WorldWideScience

Sample records for generalized conformational energy

  1. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  2. Conformally Coupled General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Arbuzov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The gravity model developed in the series of papers (Arbuzov et al. 2009; 2010, (Pervushin et al. 2012 is revisited. The model is based on the Ogievetsky theorem, which specifies the structure of the general coordinate transformation group. The theorem is implemented in the context of the Noether theorem with the use of the nonlinear representation technique. The canonical quantization is performed with the use of reparametrization-invariant time and Arnowitt– Deser–Misner foliation techniques. Basic quantum features of the models are discussed. Mistakes appearing in the previous papers are corrected.

  3. Conformal covariance of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Gottlieb, I.

    1980-01-01

    The Einstein's equations of General Relativity are written in a conformal metric, resulting as a consequence of geometrizing the pressure forces. Accordingly, the trajectory of a test body pursues a geodetic line even inside the source of gravitational field. Moreover, the pressure, entering the perfect fluid scheme, may be replaced by a certain scalar interaction. This new manner of interpreting General Relativity is then applied to Cosmology, in order to build up a model of Universe whose static limit should coincide with that of Einstein. At the same time, the cosmological constant is connected to the scalar interaction acquiring a plausible explanation. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...

  6. Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Nesbet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.

  7. Conformal methods in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Valiente Kroon, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a systematic exposition of conformal methods and how they can be used to study the global properties of solutions to the equations of Einstein's theory of gravity. It shows that combining these ideas with differential geometry can elucidate the existence and stability of the basic solutions of the theory. Introducing the differential geometric, spinorial and PDE background required to gain a deep understanding of conformal methods, this text provides an accessible account of key results in mathematical relativity over the last thirty years, including the stability of de Sitter and Minkowski spacetimes. For graduate students and researchers, this self-contained account includes useful visual models to help the reader grasp abstract concepts and a list of further reading, making this the perfect reference companion on the topic.

  8. Simultaneous escaping of explicit and hidden free energy barriers: application of the orthogonal space random walk strategy in generalized ensemble based conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Chen, Mengen; Yang, Wei

    2009-06-21

    To overcome the pseudoergodicity problem, conformational sampling can be accelerated via generalized ensemble methods, e.g., through the realization of random walks along prechosen collective variables, such as spatial order parameters, energy scaling parameters, or even system temperatures or pressures, etc. As usually observed, in generalized ensemble simulations, hidden barriers are likely to exist in the space perpendicular to the collective variable direction and these residual free energy barriers could greatly abolish the sampling efficiency. This sampling issue is particularly severe when the collective variable is defined in a low-dimension subset of the target system; then the "Hamiltonian lagging" problem, which reveals the fact that necessary structural relaxation falls behind the move of the collective variable, may be likely to occur. To overcome this problem in equilibrium conformational sampling, we adopted the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) strategy, which was originally developed in the context of free energy simulation [L. Zheng, M. Chen, and W. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 20227 (2008)]. Thereby, generalized ensemble simulations can simultaneously escape both the explicit barriers along the collective variable direction and the hidden barriers that are strongly coupled with the collective variable move. As demonstrated in our model studies, the present OSRW based generalized ensemble treatments show improved sampling capability over the corresponding classical generalized ensemble treatments.

  9. Conformal field theories near a boundary in general dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAvity, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The implications of restricted conformal invariance under conformal transformations preserving a plane boundary are discussed for general dimensions d. Calculations of the universal function of a conformal invariant ξ which appears in the two-point function of scalar operators in conformally invariant theories with a plane boundary are undertaken to first order in the ε=4-d expansion for the operator φ 2 in φ 4 theory. The form for the associated functions of ξ for the two-point functions for the basic field φ α and the auxiliary field λ in the N→∞ limit of the O(N) non-linear sigma model for any d in the range 2 α φ β and λλ. Using this method the form of the two-point function for the energy-momentum tensor in the conformal O(N) model with a plane boundary is also found. General results for the sum of the contributions of all derivative operators appearing in the operator product expansion, and also in a corresponding boundary operator expansion, to the two-point functions are also derived making essential use of conformal invariance. (orig.)

  10. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  11. Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Ferrandez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. → Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. → The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.

  12. On gravitational energy in conformal teleparallel gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. G.; Ulhoa, S. C.

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the definition of gravitational energy in conformal teleparallel gravity. The total energy is defined by means of the field equations which allow a local conservation law. Then such an expression is analyzed for a homogeneous and isotropic Universe. This model is implemented by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) line element. The energy of the Universe in the absence of matter is identified with the dark energy, however it can be expanded for curved models defining such an energy as the difference between the total energy and the energy of the perfect fluid which is the matter field in the FRW model.

  13. General Information for Transportation and Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation conformity is required by the Clean Air Act section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federal funding and approval are given to highway and transit projects that are consistent with SIP.

  14. Energy of knots and conformal geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Energy of knots is a theory that was introduced to create a "canonical configuration" of a knot - a beautiful knot which represents its knot type. This book introduces several kinds of energies, and studies the problem of whether or not there is a "canonical configuration" of a knot in each knot type. It also considers this problems in the context of conformal geometry. The energies presented in the book are defined geometrically. They measure the complexity of embeddings and have applications to physical knotting and unknotting through numerical experiments. Contents: In Search of the "Optima

  15. DSR Theories, Conformal Group and Generalized Commutation Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the relationship of DSR theories and Conformal Group is reviewed. On the other hand, the relation between DSR Magueijo Smolin generators and generalized commutation relations is also shown

  16. Exploring the conformational energy landscape of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienhaus, G.U. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)]|[Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Mueller, J.D.; McMahon, B.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Proteins possess a complex energy landscape with a large number of local minima called conformational substates that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Here we discuss experiments aimed at the elucidation of the energy landscape in carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO). In the highest tier of the hierarchy, a few taxonomic substates exist. Because of their small number, these substates are accessible to detailed structural investigations. Spectroscopic experiments are discussed that elucidate the role of protonations of amino acid side chains in creating the substates. The lower tiers of the hierarchy contain a large number of statistical substates. Substate interconversions are observed in the entire temperature range from below 1 K up to the denaturation temperature, indicating a wide spectrum of energy barriers that separate the substates.

  17. 77 FR 59100 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: General and Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: General and Transportation Conformity & New Source Review... (SMC) Rule. The SIP revision also changes the State's general and transportation conformity regulations... federal general and transportation conformity regulations into the SIP. Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP...

  18. 75 FR 17253 - Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93 Revisions to the General... under the minor source New Source Review (NSR) programs similar to the EPA's existing General Conformity... EPA is making two minor revisions to the definition. First, EPA is correcting the citation for the SIP...

  19. Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an $\\ell-$loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an $(\\ell-1)-$loop integral. We show several examples, in particular the four-dimensional scalar double box.

  20. Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.

  1. Hidden and generalized conformal symmetry of Kerr–Sen spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezelbash, A M; Siahaan, H M

    2013-01-01

    It is recently conjectured that generic non-extremal Kerr black hole could be holographically dual to a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) in two dimensions. Moreover, it is known that there are two CFT duals (pictures) to describe the charged rotating black holes which correspond to angular momentum J and electric charge Q of the black hole. Furthermore these two pictures can be incorporated by the CFT duals (general picture) that are generated by SL(2,Z) modular group. The general conformal structure can be revealed by looking at charged scalar wave equation in some appropriate values of frequency and charge. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a charged massless scalar field in the background of Kerr–Sen black hole and show that in the ‘near region’, the wave equation can be reproduced by the Casimir operator of a local SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry. We find the exact agreement between macroscopic and microscopic physical quantities like entropy and absorption cross section of scalars for Kerr–Sen black hole. We then find an extension of vector fields that in turn yields an extended local family of SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry, parameterized by one parameter. For some special values of the parameter, we find a copy of SL(2,R) hidden conformal algebra for the charged Gibbons–Maeda–Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole in the strong deflection limit. (paper)

  2. Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Sokatchev, Emery

    2018-04-01

    We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an ℓ-loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an (ℓ - 1)-loop integral. It could serve as a new useful tool to find/test analytic expressions for conformal integrals. We illustrate this point with several examples of known integrals. We propose a new differential equation for the four-dimensional scalar double box.

  3. Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.

    1994-01-01

    Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of β-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The β-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of couplings of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. (orig.)

