectively attenuated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss through multiple reflections and absorption in the porous structure. WPC/MNPs-80 could be an excellent absorber for EM wave attenuation; and the design strategy could be extended as a general method to synthesize other high-performance absorbers.

  3. Serviço de Emergência Psiquiátrica em hospital geral: estudo retrospectivo Servicio de emergencia psiquiátrica en hospital general: estudio retrospectivo Emergency psychiatric service in general hospitals: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Pereira de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Serviço de Emergência Psiquiátrica em Hospital Geral (SEPHG é uma proposta articulada com o movimento da reforma psiquiátrica. Objetivou-se caracterizar os clientes com sofrimento psíquico assistidos no SEPHG Dr. Estevam, em Sobral-CE. Este é um estudo do tipo documental, com abordagem quantitativa, envolvendo 191 clientes atendidos no SEPHG no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. Os dados foram coletados a partir de um livro de registro, cujas informações nele contidas foram retiradas dos prontuários dos clientes. Observou-se predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino (70,15%, com idade entre 30-49 anos (48,71% e solteiros (74,86%. A maioria era proveniente da cidade de Sobral (69,64 %. Em 42,40% dos casos, o diagnóstico foi transtorno do uso de álcool. Grande parte da clientela (66,50% deu entrada no serviço por demanda espontânea. Após avaliação do SEPHG, 43,45% desses clientes foram encaminhados ao CAPS-ad. Pelos resultados, depreende-se o quão imprescindíveis são os serviços de saúde mental.El Servicio de Emergencia Psiquiátrica en Hospital General (SEPHG es una propuesta vinculada al movimiento de la reforma psiquiátrica. Se objetivó caracterizar a los pacientes con trastornos psiquiátricos atendidos en el SEPHG Dr. Estevam, en Sobral-Ceará-Brasil. Estudio de tipo documental con abordaje cualitativa, involucrando 191 pacientes atendidos en el SEPHG entre enero y diciembre de 2007. Los datos fueron recogidos a partir de un libro de registro, cuyas informaciones fueron extraídas de las historias clínicas de los pacientes. Se observó prevalencia de pacientes de sexo masculino (70,15%, con edad entre 30-49 años (48,71% y solteros (74,86%. La mayoría provenía de la ciudad de Sobral (69,64%. En el 42,40% de los casos, el diagnóstico fue trastorno provocado por abuso de alcohol. Una gran cantidad de pacientes (66,50% se presentó en el servicio en forma espontánea. Con posterioridad a la evaluación del

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  5. On a testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearden, T.E.; Rosenthal, W.

    1991-01-01

    Unrecognized for what it was, in 1903-1904 E.T. Whittaker (W) published a fundamental, engineerable theory of electogravitation (EG) in two profound papers. The first (W-1903) demonstrated a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in the scalar potential of vacuum, and showed how to produce a standing scalar EM potential wave -- the same wave discovered experimentally four years earlier by Nikola Tesla. W-1903 is a hidden variable theory that shows how to determinsitically curve the local and/or distant spacetime using EM. W-1904 shows that all force field EM can be replaced by interferometry of two scalar potentials, anticipating the Aharonov-Bohm effect by 55 years and extending it to the engineerable macroscopic world. W-1903 shows how to turn EM into G-potential, curve local and/or distant spacetime, and directly engineer the virtual particle flux of vacuum. W-1904 shows how to turn G-potential and curvature of spacetime back into force-field EM, even at a distance. The papers implement Sahkarov's 1968 statement that gravitation is not a fundamental field of nature, gut a conglomerate of other fields. Separately applied to electromagnetic (EM), quantum mechanics (QM), and general relativity (GR), an extended superset of each results. The three supersets are Whittaker-unified, so that a testable, engineerable, unified field theory is generated. EM, QM, and GR each contained a fundamental error that blocked unification, and these three errors are explain. The Schroedinger potential can also be structured and altered, indicating the direct engineering of physical quantum change. Recently Ignatovich has pointed out this hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in the Schroedinger potential, without referencing Whittaker's 1903 discovery of the basic effect

  6. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  7. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  8. Chorus Wave Modulation of Langmuir Waves in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; An, Xin; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhou, Meng; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2017-12-01

    Using high-resolution waveforms measured by the Van Allen Probes, we report a novel observation in the radiation belts. Namely, we show that multiband, discrete, rising-tone whistler mode chorus emissions exhibit a one-to-one correlation with Langmuir wave bursts. Moreover, the periodic Langmuir wave bursts are generally observed at the phase location where the chorus wave E|| component is oriented opposite to its propagation direction. The electron measurements show a beam in phase space density at the particle velocity that matches the parallel phase velocity of the chorus waves. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the chorus waves accelerate the suprathermal electrons via Landau resonance and generate a localized electron beam in phase space density. Consequently, the Langmuir waves are excited locally and are modulated by the chorus wave phase. This microscale interaction between chorus waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves provides a new insight into the nonlinear wave-particle interaction process.

  9. Watt-Level Continuous-Wave Emission from a Bi-Functional Quantum Cascade Laser/Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    ed em is si on sp ec tra Wavenumbers (cm−1) Wavelength (µm) subthreshold 1480 mA 1530 mA 1600 mA 2000 mA 2500 mA 3000 mA Figure 3: Emission spectra of...cally authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bi-functional...facet continuous wave emission at 15◦C. Apart from the general performance benets, this enables sensing techiques which rely on continuous wave

  10. Development of electromagnetic wave absorbers with alnico magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Man; Kim, Dong Il; Shin, Seung Jae; Moon, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Man; Rhyu, Keel Soo

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a cast Alnico magnet as a new EM wave absorber. The proposed Alnico EM wave absorber shows advanced EM wave absorption properties of 24 dB at 15 GHz, 24 dB at 8.1 GHz, and 24 dB at 5.1 GHz for thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm respectively. We also investigated the effects of the carbon and the Alnico contents and of the thickness dependence on the EM wave absorption properties.

  11. Quantitative Understanding on the Amplitude Decay Characteristic of the Evanescent Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Seismoelectric Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    We conduct numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to quantitatively study the amplitude decay characteristic of the evanescent electromagnetic (EM) waves, which has been neglected in previous studies on the seismoelectric conversion occurring at a porous-porous interface. Time slice snapshots of seismic and EM wave-fields generated by a vertical single force point source in a two-layer porous model show that evanescent EM waves can be induced at a porous-porous interface. The seismic and EM wave-fields computed for a receiver array located in a vertical line nearby the interface are investigated in detail. In addition to the direct and interface-response radiation EM waves, we identify three groups of coseismic EM fields and evanescent EM waves associated with the direct P, refracted SV-P and direct SV waves, respectively. Thereafter, we derive the mathematical expression of the amplitude decay factor of the evanescent EM waves. This mathematical expression is further validated by our numerical simulations. It turns out the amplitude decay of the evanescent EM waves generated by seismoelectric conversion is greatly dependent on the horizontal wavenumber of seismic waves. It is also found the evanescent EM waves have a higher detectability at a lower frequency range. This work provides a better understanding on the EM wave-fields generated by seismoelectric conversion, which probably will help improve the interpretation of the seismoelectric coupling phenomena associated with natural earthquakes or possibly will inspire some new ideas on the application of the seismoelectric coupling effect.

  12. Transtorno de ansiedade generalizada em idosos com oitenta anos ou mais Generalized anxiety disorder in a population aged 80 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio MF Xavier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever a prevalência de transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG em uma população de idosos residentes em uma comunidade e com idade acima de 80 anos e comparar os padrões de sono, a função cognitiva e a taxa de prevalência de outros diagnósticos psiquiátricos entre controles normais e sujeitos com TAG. MÉTODOS: Para o diagnóstico de TAG, foram utilizados os critérios do "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV. Selecionou-se uma amostra randômica e representativa de 77 sujeitos (35%, residentes em uma comunidade, entre todos os idosos com idade acima de 80 anos do município Veranópolis, RS. Os padrões de sono foram aferidos pelo índice de qualidade de sono de Pittsburgh e pelo diário sobre sono/vigília a ser preenchido ao longo de duas semanas. Cinco testes neuropsicológicos foram usados na avaliação cognitiva: teste das lembranças seletivas de Buschke-Fuld; lista de palavras da bateria CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease; teste de fluência verbal e dois subtestes da escala de memória Wechsler. RESULTADOS: A prevalência estimada de TAG foi de 10,6%, cuja presença estava associada a uma maior ocorrência de depressão clinicamente diagnosticável, com um significativo maior número de sintomas depressivos, quando medidos pela escala de depressão geriátrica, e com uma maior ocorrência de depressão menor. Os padrões de sono e o funcionamento cognitivo, entre sujeitos com TAG, não estavam afetados. A gravidade das doenças físicas não variava entre sujeitos com TAG e os controles normais. A presença de TAG estava associada a um significativo pior padrão de qualidade de vida relativa à saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Em comparação com os estudos prévios, a prevalência de TAG é alta entre a população de idosos mais velhos. Esse transtorno ocorre em freqüente associação com a sintomatologia depressiva e também está associado a um pior padrão de

  13. Quantum-statistical approach to electromagnetic wave propagation and dissipation inside dielectric media and nanophotonic and plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum-statistical effects occur during the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves inside the dielectric media or metamaterials, which include a large class of nanophotonic and plasmonic waveguides with dissipation and noise. Exploiting the formal analogy between the Schrödinger equation and the Maxwell equations for dielectric linear media, we rigorously derive the effective Hamiltonian operator which describes such propagation. This operator turns out to be essentially non-Hermitian in general, and pseudo-Hermitian in some special cases. Using the density operator approach for general non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, we derive a master equation that describes the statistical ensembles of EM wave modes. The method also describes the quantum dissipative and decoherence processes which happen during the wave's propagation, and, among other things, it reveals the conditions that are necessary to control the energy and information loss inside the above-mentioned materials.

  14. Effect of environment on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in GRC 408E digital radiorelay devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    receiver in different ways, and such EMW propagation is known as multiple EM wave propagation in the literature. The result of multiple propagation can be the reduction of the EM field intensity or its complete disappearance. This phenomenon is called fading. Fading Fading is caused by short-term weakening of electromagnetic waves at the reception. During EMW propagation, the interaction between EM waves and objects occurs resulting in multiple copies of useful signals of different amplitude and delay values at the reception point, thus making the resulting EM field unstable. A large number of copies of the useful signal at the reception are caused by the effects of environmental impacts on the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the route, such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and their combination. The total loss is equal to the sum of propagation weakening and fading weakening. Fading is divided into propagation fading and interference fading. Propagation fading is generally slow and does not depend on frequency. Interference fading occurs due to the appearance of multiple EM wave propagation and it can be flat or selective. Flat fading is the same in the entire frequency range. In selective fading there is degradation of basic signals, i.e. Intersymbol interference which is present at RR devices operating at higher frequencies with the data flow around 34 MBit/s and over. Model of the radio-relay system and the results of modeling The paper deals with a model as the one given in Fig. 2 The GRC 408E RR devices are supposed to be built into mobile call centers. The following phenomena are modeled: attenuation due to propagation, diffraction, reflection and fading. Each phenomenon is modeled for typical cases. The input signal in the GRC RR 408E device is a random binary sequence, modulated by a modulation device provided by the RR. Such a signal propagates through the particular medium towards the RR device receiving antenna. At the reception point, the

  15. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  16. A general toolbox for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties using SCF wave functions at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruud, K.; Bast, R.; Gao, B.; Thorvaldsen, A. J.; Ekstrom, U.E.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    We outline a new approach for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties for self-consistent field (SCF) wave functions (or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory) expressed in time- and perturbation-dependent basis sets. The approach is based on an atomic-orbital-based, open-ended

  17. Distribuição de obesidade geral e abdominal em adultos de uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Distribution of general and abdominal obesity in adults in a city in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Silva Linhares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi determinar a prevalência e a evolução da obesidade geral e abdominal em adultos com 20 anos ou mais em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado em 2010. A obesidade geral foi definida pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m² e a obesidade abdominal definida como > 88cm para mulheres e > 102cm para homens. Foram entrevistados 2.448 indivíduos. A prevalência de obesidade foi de 21,7% nos homens e 29,2% nas mulheres, já a obesidade abdominal foi de 19,5% e 37,5%, respectivamente. Na análise multivariada, menor escolaridade esteve associada ao aumento da obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres. Renda familiar apresentou relação inversa com obesidade abdominal em homens. Comparativamente, mostraram aumento das prevalências de obesidade de 1,2 vez para as mulheres e 1,5 vez para os homens, com estudos em 1994 e 2000. Porém, para obesidade abdominal houve pequena redução entre as mulheres e se manteve semelhante para os homens. A prevalência de obesidade geral aumentou nos últimos 10 anos, enquanto que a obesidade abdominal mostrou estabilidade.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in general and abdominal obesity in adults 20 years or older in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using a cross-sectional population-based design, in 2010. General obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI > 30kg/m² and abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 88cm for women and > 102cm for men. Interviews were held with 2,448 eligible individuals. General obesity prevalence was 21.7% in men and 29.2% in women, while abdominal obesity was present in 19.5% of men and 37.5% of women. According to multivariate analysis, lower schooling was associated with increased BMI and WC in women. Family income was inversely related to abdominal obesity in men. Prevalence of general obesity had increased 1.2 times in women and 1.5 in men, when compared to

  18. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  19. Interconsulta psicológica: demanda e assistência em hospital geral Interconsulta psicológica: demanda y asistencia en hospital general Consultation-liaison psychology: demand and assistance in general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nátali Castro Antunes Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A interconsulta psicológica no hospital geral representa uma modalidade de atendimento clínico e um instrumento metodológico utilizado pelo psicólogo na assistência ao paciente internado, mediante solicitação de outros profissionais da saúde. O estudo objetivou caracterizar a demanda da interconsulta psicológica em um hospital geral, a partir da análise dos registros de solicitação de atendimento. Cento e sete pacientes foram atendidos entre janeiro e junho de 2010, dos quais 53% eram do sexo masculino e 57% eram adultos acima de 45 anos. A maioria das solicitações foi realizada por médicos (44% e enfermeiros (38%, formalmente (59%, e mediante contato prévio entre interconsultor e solicitante (85%. Os principais motivos alegados para a solicitação da interconsulta foram sintomas psicológicos relacionados ao adoecimento (43% e identificação de comprometimento na adaptação do paciente à hospitalização (41%. O modelo de interconsulta psicológica adotado no contexto estudado foi adequado, havendo engajamento da equipe multiprofissional na efetivação da prática.La interconsulta psicológica en los hospitals generales representan una modalidad de clínica y una herramienta metodológica utilizada por los psicólogos en la atención hospitalaria del paciente, a petición de los profesionales de la salud. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la demanda psicológica para referirlo a un hospital general, desde el análisis del servicio de solicitud de registros. Ciento siete pacientes fueron tratados entre enero y junio de 2010, siendo 53% hombres y 57% de los adultos mayores de 45 años. La mayoría de las solicitudes fueron realizadas por los médicos (44% y enfermeras (38%, de manera formal (59% y el contacto previo entre interconsultor y su interés (85%. Las razones principales de la solicitud de remisión fueron: síntomas psicológicos relacionados con la enfermedad (43% y la identificación de la deficiencia en la

  20. The generation and propagation of nonlinear waves in a reservoir; Geracao e propagacao de ondas nao-lineares em um reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Roger Matsumoto; Mendes, Andre Avelino de Oliveira; Bacchi, Raphael David Aquilino [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Lab. de Dinamica dos Fluidos Computacional (LabCFD)], e-mail: roger@vm.uff.br, e-mail: andreavelinoom@gmail.com, e-mail: raphael@esss.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work aims to model numerically the generation and propagation of waves in a reservoir, represented by a two-dimensional impermeable box, with a flat horizontal bottom and two vertical walls. The horizontal or vertical harmonic motion is imposed at the container, which is partially filled with water, with two possible initial conditions for the free surface: still water or a stationary sinusoidal wave. Two numerical methods are employed in the solution of the boundary value problem. The first is based on solving an integral equation that arises from Cauchy's integral theorem for functions of a complex variable. The transient nonlinear free surface flow is simulated using a boundary integral method. Numerical results are validated by comparing them with classical analytical solutions. The second method uses the commercial code ANSYS CFX with its homogeneous free surface model. In this case, results are compared with experiments done by Bredmose et al. (2003). In both models, interesting features at the free surface are obtained and discussed. (author)

  1. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-01-01

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements ( and lt; 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications

  2. Ingestão alcoólica em vítimas de causas externas atendidas em um hospital geral universitário Ingestión alcohólica en víctimas de causas externas atendidas en un hospital general universitário Alcohol consumption among victims of external causes in a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efigênia Aparecida Maciel de Freitas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência de ingestão alcoólica em vítimas de causas externas atendidas em hospital. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com vítimas atendidas em um hospital geral universitário em Uberlândia (MG, de fevereiro a agosto de 2004. A alcoolemia foi determinada em 85 pacientes no pronto-socorro e entrevistaram-se outros 301 internados nas enfermarias sobre possível ingestão alcoólica previamente ao trauma; em ambos os grupos foi aplicado o questionário Cut-down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE. Para as comparações das freqüências foi utilizado o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A alcoolemia foi positiva em 31,8% dos pacientes testados, os quais mais freqüentemente necessitaram de internação (70,4% versus 37,9%; pOBJETIVO: Estimar la frecuencia de ingestión alcohólica en víctimas de causas externas atendidas en hospital. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio con víctimas atendidas en un hospital general universitario en Uberlandia (Sureste de Brasil, de febrero a agosto de 2004. La alcoholemia fue determinada en 85 pacientes en la emergencia y se encuestaron 301 internados en las enfermerías sobre posible ingestión alcohólica previamente al trauma; en ambos grupos fue aplicado encuesta Cut-down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener (CAGE. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar las frecuencias. RESULTADOS: La alcoholemia fue positiva en 31,8% de los pacientes evaluados, los cuales necesitaron de internación con más frecuencia (70,4% versus 37,9%; pOBJECTIVE: To estimate frequency of alcohol consumption among victims of external causes cared for in a hospital. METHODS: Study performed with victims cared for in a university general hospital in the city of Uberlândia (Southeastern Brazil, between February and August 2004. Blood alcohol content was determined from 85 patients in the emergency room. Other 301 patients, hospitalized in the outpatient clinics, were interviewed about

  3. Avaliação do índice de massa corpórea em mulheres atendidas em ambulatório geral de ginecologia Evaluation of body mass index of women from an outpatient gynecological general clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a freqüência de sobrepeso, obesidade e fatores associados entre mulheres de ambulatório de ginecologia geral em hospital secundário de referência. MÉTODOS: as variáveis estudadas foram idade, raça, escolaridade, renda familiar, trabalho com renda exercido pela mulher, tipo de trabalho da mulher, companheiro atual, característica do ciclo menstrual no momento da entrevista e índice de massa corpórea (IMC. Para análise as mulheres foram distribuídas em três grupos conforme o valor de IMC: 30 kg/m² (obesidade. Para os grupos de sobrepeso e obesidade foram calculados odds ratio e respectivo intervalo de confiança a 95% (IC 95% em cada variável, e posteriormente calculado OR ajustado. RESULTADOS: das 676 mulheres incluídas, 89,8% tinham até 8 anos de escolaridade, 83,0% tinham companheiro, 77,6% eram brancas, 61,4% referiram renda de até cinco salários mínimos e 36,0% estavam menopausadas. A freqüência de sobrepeso foi 35,6% e de obesidade 24,3%. O sobrepeso foi associado à faixa etária de 50-59 anos (OR: 3,22; IC 95%: 1,67-6,20 e à menopausa (OR: 1,52; IC 95%: 1,03-2,26; a obesidade foi associada à menopausa (OR: 2,57; IC 95%: 1,66-4,00 e às faixas etárias maiores de 40 anos (OR: 2,95; IC 95%: 1,37-6,37. Após análise de regressão múltipla, a obesidade manteve-se associada às faixas etárias de mais de 40 anos (OR: 2,51; IC 95%: 1,05-6,00. CONCLUSÕES: nesta amostra de mulheres com baixa escolaridade e nível socioeconômico, a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi alta. A obesidade foi associada a mulheres com mais de 40 anos. Esforços devem ser realizados para diminuir a freqüência de sobrepeso e obesidade entre mulheres.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated factors among women who visited a general gynecologic clinic in a secondary hospital of reference. METHODS: the following variables were studied: age, race, educational level, family income, job

  4. Multi-scale simulation for terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T; Matsumoto, H [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Machida, M; Ota, Y [CREST (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A numerical method applicable to the analysis of the multi-scale electromagnetic (EM) excitations in intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is presented. Using this method, we investigate the EM wave emission from the IJJs observed in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} mesas. The IJJs have three length scales that are greatly different in magnitude, i.e. the distance between superconducting layers (d {approx} 10{sup -3} {mu}m), the Josephson length ({lambda}{sub J} {approx} 1 {mu}m) and the c-axis penetration depth ({lambda}{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 2} {mu}m). The EM field excited in the IJJs generally shows spatial variation of these three length scales at the same time. In our numerical method the coupled dynamical equations for the phase differences and the EM field can be solved simultaneously in all the scales in the whole space composed of the IJJs and the surrounding vacuum. We clarify that the spatial symmetry of the EM field excited at the resonance with the {pi}-cavity-mode is different from that with the 2{pi}-cavity-mode. The strong EM wave emission originating from the {pi}-cavity-mode resonance takes place in the region where the uniform branch becomes unstable in the I-V characteristics.

  5. Avaliação cognitiva breve de pacientes atendidos em ambulatórios de neurologia geral Brief cognitive evaluation of patients attended in a general neurological outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula P. Vitiello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O exame das funções cognitivas é habitual na avaliação das demências, porém não é usualmente realizado em pacientes com outras doenças neurológicas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a relevância da semiologia cognitiva sistemática em pacientes com doenças neurológicas diversas. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 105 pacientes consecutivamente atendidos no período de um ano em ambulatório de neurologia geral de hospital universitário público, sem queixas de alterações cognitivas. Os pacientes foram submetidos aos seguintes testes cognitivos: mini-exame do estado mental (MEEM, extensão de dígitos, testes de memória de figuras, fluência verbal e desenho do relógio. Sempre que possível as notas de corte foram corrigidas em função da escolaridade. RESULTADOS: Cerca de 2/3 dos pacientes apresentaram alterações do desempenho em pelo menos um teste. O MEEM mostrou-se alterado em 20% dos pacientes, o teste da extensão de dígitos apresentou alteração em 50,4% (29,5% na ordem direta e 20,9% na indireta. A evocação tardia esteve alterada em 14,2% dos casos, a fluência verbal esteve abaixo da nota de corte em 27,6% dos pacientes e o desenho do relógio, em 40,0%. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos comprovam a necessidade da inclusão da avaliação cognitiva como parte obrigatória do exame neurológico, mesmo em pacientes sem queixas relacionadas.INTRODUCTION: Cognitive evaluation is usually performed in the assessment of patients with suspected dementia, but is not generally performed in patients with other neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of a systematic cognitive examination in patients with different neurological conditions. METHOD: One-hundred and five patients consecutively attended over a one-year period in a general Neurology outpatient clinic from a public-affiliated hospital, with no complaints of cognitive changes, were submitted to the following cognitive tests: Mini-Mental State Examination

  6. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  7. Wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  8. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vehicles led to the invention of stealth technology. Rao and. Mahulikar [1] argue that 'Stealth technology ... vehicle increases the weight and also needs to be periodically repaired'. Chin and Lee [7] argue that the 'RAS .... EM wave electric field intensity) to Ei (incident EM wave electric field intensity) expressed by as follows':.

  10. Generalized Møller-Plesset Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory Applied to an Open-Shell Antisymmetric Product of Strongly Orthogonal Geminals Reference Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-11-13

    The antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) method is a wave function theory that can effectively treat the static electron correlation. Recently, we proposed the open-shell APSG method using one-electron orbitals for open-shell parts. In this paper, we have extended the perturbation correction to the open-shell APSG calculations through Møller-Plesset-type multiconfiguration perturbation theory (MP-MCPT). Numerical applications demonstrate that the present open-shell MP-MCPT can reasonably reproduce the dissociation energies or equilibrium distances for open-shell systems.

  11. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  12. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indivíduos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92. Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior, pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a

  13. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Dados sobre a avaliação não invasiva vascular e suas relações com variáveis de risco cardiovascular são escassos em jovens. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a velocidade de onda de pulso e a pressão arterial,variáveis antropométricas e metabólicas, incluindo as adipocitocinas, em indivíduos adultos jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 96 indivíduos (51 homens do estudo do Rio de Janeiro, de 26 a 35 anos (média 30,09 ± 1,92. Foram obtidos a velocidade de onda de pulso (método Complior, pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal, glicose, perfil lipídico, leptina, insulina, adiponectina e o índice de resistência à insulina HOMA-IR. Os indivíduos foram estratificados em três grupos segundo o tercil da VOP para cada sexo. RESULTADOS: O grupo com maior tercil de VOP mostrou maiores médias de pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, insulina, HOMA-IR e menores médias de adiponectina, além de maiores prevalências de diabetes mellitus/intolerância à glicose e hiperinsulinemia. Houve correlação significativa e positiva da velocidade da onda de pulso com pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão de pulso e pressão arterial média, índice de massa corporal, e LDL-colesterol e negativa com HDL-colesterol e adiponectina. Em modelo de regressão múltipla, após ajuste do HDL-colesterol, LDL-colesterol e adiponectina para sexo, idade, índice de massa corporal e pressão arterial média, apenas o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média mantiveram correlação significativa com a velocidade de onda de pulso. CONCLUSÃO: A velocidade de onda de pulso em adultos jovens mostrou relação significativa com variáveis de risco cardiovascular, destacando-se o sexo masculino e a pressão arterial média como importantes variáveis no seu determinismo. Os achados sugerem que a medida da VOP pode ser útil para a

  14. Modulational instability of coupled waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Bingham, R.

    1989-01-01

    The collinear propagation of an arbitrary number of finite-amplitude waves is modeled by a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations; one equation for each complex wave amplitude. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate larger than the modulational growth rate of any wave alone. Moreover, waves that are modulationally stable by themselves can be driven unstable by the nonlinear coupling. The general theory is then applied to the relativistic modulational instability of two laser beams in a beat-wave accelerator. For parameters typical of a proposed beat-wave accelerator, this instability can seriously distort the incident laser pulse shapes on the particle-acceleration time scale, with detrimental consequences for particle acceleration

  15. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  16. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies...

  17. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  18. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  19. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  20. A general toolbox for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties using SCF wave functions at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Bast, Radovan; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ekström, Ulf; Visscher, Lucas

    2012-12-01

    We outline a new approach for the calculation of higher-order molecular properties for self-consistent field (SCF) wave functions (or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory) expressed in time- and perturbation-dependent basis sets. The approach is based on an atomic-orbital-based, open-ended quasienergy derivative formalism, and is applicable for use in linear scaling SCF calculations. In order to enable the calculation of any response property, we have also developed open- ended one- and two-electron integral derivative programs, as well as a program that can calculate derivatives of exchange- correlation functionals to any order using automatic differentiation. These modules have been interfaced to both the Dalton and DIRAC programs. This allows us to calculate molecular properties at the one-, two- and four-component levels of theory using a common theoretical framework and code.

  1. Early electromagnetic waves from earthquake rupturing: I. theoretical formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Xiaofei; Hu, Hengshan; Zhang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Earthquake taking place in a fluid-saturated porous medium can generate electromagnetic (EM) waves because of the electrokinetic effect. These generated EM waves arrive at a distant observatory much earlier than the seismic waves because their velocities are much faster than those of the seismic waves. They may explain the early EM signals which have been detected before the detection of the seismic waves after the occurrences of earthquakes. In this study, we attempt to analyse such a kind of early EM signals induced by an earthquake because of the electrokinetic effect. The earthquake is assumed to be a fault slip and is modelled by a moment tensor point source. With Pride's equations quantifying the coupling between seismic and EM waves, we first present a real-axis integration (RAI) algorithm to calculate the seismoelectric wavefields in a layered porous formation. Although full waveforms can be calculated by such a RAI technique, individual waves cannot be easily separated from the full waveforms. The need to compute the individual waves is eminent for the purpose of investigating the early EM waves, because these EM waves are usually several orders weaker than and are masked by the EM signals accompanying the seismic waves in the full waveforms. Therefore, we further develop a branch-cut integration (BCI) algorithm, by transforming the original wavenumber integral along the real axis in the complex wavenumber plane for the RAI technique to a sum of integrals along the vertical branch cuts and the residues of the poles. For performing the integrations along the vertical branch cuts, determination of the Riemann sheets are explained and displayed. Finally, the seismoelectric wavefields are represented in forms allowing calculating individual waves.

  2. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  3. Free and Forced Vibration Analysis of Stepped Circular Cylindrical Shells with Several Intermediate Supports Using an Extended Wave Method; a Generalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Poultangari

    Full Text Available Abstract A combination of vectorial form of wave method (VWM with Fourier expansion series is proposed as a new vehicle for free and forced vibration analysis of stepped cylindrical shells with multiple intermediate flexible supports. The flexible supports can include springs with arbitrary properties in the possible directions. Based on Flügge thin shell theory and VWM, the reflection, propagation, and transmission matrices for a circular cylindrical shell are defined. Furthermore, contiguous vector-matrix relationships are established for free and forced vibration analysis of the issue including an arbitrary number of the discontinuities in the shell thickness, or shell steps, and intermediate supports. Using these vector-matrix relations, the equations of motion as well as the system continuity are well satisfied. Dimension of these vectors and matrices are completely, independent of the number of the applied supports and geometrical steps in the shell. Hence, the present approach provides excellent computational advantages and modeling flexibility compared to the conventional vibration analysis methods available in the literature. The results of the present study are compared with the results available in the literature as well as the results of finite element method (FEM and found in excellence agreement. Furthermore, as a case study case, a cylindrical shell with three flexible intermediate supports and also three geometrical steps is considered. The natural frequency and mode shapes of the issue are derived, and the forced responses of the shell subject to point load excitation are reported.

  4. Propagation of Elastic Waves in Prestressed Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D solutions of the dynamical equations in the presence of external forces are derived for a homogeneous, prestressed medium. 2D plane waves solutions are obtained from general solutions and show that there exist two types of plane waves, namely, quasi-P waves and quasi-SV waves. Expressions for slowness surfaces and apparent velocities for these waves are derived analytically as well as numerically and represented graphically.

  5. Análise dos traçados de ondas da agregação plaquetária em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares em uso do ácido acetil salicílico comparados a doadores de sangue Analysis of the waves and aggregation patterns in patients with cardiovascular diseases in using acetylsalicylic acid compared blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. M. Bernardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A agregação plaquetária avalia a função das plaquetas através de diferentes vias de ativação plaquetária in vitro, fornecendo traçados de ondas equivalentes à propriedade física dessa agregação. Sabendo-se que a aspirina acetila irrever­sivelmente a enzima cicloxigenase prevenindo a geração de tromboxana A2, potente ativador da agregação plaquetária, esta droga tem sido analisada há mais de trinta anos na clínica médica em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares como uma potente droga antitrombótica. Foram nossos objetivos obter traçados de ondas correspondentes às fases da agregação plaquetária para nossa padronização utilizando nosso grupo controle de doadores de sangue e compará-las com nosso grupo estudo, frente a diferentes agentes agonistas em diferentes concentrações: ADP 1µM e 3µM; AA, 0,5mM; ADR, 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025 mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL. Os grupos analisados foram constituídos por 41 cardíacos e 40 doadores de sangue considerados controle. Dos cardíacos, 33 faziam uso regular do AAS na concentração de 200 mg/dia e oito na concentração de 100 mg/dia, sendo todos considerados hipertensos. A padronização da agregometria estava na dependência do encontro de traçados correspondentes a ondas de agregação, sendo esses obtidos em porcentagem no tempo de cinco minutos estandartizados pelo aparelho utilizado. Comparando os resultados entre os pacientes e o grupo controle, foi possível observar que, na presença dos agentes agregantes ADP 1µM e ADP 3 µM, ADR 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL, os pacientes apresentaram 1ª onda, mas não 2ª onda. Por sua vez, no caso do AA 0,5 mM não houve o encontro de traçados de ondas.Platelet aggregation illustrates the function of the platelets by different ways of in vitro platelet activation providing wave traces equivalent to the physical proprieties of this aggregation. It is well known that aspirin irreversibly blocks the cyclooxygenase enzyme

  6. Generalized Rosenbluth potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-05-01

    It is shown that the coefficients of friction and diffusion of the Balescu-Lenard equation can be derived from two ''generalized Rosenbluth potentials'', which reduce to the standard Rosenbluth potentials if wave effects are neglected. The potentials are evaluated explicitly in the case of Maxwellian field particles. The dominant contribution of wave effects to the potentials is due to the interaction of electron field particles with ion sound waves

  7. Head-wave coefficients in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Reflections and transmissions from interfaces can generate head waves. Although the kinematic properties of head waves are modelled simply using ray concepts, the dynamic properties require an extension of ray theory or the use of wave theory. Head waves are important in exploration and crustal seismology as they indicate the existence of an interface and the velocity of the generating wave. Head waves have been described in the literature for isotropic media but the extension to anisotropic media seems to be lacking. The expressions for the head-wave coefficients using ray concepts or wave theory differ, and their equality is not obvious. This paper extends the theory for head-wave coefficients to anisotropic media using both ray theory and wave theory, and generalizes the proof of equality of the two methods. Simple numerical examples confirm this equality and indicate how the head-wave results can be calculated in anisotropic media and included in a ray-tracing algorithm.

  8. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves –. Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to.

  9. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  10. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  11. Periodic folded waves for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Hua, Huang

    2009-01-01

    A general solution, including three arbitrary functions, is obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) equation by means of the WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic. (general)

  12. General properties of quantum optical systems in a strong field limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, S. M.; Klimov, Andrei B.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atoms or many n-level atoms) interacting with a resonant quantized mode of an em field. If the initial field state is a coherent state with a large photon number then the system dynamics possesses some general features, independently of the particular structure of the atomic system. Namely, trapping states, factorization of the wave function, collapses and revivals of the atomic energy oscillations are discussed.

  13. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function Z is obtained within an ;interaction representation; and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for Z. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the N-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency. Some of the main results which are developed here in detail have been tested numerically in a recent work.

  14. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  15. A simple electron plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-01-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  16. A simple electron plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, G., E-mail: gert.brodin@physics.umu.se [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-03-18

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large. - Highlights: • The influence of large amplitude electromagnetic waves on electrostatic oscillations is found. • A generalized Mathieu equation is derived. • Anharmonic wave profiles are computed numerically.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  18. New exact travelling wave solutions of bidirectional wave equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where , , and d are real constants. In general, the exact travelling wave solutions will be helpful in the theoretical and numerical study of the nonlinear evolution systems. In this paper, we obtain exact travelling wave solutions of system (1) using the modified tanh–coth function method with computerized symbolic ...

  19. Diagnosis and pharmacological treatment of depressive disorders in a general hospital Diagnóstico e tratamento dos transtornos depressivos em hospital geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Cigognini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the point prevalence of depressive disorders in medical inpatients, to identify related sociodemographic and medical factors and to evaluate the psychotropic treatment given. METHOD: A cross-sectional study identifying the prevalence of depressive disorders and related factors combined with a prospective longitudinal study evaluating the psychopharmacological treatment were conducted. Medical inpatients, aged 18 years or older, presenting suitability to be interviewed and giving written informed consent were selected. The sample was composed of 125 subjects. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire; the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; and the Beck Depression Inventory. Data related to medical, personal and family histories of psychiatric disorders and psychotropic use were collected by interview and from patient charts. The study took place at the Hospital Santa Isabel, in Blumenau, located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from January to July of 2002. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive disorders was 26%. The factors that correlated with depressive disorders were being female, having an income lower than 3 times the minimum wage, having a personal history of depressive disorders, using psychotropic drugs, scoring higher than 13 on the Beck Depression Inventory and having been referred for a psychiatric consultation (p OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de transtornos depressivos em pacientes internados em enfermarias clínicas de um hospital geral, avaliar o tratamento psicofarmacológico recebido e detectar fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos associados. MÉTODO: Realizou-se um estudo observacional transversal identificando a prevalência de transtornos depressivos e fatores associados juntamente com estudo longitudinal prospectivo avaliando o tratamento psicofarmacológico recebido durante a internação. Foram selecionados pacientes com mais de 18 anos, que

  20. Nutritional screening tools application in a general hospital: a comparative study Aplicação de instrumentos de triagem nutricional em hospital geral: um estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Damasceno Bezerra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many nutritional screening tools and it becomes difficult to choose which one is the best to be used in clinical nutrition practice. Objective: To compare five nutritional screening tools (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA and MNA-SF in adults and elderly hospitalized. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with the application of nutritional screening tools in adult and elderly patients in the first 48 hours of hospitalization was performed. Nutritional risk occurrence between adult and elderly patients was compared. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive data and a non-parametric test (Man Whitney. Results: We evaluated 77 patients, 51 (66.2% adults and 26 (33.8% elderly, aged 53.6 (standard deviation of 17.9 years, with female predominance (53.2%. The main reasons for hospitalization were neoplasia and nephrolithotripsy. Overall, one quarter of patients was at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk in adults was detected with similarity by MUST and MST. However it was underestimated by NRS-2002. The MNA and MNA-SF, exclusively for the elderly, also had similar result to detect nutritional risk. In relation to the time of application, the MNA was the instrument with longer application time. Conclusion: Considering the higher detection of patients with nutritional risk, the easiness and the lower application time, we suggest, respectively, MUST and MNA-SF to be used in adult and elderly patients admitted in this hospital.Introdução: Com inúmeros instrumentos de triagem nutricional existentes, é difícil eleger o mais adequado para os protocolos de nutrição hospitalar. Objetivo: Comparar cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional (MST, NRS-2002, MUST, MNA e MNA-SF em adultos e idosos hospitalizados. Materiais e Métodos: Nesse estudo transversal, cinco instrumentos de triagem nutricional foram aplicados aos pacientes nas primeiras 48 horas de internação hospitalar. A ocorrência de risco nutricional

  1. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  2. Well-posed two-temperature constitutive equations for stable dense fluid shock waves using molecular dynamics and generalizations of Navier-Stokes-Fourier continuum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Wm G; Hoover, Carol G

    2010-04-01

    Guided by molecular dynamics simulations, we generalize the Navier-Stokes-Fourier constitutive equations and the continuum motion equations to include both transverse and longitudinal temperatures. To do so we partition the contributions of the heat transfer, the work done, and the heat flux vector between the longitudinal and transverse temperatures. With shockwave boundary conditions time-dependent solutions of these equations converge to give stationary shockwave profiles. The profiles include anisotropic temperature and can be fitted to molecular dynamics results, demonstrating the utility and simplicity of a two-temperature description of far-from-equilibrium states.