  4. Confab - Systematic generation of diverse low-energy conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Boyle Noel M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many computational chemistry analyses require the generation of conformers, either on-the-fly, or in advance. We present Confab, an open source command-line application for the systematic generation of low-energy conformers according to a diversity criterion. Results Confab generates conformations using the 'torsion driving approach' which involves iterating systematically through a set of allowed torsion angles for each rotatable bond. Energy is assessed using the MMFF94 forcefield. Diversity is measured using the heavy-atom root-mean-square deviation (RMSD relative to conformers already stored. We investigated the recovery of crystal structures for a dataset of 1000 ligands from the Protein Data Bank with fewer than 1 million conformations. Confab can recover 97% of the molecules to within 1.5 Å at a diversity level of 1.5 Å and an energy cutoff of 50 kcal/mol. Conclusions Confab is available from http://confab.googlecode.com.

  5. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  6. Conformal changes of metrics and the initial-value problem of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conformal techniques are reviewed with respect to applications to the initial-value problem of general relativity. Invariant transverse traceless decompositions of tensors, one of its main tools, are related to representations of the group of 'conformeomorphisms' acting on the space of all Riemannian metrics on M. Conformal vector fields, a kernel in the decomposition, are analyzed on compact manifolds with constant scalar curvature. The realization of arbitrary functions as scalar curvature of conformally equivalent metrics, a generalization of Yamabe's (Osaka Math. J.; 12:12 (1960)) conjecture, is applied to the Hamiltonian constraint and to the issue of positive energy of gravitational fields. Various approaches to the solution of the initial-value equations produced by altering the scaling behaviour of the second fundamental form are compared. (author)

  7. Topics in conformal invariance and generalized sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, L.M.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1997-05-01

    This thesis consists of two different parts, having in common the fact that in both, conformal invariance plays a central role. In the first part, the author derives conditions for conformal invariance, in the large N limit, and for the existence of an infinite number of commuting classical conserved quantities, in the Generalized Thirring Model. The treatment uses the bosonized version of the model. Two different approaches are used to derive conditions for conformal invariance: the background field method and the Hamiltonian method based on an operator algebra, and the agreement between them is established. The author constructs two infinite sets of non-local conserved charges, by specifying either periodic or open boundary conditions, and he finds the Poisson Bracket algebra satisfied by them. A free field representation of the algebra satisfied by the relevant dynamical variables of the model is also presented, and the structure of the stress tensor in terms of free fields (and free currents) is studied in detail. In the second part, the author proposes a new approach for deriving the string field equations from a general sigma model on the world sheet. This approach leads to an equation which combines some of the attractive features of both the renormalization group method and the covariant beta function treatment of the massless excitations. It has the advantage of being covariant under a very general set of both local and non-local transformations in the field space. The author applies it to the tachyon, massless and first massive level, and shows that the resulting field equations reproduce the correct spectrum of a left-right symmetric closed bosonic string

  8. 76 FR 77150 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity Requirements for Federal... incorporate revisions to Federal general conformity requirements promulgated in July of 2006 and in April of 2010. EPA is approving this Virginia SIP revision to update its state general conformity requirements...

  9. Wormholes admitting conformal Killing vectors and supported by generalized Chaplygin gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    When Morris and Thorne first proposed that traversable wormholes may be actual physical objects, they concentrated on the geometry by specifying the shape and redshift functions. This mathematical approach necessarily raises questions regarding the determination of the required stress-energy tensor. This paper discusses a natural way to obtain a complete wormhole solution by assuming that the wormhole (1) is supported by generalized Chaplygin gas and (2) admits conformal Killing vectors. (orig.)

  10. 76 FR 77182 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity Requirements for Federal... purpose of incorporating Federal general conformity requirements revisions promulgated in July of 2006 and... conformity SIP revision and if that provision may be severed from the remainder of the rule, EPA may adopt as...

  11. Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on λ -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530

  12. Conformal collineations and anisotropic fluids in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, K.L.; Sharma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, Herrera et al. [L. Herrera, J. Jimenez, L. Leal, J. Ponce de Leon, M. Esculpi, and V. Galino, J. Math. Phys. 25, 3274 (1984)] studied the consequences of the existence of a one-parameter group of conformal motions for anisotropic matter. They concluded that for special conformal motions, the stiff equation of state (p = μ) is singled out in a unique way, provided the generating conformal vector field is orthogonal to the four-velocity. In this paper, the same problem is studied by using conformal collineations (which include conformal motions as subgroups). It is shown that, for a special conformal collineation, the stiff equation of state is not singled out. Non-Einstein Ricci-recurrent spaces are considered as physical models for the fluid matter

  13. 40 CFR 1033.201 - General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 1033.201 Section 1033.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....201 General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity. Certification is the process by... certificate of conformity for freshly manufactured locomotives. Anyone meeting the definition of...

  14. Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prain, Angus; Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive a formula describing the transformation of the Hawking–Hayward quasi-local energy under a conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric. A known formula for the transformation of the Misner–Sharp–Hernandez mass is recovered as a special case. (paper)

  15. Accurate calculation of conformational free energy differences in explicit water: the confinement-solvation free energy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco

    2015-04-23

    The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.

  16. Evaluating conformational free energies: the colony energy and its application to the problem of loop prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhexin; Soto, Cinque S; Honig, Barry

    2002-05-28

    In this paper, we introduce a method to account for the shape of the potential energy curve in the evaluation of conformational free energies. The method is based on a procedure that generates a set of conformations, each with its own force-field energy, but adds a term to this energy that favors conformations that are close in structure (have a low rmsd) to other conformations. The sum of the force-field energy and rmsd-dependent term is defined here as the "colony energy" of a given conformation, because each conformation that is generated is viewed as representing a colony of points. The use of the colony energy tends to select conformations that are located in broad energy basins. The approach is applied to the ab initio prediction of the conformations of all of the loops in a dataset of 135 nonredundant proteins. By using an rmsd from a native criterion based on the superposition of loop stems, the average rmsd of 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-residue long loops is 0.85, 0.92, 1.23, and 1.45 A, respectively. For 8-residue loops, 60 of 61 predictions have an rmsd of less than 3.0 A. The use of the colony energy is found to improve significantly the results obtained from the potential function alone. (The loop prediction program, "Loopy," can be downloaded at http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu.)

  17. Efficient free energy calculations for compounds with multiple stable conformations separated by high energy barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hritz, J.; Oostenbrink, C.

    2009-01-01

    Compounds with high intramolecular energy barriers represent challenging targets for free energy calculations because of the difficulty to obtain sufficient conformational sampling. Existing approaches are therefore computationally very demanding, thus preventing practical applications for such

  18. Wormhole supported by dark energy admitting conformal motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Singur, Department of Mathematics, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Farook; Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Commerce Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this article, we study the possibility of sustaining static and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole geometries admitting conformal motion in Einstein gravity, which presents a more systematic approach to search a relation between matter and geometry. In wormhole physics, the presence of exotic matter is a fundamental ingredient and we show that this exotic source can be dark energy type which support the existence of wormhole spacetimes. In this work we model a wormhole supported by dark energy which admits conformal motion. We also discuss the possibility of the detection of wormholes in the outer regions of galactic halos by means of gravitational lensing. Studies of the total gravitational energy for the exotic matter inside a static wormhole configuration are also performed. (orig.)

  19. Conformal Invariance, Dark Energy, and CMB Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mottola, Emil

    2012-01-01

    We show that in addition to simple scale invariance, a universe dominated by dark energy naturally gives rise to correlation functions possessing full conformal invariance. This is due to the mathematical isomorphism between the conformal group of certain three dimensional slices of de Sitter space and the de Sitter isometry group SO(4,1). In the standard homogeneous, isotropic cosmological model in which primordial density perturbations are generated during a long vacuum energy dominated de Sitter phase, the embedding of flat spatial R^3 sections in de Sitter space induces a conformal invariant perturbation spectrum and definite prediction for the shape of the non-Gaussian CMB bispectrum. In the case in which the density fluctuations are generated instead on the de Sitter horizon, conformal invariance of the S^2 horizon embedding implies a different but also quite definite prediction for the angular correlations of CMB non-Gaussianity on the sky. Each of these forms for the bispectrum is intrinsic to the sym...

  20. Conformation of antifreeze glycoproteins as determined from conformational energy calculations and fully assigned proton NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.A.; Rao, B.N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The 1 H NMR spectra of AFGP's ranging in molecular weight from 2600 to 30,000 Daltons isolated from several different species of polar fish have been measured. The spectrum of AFGP 1-4 from Pagothenia borchgrevinki with an average of 30 repeating subunits has a single resonance for each proton of the glycotripeptide repeating unit, (ala-[gal-(β-1→3) galNAc-(α--O-]thr-ala)/sub n/. Its 1 H NMR spectrum including resonances of the amide protons has been completely assigned. Coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser enhancements (n.O.e.) between protons on distant residues imply conformational order. The 2600 dalton molecular weight glycopeptides (AFGP-8) have pro in place of ala at certain specific points in the sequence and AFGP-8R of Eleginus gracilis has arg in place of one thr. The resonances of pro and arg were assigned by decoupling. The resonances of the carboxy and amino terminals have distinct chemical shifts and were assigned in AFGP-8 of Boreogadus saida by titration. n.O.e. between α--protons and amide protons of the adjacent residue (sequential n.O.e.) were used in assignments of additional resonances and to assign the distinctive resonances of thr followed by pro. Conformational energy calculations on the repeating glycotripeptide subunit of AFGP show that the α--glucosidic linkage has a fixed conformation while the β--linkage is less rigid. A conformational model for AFGP 1-4, which is based on the calculations has the peptide in an extended left-handed helix with three residues per turn similar to polyproline II. The model is consistent with CD data, amide proton coupling constants, temperature dependence of amide proton chemical shifts

  1. Particles and energy fluxes from a conformal field theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Olmo, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the creation of particles in two dimensions under the action of conformal transformations. We focus our attention on Mobius transformations and compare the usual approach, based on the Bogoliubov coefficients, with an alternative but equivalent viewpoint based on correlation functions. In the latter approach the absence of particle production under full Mobius transformations is manifest. Moreover, we give examples, using the moving-mirror analogy, to illustrate the close relation between the production of quanta and energy

  2. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  3. Nonlinear conformally invariant generalization of the Poisson equation to D>2 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1997-01-01

    I propound a nonlinear generalization of the scalar-field Poisson equation [(var-phi , i var-phi ,i ) D/2-1 var-phi ; k ] ;k ∝ρ, in curved D-dimensional space. It is derivable from the Lagrangian density L D =L f D -Aρ var-phi, with L f D ∝-(var-phi , i var-phi ,i ) D/2 , and ρ the distribution of sources. Specializing to Euclidean spaces, where the field equation is ∇·(|∇ var-phi | D-2 ∇ var-phi)∝ρ, I find that L f D is the only conformally invariant (CI) Lagrangian in D dimensions, containing only first derivatives of var-phi, beside the free Lagrangian (∇ var-phi) 2 , which underlies the Laplace equation. When var-phi is coupled to the sources in the above manner, L D is left as the only CI Lagrangian. The symmetry is one's only recourse in solving this nonlinear theory for some nontrivial configurations. Systems comprising N point charges are special and afford further application of the symmetry. In spite of the CI, the energy function for such a system is not invariant under conformal transformations of the charges' positions. The anomalous transformation properties of the energy stem from effects of the self-energies of the charges. It follows from these that the forces F i on the charges q i at positions r i must satisfy certain constraints beside the vanishing of the net force and net moment: e.g., summation i r i ·F i must equal some given function of the charges. The constraints total (D+1)(D+2)/2, which tallies with the dimension of the conformal group in D dimensions. Among other things I use all these to derive exact expressions for the following quantities: (1) The general two-point-charge force. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  5. Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out

  6. Chiral W-gravities for general extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The gauging of any chiral extended conformal symmetry of any two-dimensional field theory is achieved by coupling to the appropriate chiral W-gravity. Only a linear coupling to the W-gravity gauge fields is needed. The gauging of algebras with central charges requires the introduction of spin-zero gauge fields corresponding to the central charges. The example of Liouville theory is discussed in detail and a new way of coupling it to gravity is obtained. (orig.)

  7. Poly (3, 4-ethylendioxithiophene) (PEDOT) oxidation: activation energy and conformational energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, T F; Romero, M C

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of films of the conducting polymer PEDOT-C1O4 after electrochemical reduction by polarization at increasing cathodic potential was studied by potential steps. The response i/t presents a maximum at intermediate oxidation times. At the maximum the reaction occurs under chemical kinetic control following the expected current variations from the Chemical and Electrochemical Kinetics, when reactant concentrations or temperatures are changed. The obtained activation energy of the oxidation present two ranges as a function of the cathodic potential of prepolarization: constant values after prepolarization at low cathodic potentials and a lineal variation after prepolarization at increasing high cathodic potentials. According with the conformational relaxation model during electrochemical reduction the polymer shrinks, closes and packs the conformational structure. The activation energy for the subsequent oxidation includes two terms: the constant chemical activation energy and the conformational energy required to relax the packed polymeric structure. The conformational energy only appears after prepolarization at more cathodic potentials than the closing potential where more packed conformations were obtained. The conformational activation energy accounts the energetic requirements to relax and unfold the polymeric chains generating the required free volume to lodge balancing counterions; meanwhile the chemical activation energy accounts the energetic requirements for the electrochemical reaction to occur.

  8. Assignment of Side-Chain Conformation Using Adiabatic Energy Mapping, Free Energy Perturbation, and Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimurer, Thomas M.; Günther, Peter H.; Sørensen, Morten Dahl

    1999-01-01

    adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)......adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)...

  9. General Conformity Training Module 2.5: Proactive Role for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module 2.5 explains how taking a proactive role will allow a federal agency to more effectively participate in newly promulgated programs under the General Conformity Regulations, such as the emission reduction credits and the emission budgets programs.

  10. Study on fusion energy conformity with global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    Global environmental conformity has been one of the most important issues discussed recently as being required for all human activities. From this point of view, this report investigates whether nuclear fusion can be a benign energy source for the global environment. First of all, we chose the following global environmental problems: (1) Global warming, (2) Acid rain, (3) Ozonosphere destruction, (4) Air pollution, (5) Environmental hormones, (6) Radiation and radioactive materials, (7) Electromagnetic waves, and (8) Heat drainage from an energy source. Secondly, these problems were fully surveyed in terms of their relationships with proposed nuclear fusion power plant. Finally, as a result of this discussion, it was confirmed that a fusion power plant would not produce any new problems, but would partially contribute to solving some of the environmental problems. (author)

  11. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity... revised draft Final General Conformity Determination (GCD) for Pennsylvania to assess the potential air... the above-referenced dockets. In accordance with the General Conformity Regulations under the Code of...

  12. Binary cluster collision dynamics and minimum energy conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Francisco [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Rogan, José; Valdivia, J.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Varas, A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group, ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Av. Tolosa 72, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: m.kiwi.t@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    The collision dynamics of one Ag or Cu atom impinging on a Au{sub 12} cluster is investigated by means of DFT molecular dynamics. Our results show that the experimentally confirmed 2D to 3D transition of Au{sub 12}→Au{sub 13} is mostly preserved by the resulting planar Au{sub 12}Ag and Au{sub 12}Cu minimum energy clusters, which is quite remarkable in view of the excess energy, well larger than the 2D–3D potential barrier height. The process is accompanied by a large s−d hybridization and charge transfer from Au to Ag or Cu. The dynamics of the collision process mainly yields fusion of projectile and target, however scattering and cluster fragmentation also occur for large energies and large impact parameters. While Ag projectiles favor fragmentation, Cu favors scattering due to its smaller mass. The projectile size does not play a major role in favoring the fragmentation or scattering channels. By comparing our collision results with those obtained by an unbiased minimum energy search of 4483 Au{sub 12}Ag and 4483 Au{sub 12}Cu configurations obtained phenomenologically, we find that there is an extra bonus: without increase of computer time collisions yield the planar lower energy structures that are not feasible to obtain using semi-classical potentials. In fact, we conclude that phenomenological potentials do not even provide adequate seeds for the search of global energy minima for planar structures. Since the fabrication of nanoclusters is mainly achieved by synthesis or laser ablation, the set of local minima configurations we provide here, and their distribution as a function of energy, are more relevant than the global minimum to analyze experimental results obtained at finite temperatures, and is consistent with the dynamical coexistence of 2D and 3D liquid Au clusters conformations obtained previously.