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Topics in General Relativity theory: Gravitational-wave measurements of black-hole parameters; gravitational collapse of a cylindrical body; and classical-particle evolution in the presence of closed, timelike curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Fernando

    I study three different topics in general relativity. The first study investigates the accuracy with which the mass and angular momentum of a black hole can be determined by measurements of gravitational waves from the hole, using a gravitational-wave detector. The black hole is assumed to have been strongly perturbed and the detector measures the waves produced by its resulting vibration and ring-down. The uncertainties in the measured parameters arise from the noise present in the detector. It is found that the faster the hole rotates, the more accurate the measurements will be, with the uncertainty in the angular momentum decreasing rapidly with increasing rotation speed. The second study is an analysis of the gravitational collapse of an infinitely long, cylindrical dust shell, an idealization of more realistic, finite-length bodies. It is found that the collapse evolves into a naked singularity in finite time. Analytical expressions for the variables describing the collapse are found at late times, near the singularity. The collapse is also followed, with a numerical simulation, from the start until very close to the singularity. The singularity is found to be strong, in the sense that an observer riding on the shell will be infinitely stretched in one direction and infinitely compressed in another. The gravitational waves emitted from the collapse are also analyzed. The last study focuses on the consequences of the existence of closed time like curves in a worm hole space time. One might expect that such curves might cause a system with apparently well-posed initial conditions to have no self-consistent evolution. We study the case of a classical particle with a hard-sphere potential, focusing attention on initial conditions for which the evolution, if followed naively, is self-inconsistent: the ball travels to the past through the worm hole colliding with its younger self, preventing itself from entering the worm hole. We find, surprisingly, that for all

  5. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  6. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  7. Flood Wave Propagation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. Flood Wave Propagation-The Saint Venant Equations. P P Mujumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 66-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0066-0073 ...

  8. The new versatile general purpose surface-muon instrument (GPS) based on silicon photomultipliers for μSR measurements on a continuous-wave beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Sedlak, K; Stoykov, A; Scheuermann, R; Elender, M; Raselli, A; Graf, D

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a new spectrometer for muon-spin relaxation/rotation studies installed at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland). This new instrument is essentially a new design and replaces the old general-purpose surface-muon (GPS) instrument that has been for long the workhorse of the μSR user facility at PSI. By making use of muon and positron detectors made of plastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers, a time resolution of the complete instrument of about 160 ps (standard deviation) could be achieved. In addition, the absence of light guides, which are needed in traditionally built μSR instrument to deliver the scintillation light to photomultiplier tubes located outside magnetic fields applied, allowed us to design a compact instrument with a detector set covering an increased solid angle compared with the old GPS.

  9. Nonlinear wave interactions of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brodin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We reconsider the nonlinear resonant interaction between three electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma. The general coupling coefficients derived from kinetic theory are reduced here to the low-frequency limit. The main contribution to the coupling coefficient we find in this way agrees with the coefficient recently presented in Annales Geophysicae. But we also deduce another contribution which sometimes can be important, and which qualitatively agrees with that of an even more recent paper. We have thus demonstrated how results derived from fluid theory can be improved and generalized by means of kinetic theory. Possible extensions of our results are outlined.

  10. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  11. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  12. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  13. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  14. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    power of the device. The project development team has gained much soft experience from working in the harsh offshore environment. In particular the effect of marine growth in the draft tubes of the turbines has been investigated. The control of the device has been a focus for development as is operates......Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  15. Statistical Analysis of Wave Climate Data Using Mixed Distributions and Extreme Wave Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of various aspects of the wave climate at a wave energy test site is essential for the development of reliable and efficient wave energy conversion technology. This paper presents studies of the wave climate based on nine years of wave observations from the 2005–2013 period measured with a wave measurement buoy at the Lysekil wave energy test site located off the west coast of Sweden. A detailed analysis of the wave statistics is investigated to reveal the characteristics of the wave climate at this specific test site. The long-term extreme waves are estimated from applying the Peak over Threshold (POT method on the measured wave data. The significant wave height and the maximum wave height at the test site for different return periods are also compared. In this study, a new approach using a mixed-distribution model is proposed to describe the long-term behavior of the significant wave height and it shows an impressive goodness of fit to wave data from the test site. The mixed-distribution model is also applied to measured wave data from four other sites and it provides an illustration of the general applicability of the proposed model. The methodologies used in this paper can be applied to general wave climate analysis of wave energy test sites to estimate extreme waves for the survivability assessment of wave energy converters and characterize the long wave climate to forecast the wave energy resource of the test sites and the energy production of the wave energy converters.

  16. Analysis of the Impacts of Wave Energy Converter Arrays on the Nearshore Wave Climate

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dea, Annika M.; Haller, Merrick C.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of offshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) arrays on far-field waves and on nearshore wave-induced hydrodynamic forcing for a variety of array designs and incident wave conditions. The main objective of the study is to provide general conclusions on the nearshore impacts of WEC arrays in order to facilitate the assessment of future field test sites. The study utilizes the spectral wave model SWAN. Two array configurations are simulated, and WEC arrays are located ...

  17. Testing the Speed of Gravitational Waves over Cosmological Distances with Strong Gravitational Lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E; Bacon, David

    2017-03-03

    Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys.10 (2014) 080JCAPBP1475-751610.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/080] forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on c_{GW}/c_{γ} at the 10^{-7} level, if a high-energy EM counterpart is observed within the field of view of an observing γ-ray burst monitor.

  18. Fatores de risco associados à mortalidade em pacientes com sepse em unidade de terapia intensiva de hospital privado de Pernambuco Risk factors associated to mortality on septic patients in an intensive care unit of a general private hospital from Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Corrêa de A. Koury

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Verificar a associação entre as características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais com a mortalidade de pacientes com sepse, internados em UTI de hospital privado do estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil, a fim de melhorar o atendimento a essa população, através da identificação precoce dos pacientes com risco de desenvolver falência de órgãos. MÉTODO: Estudo de caso-controle aninhado a uma coorte prospectiva e observacional que incluiu os pacientes adultos admitidos na UTI com sepse ou que a desenvolveram durante a internação. Foram colhidos os dados epidemiológicos, avaliados os escores clínicos e exames laboratoriais como: D-dímero, antitrombina III, INR, contagem de plaquetas, sódio, albumina, lactato e creatinina, sendo analisada sua associação com a mortalidade. Os pacientes foram acompanhados até a alta da UTI ou óbito. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 199 pacientes. Após regressão logística, apenas o tempo de internação na UTI maior que 72h, a presença de doença crônica associada, o número de órgãos acometidos superior a três e o lactato maior que 4 mmol/L estiveram associados com a mortalidade. Com relação à associação com o intervalo de tempo para o óbito, apenas o escore SOFA foi significativo, pois um terço dos pacientes com pontuação superior a 12 foram a óbito em menos de 72h. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes admitidos com sepse na UTI provenientes da comunidade (tempo de internação hospitalar BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Verify the association between clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial characteristics with mortality of septic patient in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU from Pernambuco, northeast of Brazil, to improve the attention for patients with sepse which are in risk of developing organ dysfunction. METHODS: Case-control study, without intervention, that included adults' patients admitted in ICU with sepsis or that developed it during ICU

  19. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly. - Drink plenty of water regularly and often. - Eat small meals and eat more often. - Avoid using salt tablets ... plenty of water during a heat wave and eat smaller, more frequent meals. Text from "Are You Prepared?" by the Cass ( ...

  20. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  3. Tsunamis - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. It is a water wave or a series of waves generated by an impulsive vertical displacement of the surface of the ocean...

  4. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  5. Conservation of wave action under multisymplectic discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Frank (Jason)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss the conservation of wave action under numerical discretization by variational and multisymplectic methods. Both the general wave action conservation defined with respect to a smooth, periodic, one-parameter ensemble of flow realizations and the specific wave

  6. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  7. Signatures of extra dimensions in gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, David; Gómez, Gustavo Lucena, E-mail: andriotphysics@gmail.com, E-mail: glucenag@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Considering gravitational waves propagating on the most general 4+ N -dimensional space-time, we investigate the effects due to the N extra dimensions on the four-dimensional waves. All wave equations are derived in general and discussed. On Minkowski{sub 4} times an arbitrary Ricci-flat compact manifold, we find: a massless wave with an additional polarization, the breathing mode, and extra waves with high frequencies fixed by Kaluza-Klein masses. We discuss whether these two effects could be observed.

  8. A família e a internação psiquiátrica em hospital geral La familia y la internación psiquiátrica en hospital general Patient's relatives and the psychiatric hospitalization in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Mello de Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo com abordagem qualitativa de natureza na sociologia fenomenológica, de Alfred Schutz, que teve como objetivo identificar os motivos para- relacionados à Internação Psiquiátrica em um Hospital Geral (UIPHG para os familiares. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 14 familiares que possuíam um de seus membros internados na UIPHP no período de agosto a outubro de 2009. Utilizou-se como questão orientadora da entrevista fenomenológica: "o que você espera da Internação Psiquiátrica em um Hospital Geral?". Para compreensão e interpretação dos depoimentos, utilizou-se o referencial teórico da sociologia fenomenológica. Os discursos revelaram três categorias concretas que remeteram aos motivos para: orientação e continuidade no tratamento; perspectivas de melhora e projeções sobre normalidade. Com essa investigação é possível mostrar o tipo vivido desses familiares e contribuir para que os profissionais de saúde mental reflitam sobre suas ações e sobre o envolvimento da família em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica em hospital geral.Estudio cualitativo con enfoque en la sociología fenomenológica de Alfred Schutz tiene el objetivo de identificar los motivos relacionados a la internación psiquiátrica en un hospital general de los familiares. Para eso se entrevistaron 14 familiares que tenían uno de sus miembros internados en la unidad psiquiátrica de un hospital general entre Agosto y Octubre del 2009. Se utilizará como pregunta orientadora de la entrevista fenomenológica: "qué espera de la internación psiquiátrica en un hospital general?" Para el análisis de los testimonios se utilizó el referencial de la sociología fenomenológica, surgiendo tres categorías concretas que remitían a los motivos para: orientación y continuidad del tratamiento; perspectivas de mejoría; proyecciones sobre normalidad. Con esta investigación podemos indicar el tipo vivido de esos familiares, contribuyendo para que los

  9. Electrocardiographic study on geriatric dogs undergoing general anesthesia with isoflurane Estudo eletrocardiográfico em cães geriátricos submetidos à anestesia geral com isofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Conti-Patara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of influence of anesthetic agents commonly used during anesthesia on the heart conduction systems of geriatric dogs, with or without the presence of electrocardiographic changes in the pre-anesthetic electrocardiogram and also to determine the possible causes of ST-segment and T-wave changes during anesthesia, by monitoring ventilation and oxygenation. 36 geriatric dogs were evaluated. In addition to electrocardiographic evaluation, the pre-anesthetic study included serum levels of urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin and electrolytes. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1 in association with meperidine (3.0mg kg-1 by IM injection. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (3.0 to 5.0mg kg-1 by IV injection and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. During the anesthesia, the animals were monitored by continued computerized electrocardiogram. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, arterial oxygen saturation, partial pressure of arterial oxygen and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were closely monitored. During maintenance anesthesia, normal sinus rhythm was more common (78%. ST-segment and T-wave changes during the anesthetic procedure were quite common and were related to hypoventilation. The use of isoflurane did not result in arrhythmia, being therefore a good choice for this type of animal; Electrocardiographic findings of ST-segment and T-wave changes during the maintenance anesthesia were evident in animals with hypercapnia, a disorder that should be promptly corrected with assisted or controlled ventilation to prevent complicated arrhythmias.Os objetivos deste estudo foram esclarecer a influência dos agentes anestésicos comumente utilizados durante a anestesia no sistema de condução cardíaco em cães idosos, com ou sem alterações eletrocardiográficas pr

  10. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    with increasing temperatures implies that the two-ion coupling is effectively isotropic above ∼ 150 K. We present arguments for concluding that, among the mechanisms which may introduce anisotropic two-ion couplings in the rare-earth metals, the modification of the indirect exchange interaction by the spin......The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  11. Generalized systemic cryptococcosis in a dog after immunosuppressive corticotherapy Criptococose sistêmica generalizada em cão após corticoterapia imunossupressora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Honsho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A male Boxer dog aged 2 years and 11 months was referred to the veterinary hospital with a history of a gastrointestinal disorder of two months duration, with apathy, hyporexia, progressive weight loss and visual deficit. Ataxia and vocalization were observed during hospitalization. The animal had been treated previously with antibiotics and immunosuppressive doses of corticoids to control chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The dog died five days later. Gross and microscopic observations indicated systemic cryptococcosis. The alimentary tract, eyes, brain, kidneys, pancreas and lymph nodes were involved.Um cão da raça Boxer, macho, com 2 anos e 11 meses de idade foi encaminhado ao hospital veterinário com histórico de distúrbio gastroentérico de dois meses de duração, apatia, hiporexia, emagrecimento progressivo e deficiência visual. Ataxia e vocalização foram observadas posteriormente. O animal estava sendo tratado em outra clínica veterinária com antibióticos e doses imunossupressoras de corticóides, direcionados ao controle de provável enterite alimentar. A morte ocorreu após cinco dias. As observações macro e microscópica revelaram tratar-se de criptococose sistêmica, atingindo trato digestório, olhos, SNC, rins, pâncreas e linfonodos. O presente relato enfatiza a infecção fúngica criptocócica quanto aos seus aspectos grastrointestinais iniciais a serem considerados no diagnóstico clínico, ressaltando a imunossupressão induzida pela corticoterapia.

  12. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  13. Electromagnetic wave interaction with the auroral plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Jacqueline Tze-Ho

    High power radio electromagnetic waves interaction with the auroral plasma has been investigated. Plasma in this auroral region can be illuminated by EM waves for a prolonged period of time and thus, experiences accumulative perturbations and resonances because of its long plasma lifetime, slow transport rates, and weak convection, especially near the peak of the ionospheric electron density profile. A plasma resonance at a specific height in the ionosphere has a corresponding EM wave frequency. These plasma resonances can enhance the local electromagnetic fields, and therefore their interactions with plasma particles leading to turbulences, local heating, density perturbations, and field aligned striations. The non-linear process at the resonance layer also stimulates the emission of electromagnetic waves which appear as the sidebands of the reflected EM wave. These effects are more pronounced when the EM wave frequency is near foF2, the frequency for the resonance near the peak of the ionospheric electron density profile. Optical emissions are also enhanced under such conditions. This thesis describes two major experiments performed at the HIPAS and HAARP facilities, namely the preconditioning and the second harmonic matching experiments. The experimental data confirms the region where the most efficient interaction between the EM waves and the auroral plasma are near the peak of the ionospheric density profile and where the EM wave frequency matches both the local plasma frequency and the second harmonic of the ionospheric electron cyclotron frequency. In the preconditioning experiments, the ionosphere is first pre-conditioned with high power EM wave. This generates field-aligned striations, which in turn reduces the threshold level of the non-linear process at the resonance layer. The spectral features of the sidebands are excited with an effective radiation power (ERP) level of 24 dB less than that normally required. We observed that using the preconditioning

  14. Water Waves The Mathematical Theory with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J J

    2011-01-01

    Offers an integrated account of the mathematical hypothesis of wave motion in liquids with a free surface, subjected to gravitational and other forces. Uses both potential and linear wave equation theories, together with applications such as the Laplace and Fourier transform methods, conformal mapping and complex variable techniques in general or integral equations, methods employing a Green's function. Coverage includes fundamental hydrodynamics, waves on sloping beaches, problems involving waves in shallow water, the motion of ships and much more.

  15. Hair loss perception and symptoms of depression in female outpatients attending a general dermatology clinic Percepção de queda de cabelos e sintomas depressivos em pacientes do sexo feminino em ambulatório de dermatologia geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hair loss is a common complaint among women and may be associated with psychological disturbances. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated dermatology patients with respect to the prevalence of complaints of hair loss and the association between these complaints and symptoms of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with female outpatients over 20 years of age with no hair-related disorders. Patients were asked about hair loss and were evaluated with respect to symptoms of depression. The following variables were also analyzed: age, dermatological diagnosis, comorbidities, medications, family history of alopecia, hair length, the number of hairs extracted in the hair pull test and the presence of hair thinning or seborrheic dermatitis. Data were compared by bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions between groups of women with and without hair loss. RESULTS: Of the 157 women interviewed, 54% reported hair loss and 29% reported at least two key symptoms of depression. The median (IQD age of the women was 51 (20 years. Complaints of hair loss were associated with the presence of symptoms of depression even following adjustment for the other covariates (p=0.02; OR=2.79; 95%CI: 1.18-6.61. Statistically significant differences were also found between the patients with and without hair loss with respect to: age (p=0.03, family history of alopecia (pFUNDAMENTOS: Queda de cabelos é queixa frequente entre mulheres, podendo estar relacionada a comprometimento psicológico. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a prevalência da queixa de queda capilar em pacientes dermatológicas e sua associação com sintomas depressivos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com pacientes femininas, ambulatoriais, maiores de 20 anos de idade, sem doenças capilares. Foram questionadas quanto à presença de queda de cabelos e avaliadas quanto à presença de sintomas depressivos. Também analisaram-se: idade, diagnóstico dermatológico, comorbidades

  16. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérula Luis A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice, with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and

  17. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérula, Luis A; Bosch, Josep M; Bóveda, Julia; Campiñez, Manuel; Barragán, Nieves; Arboniés, Juan C; Prados, Jose A; Martín, Enrique; Martín, Remedios; Massons, Josep; Criado, Margarita; Ruiz, Roger; Fernández, José A; Buitrago, Francisco; Olaya, Inmaculada; Pérez, Modesto; Ruiz, Joaquin

    2011-11-05

    The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential for primary care professionals to help

  18. Bifurcation methods of dynamical systems for generalized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compacton solution; periodic wave solution; periodic cusp wave solution; generalized KP-BBM equation. Abstract. By applying the bifurcation theory of dynamical system to the generalized KP-BBM equation, the phase portraits of the travelling wave system are obtained. It can be shown that singular straight line in the ...

  19. ARRIVAL TIME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)

    2017-01-20

    In this study we demonstrate that general relativity predicts arrival time differences between gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals caused by the wave effects in gravitational lensing. The GW signals can arrive earlier than the EM signals in some cases if the GW/EM signals have passed through a lens, even if both signals were emitted simultaneously by a source. GW wavelengths are much larger than EM wavelengths; therefore, the propagation of the GWs does not follow the laws of geometrical optics, including the Shapiro time delay, if the lens mass is less than approximately 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1}, where f is the GW frequency. The arrival time difference can reach ∼0.1 s ( f /Hz){sup −1} if the signals have passed by a lens of mass ∼8000 M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1} with the impact parameter smaller than the Einstein radius; therefore, it is more prominent for lower GW frequencies. For example, when a distant supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in a galactic center is lensed by an intervening galaxy, the time lag becomes of the order of 10 days. Future pulsar timing arrays including the Square Kilometre Array and X-ray detectors may detect several time lags by measuring the orbital phase differences between the GW/EM signals in the SMBHBs. Gravitational lensing imprints a characteristic modulation on a chirp waveform; therefore, we can deduce whether a measured arrival time lag arises from intrinsic source properties or gravitational lensing. Determination of arrival time differences would be extremely useful in multimessenger observations and tests of general relativity.

  20. Wave calculus based upon wave logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Y.F.

    1978-01-01

    A number operator has been introduced based upon the binary (p-nary) presentation of numbers. This operator acts upon a numerical state vector. Generally the numerical state vector describes numbers that are not precise but smeared in a quantum sense. These states are interrupted in wave logic terms, according to which concepts may exist within the inner language of a phenomenon that in principle cannot be translated into the language of the investigator. In particular, states may exist where mean values of a quantity, continuous in classical limits, take only discrete values. Operators for differentiation and integration of operator functions are defined, which take the usual form in the classical limit. (author)

  1. Geometry of wave electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.

    1980-10-27

    A challenge to the commonly held view of light as a wave phenomenon is presented. An exact realization of light as generalized pencils or rays is constructed, with stress placed on using pencils of rays rather than single rays. Exact equations of motion are presented for the rays in the pencil, and these rays tend to travel in straight lines in empty space (not too near the edge of the beam). (GHT)

  2. Preterm labour: tsunami waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alison J

    2010-09-01

    Preterm labour and birth can be delayed but are generally unstoppable, threatening the health of the mother-baby duo. This may be a result of peripheral signals prematurely recruiting the oxytocin neurones that co-ordinate the timing of birth and, via specialised activity and secretion patterns, drive uterine contractions. Once sensitised, these neurones respond with waves of activity, even to weak stimuli, resulting in a positive-feedback loop that escalates towards inevitable birth.

  3. Basic concepts of kinematic-wave models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The kinematic-wave model is one of a number of approximations of the dynamic-wave model. The dynamic-wave model describes onedimensional shallow-water waves (unsteady, gradually varied, openchannel flow). This report provides a basic reference on the theory and applications of the kinematic-wave model and describes the limitations of the model in relation to the other approximations of the dynamic-wave model. In the kinematic-wave approximation, a number of the terms in the equation of motion are assumed to be insignificant. The equation of motion is replaced by an equation describing uniform flow. Thus, the kinematic-wave model is described by the continuity equation and a uniform-flow equation such as the wellknown Chezy or Manning formulas. Kinematic-wave models are applicable to overland flow where lateral inflow is continuously added and is a large part of the total flow. For channel-routing applications, the kinematic-wave model always predicts a steeper wave with less dispersion and attenuation than actually occurs. The effect of the accumulation of errors in the kinematic-wave model shows that the approximations made in the development of the kinematic-wave equations are not generally justified for most channel-routing applications. Modified flow-routing models can be used which help to stop the accumulation of errors that occur when the kinematic-wave model is applied.

  4. Tentativa de suicídio entre pacientes com uso nocivo de bebidas alcoólicas internados em hospital geral Suicide attempt amongst patients with alcohol misuse admitted to a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dantas Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Detectar fatores associados a histórico de tentativa de suicídio (TS em pacientes internados em hospital geral que fazem uso nocivo de bebidas alcoólicas. MÉTODO: 4.352 pacientes admitidos consecutivamente foram avaliados utilizando-se um rastreamento do qual constavam as escalas AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test e HAD (Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Fixando-se histórico de tentativa de suicídio ao longo da vida como variável dependente, foram realizados testes do qui-quadrado e regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Uso nocivo de álcool (AUDIT > 8 foi detectado em 423 pacientes. Dentre eles, 60 (14,2% apresentavam sintomas de depressão (HAD > 8 e 34 (8% tinham histórico de TS. Este se associou a ser adulto jovem [razão de chance (RC = 3,4], depressão (RC = 6,6, uso pregresso de psicofármaco (RC = 7 e ter SIDA (RC = 24. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados fortalecem a necessidade de detectar e tratar adequadamente condições que, combinadas, aumentam consideravelmente o risco de suicídio.OBJECTIVE: To detect factors associated to previous suicide attempt among patients admitted to a general hospital who presented harmful alcohol drinking pattern. METHOD: 4.352 patients consecutively admitted were screened by means of the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and HAD (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Qui-squared tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: 423 individuals presented alcohol harmful use or dependence (AUDIT > 8, 60 (14.2% of which had depression (HAD > 8 and 34 (8% previous suicide attempt. The latter was more frequent among young adults [odds ratio (OR = 3.4], those who were depressed (OR = 6.6, had previously taken psychotropic medicines (OR = 7 and had AIDS (OR = 24. CONCLUSION: Our findings reinforce the need for detection and adequate treatment of conditions that, when together, strongly increase the suicide risk.

  5. Gestão do desempenho humano: um estudo de caso em um Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (CE Administration of the human acting: a case study in a General Hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marrocos Fontenele

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A temática deste trabalho apresenta questões sobre a prática da avaliação de desempenho funcional em uma organização pública de saúde. Este eixo de análise ganha destaque a partir das dificuldades de desenvolvimento de sistemas de avaliação com alianças entre políticas de concessão de incentivos financeiros, em um contexto cultural peculiar. Nesse sentido, é necessário admitir os limites dessa ferramenta gerencial. A partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, utilizou-se um roteiro semiestruturado de perguntas aplicado aos servidores de um hospital geral público do Estado do Ceará. Obteve-se a caracterização do sistema de avaliação de desempenho utilizado pela instituição, podendo-se verificar sua adequação aos modelos propostos na literatura e a pertinência de seus propósitos com as percepções e expectativas dos servidores pesquisados.The thematic of this work presents questions on the practice of the Evaluation of functional performance in an organization of public health. This axle of analysis gains importance from the difficulties of developing evaluation systems with alliances between policies of concession of financial incentives, in a specific cultural context. In this direction, it is necessary to admit the limits of this management tool. From a qualitative research, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the staff (public servers of a public general hospital of Ceará State. It was observed the characterization of the performance evaluation system used in the institution, being able to verify its adequacy to the models proposed in the literature and the relevancy of its intentions with the perceptions and expectations of the searched servers.

  6. Scattering of accelerated wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Della Valle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Wave-packet scattering from a stationary potential is significantly modified when the wave packet is subject to an external time-dependent force during the interaction. In the semiclassical limit, wave-packet motion is simply described by Newtonian equations, and the external force can, for example, cancel the potential force, making a potential barrier transparent. Here we consider wave-packet scattering from reflectionless potentials, where in general the potential becomes reflective when probed by an accelerated wave packet. In the particular case of the recently introduced class of complex Kramers-Kronig potentials we show that a broad class of time-dependent forces can be applied without inducing any scattering, while there is a breakdown of the reflectionless property when there is a broadband distribution of initial particle momentum, involving both positive and negative components.

  7. Statistical characterization of wave propagation in mine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Bakir, Onur

    2012-07-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method with a novel domain-decomposition (DD) integral equation-based EM simulator to obtain statistics of electric fields due to wireless transmitters in realistic mine environments. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS OF KICK-EM JENNY AND OTHER SUBMARINE VOLCANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Gisler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy, but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailulu'u in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by sub- aerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  9. Characteristic wave fronts in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.V.; Sharma, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the process of steepening or flattening of the characteristic wave fronts in a plane and cylindrically symmetric motion of an ideal plasma is investigated. This aspect of the problem has not been considered until now. Remarkable differences between plane, cylindrical diverging, and cylindrical converging waves are discovered. The discontinuity in the velocity gradient at the wave front is shown to satisfy a Bernoulli-type equation. The discussion of the solutions of such equations reported in the literature is shown to be incomplete, and three general theorems are established. 18 refs

  10. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    “Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  11. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  12. Optical follow-up of gravitational wave triggers with DECam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herner, K.; Annis, J.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Butler, R.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P.; Diehl, H.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Farr, B.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Nielsen, E.; Palmese, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Yanny, B.

    2017-10-01

    Gravitational wave (GW) events have several possible progenitors, including black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and black hole{neutron star mergers. A subset of GW events are expected to produce electromagnetic (EM) emission that, once detected, will provide complementary information about their astrophysical context. To that end, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration has partnered with other teams to send GW candidate alerts so that searches for their EM counterparts can be pursued. One such partner is the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Dark Energy Camera (DECam) Gravitational Waves Program (DES- GW). Situated on the 4m Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, DECam is an ideal instrument for optical followup observations of GW triggers in the southern sky. The DES-GW program performs subtraction of new search images with respect to preexisting overlapping images to select candidate sources. Due to the short decay timescale of the expected EM counterparts and the need to quickly eliminate survey areas with no counterpart candidates, it is critical to complete the initial analysis of each night's images within 24 hours. The computational challenges in achieving this goal include maintaining robust I/O pipelines during the processing, being able to quickly acquire template images of new sky regions outside of the typical DES observing regions, and being able to rapidly provision additional batch computing resources with little advance notice. We will discuss the search area determination, imaging pipeline, general data transfer strategy, and methods to quickly increase the available amount of batch computing. We will present results from the rst season of observations from September 2015 to January 2016 and conclude by presenting improvements planned for the second observing season.

  13. Optical follow-up of gravitational wave triggers with DECam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner, K.; Annis, J.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Butler, R.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P.; Diehl, H.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Farr, B.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Nielsen, E.; Palmese, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Yanny, B.

    2017-10-01

    Gravitational wave (GW) events have several possible progenitors, including black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and black hole–neutron star mergers. A subset of GW events are expected to produce electromagnetic (EM) emission that, once detected, will provide complementary information about their astrophysical context. To that end, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration has partnered with other teams to send GW candidate alerts so that searches for their EM counterparts can be pursued. One such partner is the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Dark Energy Camera (DECam) Gravitational Waves Program (DES-GW). Situated on the 4m Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, DECam is an ideal instrument for optical followup observations of GW triggers in the southern sky. The DES-GW program performs subtraction of new search images with respect to preexisting overlapping images to select candidate sources. Due to the short decay timescale of the expected EM counterparts and the need to quickly eliminate survey areas with no counterpart candidates, it is critical to complete the initial analysis of each night’s images within 24 hours. The computational challenges in achieving this goal include maintaining robust I/O pipelines during the processing, being able to quickly acquire template images of new sky regions outside of the typical DES observing regions, and being able to rapidly provision additional batch computing resources with little advance notice. We will discuss the search area determination, imaging pipeline, general data transfer strategy, and methods to quickly increase the available amount of batch computing. We will present results from the first season of observations from September 2015 to January 2016 and conclude by presenting improvements planned for the second observing season.

  14. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  15. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  16. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GRG18) and 7th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi7), Sydney, Australia, July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan M.; McClelland, David E.

    2008-06-01

    At GRG17 in Dublin in 2004, it was decided to hold GRG18 in Sydney in 2007. Every six years, the GRG conference (held every three years) and Amaldi meeting (held every two years) occur in the same year around July. This was to be the case in 2007. By mutual agreement of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (ISGRG), which oversees the GR conferences and The Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC), which oversees the Amaldi meetings, it was decided to hold these two important conferences concurrently, for the first time, at the same venue, namely Sydney. At a time when the gravitational wave community was beginning to explore the possibility of searches to probe various aspects of the theory, the vision was to bring that community together with the community of gravitational theorists in order to better appreciate the work being done by both parties and to explore possibilities for future research using the mutual expertise. The logistics of running two such large meetings concurrently were considerable. The format agreed upon by the ISGRG and GWIC was the following: common plenary sessions in the mornings from Monday to Friday; six parallel GR workshop sessions and an Amaldi session each afternoon from Monday to Friday (except Wednesday); a combined poster session on Wednesday; a full day of Amaldi sessions on the final day (Saturday). The scientific programme for GRG18 was overseen by a Scientific Organising Committee established by the ISGRG and chaired by Professor Sathyaprakash. The scientific programme for Amaldi7 was overseen by GWIC chaired by Professor Cerdonio. One of the highlights of the conferences was the breadth and quality of the plenary programme put together by the scientific committees. Not only did these talks give an excellent snapshot of the entire field at this time, but they also explored the interfaces with other related fields, which proved of special interest to participants. We were given superb

  17. Electron Cyclotron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekzema, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    An introduction is given to plasma heating and current drive with electromagnetic waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies, with emphasis on application in tokamak plasmas. Propagation and absorption of these waves is generally well described by linear theory, a short overview of which is given. Electron cyclotron absorption is limited to regions of the plasma where the gyromotion of electrons is in resonance with the wave frequency and can be well localised, even in smaller experiments. Apart from being able to provide global heating and non-inductive current drive, ECRH and ECCD are therefore important tools to study and manipulate locally instabilities in the plasma which are electron temperature gradient or current driven. Important potential control applications in a reactor grade plasma include mode stabilisation to prevent disruptions, transport manipulation (e.g. to maintain burn) and correction of the bootstrap current profile. The use of EC waves in major tokamak experiments has in the past been restricted due to the lack of suitable sources. These sources are, however, now rapidly becoming available

  18. A correspondência de Simón Bolívar e sua presença na literatura: uma análise de O General em seu labirinto de Gabriel García Márquez Simon Bolivar's correspondence and its presence in literature: an analysis of The General in His Labyrinth by Gabriel Garcia Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Souza Fredrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Simón Bolívar, uma das lideranças mais importantes das independências na América do Sul de colonização espanhola, deixou um epistolário com 2815 cartas. Ao partir do propósito em expor o projeto narrativo epistolar, um dos temas de destaque, no decorrer da leitura, foi o da renúncia do general. As diversas solicitações de renúncia ao cargo administrativo e as justificativas que as acompanhavam levaram-me à análise do que denominei por memória da indispensabilidade. Depois da investigação desse discurso no epistolário, as relações com a literatura e a biografia foram fundamentais para ampliar a compreensão acerca da composição dessa memória da indispensabilidade nas epístolas. Para este artigo, pretende-se cotejar as cartas de Simón Bolívar e o romance de Gabriel García Márquez, O General em seu labirinto. A hipótese é a de que o texto literário, além de usar o epistolário bolivariano para construir seu personagem e a cena romanesca, acrescenta possibilidades explicativas sobre o projeto de memória conduzido pela escrita de cartas, na mesma medida em que reforça o culto ao general Libertador.Simon Bolivar, one of the most important South American leaders of independence within the areas of Spanish colonialism in South America, left behind an epistolary of 2815 letters. Our proposal starts off with the display of the narrative epistolary project and soon encounters one of its highlights in the course of the reading, which is the general's own resignation. The several requests of resignation from his administrative position, and the justifications that followed them had taken me to the analysis of what I called the memory of the indispensability. After investigating this speech in the epistolary, the relationship between literature and the biography had been fundamental in improving our understanding of the substance of this memory of the indispensability in the epistles. This article intends to compare Simon

  19. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  20. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  1. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...

  2. Estudo comparativo entre anestesia peridural torácica e anestesia geral em mastectomia oncológica Estudio comparativo entre la anestesia epidural torácica y la anestesia general en mastectomia oncológica Comparative study between thoracic epidural block and general anesthesia for oncologic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio D. Belzarena

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia peridural torácica é utilizada com freqüência para procedimentos estéticos da mama e há poucos relatos de seu emprego para mastectomias com exploração axilar. O presente estudo comparou a técnica com anestesia geral em operações oncológicas da mama. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No grupo peridural (n = 20 foi realizada peridural torácica com bupivacaína e fentanil associada à sedação com midazolam. O outro grupo (n = 20 recebeu anestesia geral convencional com propofol, atracúrio e fentanil e manutenção com O2 e isoflurano. Registraram-se no intra-operatório duração da operação, necessidade de complementação da anestesia ou da sedação e variáveis hemodinâmicas. No pós-operatório, foram registrados o tempo para alta da sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e hospitalar, a intensidade da dor e o consumo de analgésicos, os efeitos adversos e a satisfação com a técnica anestésica. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes e não houve diferença na duração da operação. Foi necessário complementar a sedação em 100% das pacientes que receberam anestesia peridural e em 15% foi complementada a analgesia com infiltração de anestésico local na axila. Houve maior incidência de hipertensão arterial no grupo da anestesia geral e de hipotensão entre as que receberam peridural. Ocorreu prurido em 55% das pacientes com anestesia peridural. Náusea (30% e vômito (45% foram mais freqüentes entre as que receberam anestesia geral. A analgesia pós-operatória teve melhor qualidade e o consumo de analgésicos foi menor no grupo da anestesia peridural. O período de internação também foi menor. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica peridural tem algumas vantagens com relação à anestesia geral e pode ser considerada uma opção para anestesia em mastectomias oncológicas com esvaziamento axilar.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia epidural torácica se

  3. Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.

  4. Estudo de adaptação cultural e validação da Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General em cuidados paliativos Estudio de adaptación cultural y validación de Functional Assessment of Cancer Thera-General en cuidados paliativos Study of cultural adaptation and validation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy -General in palliative care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Moreira Pinto Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo proceder à validação da Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G versão 4, de Cella et al. (1993 à cultura portuguesa, em contexto de doentes oncológicos na fase final de vida acompanhados em cuidados paliativos. Esta escala foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de vida geral do doente oncológico em quatro domínios: Bem-estar Físico (PWB/BEFI; Bem-estar Funcional (FWB/BEF; Bem-estar Social/Familiar (SWB/BESF e Bem-estar Emocional (EWB/BEE. O questionário já traduzido para o idioma português pela organização Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT, foi aplicado a uma amostra de 346 doentes. Os resultados demonstraram que o instrumento apresenta uma boa consistência interna global, com alpha de Cronbach de 0,91, assim como boa fidelidade teste-reteste com r de 0,99 e um split-half de 0,57. A Análise de Componentes Principais, seguida do estudo da validade convergente-discriminante dos itens, indica que a FACT-G em análise é concordante com o seu constructo inicial. Foi ainda analisada a sensibilidade da escala que se mostrou discriminativa para o género e religião. Conclui-se que este instrumento é fiável, válido e sensível para o estudo da qualidade de vida de doentes com doença oncológica, em fase final de vida, acompanhados em cuidados paliativos.Estudio cuyo objetivo es proceder a la validación de Functional Assesment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G versión 4, de Cella et al. (1993 para la cultura portuguesa, en contexto de pacientes oncológicos en la fase final de la vida acompañados en los cuidados paliativos. Esta escala fue desarrollada con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de vida general del paciente oncológico en cuatro áreas: Bienestar Físico (PWB/BEFI; Bienestar Funcional (FWB/BEF; Bienestar Social/Familiar (SWB/BESF y Bienestar Emocional (EWB/BEE. El cuestionario, traducido al portugués por la organizaci

  5. Dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified generalized Vakhnenko equation; cusped solitons; loop solitons; periodic cusp wave solutions; smooth periodic wave solutions; pseudopeakon solitons; ... Guangxi 541004, People's Republic of China; School of Mathematics and Statistics, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, ...

  6. Perfil dos idosos internados no Hospital Geral em Belém (Pará Perfil de los ancianos internados en el Hospital General en Belém (Pará Brasil Profile of the elderly admited in a General Hospital at Belém (Pará - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Penha de Oliveira Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou identificar o perfil dos idosos internados em um hospital geral da rede pública de saúde em Belém (Pará. Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, analítico. Foram analisadas variáveis sociodemográficas, causas da internação, tempo de permanência, complicações e dependência para cuidados de enfermagem, em 160 prontuários, em 2001. A análise estatística foi processada pelo programa eletrônico Epi-info 6.04. Os resultados apontam: A idade variou entre 65 e 74 anos (43,1%, e os idosos eram do sexo masculino (53,1%. A maior freqüência das internações foi por doenças respiratórias (53,7%; os sintomas evidentes foram dispnéia, hipertemia e hipertensão; e o tempo médio de permanência foi de 16 dias. O tempo de internação prolongado aparece como um fator de risco no desenvolvimento de incapacidades, pela imobilidade no leito, complicações como úlceras de decúbito e demais iatrogenias. Houve dependência para os cuidados de enfermagem e necessidade de intervenção interdisciplinar.El estudio tiene como objetivo identificar el perfil de ancianos hospitalizados en hospital general de salud pública, en Belém, Estado Pará. Estudio cuantitativo, retrospectivo y analitico. Analizadas variables sócio-demográficas, causas de internación, tiempo de permanencia, complicaciónes y dependencias de la enfermería en muestra de 160 historias en 2001. Analisys estadística fué a través del programa electrónico Epi-info 6.04. Los resultados apuntaran: La edad varió de 64 a 74 años (43, y 85 (53,1% y los ancianos eran del sexo masculino, la major frecuencia de la internaciónes fueron enfermedades respiratorias (53,7%, los síntomas evidentes disnea, hipertermia na hipertensión, tiempo promedio de 16 dias. Los ancianos se internaron en media dos veces al año , tiempo de internación largo aparece como factor de riesgo en el desarrollo de incapacidad, por la inmobilidad en las camas, complicaciónes como úlceras

  7. Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.