  13. Enhanced conformational sampling to visualize a free-energy landscape of protein complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shinji; Nakamura, Haruki; Higo, Junichi

    2016-06-15

    We introduce various, recently developed, generalized ensemble methods, which are useful to sample various molecular configurations emerging in the process of protein-protein or protein-ligand binding. The methods introduced here are those that have been or will be applied to biomolecular binding, where the biomolecules are treated as flexible molecules expressed by an all-atom model in an explicit solvent. Sampling produces an ensemble of conformations (snapshots) that are thermodynamically probable at room temperature. Then, projection of those conformations to an abstract low-dimensional space generates a free-energy landscape. As an example, we show a landscape of homo-dimer formation of an endothelin-1-like molecule computed using a generalized ensemble method. The lowest free-energy cluster at room temperature coincided precisely with the experimentally determined complex structure. Two minor clusters were also found in the landscape, which were largely different from the native complex form. Although those clusters were isolated at room temperature, with rising temperature a pathway emerged linking the lowest and second-lowest free-energy clusters, and a further temperature increment connected all the clusters. This exemplifies that the generalized ensemble method is a powerful tool for computing the free-energy landscape, by which one can discuss the thermodynamic stability of clusters and the temperature dependence of the cluster networks. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Incorporation of protein flexibility and conformational energy penalties in docking screens to improve ligand discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marcus; Coleman, Ryan G.; Fraser, James S.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2014-07-01

    Proteins fluctuate between alternative conformations, which presents a challenge for ligand discovery because such flexibility is difficult to treat computationally owing to problems with conformational sampling and energy weighting. Here we describe a flexible docking method that samples and weights protein conformations using experimentally derived conformations as a guide. The crystallographically refined occupancies of these conformations, which are observable in an apo receptor structure, define energy penalties for docking. In a large prospective library screen, we identified new ligands that target specific receptor conformations of a cavity in cytochrome c peroxidase, and we confirm both ligand pose and associated receptor conformation predictions by crystallography. The inclusion of receptor flexibility led to ligands with new chemotypes and physical properties. By exploiting experimental measures of loop and side-chain flexibility, this method can be extended to the discovery of new ligands for hundreds of targets in the Protein Data Bank for which similar experimental information is available.

  15. General f(R and conformal inflation from minimal supergravity plus matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We embed general f(R inflationary models in minimal supergravity plus matter, a single chiral superfield Φ, with or without another superfield S, via a Jordan frame Einstein+scalar description. In particular, inflationary models like a generalized Starobinsky one are analyzed and constraints on them are found. We also embed the related models of conformal inflation, also described as Jordan frame Einstein+scalar models, in particular the conformal inflation from the Higgs model, and analyze the inflationary constraints on them.

  16. Theoretical study of γ-aminobutyric acid conformers: Intramolecular interactions and ionization energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Dong; Wang, Mei-Ting; Meng, Ju

    2014-10-01

    Allowing for all combinations of internal single-bond rotamers, 1,296 unique trial structures of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) are obtained. All of these structures are optimized at the M06-2X level of theory and a total of 68 local minimal conformers are found. The nine low-lying conformers are used for further studies. According to the calculated relative Gibbs free energies at M06-2X level of theory, we find that the dispersion is important for the relative energy of GABA. The intramolecular hydrogen bonds and hyperconjugative interaction and their effects on the conformational stability are studied. The results show that both of them have great influence on the conformers. The vertical ionization energies (VIE) are calculated and match the experimental data well. The results show that the neutral GABA in the gas phase is a multi-conformer system and at least four conformations exist.

  17. Mapping the conformational free energy of aspartic acid in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comitani, Federico; Rossi, Kevin; Ceriotti, Michele; Sanz, M Eugenia; Molteni, Carla

    2017-04-14

    The conformational free energy landscape of aspartic acid, a proteogenic amino acid involved in a wide variety of biological functions, was investigated as an example of the complexity that multiple rotatable bonds produce even in relatively simple molecules. To efficiently explore such a landscape, this molecule was studied in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, in the gas phase and in water solution, by means of molecular dynamics and the enhanced sampling method metadynamics with classical force-fields. Multi-dimensional free energy landscapes were reduced to bi-dimensional maps through the non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm sketch-map to identify the energetically stable conformers and their interconnection paths. Quantum chemical calculations were then performed on the minimum free energy structures. Our procedure returned the low energy conformations observed experimentally in the gas phase with rotational spectroscopy [M. E. Sanz et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 3573 (2010)]. Moreover, it provided information on higher energy conformers not accessible to experiments and on the conformers in water. The comparison between different force-fields and quantum chemical data highlighted the importance of the underlying potential energy surface to accurately capture energy rankings. The combination of force-field based metadynamics, sketch-map analysis, and quantum chemical calculations was able to produce an exhaustive conformational exploration in a range of significant free energies that complements the experimental data. Similar protocols can be applied to larger peptides with complex conformational landscapes and would greatly benefit from the next generation of accurate force-fields.

  18. Mapping the conformational free energy of aspartic acid in the gas phase and in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comitani, Federico; Rossi, Kevin; Ceriotti, Michele; Sanz, M. Eugenia; Molteni, Carla

    2017-04-01

    The conformational free energy landscape of aspartic acid, a proteogenic amino acid involved in a wide variety of biological functions, was investigated as an example of the complexity that multiple rotatable bonds produce even in relatively simple molecules. To efficiently explore such a landscape, this molecule was studied in the neutral and zwitterionic forms, in the gas phase and in water solution, by means of molecular dynamics and the enhanced sampling method metadynamics with classical force-fields. Multi-dimensional free energy landscapes were reduced to bi-dimensional maps through the non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm sketch-map to identify the energetically stable conformers and their interconnection paths. Quantum chemical calculations were then performed on the minimum free energy structures. Our procedure returned the low energy conformations observed experimentally in the gas phase with rotational spectroscopy [M. E. Sanz et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 3573 (2010)]. Moreover, it provided information on higher energy conformers not accessible to experiments and on the conformers in water. The comparison between different force-fields and quantum chemical data highlighted the importance of the underlying potential energy surface to accurately capture energy rankings. The combination of force-field based metadynamics, sketch-map analysis, and quantum chemical calculations was able to produce an exhaustive conformational exploration in a range of significant free energies that complements the experimental data. Similar protocols can be applied to larger peptides with complex conformational landscapes and would greatly benefit from the next generation of accurate force-fields.

  19. arXiv Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry

    2018-04-16

    We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an ℓ−loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an (ℓ − 1)−loop integral. It could serve as a new useful tool to find/test analytic expressions for conformal integrals. We illustrate this point with several examples of known integrals. We propose a new differential equation for the four-dimensional sca...

  20. CONFORMATIONAL SEARCH BY POTENTIAL-ENERGY ANNEALING - ALGORITHM AND APPLICATION TO CYCLOSPORINE-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHAIK, RC; VANGUNSTEREN, WF; BERENDSEN, HJC

    A major problem in modelling (biological) macromolecules is the search for low-energy conformations. The complexity of a conformational search problem increases exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom which means that a systematic search can only be performed for very small structures.

  1. Elucidation of the conformational free energy landscape in H.pylori LuxS and its implications to catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Moitrayee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major challenges in understanding enzyme catalysis is to identify the different conformations and their populations at detailed molecular level in response to ligand binding/environment. A detail description of the ligand induced conformational changes provides meaningful insights into the mechanism of action of enzymes and thus its function. Results In this study, we have explored the ligand induced conformational changes in H.pylori LuxS and the associated mechanistic features. LuxS, a dimeric protein, produces the precursor (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione for autoinducer-2 production which is a signalling molecule for bacterial quorum sensing. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations on H.pylori LuxS in its various ligand bound forms and analyzed the simulation trajectories using various techniques including the structure network analysis, free energy evaluation and water dynamics at the active site. The results bring out the mechanistic details such as co-operativity and asymmetry between the two subunits, subtle changes in the conformation as a response to the binding of active and inactive forms of ligands and the population distribution of different conformations in equilibrium. These investigations have enabled us to probe the free energy landscape and identify the corresponding conformations in terms of network parameters. In addition, we have also elucidated the variations in the dynamics of water co-ordination to the Zn2+ ion in LuxS and its relation to the rigidity at the active sites. Conclusions In this article, we provide details of a novel method for the identification of conformational changes in the different ligand bound states of the protein, evaluation of ligand-induced free energy changes and the biological relevance of our results in the context of LuxS structure-function. The methodology outlined here is highly generalized to illuminate the linkage between structure and function in

  2. Noether symmetries, energy-momentum tensors, and conformal invariance in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of classical field theory, we first review the Noether theory of symmetries, with simple rederivations of its essential results, with special emphasis given to the Noether identities for gauge theories. With this baggage on board, we next discuss in detail, for Poincare invariant theories in flat spacetime, the differences between the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and a family of Hilbert energy-momentum tensors. All these tensors coincide on shell but they split their duties in the following sense: Belinfante's tensor is the one to use in order to obtain the generators of Poincare symmetries and it is a basic ingredient of the generators of other eventual spacetime symmetries which may happen to exist. Instead, Hilbert tensors are the means to test whether a theory contains other spacetime symmetries beyond Poincare. We discuss at length the case of scale and conformal symmetry, of which we give some examples. We show, for Poincare invariant Lagrangians, that the realization of scale invariance selects a unique Hilbert tensor which allows for an easy test as to whether conformal invariance is also realized. Finally we make some basic remarks on metric generally covariant theories and classical field theory in a fixed curved background.

  3. Conformal generally covariant quantum field theory. The scalar field and its Wick products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinamonti, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-06-15

    In this paper we generalize the construction of generally covariant quantum theories given in [R. Brunetti, K. Fredenhagen, R. Verch, Commun. Math. Phys. 237, 31 (2003)] to encompass the conformal covariant case. After introducing the abstract framework, we discuss the massless conformally coupled Klein Gordon field theory, showing that its quantization corresponds to a functor between two certain categories. At the abstract level, the ordinary fields, could be thought as natural transformations in the sense of category theory. We show that, the Wick monomials without derivatives (Wick powers), can be interpreted as fields in this generalized sense, provided a non trivial choice of the renormalization constants is given. A careful analysis shows that the transformation law of Wick powers is characterized by a weight, and it turns out that the sum of fields with different weights breaks the conformal covariance. At this point there is a difference between the previously given picture due to the presence of a bigger group of covariance. It is furthermore shown that the construction does not depend upon the scale {mu} appearing in the Hadamard parametrix, used to regularize the fields. Finally, we briefly discuss some further examples of more involved fields. (orig.)

  4. Conformal generally covariant quantum field theory. The scalar field and its Wick products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinamonti, N.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we generalize the construction of generally covariant quantum theories given in [R. Brunetti, K. Fredenhagen, R. Verch, Commun. Math. Phys. 237, 31 (2003)] to encompass the conformal covariant case. After introducing the abstract framework, we discuss the massless conformally coupled Klein Gordon field theory, showing that its quantization corresponds to a functor between two certain categories. At the abstract level, the ordinary fields, could be thought as natural transformations in the sense of category theory. We show that, the Wick monomials without derivatives (Wick powers), can be interpreted as fields in this generalized sense, provided a non trivial choice of the renormalization constants is given. A careful analysis shows that the transformation law of Wick powers is characterized by a weight, and it turns out that the sum of fields with different weights breaks the conformal covariance. At this point there is a difference between the previously given picture due to the presence of a bigger group of covariance. It is furthermore shown that the construction does not depend upon the scale μ appearing in the Hadamard parametrix, used to regularize the fields. Finally, we briefly discuss some further examples of more involved fields. (orig.)

  5. Experimental conformational energy maps of proteins and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Govardhan A; Nagendra, H G; Balaji, Vitukudi N; Rao, Shashidhar N

    2017-06-01

    We have presented an extensive analysis of the peptide backbone dihedral angles in the PDB structures and computed experimental Ramachandran plots for their distributions seen under a various constraints on X-ray resolution, representativeness at different sequence identity percentages, and hydrogen bonding distances. These experimental distributions have been converted into isoenergy contour plots using the approach employed previously by F. M. Pohl. This has led to the identification of energetically favored minima in the Ramachandran (ϕ, ψ) plots in which global minima are predominantly observed either in the right-handed α-helical or the polyproline II regions. Further, we have identified low energy pathways for transitions between various minima in the (ϕ,ψ) plots. We have compared and presented the experimental plots with published theoretical plots obtained from both molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical approaches. In addition, we have developed and employed a root mean square deviation (RMSD) metric for isoenergy contours in various ranges, as a measure (in kcal.mol -1 ) to compare any two plots and determine the extent of correlation and similarity between their isoenergy contours. In general, we observe a greater degree of compatibility with experimental plots for energy maps obtained from molecular mechanics methods compared to most quantum mechanical methods. The experimental energy plots we have investigated could be helpful in refining protein structures obtained from X-ray, NMR, and electron microscopy and in refining force field parameters to enable simulations of peptide and protein structures that have higher degree of consistency with experiments. Proteins 2017; 85:979-1001. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Daily conformity drinking motivations are associated with increased odds of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2018-04-01

    Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The analytic structure of conformal blocks and the generalized Wilson-Fisher fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Wen, Congkao [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics,Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2017-04-11

    We describe in detail the method used in our previous work https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10344 to study the Wilson-Fisher critical points nearby generalized free CFTs, exploiting the analytic structure of conformal blocks as functions of the conformal dimension of the exchanged operator. Our method is equivalent to the mechanism of conformal multiplet recombination set up by null states. We compute, to the first non-trivial order in the ϵ-expansion, the anomalous dimensions and the OPE coefficients of infinite classes of scalar local operators using just CFT data. We study single-scalar and O(N)-invariant theories, as well as theories with multiple deformations. When available we agree with older results, but we also produce a wealth of new ones. Unitarity and crossing symmetry are not used in our approach and we are able to apply our method to non-unitary theories as well. Some implications of our results for the study of the non-unitary theories containing partially conserved higher-spin currents are briefly mentioned.

  8. The calculations of small molecular conformation energy differences by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, I. A.; Burt, S. K.

    1993-03-01

    The differences in the conformational energies for the gauche (G) and trans(T) conformers of 1,2-difluoroethane and for myo-and scyllo-conformer of inositol have been calculated by local density functional method (LDF approximation) with geometry optimization using different sets of calculation parameters. It is shown that in the contrast to Hartree—Fock methods, density functional calculations reproduce the correct sign and value of the gauche effect for 1,2-difluoroethane and energy difference for both conformers of inositol. The results of normal vibrational analysis for1,2-difluoroethane showed that harmonic frequencies calculated in LDF approximation agree with experimental data with the accuracy typical for scaled large basis set Hartree—Fock calculations.

  9. Conformational Control of Energy Transfer: A Mechanism for Biocompatible Nanocrystal-Based Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Euan R.; Lee, Jungmin; Nocera, Daniel; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2012-01-01

    Fold-up fluorophore: A new paradigm for designing self-referencing fluorescent nanosensors is demonstrated by interfacing a pH-triggered molecular conformational switch with quantum dots. Analytedependent, large-amplitude conformational motion controls the distance between the nanocrystal energy donor and an organic FRET acceptor. The result is a fluorescence signal capable of reporting pH values from individual endosomes in living cells.

  10. Generalized Macdonald polynomials, spectral duality for conformal blocks and AGT correspondence in five dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkevich, Yegor [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya street, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,7a Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,31 Kasirskoe chaussee, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-26

    We study five dimensional AGT correspondence by means of the q-deformed beta-ensemble technique. We provide a special basis of states in the q-deformed CFT Hilbert space consisting of generalized Macdonald polynomials, derive the loop equations for the beta-ensemble and obtain the factorization formulas for the corresponding matrix elements. We prove the spectral duality for SU(2) Nekrasov functions and discuss its meaning for conformal blocks. We also clarify the relation between topological strings and q-Liouville vertex operators.

  11. Generalized Macdonald polynomials, spectral duality for conformal blocks and AGT correspondence in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkevich, Yegor

    2015-01-01

    We study five dimensional AGT correspondence by means of the q-deformed beta-ensemble technique. We provide a special basis of states in the q-deformed CFT Hilbert space consisting of generalized Macdonald polynomials, derive the loop equations for the beta-ensemble and obtain the factorization formulas for the corresponding matrix elements. We prove the spectral duality for SU(2) Nekrasov functions and discuss its meaning for conformal blocks. We also clarify the relation between topological strings and q-Liouville vertex operators.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.201 - General requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 1042.201 Section 1042.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... of conformity. (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid starting with the indicated effective date, but it is...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.201 - What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining a certificate of conformity? 1045.201 Section 1045.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... obtaining a certificate of conformity? Engine manufacturers must certify their engines with respect to the... conformity: (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine...

  14. 40 CFR 1039.201 - What are the general requirements for obtaining a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining a certificate of conformity? 1039.201 Section 1039.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... obtaining a certificate of conformity? (a) You must send us a separate application for a certificate of conformity for each engine family. A certificate of conformity is valid from the indicated effective date...

  15. Conformational locking by design: relating strain energy with luminescence and stability in rigid metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustova, Natalia B; Cozzolino, Anthony F; Dincă, Mircea

    2012-12-05

    Minimization of the torsional barrier for phenyl ring flipping in a metal-organic framework (MOF) based on the new ethynyl-extended octacarboxylate ligand H(8)TDPEPE leads to a fluorescent material with a near-dark state. Immobilization of the ligand in the rigid structure also unexpectedly causes significant strain. We used DFT calculations to estimate the ligand strain energies in our and all other topologically related materials and correlated these with empirical structural descriptors to derive general rules for trapping molecules in high-energy conformations within MOFs. These studies portend possible applications of MOFs for studying fundamental concepts related to conformational locking and its effects on molecular reactivity and chromophore photophysics.

  16. Conformity to the surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines among physicians in a general intensive care unit in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R

    2010-08-01

    There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.