  8. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  9. New approaches to nonlinear waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book details a few of the novel methods developed in the last few years for studying various aspects of nonlinear wave systems. The introductory chapter provides a general overview, thematically linking the objects described in the book. Two chapters are devoted to wave systems possessing resonances with linear frequencies (Chapter 2) and with nonlinear frequencies (Chapter 3). In the next two chapters modulation instability in the KdV-type of equations is studied using rigorous mathematical methods (Chapter 4) and its possible connection to freak waves is investigated (Chapter 5). The book goes on to demonstrate how the choice of the Hamiltonian (Chapter 6) or the Lagrangian (Chapter 7) framework allows us to gain a deeper insight into the properties of a specific wave system. The final chapter discusses problems encountered when attempting to verify the theoretical predictions using numerical or laboratory experiments. All the chapters are illustrated by ample constructive examples demonstrating the app...

  10. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Crane, Dakota L.

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves are the largest cause of environment-related deaths globally. On average, over 6,000 people in the United States alone are hospitalized each summer due to excessive heat. Key elements leading to these disasters are elevated humidity and the urban heat island effect, which act together to increase apparent temperature and amplify the effects of a heat wave. Urban demographics and socioeconomic factors also play a role in determining individual risk. Currently, advisories of impending heat waves are often too generalized, with limited or no spatial variability over urban regions. This frequently contributes to a lack of specific response on behalf of the population. A goal of this project is to develop a product that has the potential to provide more specific heat wave guidance invoking greater awareness and action.

  11. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed

  12. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  13. Ocean wave forecasting using recurrent neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    not accurately represent the measured values. The parametric or differential equation based on wind wave relationship and a differential equation of wave energy are solved numerically in wave forecasting. This is generally employed to give an estimate over... to the biological neurons, works on the input and output passing through a hidden layer. The ANN used here is a data- oriented modeling technique to find relations between input and output patterns by self learning and without any fixed mathematical form assumed...

  14. Energy in one-dimensional linear waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, C E; Roatta, A; Welti, R J, E-mail: welti@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Vibraciones y Ondas, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela de Formacion Basica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura (UNR), Pellegrini 250, S2000BTP Rosario (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    This work is based on propagation phenomena that conform to the classical wave equation. General expressions of power, the energy conservation equation in continuous media and densities of the kinetic and potential energies are presented. As an example, we study the waves in a string and focused attention on the case of standing waves. The treatment is applicable to introductory science textbooks. (letters and comment)

  15. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  16. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  17. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  18. General relativistic plasma dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, Joachim Benedictus

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  19. Recovery of Stokes waves from velocity measurements on an axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2015-01-01

    We provide a new method to recover the profile of Stokes waves, and more generally of waves with smooth vorticity, from measurements of the horizontal velocity component on a vertical axis of symmetry of the wave surface. Although we consider periodic waves only, the extension to solitary waves is straightforward. (paper)

  20. Epidemiologia do desenvolvimento cognitivo de escolares em Jequié, Bahia, Brasil: procedimentos de avaliação e resultados gerais Epidemiology of schoolchildren's cognitive development in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil: assessment procedures and general results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Neves Santos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve metodologia, aplicação e utilidade do teste das Matrizes Progressivas de Raven e do Teste de Sondagem Intelectual (TSI, comparando-os ainda com o rendimento escolar do aluno, em Jequié, Bahia. O Raven, que avalia o raciocínio não-verbal, foi aplicado a 374 escolares (7 a 17 anos. Somente 231 TSI foram respondidos porque requeriam habilidades de leitura e escrita. Foram coletadas notas escolares para todos os participantes. Um questionário avaliando recursos da escola e perfil do professor foi respondido por duzentos professores. Os escores dos testes Raven e TSI apresentaram uma boa correlação entre si (r = 0,53, p This paper describes the methodology, applicability and utility of the Raven Progressive Matrix (Raven Test and the Brazilian Intellectual Probe (TSI, comparing them with school achievement in a typical medium-size urban community of Northeastern Brazil. 388 schoolchildren (7-17 years old were examined, with 371 Raven tests applied. Only 231 TSIs were completed, since 106 students were illiterate. School grades were obtained for all participants. A questionnaire evaluating school resources, and teacher profiles was answered by 200 teachers. Raven and TSI test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.53, p < 0.001, but both correlated weakly with overall school grade (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and r = 0.12, p < 0.07 respectively. For individual school grades, the Raven scores showed statistically significant correlation with all subjects, while the Brazilian TSI presented statistically significant correlation only with geography, history and sciences. Boys' mean scores were higher than girls' for both the Raven and the TSI Tests, but for the school grades girls performed better. In general, level of cognitive development was below that expected for children in the age-group analyzed.

  1. Contributions to the problems of generalization in the phonological intervention: a clinical approach Contribuições para os problemas de generalização em intervenção fonológica: uma abordagem clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Acosta Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to describe the procedure which could be useful for teachers and speech therapists engaged within a school context, in the treatment of the phonological mistakes exhibited by children during their primary-school education. It is an attempt to present an intra-subject study and to observe the generalization suffered by the untrained phonemes and processes during the training of a phoneme. METHODS: two children with phonological impairment participated in this research. A Test of Phonology Acosta et al. (1998 was used for the analysis of the simplifications and, later on, an intervention program by minimal pairs was applied. RESULTS: the results seem to indicate that the treatment should start with the process affecting more phonemes and that the most difficult; for example, the phoneme where the process is compulsory applied, should be chosen as the one to be trained. CONCLUSION: the results showed that treatment must begin with the process that affects a major number of phonemes which have more difficulty in their production.OBJETIVO: descrever procedimento de intervenção fonológica. MÉTODOS: duas crianças com transtorno fonológico participaram do estudo. Foi aplicada a prova de Fonologia de Acosta et al. (1998 para o levantamento das simplificações e, posteriormente, aplicado o programa de intervenção por pares mínimos. RESULTADOS: observou-se generalização dos fonemas e processos fonológicos não treinados durante o tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados indicam que o tratamento deve começar por aqueles processos que afetam um maior número de fonemas e que apresentam maior dificuldade em sua produção.

  2. Gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar's contribution to the subject is first presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the ...

  3. Estudo eletroanalítico do herbicida paraquat em soluções aquosas por voltametria de onda quadrada utilizando ultramicroeletrodos Electroanalytical study of the paraquat herbicide in aqueous solution by square wave voltammetry using ultramicroelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djenaine de Souza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of paraquat on Pt, Au and carbon fiber ultramicroelectrodes were studied in laboratory samples by square wave voltammetry at high frequencies. The results showed two reversible peaks for paraquat reduction, in agreement to the literature data. The first peak was associated to the reduction of paraquat molecule in solution, with the further adsorption of the intermediate on the electrode surface. This adsorbed species undergoes to electroreduction in a reaction associated to the second voltammetric peak. The variation in pH and square wave parameters showed the best conditions to reduce paraquat as pH 5.0, frequency as high as 1000 s-1, scan increment of 2 mV and square wave amplitude of 50 mV. At such conditions, a variation of paraquat concentrations from 4.3 x 10-6 to 1.66 x 10-4 mol L-1 presented values for the detection limit equal to 3.9, 6.2 and 20.3 ppb on Pt, Au and carbon, respectively, at 1000 s-1. These values are quite below17 the allowed limit of paraquat in drinking water.

  4. Histerectomia Laparoscópica em um Hospital Geral Comunitário Experiência Inicial e Comparação de Custos Hospitalares Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in a Community General Hospital Initial Experience and Comparison of Hospital Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Henrique de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar os custos hospitalares entre a histerectomia vaginal assistida por laparoscopia (HVAL e a histerectomia total abdominal (HTA, relatando a experiência inicial com a nova abordagem em um hospital geral comunitário. Pacientes e Métodos: foram comparados 11 casos de HVAL e 23 de HTA, realizados de setembro de 1998 a julho de 1999. Prontuários e demonstrativos das despesas hospitalares de cada paciente foram revistos para coletar as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: não houve diferença estat��stica entre os grupos quanto à idade, paridade e cirurgia abdominal prévia. A principal indicação cirúrgica para ambos os grupos foi leiomiomatose uterina. O grupo das HVAL apresentou tempo de internação menor, com mediana de 1 dia e o das HTA, de 2 dias (pPurpose: to compare hospital costs between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH and total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH, reporting the initial experience with the new approach in a communitary general hospital. Patients and Methods: eleven cases of LAVH and 23 of TAH, carried out from September 1998 to July 1999, were compared. Each patient's records and hospital charges were reviewed to collect the analyzed variables. Results: there was no statistical difference between the groups in relation to age, parity, and previous abdominal surgery. The main surgical indication for both groups was uterine leiomyomatosis. The LAVH group presented a shorter hospital stay with a median of one day, and the TAH group, of two days (p<0.01. LAVH showed to be 40.2% more expensive than TAH (p<0.01. Operating room charges contributed to the major part of hospital costs for both groups, corresponding to 79.8 and 57.9% of the total, for LAVH and TAH, respectively. LAVH infirmary charges were smaller than for TAH, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002. Conclusion: with shorter hospital stay and smaller infirmary costs, we demonstrated that LAVH provides better

  5. Sincronização da onda folicular com buserelina prévia à indução da luteólise com cloprostenol em bovinos Follicular wave synchronization with buserelin before the luteolisis induction with cloprostenol in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de um análogo de GnRH (buserelina sobre a emergência de nova onda de crescimento folicular e o número de folículos recrutados dessa onda, a formação de corpo lúteo acessório, o diâmetro do folículo dominante e do corpo lúteo espontâneo no dia da aplicação do luteolítico e subseqüente taxa de sincronização e o intervalo da aplicação de PGF2α à manifestação do estro. Vinte fêmeas bovinas em diestro, mestiças Holandês x Zebu e Simental x Zebu foram, distribuídas em quatro tratamentos contendo cinco animais cada. No tratamento 1, os animais receberam 4 mg IM de buserelina no dia z 0 (dia em que se iniciou o tratamento e 150 mg de D(+ cloprostenol no dia 6. Nos tratamentos 2, 3 e 4, receberam, respectivamente, 6, 8 e 10 mg de buserelina, pela mesma via de aplicação, e 150mg de D(+ cloprostenol no dia 6. A atividade ovariana foi monitorada diariamente, com auxílio do aparelho de ultra-sonografia, do dia 0 ao estro, ou até o dia 11 pós-tratamento, naqueles animais que não responderam à prostaglandina. A aplicação de 8 ou 10 mg de buserelina em fase indeterminada do diestro, nas fêmeas bovinas mestiças, promoveu emergência de nova onda de crescimento folicular mais rápida que aplicações de 4 ou 6 mg do mesmo hormônio; enquanto os outros parâmetros avaliados não diferiram entre os animais dos tratamentos.This experiment was carried out to verify the effect of the administration of different doses of GnRH (buserelin analogue on the emergence of a new follicular growth wave and the number of recruited follicles from this wave, accessory corpus luteum formation, the dominant follicle diameter and the spontaneous corpus luteum on the luteolitic administration day and subsequent synchronization rate and the interval between the PGF2α application and the estrus manifestation. Twenty crossbreed female cattle in diestrus

  6. Prevalência de verdadeiras crises hipertensivas e adequação da conduta médica em pacientes atendidos em um pronto-socorro geral com pressão arterial elevada Prevalence of true hypertensive crises and appropriateness of the medical management in patients with high blood pressure seen in a general emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Monteiro Júnior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Pressão arterial elevada é motivo freqüente de procura por pronto-socorro, sendo possível que muitos pacientes recebam erroneamente um diagnóstico de crise hipertensiva e, conseqüentemente, um tratamento inapropriado. OBJETIVO: Analisar os casos de pacientes com pressão arterial elevada atendidos em um pronto-socorro geral, quanto ao preenchimento de critérios para o diagnóstico de crise hipertensiva e a adequação da conduta médica. MÉTODOS: Dos 1.012 pacientes atendidos consecutivamente em um pronto-socorro geral privado de referência, em São Luís, Maranhão, entre agosto e novembro de 2003, 198 (19,56% tiveram como diagnóstico principal do atendimento pressão arterial elevada. Destes, de apenas 169 pacientes foi possível obter informação adequada nos boletins de atendimento, sendo 54,4% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 53,3 ± 15,2 anos. Coletaram-se dados referentes aos pacientes e aos médicos atendentes, a fim de classificar cada caso como urgência, emergência ou pseudocrise hipertensiva, e a conduta médica como adequada ou inadequada. Procurou-se ainda identificar os fatores associados à conduta e ao uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva. RESULTADOS: Em apenas 27 pacientes (16% houve critérios para caracterização de uma crise hipertensiva, sendo todos estes classificados como urgências. A conduta médica foi considerada adequada em 72 casos (42,6%, não sofrendo influência da especialidade (p = 0,5 nem da experiência do médico (p = 0,9. Níveis tensionais, e não a presença ou ausência de sintomas, foram preditivos do uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva (p BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is a common reason for patients to seek an emergency room, and many of them may possibly be wrongly diagnosed with hypertensive crisis and, consequently, be inappropriately treated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cases of patients seen in a general emergency room because of high blood pressure as for meeting

  7. Gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, W. H.; Thorne, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    The significance of experimental evidence for gravitational waves is considered for astronomy. Properties, generation, and astrophysical sources of the waves are discussed. Gravitational wave receivers and antennas are described. A review of the Weber experiment is presented.

  8. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  9. Characteristics of Seismoelectric Wave Fields Associated with Natural Microcracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinawa, Yukio; Noda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Properties of seismoelectric waves in relation to natural earthquakes have been investigated. The electromagnetic disturbances were analyzed to test the hypothesis that pulse-like electric variations are directly related to microcracks as source. Because variation is very difficult to detect, there have been few quantitative field investigations. We used selected events with clear S and P phases from the data catalog obtained before the Tohoku earthquake in 2011. The electric strength of the fast P wave ( P f), S wave ( S), and electromagnetic wave (EM) associated with formation of cracks of tensile mode were estimated. The co-seismic electric signal accompanied by the S wave has the largest strength, well above the noise level, and the EM wave has the lowest strength. Analytical estimation of the ratio of the strengths of the Pf and EM phases to that of the S phase by use of Pride's equations gave results partially in agreement with observation (the order was Apf > A s > A em). The strength of the observed electromagnetic mode is approximately two orders of magnitude larger than that estimated from the theory. We suggest this greater strength can be attributed to the converted modes at layer contracts or to the effect of the boundary between free atmosphere and crust. Overall agreement between observations and theoretical estimates suggests that electromagnetic anomalies, crustal deformation, and groundwater changes can be investigated on the basis of the unified equations for the coupled electromagnetics, acoustics, and hydrodynamics of porous media.

  10. Factors associated with depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in Community-Dwelling Older Adults (The Bambuí Health Aging Study Fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos avaliados pelo General Health Questionnaire (12 itens em idosos residentes na comunidade (Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Castro-Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This study evaluated 1,510 participants of the Bambuí Health Aging Study baseline. The dependent variable was the presence of depressive symptoms assessed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and predictive variables were sociodemographic characteristics, social support network, lifestyle and health conditions. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 38.5% (12-item General Health Questionnaire ≥ 5. Depressive symptoms were positively and independently associated with female gender (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.01-1.33, aged 80 years or over (PR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02-1.54 compared with 60-69 years, single (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.02-1.46 or separated (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.03-1.65 marital status, less than 4 years of schooling (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.04-2.00, self-reported global health (reasonable: PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.45-2.34; bad or very bad: PR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.91-3.12, incapacity or great difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.22-1.57 and complaint of insomnia in the last month (PR = 1.77; 95%CI: 1.22-1.99. CONCLUSION: The similarities between factors associated with depressive symptoms in this population and in others do not explain the high prevalence rates previously reported in Bambuí. These findings may guide efforts to investigate others factors to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of depression in this population.OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos em idosos residentes na comunidade. MÉTODO: Este estudo seccional foi desenvolvido em 1.510 idosos, que correspondem a 86% do total de residentes na cidade de Bambuí-MG com 60 ou mais anos de idade. A variável dependente deste estudo é a presença de sintomas depressivos, determinada por meio do General Health Questionnaire (12 itens. As variáveis independentes incluíram características sociodemográficas, indicadores da

  11. Gravitational Wave & Relativity Impact Electronic Communication & Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Shahrudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available About a few months ago (Feb 11, 2016, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory scientist team researchers made an announcement that they had confirmed the gravitational wave already detected on Sept 14, 2015 (by LIGO’s twin detectors in Livingston, Louisiana and Hanford, Washington. The wave was predicted by Einstein back in 1916 with his theory of General Relativity. This paper is about gravitational wave and relativity theory that may contribute to the field of Telecommunication and other engineering as well.

  12. The Newtonian form of wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the general principles of both Newton's mechanics and quantum mechanics a new formulation of wave mechanics is proposed. The new basic equations do not contain physical parameters and admit a different interpretation of the Planck constant. (author)

  13. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    1999-01-01

    Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  14. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  15. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  16. Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Apaydin, Gokhan

    2018-01-01

    A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...

  17. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Kimberly C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational wave emission from the gravitational collapse of massive stars has been studied for more than three decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories.

  18. Geometric scaling as traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale

  19. Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lyubchyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay, and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay. All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.

  20. Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...

  1. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... right wave length for cobalt analysis with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. And this problem on wave length might exist also on the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) method. The wave length generally employed for cobalt determination is. 240.7 nm (Shapiro and Martin, 1988) ...

  2. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves – Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with ...

  3. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium, three types of quasi-waves propagate along an arbi- trary direction. In general, none of the waves is truly longitudinal. The present study finds the specific directions in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium along which longitudinal waves may propagate. This paper ...

  4. Indicação de vacinas e imunoglobulinas em indivíduos que apresentam comprometimento da imunidade Recommendations on immunization of patients with conditions associated with general or limited immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Com base na literatura, foi feita revisão sobre as recomendações para uso de vacinas e imunoglobulinas em indivíduos que apresentam comprometimento total ou parcial da imunidade, sobretudo relativa à decada de noventa. A análise de 75 referências permite chegar às principais conclusões: as vacinas contendo agentes vivos, geralmente são contra-indicadas para indivíduos que apresentam condições que determinam acentuado comprometimento da imunidade; as vacinas que contêm agentes mortos ou apenas frações antigênicas, apesar de serem menos imunogênicas e conferirem menores taxas de proteção aos imunodeprimidos, quando comparadas aos normais, são seguras e devem ser administradas a esses indivíduos. A imunização passiva é indicada nas mesmas doses para indivíduos imunodeprimidos e pessoas normais, com exceção da imunoglobulina contra o sarampo, que deve ser administrada aos imunodeprimidos no dobro das doses habituais, sempre que tiverem contato com sarampo, independentemente de sua situação vacinal anterior. Para aumentar a proteção dos imunodeprimidos contra a varicela e a influenza, recomenda-se vacinar contra essas doenças os familiares e os profissionais que atendam esses indivíduos.A revision of the literature was made as to the recommendations given for the use of vaccines and immune globulins in persons who presented total or partial immunodeficiency, mainly related to the nineties. The analysis of 75 references led to the following principal conclusions: the vaccines containing living agents are generally inappropriate for persons who present conditions wich determine serious inmunodeficiency; the vaccines wich contain dead agents or only antigenic fractions, despite their being less immunogenic and confering lower rates of protection to severely immunocompromised persons as compared to normal persons, are safe and should be administered to them. Immunocompromised patients should receive immune globulins for

  5. Sincronização da onda folicular com hCG prévia à indução da luteólise com cloprostenol em bovinos Follicular wave synchronization with hCG prior the luteolisis induction with cloprostenol in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Sampaio Costa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de hCG sobre a emergência de nova onda de crescimento folicular e o número de folículos recrutados dessa onda, a formação de corpo lúteo acessório, o diâmetro do folículo dominante e do corpo lúteo espontâneo no dia da aplicação do luteolítico, a subseqüente taxa de sincronização e o intervalo da aplicação de PGF2α à manifestação do estro foram avaliados. Vinte fêmeas bovinas mestiças em diestro, divididas em quatro tratamentos, contendo cinco animais cada, foram usadas. No tratamento 1, os animais receberam 500 UI I.M. hCG no dia 0, dia em que se iniciou o tratamento, e 150 μg D(+ cloprostenol no dia 6; já nos tratamentos 2, 3 e 4, receberam, respectivamente, 1000, 2000 e 3000 UI hCG, pela mesma via de aplicação, e 150 μg D(+ cloprostenol no dia 6. A atividade ovariana foi monitorada diariamente, com auxílio do aparelho de ultra-sonografia, do dia 0 ao estro, ou até o dia 11 após o tratamento, nos animais que não responderam à prostaglandina. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de 500, 1000, 2000 e 3000 UI hCG sobre a dinâmica folicular, a taxa de sincronização e o intervalo da aplicação de PGF2α ao estro. Houve, no entanto, tendência de as dosagens de 2000 e 3000 UI induzirem à emergência de nova onda de crescimento folicular mais rapidamente que 500 ou 1000 UI destes hormônios.The effect of different doses of hCG administration on the emergence of a new follicular growth wave and the number of recruited follicles from this wave, the accessory corpus luteum formation, the diameter of the dominant follicle and of the spontaneous corpus luteum on the day of a luteolitic administration and subsequent synchronization rate and the interval between the PGF2α administration and the estrus manifestation were evaluated. Twenty crossbred female cattle in diestrus, divided in four treatments containing five animals each were used. In treatment 1, the animals

  6. Estimativa da radiação de onda longa atmosférica em áreas de floresta e de pastagem no sudoeste da Amazônia Estimate of the atmospheric long wave radiation in forest and pasture area in south west amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Gonçalves Aguiar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A radiação de onda longa proveniente da atmosfera (Lin é a componente do balanço de radiação mais difícil de ser medida. Na Amazônia praticamente não existem medidas regulares dessa componente, mesmo sendo uma importante variável no cálculo do balanço de radiação à superfície e muito usada para alimentar modelos climáticos. Tendo em vista a necessidade desses dados, o objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar o desempenho de sete equações na estimativa da Lin para dias de céu claro em áreas de floresta (Reserva Biológica do Jaru, 10º4'48''S; 61º55'48''W e de pastagem (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, 10º45'S; 62º21'W no sudoeste da Amazônia. Medidas de radiação de onda longa atmosférica realizadas no período de junho de 2005 a maio de 2006 foram comparadas com as estimativas. As equações testadas tiveram desempenho satisfatório apenas durante a estação seca. As condições de alta nebulosidade, dominantes na estação chuvosa, restringiram a quantidade de dados utilizados na avaliação das equações. As equações que utilizam informações de temperatura do ar e pressão de vapor d'água para a estimativa da Lin tiveram melhor desempenho em relação às que utilizam apenas a temperatura do ar. As equações de Brutsaert (1975, Idso (1981 e Prata (1996 foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho, apresentando os maiores índices de concordância, e sendo, portanto, as equações mais indicadas para a estimativa da radiação de onda longa atmosférica no sudoeste da Amazônia.Atmospheric long wave radiation (Lin is the most difficult component of the radiation budget to be measured. In Amazonia there are very few regular measurements of this component, even though it is an important variable in the calculation of the surface radiation balance and frequently used in climate models. Given the need for such data, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of seven equations used for the estimation of Lin

  7. Financial Rogue Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    We analytically give the financial rogue waves in the nonlinear option pricing model due to Ivancevic, which is nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes model. These rogue wave solutions may he used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for rogue wave phenomenon in financial markets and related fields.

  8. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  9. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Not all sea waves look alike in form. Scientists, in fact, classify all waves into definite groups, which can be simulated on a computer using specific models. Thus there are many types of wave forms on the sea surface like regular sinusoidal waves...

  10. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  11. The relativistic electron wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac, P.A.M.

    1977-08-01

    The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)

  12. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  13. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  14. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  15. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

  16. Propagating waves in human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka eTakahashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in non-human primates have shown that beta oscillations (15-30Hz of local field potentials (LFPs in the arm/hand areas of primary motor cortex (MI propagate as traveling waves across the cortex. These waves exhibited two stereotypical features across animals and tasks: 1 The waves propagated in two dominant modal directions roughly 180 degrees apart, and 2 their propagation speed ranged from 10 ~ 35 cm/s. It is, however, unknown if such cortical waves occur in the human motor cortex. This study shows that the two properties of propagating beta waves are present in MI of a tetraplegic human patient while he was instructed to perform an instruction delay center out task using a cursor controlled by the chin. Moreover, we show that beta waves are sustained and have similar properties whether the subject was engaged in the task or at rest. The directions of the successive sustained waves both in the human subject and a nonhuman primate (NHP subject tended to switch from one dominant mode to the other, and at least in the NHP subject the estimated distance travelled between successive waves traveling into and out of the central sulcus is consistent with the hypothesis of wave reflection between the border of motor and somatosensory cortices. Further, we show that the occurrence of the beta waves is not uniquely tied to periods of increased power in the beta frequency band. These results demonstrate that traveling beta waves in MI are a general phenomenon occurring in human as well as non-human primates. Consistent with the non-human primate data, the dominant directions of the beta LFP waves in human aligned to the proximal to distal gradient of joint representations in MI somatotopy. This consistent finding of wave propagation may imply the existence of a hardwired organization of motor cortex that mediates this spatio-temporal pattern.

  17. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at a temporal boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Maywar, Drew N; Agrawal, Govind P

    2014-02-01

    We consider propagation of an electromagnetic (EM) wave through a dynamic optical medium whose refractive index varies with time. Specifically, we focus on the reflection and transmission of EM waves from a temporal boundary and clarify the two different physical processes that contribute to them. One process is related to impedance mismatch, while the other results from temporal scaling related to a sudden change in the speed of light at the temporal boundary. Our results show that temporal scaling of the electric field must be considered for light propagation in dynamic media. Numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations are in full agreement with our theory.

  18. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  19. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  20. Roles Played by Electrostatic Waves in Producing Radio Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-01-01

    Processes in which electromagnetic radiation is produced directly or indirectly via intermediate waves are reviewed. It is shown that strict theoretical constraints exist for electrons to produce nonthermal levels of radiation directly by the Cerenkov or cyclotron resonances. In contrast, indirect emission processes in which intermediary plasma waves are converted into radiation are often favored on general and specific grounds. Four classes of mechanisms involving the conversion of electrostatic waves into radiation are linear mode conversion, hybrid linear/nonlinear mechanisms, nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle processes, and radiation from localized wave packets. These processes are reviewed theoretically and observational evidence summarized for their occurrence. Strong evidence exists that specific nonlinear wave processes and mode conversion can explain quantitatively phenomena involving type III solar radio bursts and ionospheric emissions. On the other hand, no convincing evidence exists that magnetospheric continuum radiation is produced by mode conversion instead of nonlinear wave processes. Further research on these processes is needed.

  1. The Fate and Impact of Internal Waves in Nearshore Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, C B

    2018-01-03

    Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems. Here, I review the physics of internal waves in shallow waters and identify two commonalities among internal waves in the nearshore: exposure to deep offshore waters and enhanced turbulence and mixing. I relate these phenomena to important ecosystem processes ranging from extreme events to fertilization success to draw general conclusions about the influence of internal waves on ecosystems and the effects of internal waves in a changing climate.

  2. The Fate and Impact of Internal Waves in Nearshore Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, C. B.

    2018-01-01

    Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems. Here, I review the physics of internal waves in shallow waters and identify two commonalities among internal waves in the nearshore: exposure to deep offshore waters and enhanced turbulence and mixing. I relate these phenomena to important ecosystem processes ranging from extreme events to fertilization success to draw general conclusions about the influence of internal waves on ecosystems and the effects of internal waves in a changing climate.

  3. A Generalization of the Einstein-Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Fredrick

    2016-03-01

    The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions. http://sites.google.com/site/fwcotton/em-30.pdf

  4. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  5. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  6. Crossing seas and occurrence of rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The study is addressing crossing wave systems which may lead to formation of rogue waves. Onorato et al. (2006, 2010) have shown using the Nonlinear Schr?dringer (NLS) equations that the modulational instability and rogue waves can be triggered by a peculiar form of directional sea state, where two identical, crossing, narrow-banded random wave systems interact with each other. Such results have been underpinned by numerical simulations of the Euler equations solved with a Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and experimental observations (Toffoli et al., 2011). They substantiate a dependence of the angle between the mean directions of propagation of the two crossing wave systems, with a maximum rogue wave probability for angles of approximately 40 degrees. Such an unusual sea state of two almost identical wave systems (approximately the same significant wave height and mean frequency) with high steepness and different directions was observed during the accident to the cruise ship Louis Majesty (Cavaleri et al. 2012). Occurrence of wind sea and swell having almost the same spectral period and significant wave height and crossing at the angle 40o design of marine structures. Special Issue of Ocean Dynamics, ISSN 1616-7341, 64(10), DOI 10.1007/s10236-014-0753-2. Cavaleri, L., Bertotti, L., Torrisi, L. Bitner-Gregersen, E., Serio, M. and Onorato, M., 2012. Rogue Waves in Crossing Seas: The Louis Majesty accident. J. Geophysical Research, 117, C00J10, doi:10.1029/2012JC007923 Onorato, M., A. Osborne, A. and M. Serio, 2006. Modulation instability in crossing sea states: A possible mechanism for the formation of freak waves. Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 014503 Onorato M., Proment, D., Toffoli, A., 2010. Freak waves in crossing seas, European Physical Journal, 185, 45-55. Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen, E.M., Osborne, A. Serio, M., Monbaliu, J. , Onorato, M., 2011. Extreme waves in random crossing seas: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations." Geophys. Res. Lett., 38

  7. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  8. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  9. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the wave energy resource at the location of the Danish Wave Energy test Centre (DanWEC) is presented in this paper. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) test centre is located at Hanstholm in the of North West Denmark. Information about the long term wave statistics of the resource...... is necessary for WEC developers, both to optimise the WEC for the site, and to estimate its average yearly power production using a power matrix. The wave height and wave period sea states parameters are commonly characterized with a bivariate histogram. This paper presents bivariate histograms and kernel....... An overview is given of the methods used to do this, and a method for identifying outliers of the wave elevation data, based on the joint distribution of wave elevations and accelerations, is presented. The limitations of using a JONSWAP spectrum to model the measured wave spectra as a function of Hm0 and T0...

  10. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three <em>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FTem> Homologous Genes from Chinese <em>Cymbidium>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The <em>FLOWERING LOCUS Tem> (<em>FT> gene plays crucial roles in regulating the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. To understand the molecular mechanism of reproduction, three homologous <em>FT> genes were isolated and characterized from <em>Cymbidium sinenseem> “Qi Jian Bai Mo”, <em>Cymbidium goeringiiem> and <em>Cymbidium ensifoliumem> “Jin Si Ma Wei”. The three genes<em> em>contained 618-bp nucleotides with a 531-bp open reading frame (ORF of encoding 176 amino acids (AAs. Alignment of the AA sequences revealed that CsFT, CgFT and CeFT contain a conserved domain, which is characteristic of the<em> em>PEBP-RKIP superfamily, and which share high identity with FT of other plants in GenBank: 94% with OnFT<em> em>from <em>Oncidium em>Gower Ramsey, 79% with Hd3a from <em>Oryza sativaem>, and 74% with FT from <em>Arabidopsis thalianaem>. qRT-PCR analysis showed a diurnal expression pattern of <em>CsFT>, <em>CgFT> and <em>CeFT> following both long day (LD, 16-h light/8-h dark and short day (SD, 8-h light/16-h dark treatment. While the transcripts of both <em>CsFT em>and <em>CeFT em>under LD were significantly higher than under SD, those of <em>CgFT em>were> em>higher under SD. Ectopic expression of <em>CgFT> in transgenic <em>Arabidopsis> plants resulted in early flowering compared to wild-type plants and significant up-regulation of <em>APETALA1em> (<em>AP1em> expression. Our data indicates that CgFT is a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene in <em>Cymbidium> that may regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition in flowers, similar to its <em>Arabidopsis> ortholog.

  11. Gravitational wave experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, W O

    1993-01-01

    There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The first two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the field since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...

  12. Complicações respiratórias em pacientes com paralisia cerebral submetidos à anestesia geral Complicaciones respiratorias en pacientes con parálisis cerebral sometidos a la anestesia general Respiratory complications in patients with cerebral palsy undergoing general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Silva de Mello

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Anestesia em pacientes com paralisia cerebral (PC pode representar um desafio para o anestesiologista. Este estudo prospectivo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência e o risco de complicações respiratórias em crianças com PC submetidas à anestesia geral inalatória (AGI para tomografia computadorizada (TC. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo pacientes com idades entre 1 e 17 anos, estado físico ASA I a III, submetidos a AGI com sevoflurano e máscara laríngea para TC no período de junho/2002 a junho/2003, divididos em três grupos: PC tetraplégicos (PCT, outros tipos de PC (PCO e paciente sem PC (NPC. Os pais ou responsáveis responderam a um questionário com perguntas sobre o histórico médico dos pacientes, infecção de vias aéreas superiores (IVAS, asma, convulsão, incoordenação orofaríngea, refluxo gastroesofágico, etc. Dados sobre incidência e gravidade das complicações respiratórias foram coletados prospectivamente (tosse, broncoespasmo, laringoespasmo, hipoxemia, aspiração. A amostra foi calculada para uma incidência esperada de 5% no grupo NPC, com uma diferença de 15% entre os grupos (alfa = 0,05 e beta = 0,1, utilizando-se os testes do Qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e t de Student. RESULTADOS: Compuseram a amostra 290 pacientes divididos nos grupos da seguinte forma: PCT - 100, PCO - 79 e NPC - 111. Não houve diferença na prevalência de complicações respiratórias entre os grupos PCT (4%, PCO (8,9% e NPC (7,3%. Houve associação entre a presença de IVAS e a ocorrência de complicações (risco relativo, 10,71. CONCLUSÕES: Crianças com paralisia cerebral tipo tetraplegia espástica não parecem ter um risco aumentado de complicações respiratórias durante anestesia geral inalatória com sevoflurano e máscara laríngea. O estudo confirma IVAS como fator de risco para a ocorrência dessas complicações.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La anestesia en pacientes con par

  13. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  14. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  15. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  16. Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in time-varying magnetized plasma in magnetic window region of reentry blackout mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The “magnetic window” is considered a promising means to eliminate reentry communication blackout. However, the turbulence of plasma sheath results in phase jitter and amplitude turbulence of electromagnetic (EM wave and may influence the eliminating effect. Therefore, the effect of fluctuating property of reentry plasma sheath on EM wave propagation when a magnetic field is used for eliminating blackout is investigated. For this purpose, a time-varying electron density model, which includes both temporal variation and spatial turbulence, is proposed. Hybrid matrix method is also employed to investigate the interaction between time-varying magnetized plasma and EM wave. The EM wave transmission coefficients in time-varying magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas are likewise compared. Simulation results show that amplitude variation and phase jitter also exist on transmitted EM wave, and the turbulent deviation increases as the degree of plasma fluctuates. Meanwhile, the fluctuation of transmitted EM wave attenuates at low-frequency passband and increases at high-frequency passband with the increasing magnetic field. That is, comparing with unmagnetized time-varying plasma, the fluctuation effect can be mitigated by using a magnetic field when the EM wave frequency is at low-frequency passband. However, the mitigating effect can be influenced by the nonuniformity of magnetic field.

  17. A scalable method for computing quadruplet wave-wave interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vledder, Gerbrant

    2017-04-01

    Non-linear four-wave interactions are a key physical process in the evolution of wind generated ocean waves. The present generation operational wave models use the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), but it accuracy is poor. It is now generally acknowledged that the DIA should be replaced with a more accurate method to improve predicted spectral shapes and derived parameters. The search for such a method is challenging as one should find a balance between accuracy and computational requirements. Such a method is presented here in the form of a scalable and adaptive method that can mimic both the time consuming exact Snl4 approach and the fast but inaccurate DIA, and everything in between. The method provides an elegant approach to improve the DIA, not by including more arbitrarily shaped wave number configurations, but by a mathematically consistent reduction of an exact method, viz. the WRT method. The adaptiveness is to adapt the abscissa of the locus integrand in relation to the magnitude of the known terms. The adaptiveness is extended to the highest level of the WRT method to select interacting wavenumber configurations in a hierarchical way in relation to their importance. This adaptiveness results in a speed-up of one to three orders of magnitude depending on the measure of accuracy. This definition of accuracy should not be expressed in terms of the quality of the transfer integral for academic spectra but rather in terms of wave model performance in a dynamic run. This has consequences for the balance between the required accuracy and the computational workload for evaluating these interactions. The performance of the scalable method on different scales is illustrated with results from academic spectra, simple growth curves to more complicated field cases using a 3G-wave model.

  18. Gravitational waves: Einstein latest victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabadell, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The world of theoretical physics is once again celebrating success: the LIGO observatory in the United States has confirmed the direct detection of general relativity: gravitational waves. The almost imperceptible distortions of space-time had been generated by the fusion of black holes of 30 times the mass of the Sun located at a distance of some 1,300 million light years from us. (Author)

  19. Copepod Behavior Response in an Internal Wave Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Jung, S.; Haas, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study is motivated to understand the bio-physical forcing in zooplankton transport in and near internal waves, where high levels of zooplankton densities have been observed in situ. A laboratory-scale internal wave apparatus was designed to create a standing internal wave for various physical arrangements that mimic conditions observed in the field. A theoretical analysis of a standing internal wave inside a two-layer stratification system including non-linear wave effects was conducted to derive the expressions for the independent variables controlling the wave motion. Focusing on a case with a density jump of 1.0 σt, a standing internal wave was generated with a clean interface and minimal mixing across the pycnocline. Spatial and frequency domain measurements of the internal wave were evaluated in the context of the theoretical analysis. Behavioral assays with a mixed population of three marine copepods were conducted in control (stagnant homogeneous fluid), stagnant density jump interface, and internal wave flow configurations. In the internal wave treatment, the copepods showed an acrobatic, orbital-like motion in and around the internal wave region (bounded by the crests and the troughs of the waves). Trajectories of passive, neutrally-buoyant particles in the internal wave flow reveal that they generally oscillate back-and-forth along fixed paths. Thus, we conclude that the looping, orbital trajectories of copepods in the region near the internal wave interface are due to animal behavior rather than passive transport.