  17. General solution of an exact correlation function factorization in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Jacob J H; Kleban, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The correlation function factorization with K a boundary operator product expansion coefficient, is known to hold for certain scaling operators at the two-dimensional percolation point and in a few other cases. Here the correlation functions are evaluated in the upper half-plane (or any conformally equivalent region) with x 1 and x 2 arbitrary points on the real axis, and z an arbitrary point in the interior. This type of result is of interest because it is both exact and universal, relates higher-order correlation functions to lower-order ones and has a simple interpretation in terms of cluster or loop probabilities in several statistical models. This motivated us to use the techniques of conformal field theory to determine the general conditions for its validity. Here, we discover that either (see display) factorizes in this way for any central charge c, generalizing previous results. In particular, the factorization holds for either FK (Fortuin–Kasteleyn) or spin clusters in the Q-state Potts models; it also applies to either the dense or dilute phases of the O(n) loop models. Further, only one other non-trivial set of highest-weight operators (in an irreducible Verma module) factorizes in this way. In this case the operators have negative dimension (for c<1) and do not seem to have a physical realization

  18. Measurement of conformability and adhesion energy of polymeric ultrathin film to skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Junki; Fujie, Toshinori; Iwata, Hiroyasu; Iwase, Eiji

    2018-06-01

    We measured the conformability and adhesion energy of a polymeric ultrathin film “nanosheet” with hundreds of nanometer thickness to a skin model with epidermal depressions. To compare the confirmability of the nanosheets with different thicknesses and/or under different attaching conditions, we proposed a measurement method using skin models with the same surface profile and defined the surface strain εS as the quantified value of the conformability. Then, we measured the adhesion energy of the nanosheet at each conformability through a vertical tensile test. Experimental results indicate that the adhesion energy does not depend on the liquid used in wetting the nanosheet before attaching to the skin model and increases monotonously as the surface strain εS increases.

  19. Energy conditions and stability in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant energy condition in general relativity theory, which says that every observer measures a nonnegative local energy density and a nonspacelike local energy flow, is examined in connection with the types of energy-momentum tensor it permits. The condition that the energy-momentum tensor be ''stable'' in obeying the dominant energy conditions is then defined in terms of a suitable topology on the set of energy-momentum tensors on space-time and the consequences are evaluated and discussed. (author)

  20. Energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshmatov, Bobir [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic); Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Ahmedov, Bobomurat [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Tashkent University of Information Technologies, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-08-15

    Conformal gravity can elegantly solve the problem of spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. For every physical spacetime, there is an infinite family of conformally equivalent singularity-free metrics. In the unbroken phase, every non-singular metric is equivalent and can be used to infer the physical properties of the spacetime. In the broken phase, a Higgs-like mechanism should select a certain vacuum, which thus becomes the physical one. However, in the absence of the complete theoretical framework we do not know how to select the right vacuum. In this paper, we study the energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes obtained in conformal gravity assuming they are solutions of Einstein's gravity with an effective energy-momentum tensor. We check whether such conditions can be helpful to select the vacuum of the broken phase. (orig.)

  1. Energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Bambi, Cosimo; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Stuchlik, Zdenek

    2017-01-01

    Conformal gravity can elegantly solve the problem of spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. For every physical spacetime, there is an infinite family of conformally equivalent singularity-free metrics. In the unbroken phase, every non-singular metric is equivalent and can be used to infer the physical properties of the spacetime. In the broken phase, a Higgs-like mechanism should select a certain vacuum, which thus becomes the physical one. However, in the absence of the complete theoretical framework we do not know how to select the right vacuum. In this paper, we study the energy conditions of non-singular black hole spacetimes obtained in conformal gravity assuming they are solutions of Einstein's gravity with an effective energy-momentum tensor. We check whether such conditions can be helpful to select the vacuum of the broken phase. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic energy landscapes of riboswitches help interpret conformational rearrangements and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Quarta

    Full Text Available Riboswitches are RNAs that modulate gene expression by ligand-induced conformational changes. However, the way in which sequence dictates alternative folding pathways of gene regulation remains unclear. In this study, we compute energy landscapes, which describe the accessible secondary structures for a range of sequence lengths, to analyze the transcriptional process as a given sequence elongates to full length. In line with experimental evidence, we find that most riboswitch landscapes can be characterized by three broad classes as a function of sequence length in terms of the distribution and barrier type of the conformational clusters: low-barrier landscape with an ensemble of different conformations in equilibrium before encountering a substrate; barrier-free landscape in which a direct, dominant "downhill" pathway to the minimum free energy structure is apparent; and a barrier-dominated landscape with two isolated conformational states, each associated with a different biological function. Sharing concepts with the "new view" of protein folding energy landscapes, we term the three sequence ranges above as the sensing, downhill folding, and functional windows, respectively. We find that these energy landscape patterns are conserved in various riboswitch classes, though the order of the windows may vary. In fact, the order of the three windows suggests either kinetic or thermodynamic control of ligand binding. These findings help understand riboswitch structure/function relationships and open new avenues to riboswitch design.

  3. Transportation Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  4. Energy Landscape of Pentapeptides in a Higher-Order (ϕ,ψ Conformational Subspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim M. ElSawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential energy landscape of pentapeptides was mapped in a collective coordinate principal conformational subspace derived from principal component analysis of a nonredundant representative set of protein structures from the PDB. Three pentapeptide sequences that are known to be distinct in terms of their secondary structure characteristics, (Ala5, (Gly5, and Val.Asn.Thr.Phe.Val, were considered. Partitioning the landscapes into different energy valleys allowed for calculation of the relative propensities of the peptide secondary structures in a statistical mechanical framework. The distribution of the observed conformations of pentapeptide data showed good correspondence to the topology of the energy landscape of the (Ala5 sequence where, in accord with reported trends, the α-helix showed a predominant propensity at 298 K. The topography of the landscapes indicates that the stabilization of the α-helix in the (Ala5 sequence is enthalpic in nature while entropic factors are important for stabilization of the β-sheet in the Val.Asn.Thr.Phe.Val sequence. The results indicate that local interactions within small pentapeptide segments can lead to conformational preference of one secondary structure over the other where account of conformational entropy is important in order to reveal such preference. The method, therefore, can provide critical structural information for ab initio protein folding methods.

  5. Calculation of relative free energies for ligand-protein binding, solvation, and conformational transitions using the GROMOS software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniker, Sereina; Christ, Clara D; Hansen, Halvor S; Hünenberger, Philippe H; Oostenbrink, Chris; Steiner, Denise; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2011-11-24

    The calculation of the relative free energies of ligand-protein binding, of solvation for different compounds, and of different conformational states of a polypeptide is of considerable interest in the design or selection of potential enzyme inhibitors. Since such processes in aqueous solution generally comprise energetic and entropic contributions from many molecular configurations, adequate sampling of the relevant parts of configurational space is required and can be achieved through molecular dynamics simulations. Various techniques to obtain converged ensemble averages and their implementation in the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation are discussed, and examples of their application to biomolecules in aqueous solution are given. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Energy and Uncertainty in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    The issue of energy and its potential localizability in general relativity has challenged physicists for more than a century. Many non-invariant measures were proposed over the years but an invariant measure was never found. We discovered the invariant localized energy measure by expanding the domain of investigation from space to spacetime. We note from relativity that the finiteness of the velocity of propagation of interactions necessarily induces indefiniteness in measurements. This is because the elements of actual physical systems being measured as well as their detectors are characterized by entire four-velocity fields, which necessarily leads to information from a measured system being processed by the detector in a spread of time. General relativity adds additional indefiniteness because of the variation in proper time between elements. The uncertainty is encapsulated in a generalized uncertainty principle, in parallel with that of Heisenberg, which incorporates the localized contribution of gravity to energy. This naturally leads to a generalized uncertainty principle for momentum as well. These generalized forms and the gravitational contribution to localized energy would be expected to be of particular importance in the regimes of ultra-strong gravitational fields. We contrast our invariant spacetime energy measure with the standard 3-space energy measure which is familiar from special relativity, appreciating why general relativity demands a measure in spacetime as opposed to 3-space. We illustrate the misconceptions by certain authors of our approach.