  20. VLF two-wave-electron interactions in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, F.M. (Instituto Superior Technico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1984-08-01

    The mutual influence between two whistler mode waves, through cyclotron resonant interaction of each wave with the same set of energetic electrons, is analysed both theoretically and by computer simulations; this two-wave interaction mechanism seems to be an important process in understanding recently observed phenomena in Siple Station VLF multi-wave injection experiments. A criterion is established to estimate the threshold for the critical frequency spacing (for given wave amplitudes) for a significant mutual interaction between two monochromatic waves to occur. This criterion is based on the overlap of coherence bandwidths associated with the trapping domains of each wave and it takes into account the geomagnetospheric medium inhomogeneity. The effects of a perturbing second wave on electrons trapped by a first wave is discussed, considering the general situation of varying-frequency waves, and a simulation model is used to track the motion of test-electrons in the two-waves field. Conditions leading to detrapping and subsequent trapping by the second wave of previously first-wave trapped electrons are analysed and suggest the possiblity of this phenomenon to play an important role in frequency entrainment and energy exchange between two waves.

  1. Gravity's kiss the detection of gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is...

  2. Gravitational wave propagation in isotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, P.A.; O'Shea, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the propagation of gravitational waves carrying arbitrary information through isotropic cosmologies. The waves are modeled as small perturbations of the background Robertson-Walker geometry. The perfect fluid matter distribution of the isotropic background is, in general, modified by small anisotropic stresses. For pure gravity waves, in which the perturbed Weyl tensor is radiative (i.e. type N in the Petrov classification), we construct explicit examples for which the presence of the anisotropic stress is shown to be essential and the histories of the wave fronts in the background Robertson-Walker geometry are shear-free null hypersurfaces. The examples derived in this case are analogous to the Bateman waves of electromagnetic theory

  3. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  4. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  5. Fundamentals of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Saulson, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.

  6. Aplicação da audiometria troncoencefálica na detecção de perdas auditivas retrococleares em trabalhadores de manutenção hospitalar expostos a ruído Auditory brainstem responses evaluation of retrocochlear disease in workers from a general hospital exposed to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Luiz da Silveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo seccional foi averiguar a presença de comprometimento auditivo retrococlear num grupo de trabalhadores de manutenção de um hospital de grande porte com histórico de exposição a ruído. Foram avaliados 31 trabalhadores de três setores da divisão de engenharia entre 25 e 60 anos e com exposição contínua a ruído entre 2 e 45 anos. O processo avaliativo contou com triagem audiométrica ocupacional e audiometria troncoencefálica (ATE. Foram detectadas anormalidades na ATE em sete pacientes (22,6%, caracterizadas por aumento de latências de ondas III (14,3% e V (28,6%; prolongamento dos interpicos I-III (71,4%, III-V (28,6% e I-V (85,7%. Das 35 orelhas com audição normal (três unilateralmente e 32 bilateralmente, quatro (11,4% apresentaram comprometimento retrococlear. A alta prevalência de comprometimento retrococlear no grupo induz supor que tal distúrbio seja mais frequente que o encontrado e esteja sendo subestimado na investigação diagnóstica desses trabalhadores. A ocorrência desses resultados sem a presença de alterações audiométricas sugere que a ATE seja mais sensível que a audiometria tonal na investigação de perda auditiva provocada por ruído, por isso sua utilização deva ser incentivada.The main purpose of this cross-seccional study was to investigate the presence of retrocochlear disease in a group of maintenance workers from a general hospital, who presents a history of noise exposure. Thirty one workers of three engineering sections with age range from 25 to 60 years and continuous noise exposure from 2 and 45 years, were examined. The evaluation included an audiometric occupational selection and auditory brainstem responses (ABR. ABR abnormalities were detected in seven patients (22.6% and it was found latency increase of waves III (14.3% and V (28.6%, and interpeak prolongation I-III (71.4%, III-V (28.6% and I-V (85.7%. Among 35 ears with normal audition right, left or

  7. Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenplas, Paul E

    1968-01-01

    General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.

  8. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  9. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  10. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    2000-01-01

    Long-term research objective: Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  11. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  12. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  13. Energy of plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new definition of the sign of wave energy is given, which is valid where the old definition based on an expansion procedure breaks down. It is shown that a beam-plasma wave does not produce explosive instabilities

  14. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  15. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  16. A simplified wave enhancement criterion for moving extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Golubkin, Pavel; Chapron, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    An analytical model is derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution along the main transects of a moving extreme weather event. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves defined as gr/ur2≈cT>(ur/V>)1/q, with r, u, and V, radial distance, average sustained wind speed, and translation velocity, respectively. Constants q and cT follow the fetch-law definitions. If forced during a sufficient time scale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely related to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Compared to altimeter satellite measurements, the proposed analytical solutions for the wave energy distribution demonstrate convincing agreement. As analytically developed, the wave enhancement criterion can provide a rapid evaluation to document the general characteristics of each storm, especially the expected wavefield asymmetry.

  17. Internal wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; Peacock, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, which are prevalent throughout nature, has a direct mathematical analogy with the classical optical problem of a Fabry-Perot multiple-beam light interferometer. We rigorously establish this correspondence, and furthermore provide the first experimental demonstration of an internal wave interferometer, based on the theory of resonant transmission of internal waves.

  18. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  19. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson

  20. Trabalho em turnos: estado geral de saúde relacionado ao sono em trabalhadores de enfermagem Trabajo por turnos: estado general de salud relacionado al sueño de trabajadores de enfermería Shift work: overall health state related to sleep in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soares Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os sintomas referentes ao estado geral de saúde associado ao trabalho em turnos de enfermagem e relacioná-los com a qualidade do sono. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais. Participaram 136 profissionais de enfermagem, com média de idade de 33,1 anos, divididos nas seguintes categorias: enfermeiro (8,1%; técnico de enfermagem (80,9%; auxiliar de enfermagem dos turnos diurno e noturno (11%. Os sintomas de saúde foram identificados a partir do Inventário de Estado Geral de Saúde, e a qualidade do sono foi avaliada pelo Diário do Sono. Os dados foram estatisticamente significativos pelo Teste Qui-Quadrado (p=0,021 para a presença do sintoma de flatulência ou distensão abdominal no turno noturno. Constatou-se com a análise de regressão linear múltipla que os sujeitos do turno diurno que apresentaram os sintomas de má digestão (às vezes ou sempre e irritabilidade (sempre tiveram pior qualidade de sono noturno.Se objetivó identificar síntomas referentes al estado general de salud asociado al trabajo por turnos de enfermería y relacionarlos con la calidad del sueño. Realizado en Hospital de la Hermandad de Santa Casa de Poços de Caldas, estado de Minas Gerais. Participaron (n=136 profesionales de enfermería, con media etaria de 33,1 años, divididos en las categorías: enfermero 8,1%, técnico de enfermería 80,9%, auxiliar de enfermería 11,0% de turnos diurno y nocturno. Los síntomas de salud se identificaron mediante Inventario General de Salud y la calidad de sueño se evaluó por Diario del Sueño. Datos estadísticamente significativos según test Chi-Cuadrado (p=0,021 para presencia del síntoma de flatulencia o distensión abdominal en turno nocturno. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple, los sujetos del turno diurno que presentaban síntomas de mala digestión (eventualmente o siempre e irritabilidad (siempre

  1. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  2. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  3. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  4. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  5. On the theory of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some aspects of the theory of wave packets. We consider a popular non-covariant Gaussian model used in various applications and show that it predicts too slow a longitudinal dispersion rate for relativistic particles. We revise this approach by considering a covariant model of Gaussian wave packets, and examine our results by inspecting a wave packet of an arbitrary form. A general formula for the time dependence of the dispersion of a wave packet of an arbitrary form is found. Finally, we give a transparent interpretation of the disappearance of the wave function over time due to the dispersion - a feature often considered undesirable, but which is unavoidable for wave packets. We find, starting with simple examples, proceeding with their generalizations and finally by considering the continuity equation, that the integral over time of both the flux and probability densities is asymptotically proportional to the factor 1/|x| 2 in the rest frame of the wave packet, just as in the case of an ensemble of classical particles

  6. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  7. High Frequency Guided Wave Virtual Array SAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    The principles of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) are generalized for application to high frequency plate wave signals. It is shown that a flaw signal received in long-range plate wave propagation can be analyzed as if the signals were measured by an infinite array of transducers in an unbounded medium. It is shown that SAFT-based flaw sizing can be performed with as few as three or less actual measurement positions.

  8. Three-dimensional accelerating electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Alonso, Miguel A; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai

    2013-06-17

    We present a general theory of three-dimensional non-paraxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.

  9. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-06

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Urban heat wave hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Crane, Dakota; Quattrochi, Dale

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally. The intensification of the effects of heat waves by the urban heat island during extended periods of extreme heat, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. Climatological weather station data, moderate resolution thermal imagery from Earth-orbiting satellites, and demographic information for selected cities were use in this research to develop a heat wave risk product as a potential warning tool for public health decision makers and the general public.

  11. Teaching on ocean-wave-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falnes, J. [Norges teknisk-naturvitskaplege univ., Inst. for fysikk, Trondheim (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Ocean-wave energy utilisation has for 27 years been a university research subject, in which the author has been active from the first year. In this paper he presents some information related to his teaching on the subject during many of these years. This includes teaching on the pre-university level and, in particular, development of the wave-energy module for an educational CD-ROM on sustainable technology and renewable energy. Education of the general public is very important. On the other hand teaching of doctor students and other wave-energy researchers is also a subject of the paper. (au)

  12. The repeated extracorporeal shock waves and the renal parenchyma injury on normal and diabetic rats A repetição de ondas de choque extracorpóreas e a lesão do parênquima renal em ratos normais e diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Massaji Kira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the effect of repeated extracorporeal shock waves (ESW on renal parenchyma of normal and diabetic rats. METHODS: 40 normal rats (A and 40 diabetic rats (B were assigned for ESW (Direx Tripter X1® - 14 KVA as follow: A1/B1 and A3/B3 no ESW; A2/B2 one ESW (2,000 SW; A4/B4 two ESW (4,000 SW in an elapsed 14 days. All the animals were sacrificed 3 days after the ESW and samples of renal parenchyma were histological prepared, stained by H&E. For each animal the frequency of hemorrhage focus (HF in the subcapasular, interstitial and glomerulus area was calculated (porcentage on 20 randomly histological sections. RESULTS: No one HF was identified in all normal or diabetic animals without ESW (A1, A3 and B1, B3. In the normal rats the HF frequency was similar to one ESW (subcapsular =15%; interstitial =20% and glomerular =10% or repetead ESW (subcapsular =25%; interstitial =20%; glomerular=10%. In diabetic rats the occurence of HF with repetead ESW was more frequent (subcapsular =40%; interstitial =30% and glomerular =10% than with a single ESW (subcapsular =25%; interstitial =15% and glomerular =15%. CONCLUSION: A single ESW or a repeated ESW caused a mild and similar damage on renal cortex of normal rats. In diabetic rats the repetead ESW may result in an accumulated damage, especially with focus of hemorrhage in subcapsular and interstitial tissue and glomerulus edema.RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de repetidas ondas de choque extracorpóreas (OCE sobre o parênquima renal de ratos normais e diabéticos. MÉTODOS: 40 ratos normais e 40 ratos diabéticos foram distribuídos para aplicação de OCE (Direx Tripter X1® - 14 KVA como segue: A1/B1 e A3/B3 sem OCE; A2/B2 uma sessão de OCE (2000 OC; A4/B4 duas sessões de OC (4000 OC num intervalo de 14 dias. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 3º. dia após a aplicação da OCE e amostras de parênquima renal foram histologicamente preparados e corados em H&E. Para cada animal

  13. Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.

  14. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of the laser–plasma interaction becomes an active field of research in the laser-fusion experiments, charged particle acceleration experiments, X-ray generation, propagation of EM waves in ionosphere etc. and the stimulated Bril- louin scattering (SBS) plays an important role in laser–plasma interaction as it.

  15. Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ideally invisible stealth radomes are usually sandwiched constructions composed of E-glass/epoxy composite, polyvinyl chloride foam and frequency selective surfaces (FSS). Nylon 6/6 and balsa wood are well known for their low dielectric properties. In this work the electromagnetic (EM) wave transmission ...

  16. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the homeless and in the general population of the city of Porto, Portugal Fatores de risco cardiovascular em pessoas sem-abrigo e na população geral da cidade do Porto, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis de Pinho Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We described the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among homeless people living in the city of Porto, Portugal. Comparisons were made between subsamples of homeless people recruited in different settings and between the overall homeless sample group and a sample of the general population. All "houseless" individuals attending one of two homeless hostels or two institutions providing meal programs on specific days were invited to participate and were matched with subjects from the general population. We estimated sex, age and education-adjusted prevalence ratios or mean differences. The prevalence of previous illicit drug consumption and imprisonment was almost twice as high among the homeless from institutions providing meal programs. This group also showed lower mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Prevalence of smoking was almost 50% higher in the overall homeless group. Mean body mass index and waist circumference were also lower in the homeless group and its members were almost five times less likely to report dyslipidemia. Our findings contribute to defining priorities for interventions directed at this segment of society and to reducing inequalities in this extremely underprivileged population.Este estudo descreve a distribuição de fatores de risco cardiovascular em pessoas sem-abrigo que vivem no Porto, Portugal, recrutadas em diferentes contextos, comparando-as entre si e com a população em geral. Todos os indivíduos "sem-casa" presentes em dois albergues de sem-abrigo ou dois refeitórios sociais em dias selecionados para as avaliações foram convidados, e emparelhados com indivíduos da população geral. Foram estimadas as razões de proporções ou diferenças entre médias, ajustadas para sexo, idade e educação. Nos refeitórios sociais, observou-se maior prevalência de consumo de drogas ilícitas e de história prévia de prisão no último ano, e menor pressão arterial sistólica e diast

  17. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  18. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  19. Fine structure in plasma waves and radiation near the plasma frequency in Earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1994-01-01

    Novel observations are presented of intrunsic fine structure in the frequency spectrum of electomagnetic (EM) radiation and plasma waves near the electron plasma frequency f(sub p) during a period of unusually high interplanetary magnetic field strength. Measured using the wideband receiver on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 1 spacecraft, fine-structured emissions are observed both in the solar wind and the foreshock, The fine structure is shown to correspond to emissions spaced above f(sub p) near half harmonies of the electon cyclotron frequency f(sub ce), i.e., near f(sub p) + nf(sub ce)/2. These appear to be the first space physics observations of emissions spaced by f(sub ce)/2. Indirect but strong arguments are used to discriminate between EM and electrostatic (ES) signals, to identify whether ISEE 1 is in the solar wind or the foreshock, and to determine the relative frequencies of the emissions and the local f(sub p). The data are consistent with generation of the ES and EM emissions in the foreshock, with subsequent propagation of the EM emissions into the solar wind. It remains possible that some emissions currently identified as ES have significant EM character. The ES and EM emisions often merge into one another with minimal changes in frequency, arguing that their source regions and generation mechanisms are related and imposing significant constraints on theories. The f(sub ce)/2 ES and EM fine structures observed may be intrinsic to the emission mechanisms or to superposition of two series of signals with f(sub ce) spacing that differ in starting frequency by f(sub ce)/2. Present theories for nonlinear wave coupling processes, cyclotron maser emission, and other linear instability processes are all unable to explain multiple EM and/or ES components spaced by approximately f(sub ce)/2 above f(sub p) for f(sub p)/f(sub ce) much greater than 1 and typical for shock beams parameters. Suitable avenues for further theoretical research are

  20. An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.

  1. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 General Editorial. Academy Policy on Plagiarism · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 22 Issue 1 January 2017 pp 1-3 General Editorial.

  2. Historical Generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Gordon Geoffrey

    1980-01-01

    Discusses controversies concerning the use of generalizations in history. Generalizations lead to national stereotypes and confusion over definitions. Concludes, however, that historical understanding requires criteria to determine what in general may be of importance to the human condition. Classificatory or labeling generalizations are…

  3. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  4. Excitation of Banded Whistler Waves in the Magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Kaijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Banded whistler waves can be generated by the whistler anisotropy instability driven by two bi-Maxwellian electron components with T{sub {perpendicular}}/T{sub {parallel}} > 1 at different T{sub {parallel}} For typical magnetospheric condition of 1 < {omega}{sub e}/{Omega}{sub e} < 5 in regions associated with strong chorus, upper-band waves can be excited by anisotropic electrons below {approx} 1 keV, while lower-band waves are excited by anisotropic electrons above {approx} 10 keV. Lower-band waves are generally field-aligned and substantially electromagnetic, while upper-band waves propagate obliquely and have quasi-electrostatic fluctuating electric fields. The quasi-electrostatic feature of upper-band waves suggests that they may be more easily identified in electric field observations than in magnetic field observations. Upper-band waves are liable to Landau damping and the saturation level of upperband waves is lower than lower-band waves, consistent with observations that lower-band waves are stronger than upper-band waves on average. The oblique propagation, the lower saturation level, and the more severe Landau damping together would make upper-band waves more tightly confined to the geomagnetic equator (|{lambda}{sub m}| < {approx}10{sup o}) than lower-band waves.

  5. Waves and particles two essays on fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2014-01-01

    The book consists of two separate parts, the first part is on waves and the second part on particles. In part 1, after describing the awesome power of tsunami and the history of their occurrences, the book turns to the history of explaining phenomena by means of mathematical equations. Then it describes other wave phenomena and the laws governing them: the vibration of strings and drums in musical instruments, the sound waves making them audible, ultrasound and its uses, sonar, and shock waves; electromagnetic waves: light waves, refraction, diffraction, why the sky is blue, the rainbow, and the glory; microwaves and radio waves: radar, radio astronomy, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, microwave ovens and how a radio works, lasers and masers; waves in modern physics: the Schrödinger wave function and gravitational waves in general relativity; water waves in the ocean, tides and tidal waves, and the quite different solitary waves, solitons discovered in canals. Finally we return to ...

  6. The Gravitational-Wave Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Cao, Zhoujian; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of gravitational wave by Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory indicates the coming of the era of gravitational-wave astronomy and gravitational-wave cosmology. It is expected that more and more gravitational-wave events will be detected by currently existing and planned gravitational-wave detectors. The gravitational waves open a new window to explore the Universe and various mysteries will be disclosed through the gravitational-wave detection, combined wit...

  7. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  8. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  9. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic waves by electron Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric instability involving the decay of a standing electron Bernstein pump into electromagnetic sidebands and lower-hybrid decay waves is studied. A general dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. Threshold fields and growth rates are obtained for the two cases that the electron Bernstein pump is introduced near the X-mode cutoff layer or introduced in the region between the upper-hybrid resonance layer and the O-mode cutoff layer. Applications of these results to the recent observation [P. Stubbe and H. Kopka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 183 (1990)] of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) with a broad symmetrical structure (BSS) in the ionospheric modifications by powerful high-frequency (HF) wave are discussed

  10. Psychiatric disorders and psychiatric consultation in a general hospital: a case- control study Transtornos psiquiátricos e solicitações de interconsulta psiquiátrica em hospital geral: um estudo de caso controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia Inaty Smaira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric consultation (PC has been considered an efficient tool to develop research, to track and to give assistance benefiting patients, health professionals and the institution. However, it has not been much used in Brazil. Although 30 to 50% of general hospital (GH inpatients may present a psychiatric disorder, only 1 to 12% of them are referred to assessment. The aims of this study were: to assess mental disorders in a GH; to identify which of these patients are sent to psychiatric care; to verify alleged reasons for referral to psychiatric consultation, and to examine the relationship between PC and psychiatric learning (during medical school and residence. METHODS: A case-control patient study was conducted (47 cases and 94 controls to analyze in detail the following variables: socio-demographic; clinical; degree of information (about the disease and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, and relationship between patient and health team. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to the ICD-10 criteria. The Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ, the CAGE and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS were used as well as a specifically designed questionnaire to collect clinical and demographic data. RESULTS: Behavioral alterations, either of elation or of depression, were the main for requesting a PC ; 95.8% of the cases and 27.7% of the controls had a mental disorder. Organic mental disorders and alcohol-related disorders were the most frequent diagnoses in group I (cases, while anxiety, depressive and alcohol-related disorders were predominant in group II (controls. Control group patients were better informed and more able to establish an appropriate relationship with the health team than case patients. The logistic regression showed CAGE-positive patients having 12.85 times greater risk of being referred to PC, followed by unemployed patients (2.44 times more PC referrals. DISCUSSION: The SRQ and CAGE were quite useful in the screening

  11. E-wave generated intraventricular diastolic vortex to L-wave relation: model-based prediction with in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Erina; Caruthers, Shelton D; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-08-01

    The Doppler echocardiographic E-wave is generated when the left ventricle's suction pump attribute initiates transmitral flow. In some subjects E-waves are accompanied by L-waves, the occurrence of which has been correlated with diastolic dysfunction. The mechanisms for L-wave generation have not been fully elucidated. We propose that the recirculating diastolic intraventricular vortex ring generates L-waves and based on this mechanism, we predict the presence of L-waves in the right ventricle (RV). We imaged intraventricular flow using Doppler echocardiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) in 10 healthy volunteers. L-waves were recorded in all subjects, with highest velocities measured typically 2 cm below the annulus. Fifty-five percent of cardiac cycles (189 of 345) had L-waves. Color M-mode images eliminated mid-diastolic transmitral flow as the cause of the observed L-waves. Three-dimensional intraventricular flow patterns were imaged via PC-MRI and independently validated our hypothesis. Additionally as predicted, L-waves were observed in the RV, by both echocardiography and PC-MRI. The re-entry of the E-wave-generated vortex ring flow through a suitably located echo sample volume can be imaged as the L-wave. These waves are a general feature and a direct consequence of LV and RV diastolic fluid mechanics. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.

  13. Full-wave calculation of fast-wave current drive in tokamaks including kparallel upshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical calculations of fast-wave current drive (FWCD) efficiency have generally been of two types: ray tracing or global wave calculations. Ray tracing shows that the projection of the wave number (k parallel) along the magnetic field can vary greatly over a ray trajectory, particularly when the launch point is above or below the equatorial plane. As the wave penetrates toward the center of the plasma, k parallel increases, causing a decrease in the parallel phase speed and a corresponding decrease in the current drive efficiency, γ. But the assumptions of geometrical optics, namely short wavelength and strong single-pass absorption, are not greatly applicable in FWCD scenarios. Eigenmode structure, which is ignored in ray tracing, can play an important role in determining electric field strength and Landau damping rates. In such cases, a full-wave or global solution for the wave fields is desirable. In full-wave calculations such as ORION k parallel appear as a differential operator (rvec B·∇) in the argument of the plasma dispersion function. Since this leads to a differential system of infinite order, such codes of necessity assume k parallel ∼ k var-phi = const, where k var-phi is the toroidal wave number. Thus, it is not possible to correctly include effects of the poloidal magnetic field on k parallel. The problem can be alleviated by expressing the electric field as a superposition of poloidal modes, in which case k parallel is purely algebraic. This paper describes a new full-wave calculation, Poloidal Ion Cyclotron Expansion Solution, which uses poloidal and toroidal mode expansions to solve the wave equation in general flux coordinates. The calculation includes a full solution for E parallel and uses a reduced-order form of the plasma conductivity tensor to eliminate numerical problems associated with resolution of the very short wavelength ion Bernstein wave

  14. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  15. Highly Efficient Wave-Front Reshaping of Surface Waves with Dielectric Metawalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaohua; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Huijie; Duan, Jingwen; Guan, Fuxin; He, Qiong; Zhao, Haibin; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Shulin

    2018-01-01

    Controlling the wave fronts of surface waves (including surface-plamon polaritons and their equivalent counterparts) at will is highly important in photonics research, but the available mechanisms suffer from the issues of low efficiency, bulky size, and/or limited functionalities. Inspired by recent studies of metasurfaces that can freely control the wave fronts of propagating waves, we propose to use metawalls placed on a plasmonic surface to efficiently reshape the wave fronts of incident surface waves (SWs). Here, the metawall is constructed by specifically designed meta-atoms that can reflect SWs with desired phases and nearly unit amplitudes. As a proof of concept, we design and fabricate a metawall in the microwave regime (around 12 GHz) that can anomalously reflect the SWs following the generalized Snell's law with high efficiency (approximately 70%). Our results, in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations, provide an alternative yet efficient way to control the wave fronts of SWs in different frequency domains. We finally employ full-wave simulations to demonstrate a surface-plasmon-polariton focusing effect at telecom wavelength based on our scheme.

  16. Características gerais dos espermatozóides em homens varicocele clínica General characteristics of the spermatozoa in oligozoospermic men with and without clinical varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Andrade-Rocha

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com oligozoospermia apresentam uma redução na qualidade do sêmen, independente da etiologia do distúrbio. OBJETIVO. Investigar o papel da varicocele na redução da qualidade do sêmen, em homens oligozoospérmicos. MÉTODOS. Foram estudados dez pacientes portadores de varicocele clínica esquerda (PCV e 21 pacientes não-portadores desta entidade (PSV, atendidos em um laboratório privado, em Petrópolis, RJ. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros seminais: contagem de espermatozóides, vitalidade, motilidade e morfologia espermática. PCV e PSV foram comparados entre si e com um grupo-controle (n=15 de pacientes sem varicocele clínica e com espermograma normal. RESULTADOS. PCV e PSV apresentaram uma redução significativa na vitalidade (43,9% e 34,9% versus 73,0% no grupo-controle, nos graus (a (5,3% e 2,4% versus 32,4 % e (d (76,7% e 83,8% versus 44,9% de progressão espermática e nos percentuais de espermatozóides ovais (25,5% e 22,9% versus 61,2%, amorfos (25,4% e 23,8% versus 12,5% e outras anomalias (23,8% e 30,5% versus 13,0%. PCV ainda apresentou diferença significativa no percentual de espermatozóides fusiformes (10,9% versus 1,3% e PSV no grau (b de progressão espermática (11,0% versus 22,0%, em relação ao grupo-controle. Entre PCV e PSV, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas. CONCLUSÃO. A varicocele reduz a qualidade de semens oligozoospérmicos, mas esta redução também ocorre em oligozoospermias de outras etiologias.Patients with oligozoospermia show a reduction in the semen quality, independent of the etiology of the disturbance. PURPOSE - To investigate the role of the varicocele in the decrease of the semen quality in oligozoospermic men. METHODS - Ten patients with left clinical varicocele (termed PCV and 21 patients without this entity (termed PSV attended in a private laboratory from Petrópolis, RJ, were investigated. Sperm count, vitality, motility, and morphology of spermatozoa

  17. Serviço de emergências psiquiátricas em hospital geral universitário: estudo prospectivo Psychiatric emergency service in a school general hospital: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de SB dos Santos

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar estudo transversal de serviço regionalizado de emergências psiquiátricas inserido em hospital universitário de emergências pela caracterização da clientela e do atendimento. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram colhidos por um protocolo, sendo considerados todos os atendimentos realizados durante dois meses. RESULTADOS: Foram preenchidos 600 protocolos que corresponderam a 96,5% dos atendimentos efetuados no período estudado, referentes a 487 pacientes. A maioria desses era do sexo masculino, sem vínculos conjugais, com baixa escolaridade, profissionalmente inativa e morava com familiares. Os diagnósticos mais freqüentes foram transtorno do uso de substância psicoativa (26,3%, esquizofrenias (15,5%, episódio maníaco (11,8%, depressão maior (10,9% e transtornos não psicóticos (10,9%, havendo diferenças entre os sexos quanto à proporção de algumas categorias diagnósticas. Após o atendimento inicial, 2/3 recebeu medicação e 1/2 permaneceu em observação, sendo que 1/4 permaneceu mais de 10h no serviço. Cerca de 20% dos atendimentos resultaram em internação integral e 60%, em encaminhamentos para seguimento ambulatorial. Alta por evasão representou apenas 2,0% dos atendimentos. Os usuários repetitivos não diferiram daqueles que tiveram atendimento único quanto a estado civil, vínculo empregatício e condições de moradia, mas apresentaram maior freqüência de internações anteriores e de transtornos psicóticos. CONCLUSÕES: O serviço atendeu pacientes com quadros psiquiátricos graves, em real situação de urgência, sendo observada uma ampliação das funções do serviço de emergências psiquiátricas e sua efetiva inserção na rede pública de serviços de saúde mental.OBJECTIVES: The aim was to carry out a prospective study about the characteristics of the public seen at a psychiatric emergency room and of its service. METHODS: The data were acquired though a protocol developed for this study and

  18. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  19. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozger, M.; Altunkaynak, A.; Sen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S. (author)

  20. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Abduesselam; Sen, Zekai

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S

  1. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  2. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  3. Utilidade da investigação rotineira de infecção fúngica pela broncoscopia em pacientes infectados ou não pelo HIV em um hospital geral, referência para SIDA Usefulness of routine investigation of fungal infection through bronchoscopy in patients HIV-infected or not in a general hospital, reference to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Lazzarini-de-Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos a freqüência de fungos nos materiais de broncofibroscopia em pacientes infectados ou não pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, quais as espécies de fungos mais encontradas e se a infecção pelo HIV alterava o perfil destes fungos. Foram revistas 1943 broncofibroscopias realizadas em hospital de referência para SIDA, no período de 1990-1995. Deste total, 47% foram realizadas em pacientes HIV positivos e 53% em HIV negativos . Dos 908 HIV positivos, 38 (4% tiveram diagnóstico de micose pulmonar enquanto que dos 1035 HIV negativos, somente 4 (0,2% tiveram tal diagnóstico (p The diagnostic yields and the spectrum of pulmonary fungal infection obtained in samples collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were evaluated from 1990 to 1995. A total of 1943 bronchoscopies were performed during this period, 47% in the HIV-positive group and 53% in the HIV- negative group. Of 908 HIV-positive patients, 38 (4% had a fungus isolated from the pulmonary sample whereas of 1035 HIV-negative patients, only 4 (0.2% had a fungus isolated. Histoplasmosis and Cryptococcosis were more frequently found in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients (p < 0.001. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was found in only 3 patients, all of them immunocompetent. The study demonstrated that, despite the low yields, the HIV-positive group may benefit from routine screening for fungal elements in specimens obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

  4. General anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally safe because of modern equipment, medicines, and safety standards. Most people recover completely and do not have any complications. Alternative Names Surgery - general anesthesia Patient Instructions Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - adult ...

  5. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Parameters: Application of an EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, R. Darrell; Aitkin, Murray

    1981-01-01

    The practicality of using the EM algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of item parameters in the marginal distribution is presented. The EM procedure is shown to apply to general item-response models. (Author/JKS)

  6. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  7. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  8. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  9. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  10. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  11. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  12. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  13. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Wave-particle interactions in E-B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  14. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  15. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  16. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  17. Mask Waves Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    frequenciesfoeahpbeswllsa"gdnsmtrc fo eah/Rbe. /Qthe acuation are de fiamn aprltmethod raetheorta cmiurve fTtn,wihe ies whynee select ful cycle wisdoimporat tob...See Figure 22 for a comparison of measured waves, linear waves, and non- linear Stokes waves. Looking at the selected 16 runs from the trough-to-peak...Figure 23 for the benchmark data set, the relation of obtained frequency verses desired frequency is almost completely linear . The slight variation at

  18. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  19. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  20. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  1. Detecção de hipertensão arterial em adolescentes através de marcadores gerais e adiposidade abdominal Detección de hipertensión arterial en adolescentes por medio de marcadores generales y adiposidad abdominal High blood pressure detection in adolescents by clustering overall and abdominal adiposity markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego G. D Christofaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade está ligada à hipertensão arterial (HA na infância. Entretanto, o papel da gordura como preditor de HA em adolescentes permanece desconhecido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre obesidade geral e abdominal com HA e identificar a sensibilidade e especificidade desses indicadores para detectar HA em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu em 1.021 adolescentes com idade de 10-17 anos. Os indivíduos foram classificados como normal, sobrepeso/obesidade, de acordo com as medidas do IMC, e como não-obeso com obesidade abdominal, de acordo com as medidas da circunferência da cintura (CC. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD foi avaliada através de um dispositivo oscilométrico. Regressão logística e curvas ROC foram usadas na análise estatística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência geral de HA foi 11,8% (13,4% em meninos e 10,2% em meninas. A prevalência de HA em meninos e meninas com sobrepeso/obesidade foi 10% e 11,1%, respectivamente. A prevalência de HA em meninos com obesidade abdominal foi 28,6%. Para ambos os sexos, o odds ratio (OR para HA foi mais alto na obesidade abdominal do que no sobrepeso/obesidade geral (4,09 [OR IC95% = 2,57-6,51] versus 1,83 [OR IC95% = 1,83-4,30]. O OR para HA foi mais alto quando sobrepeso/obesidade geral e obesidade abdominal estavam agrupados (OR = 4,35 [OR IC95% = 2,68 -7,05], do que quando identificados como sobrepeso/obesidade geral ou obesidade abdominal apenas (OR = 1,32 [OR IC95% = 0,65- 2,68]. Entretanto, ambos os tipos de obesidade apresentavam baixo poder preditivo na detecção de HA. CONCLUSÃO: Obesidade geral e obesidade abdominal foram associadas com HA; entretanto, a sensibilidade e especificidade dessas variáveis na detecção de HA são baixas em adolescentes brasileiros.BACKGROUND: Obesity is linked to high blood pressure (HBP in childhood. However, the role of fat as a predictor of HBP in adolescents remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To

  2. Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giudice Gian F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.

  3. Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Gian F.

    2017-12-01

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.

  4. Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-10-03

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.

  5. Probabilistic Design of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferreira, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    and advocate for a probabilistic design approach, as it is assumed (in other areas this has been demonstrated) that this leads to more economical designs compared to designs based on deterministic methods. In the present paper a general framework for probabilistic design and reliability analysis of wave energy......Wave energy has a large potential for contributing significantly to production of renewable energy. However, the wave energy sector is still not able to deliver cost competitive and reliable solutions. But the sector has already demonstrated several proofs of concepts. The design of wave energy...... devices is a new and expanding technical area where there is no tradition for probabilistic design—in fact very little full scale devices has been build to date, so it can be said that no design tradition really exists in this area. For this reason it is considered to be of great importance to develop...

  6. Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F.; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.

  7. Chorus Wave Energy Budget Analysis in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.

    2016-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are important electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously scatter and accelerate electrons of the outer radiation belt, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts. Here, we present an analysis of Van Allen Probes electric and magnetic field VLF waveform data, evaluating the wave energy budget, and show that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to very oblique waves. Such waves, with a generally much smaller (up to 10 times) magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have comparable or even larger total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts and also provide nonlinear effects due to wave-particle interaction through the Landau resonance due to the significant electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field.

  8. Numerical modelling of extreme waves by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of extreme/rogue waves can lead to serious damage of vessels as well as marine and coastal structures. Such extreme waves in deep water are characterized by steep wave fronts and an energetic wave crest. The process of wave breaking is highly complex and, apart from the general knowledge that impact loadings are highly impulsive, the dynamics of the breaking and impact are still poorly understood. Using an advanced numerical method, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics enhanced with parallel computing is able to reproduce well the extreme waves and their breaking process. Once the waves and their breaking process are modelled successfully, the dynamics of the breaking and the characteristics of their impact on offshore structures could be studied. The computational methodology and numerical results are presented in this paper.

  9. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  10. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  11. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  12. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  13. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  14. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  15. The generalized Fubini instanton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurova, A.A.; Yurov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We show that (1+2) nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with negative coupling admits an exact solution which appears to be the linear superposition of the plane wave and the nonsingular rational soliton. We show that the same approach allows to construct the solution of similar properties for the Euclidean φ 4 model with broken symmetry. Interestingly, this regular solution will be of instanton type only in the D≤5 Euclidean space. Thus one can use the generalized Fubini instantons (in quantum cosmology for example) only for the case of the single infinite extra dimension

  16. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m mod...

  17. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    , the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...

  18. Morphodynamics of Disequilibrium Wave Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, K. L.; Koss, A.; Perron, T.; Myrow, P. M.; Southard, J. B.; Wickert, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Sand ripples, one of the most commonly observed patterns in sedimentary environments, record the complex interplay between fluid flow and sediment transport in aeolian and hydrodynamic systems. Because of a well-known relationship between the wavelength of orbital ripples and the amplitude of wave-generated oscillatory flow, wave ripple patterns preserved in sedimentary rock are important paleoenvironmental indicators used to infer ancient wave conditions. Many previous studies have focused on the development of equilibrium ripple fields, in which the ripples have adjusted to a steady-state wavelength under the imposed flow conditions. However, natural ripple fields are often in disequilibrium because ripples typically evolve over time scales of minutes to hours, and wave conditions rarely remain constant over longer intervals. A complete theory of wave ripple morphodynamics therefore requires an understanding of transient dynamics, but the mechanisms by which two-dimensional ripple fields adjust to changed flow conditions are poorly understood. We performed a series of experiments in a field-scale laboratory wave tank to study the disequilibrium dynamics of orbital ripples. In each experiment, we subjected a level sand bed with small perturbations to constant wave forcing to establish an initial ripple field, and then imposed an abrupt change in wave conditions that would produce a different final ripple wavelength. To control for the influence of boundary shear stress on ripple adjustment rates or mechanisms, the final wave conditions were the same in all experiments. A variety of ripple defects emerged in our experiments during both the formation of an initial ripple field and its adjustment to changed wave conditions, though defects were generally more abundant during the adjustment stage. Different types of defects accommodated lengthening and shortening of the ripple wavelength. When the amplitude of the oscillatory flow was lengthened, cup-like depressions

  19. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative Φ 4 -model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation

  20. Regressão da anestesia geral em pacientes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo utilizando o índice bispectral Regresión de la anestesia general en pacientes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo utilizando el índice bispectral Regression of general anesthesia in patients with cerebral palsy: a comparative study using the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2006-10-01

    ésica, versus 41,9% dos pacientes com PC. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes com paralisia cerebral apresentaram retorno mais lento da consciência em comparação com o grupo-controle.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Se ha descrito que los pacientes con parálisis cerebral (PC son más sensibles a los agentes anestésicos, lo que podría comprometer el despertar de la anestesia. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la recuperación de pacientes con PC comparada a los pacientes sin enfermedad del SNC. MÉTODO: Participaron del estudio niños de 5 a 15 años, divididos en dos grupos: con diagnóstico de parálisis cerebral y sin la enfermedad del SNC. Todos se sometieron a anestesia general con sevoflurano asociado a óxido nitroso y oxígeno a 50%. Además de la monitorización habitualmente empleada fueron monitorizados con el EEG-BIS. Durante el despertar de la anestesia, la extubación traqueal y el posanestésico inmediato, se avaluó la regresión de la anestesia según los criterios adoptados por Saraiva. También se evaluó la velocidad de eliminación de los agentes anestésicos correlacionándola con los valores de EEG-BIS y comparándola con los dos grupos de pacientes. El análisis estadístico se realizó a través del análisis de exploración de datos y prueba estadística para la comparación de promedios, considerando como diferencia estadística significativa el valor de p menor o igual a 5%. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 56 pacientes siendo 31 con PC y 25 sin enfermedad del SNC. Los grupos fueron homogéneos con relación a la edad y el sexo. El valor del EEG-BIS basal de los pacientes con PC fue menor que el grupo control, con diferencia estadística significativa (p = 0,04. En los cinco primeros minutos después de la interrupción del sevoflurano, el valor del EEG-BIS de los pacientes con PC presentó una elevación más lenta con relación al control. La velocidad de eliminación del agente anestésico fue semejante en los dos grupos. A los quince minutos 48% de los