  7. Conformational explosion: Understanding the complexity of short chain para-dialkylbenzene potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Piyush; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2018-05-01

    The single-conformation ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy of three short-chain para-dialkylbenzenes (para-diethylbenzene, para-dipropylbenzene, and para-dibutylbenzene) is reported for the jet-cooled, isolated molecules. The present study builds off previous work on single-chain n-alkylbenzenes, where an anharmonic local mode Hamiltonian method was developed to account for stretch-bend Fermi resonance in the alkyl CH stretch region [D. P. Tabor et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 224310 (2016)]. The jet-cooled molecules are interrogated using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation, fluorescence dip infrared spectroscopy, and dispersed fluorescence. The LIF spectra in the S1 ← S0 origin region show a dramatic increase in the number of resolved transitions with increasing length of the alkyl chains, reflecting an explosion in the number of unique low-energy conformations formed when two independent alkyl chains are present. Since the barriers to isomerization of the alkyl chain are similar in size, this results in an "egg carton" shaped potential energy surface. A combination of electronic frequency shift and alkyl CH stretch infrared spectra is used to generate a consistent set of conformational assignments. Using these experimental techniques in conjunction with computational methods, subsets of origin transitions in the LIF excitation spectrum can be classified into different conformational families. Two conformations are resolved in para-diethylbenzene, seven in para-dipropylbenzene, and about nineteen in para-dibutylbenzene. These chains are largely independent of each other as there are no new single-chain conformations induced by the presence of a second chain. A cursory LIF excitation scan of para-dioctylbenzene shows a broad congested spectrum at frequencies consistent with interactions of alkyl chains with the phenyl π cloud.

  8. Conformational Space Annealing explained: A general optimization algorithm, with diverse applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, InSuk; Kim, Jong Yun; Gross, Steven P.; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung

    2018-02-01

    Many problems in science and engineering can be formulated as optimization problems. One way to solve these problems is to develop tailored problem-specific approaches. As such development is challenging, an alternative is to develop good generally-applicable algorithms. Such algorithms are easy to apply, typically function robustly, and reduce development time. Here we provide a description for one such algorithm called Conformational Space Annealing (CSA) along with its python version, PyCSA. We previously applied it to many optimization problems including protein structure prediction and graph community detection. To demonstrate its utility, we have applied PyCSA to two continuous test functions, namely Ackley and Eggholder functions. In addition, in order to provide complete generality of PyCSA to any types of an objective function, we demonstrate the way PyCSA can be applied to a discrete objective function, namely a parameter optimization problem. Based on the benchmarking results of the three problems, the performance of CSA is shown to be better than or similar to the most popular optimization method, simulated annealing. For continuous objective functions, we found that, L-BFGS-B was the best performing local optimization method, while for a discrete objective function Nelder-Mead was the best. The current version of PyCSA can be run in parallel at the coarse grained level by calculating multiple independent local optimizations separately. The source code of PyCSA is available from http://lee.kias.re.kr.

  9. Generalized dark energy interactions with multiple fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruck, Carsten van; Mifsud, Jurgen [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mimoso, José P.; Nunes, Nelson J., E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jmifsud1@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jpmimoso@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: njnunes@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-11-01

    In the search for an explanation for the current acceleration of the Universe, scalar fields are the most simple and useful tools to build models of dark energy. This field, however, must in principle couple with the rest of the world and not necessarily in the same way to different particles or fluids. We provide the most complete dynamical system analysis to date, consisting of a canonical scalar field conformally and disformally coupled to both dust and radiation. We perform a detailed study of the existence and stability conditions of the systems and comment on constraints imposed on the disformal coupling from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and given current limits on the variation of the fine-structure constant.

  10. The effect of tensile stress on the conformational free energy landscape of disulfide bonds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmesh Anjukandi

    Full Text Available Disulfide bridges are no longer considered to merely stabilize protein structure, but are increasingly recognized to play a functional role in many regulatory biomolecular processes. Recent studies have uncovered that the redox activity of native disulfides depends on their C-C-S-S dihedrals, χ2 and χ'2. Moreover, the interplay of chemical reactivity and mechanical stress of disulfide switches has been recently elucidated using force-clamp spectroscopy and computer simulation. The χ2 and χ'2 angles have been found to change from conformations that are open to nucleophilic attack to sterically hindered, so-called closed states upon exerting tensile stress. In view of the growing evidence of the importance of C-C-S-S dihedrals in tuning the reactivity of disulfides, here we present a systematic study of the conformational diversity of disulfides as a function of tensile stress. With the help of force-clamp metadynamics simulations, we show that tensile stress brings about a large stabilization of the closed conformers, thereby giving rise to drastic changes in the conformational free energy landscape of disulfides. Statistical analysis shows that native TDi, DO and interchain Ig protein disulfides prefer open conformations, whereas the intrachain disulfide bridges in Ig proteins favor closed conformations. Correlating mechanical stress with the distance between the two a-carbons of the disulfide moiety reveals that the strain of intrachain Ig protein disulfides corresponds to a mechanical activation of about 100 pN. Such mechanical activation leads to a severalfold increase of the rate of the elementary redox S(N2 reaction step. All these findings constitute a step forward towards achieving a full understanding of functional disulfides.

  11. The generalized Erlangen program and setting a geometry for four- dimensional conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX; Hehl, F.W.; Mielke, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This is the text of a talk at the International Symposium on ''Mathematical Physics towards the XXI Century'' held in March 1993 at Beersheva, Israel. In the first part we attempt to summarize XXth Century Physics, in the light of Kelvin's 1900 speech ''Dark Clouds over XIXth Century Physics.'' Contrary to what is usually said, Kelvin predicted that the ''clouds'' (relativity and quantum mechanics) would revolutionize physics and that one hundred years might be needed to harmonize them with classical physics. Quantum Gravity can be considered as a leftover from Kelvin's program -- so are the problems with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. At the end of the XXth Century, the Standard Model is the new panoramic synthesis, drawn in gauge-geometric lines -- realizing the Erlangen program beyond F. Klein's expectations. The hierarchy problem and the smallness of the cosmological constant are our ''clouds'', generations and the Higgs sector are to us what radioactivity was in 1900. In the second part we describe Metric-Affine spacetimes. We construct the Noether machinery and provide expressions for the conserved energy and hypermomentum. Superimposing conformal invariance over the affine structure induces the Virasoro-like infinite constraining algebra of diffeomorphisms, applied with constant parameters and opening the possibility of a 4DCFT, similar to 2DCFT

  12. The Relationship between Alcohol Use and Peer Pressure Susceptibility, Peer Popularity and General Conformity in Northern Irish School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bivariate and more fully controlled (with socio-demographic measures) relationship between self-reported drinking behaviour and peer pressure susceptibility, desire for peer popularity and general conformity in a sample of 11-16-year-old school children in Northern Ireland. Self-reported drinking…

  13. All unitary ray representations of the conformal group SU(2,2) with positive energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1975-12-01

    We find all those unitary irreducible representations of the infinitely - sheeted covering group G tilde of the conformal group SU(2,2)/Z 4 which have positive energy P 0 >= O. They are all finite component field representations and are labelled by dimension d and a finite dimensional irreducible representation (j 1 , j 2 ) of the Lorentz group SL(2C). They all decompose into a finite number of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincare subgroup with dilations. (orig.) [de

  14. Conformal symmetry breaking and the energy-momentum tensor in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, E.; Sibold, K.

    1993-01-01

    We derive the conformal transformation properties of the energy-momentum tensor for the massless φ 4 -theory in four dimensions. For this purpose the consistency conditions arising from Weyl-transformations are essential. The breaking of Weyl-invariance can be completely absorbed by making the coupling of the elementary theory local and by introducing an external field which couples to the composite operators φ 2 . Only then can one stay in a completely local framework. (orig.)

  15. Simple implementation of general dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a formalism for the numerical implementation of general theories of dark energy, combining the computational simplicity of the equation of state for perturbations approach with the generality of the effective field theory approach. An effective fluid description is employed, based on a general action describing single-scalar field models. The formalism is developed from first principles, and constructed keeping the goal of a simple implementation into CAMB in mind. Benefits of this approach include its straightforward implementation, the generality of the underlying theory, the fact that the evolved variables are physical quantities, and that model-independent phenomenological descriptions may be straightforwardly investigated. We hope this formulation will provide a powerful tool for the comparison of theoretical models of dark energy with observational data

  16. Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Higher Energy Conformers of 1,2-PROPANEDIOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2017-06-01

    We have performed a study of the millimeter/submillimeter wave spectrum of four higher energy conformers of 1,2-propanediol (continuation of the previous study on the three lowest energy conformers. The present analysis of rotational transitions carried out in the frequency range 38 - 400 GHz represents a significant extension of previous microwave work. The new data were combined with previously-measured microwave transitions and fitted using a Watson's S-reduced Hamiltonian. The final fits were within experimental accuracy, and included spectroscopic parameters up to sixth order of angular momentum, for the ground states of the four higher energy conformers following previously studied ones: g'Ga, gG'g', aGg' and g'Gg. The present analysis provides reliable frequency predictions for astrophysical detection of 1,2-propanediol by radio telescope arrays at millimeter wavelengths. J.-B. Bossa, M.H. Ordu, H.S.P. Müller, F. Lewen, S. Schlemmer, A&A 570 (2014) A12)

  17. Excited state conformational dynamics in carotenoids: dark intermediates and excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Warren F; Bishop, Michael M; Roscioli, Jerome D; Ghosh, Soumen; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    A consideration of the excited state potential energy surfaces of carotenoids develops a new hypothesis for the nature of the conformational motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 (1(1)Bu(+)) state. After an initial displacement from the Franck-Condon geometry along bond length alternation coordinates, it is suggested that carotenoids pass over a transition-state barrier leading to twisted conformations. This hypothesis leads to assignments for several dark intermediate states encountered in femtosecond spectroscopic studies. The Sx state is assigned to the structure reached upon the onset of torsional motions near the transition state barrier that divides planar and twisted structures on the S2 state potential energy surface. The X state, detected recently in two-dimensional electronic spectra, corresponds to a twisted structure well past the barrier and approaching the S2 state torsional minimum. Lastly, the S(∗) state is assigned to a low lying S1 state structure with intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT) and a pyramidal conformation. It follows that the bent and twisted structures of carotenoids that are found in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins yield excited-state structures that favor the development of an ICT character and optimized energy transfer yields to (bacterio)chlorophyll acceptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Conformational Explosion: Understanding the Complexity of the Para-Dialkylbenzene Potential Energy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Piyush; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    This talk focuses on the single-conformation spectroscopy of small-chain para-dialkylbenzenes. This work builds on previous studies from our group on long-chain n-alkylbenzenes that identified the first folded structure in octylbenzene. The dialkylbenzenes are representative of a class of molecules that are common components of coal and aviation fuel and are known to be present in vehicle exhaust. We bring the molecules para-diethylbenzene, para-dipropylbenzene and para-dibutylbenzene into the gas phase and cool the molecules in a supersonic expansion. The jet-cooled molecules are then interrogated using laser-induced fluorescence excitation, fluorescence dip IR spectroscopy (FDIRS) and dispersed fluorescence. The LIF spectra in the S_{0}-S_{1} origin region show dramatic increases in the number of resolved transitions with increasing length of alkyl chains, reflecting an explosion in the number of unique low-energy conformations formed when two independent alkyl chains are present. Since the barriers to isomerization of the alkyl chain are similar in size, this results in an 'egg carton' shape to the potential energy surface. We use a combination of electronic frequency shift and alkyl CH stretch infrared spectra to generate a consistent set of conformational assignments.

  19. Big bounce, slow-roll inflation, and dark energy from conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenberg, Jack; Rahmati, Shohreh; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the cosmological sector of a gauge theory of gravity based on the SO(4,2) conformal group of Minkowski space. We allow for conventional matter coupled to the spacetime metric as well as matter coupled to the field that gauges special conformal transformations. An effective vacuum energy appears as an integration constant, and this allows us to recover the late time acceleration of the Universe. Furthermore, gravitational fields sourced by ordinary cosmological matter (i.e. dust and radiation) are significantly weakened in the very early Universe, which has the effect of replacing the big bang with a big bounce. Finally, we find that this bounce is followed by a period of nearly exponential slow roll inflation that can last long enough to explain the large scale homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background.

  20. Narrowband NIR-Induced In Situ Generation of the High-Energy Trans Conformer of Trichloroacetic Acid Isolated in Solid Nitrogen and its Spontaneous Decay by Tunneling to the Low-Energy Cis Conformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. G. Apóstolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The monomeric form of trichloroacetic acid (CCl3COOH; TCA was isolated in a cryogenic nitrogen matrix (15 K and the higher energy trans conformer (O=C–O–H dihedral: 180° was generated in situ by narrowband near-infrared selective excitation the 1st OH stretching overtone of the low-energy cis conformer (O=C–O–H dihedral: 0°. The spontaneous decay, by tunneling, of the generated high-energy conformer into the cis form was then evaluated and compared with those observed previously for the trans conformers of acetic and formic acids in identical experimental conditions. The much faster decay of the high-energy conformer of TCA compared to both formic and acetic acids (by ~35 and ca. 25 times, respectively was found to correlate well with the lower energy barrier for the trans→cis isomerization in the studied compound. The experimental studies received support from quantum chemistry calculations undertaken at the DFT(B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of approximation, which allowed a detailed characterization of the potential energy surface of the molecule and the detailed assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers.

  1. Simulated Tempering Distributed Replica Sampling, Virtual Replica Exchange, and Other Generalized-Ensemble Methods for Conformational Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Sarah; Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis

    2009-10-13

    Generalized-ensemble algorithms in temperature space have become popular tools to enhance conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations. A random walk in temperature leads to a corresponding random walk in potential energy, which can be used to cross over energetic barriers and overcome the problem of quasi-nonergodicity. In this paper, we introduce two novel methods: simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) and virtual replica exchange (VREX). These methods are designed to address the practical issues inherent in the replica exchange (RE), simulated tempering (ST), and serial replica exchange (SREM) algorithms. RE requires a large, dedicated, and homogeneous cluster of CPUs to function efficiently when applied to complex systems. ST and SREM both have the drawback of requiring extensive initial simulations, possibly adaptive, for the calculation of weight factors or potential energy distribution functions. STDR and VREX alleviate the need for lengthy initial simulations, and for synchronization and extensive communication between replicas. Both methods are therefore suitable for distributed or heterogeneous computing platforms. We perform an objective comparison of all five algorithms in terms of both implementation issues and sampling efficiency. We use disordered peptides in explicit water as test systems, for a total simulation time of over 42 μs. Efficiency is defined in terms of both structural convergence and temperature diffusion, and we show that these definitions of efficiency are in fact correlated. Importantly, we find that ST-based methods exhibit faster temperature diffusion and correspondingly faster convergence of structural properties compared to RE-based methods. Within the RE-based methods, VREX is superior to both SREM and RE. On the basis of our observations, we conclude that ST is ideal for simple systems, while STDR is well-suited for complex systems.

  2. Antibiotic Conformity with Culture Results of Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in Melati Ward at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhi Rinaldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is an infection with the highest mortality rate in Indonesian hospitals. According to The American Thoracic Society and The Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA, empirical use of antibiotics is still effective for pneumonia treatment. Inappropriate use of antibiotics would cause negative effects such as prolonged hospitalization, a high cost of treatment, and increased antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The goal of this study was to clarify the empirical use of antibiotic conformity with a bacteria culture. Methods: This study was conducted from August to October 2013 using a descriptive retrospective method based on 116 medical records of pneumonia patients hospitalized in Melati Ward, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung during 2011–2012. The type of bacteria, conformity with antibiotics given to patients, and type of antibiotics were analyzed. The conformity of antibiotics was assessed based on the resistance test. If the results were sensitive, they would be put in the conforming group and in the non-conforming group if the results were resistant or intermediate. Data was derived with descriptive statistics, using percentage and frequency distribution, illustrated in tables and figures. Results: Based on culture results and sensitivity of antibiotic empirical therapy given, 55.17% cases were conformed. The most widely used antibiotic group was Third-generation Cephalosporin (60.34%. The most common bacterias were Klebsiella pneumonia (34.5% and Acinetobacter baumanni (13.8%. Conclusions: Most of the antibiotics given to pneumonia patients are still appropriate with results of the bacteria culture test and resistance test.

  3. Code conforming determination of cumulative usage factors for general elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Goetz, Andreas; Hilpert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of fatigue analyses of several relevant nuclear and conventional design codes (ASME, KTA, EN, AD) for power plant components differentiate between an elastic, simplified elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic fatigue check. As a rule, operational load levels will exclude the purely elastic fatigue check. The application of the code procedure of the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue check is common practice. Nevertheless, resulting cumulative usage factors may be overly conservative mainly due to high code based plastification penalty factors Ke. As a consequence, the more complex and still code conforming general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis methodology based on non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is applied for fatigue design as an alternative. The requirements of the FEA and the material law to be applied have to be clarified in a first step. Current design codes only give rough guidelines on these relevant items. While the procedure for the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analysis and the associated code passages are based on stress related cycle counting and the determination of pseudo elastic equivalent stress ranges, an adaptation to elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges is required for the elastic-plastic fatigue check. The associated requirements are explained in detail in the paper. If the established and implemented evaluation mechanism (cycle counting according to the peak and valley respectively the rainflow method, calculation of stress ranges from arbitrary load-time histories and determination of cumulative usage factors based on all load events) is to be retained, a conversion of elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges into pseudo elastic stress ranges is required. The algorithm to be applied is described in the paper. It has to be implemented in the sense of an extended post processing operation of FEA e.g. by APDL scripts in ANSYS registered . Variations of principal stress (strain) directions during the loading

  4. 78 FR 58470 - General Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... style, and improve clarity. This rule does not make any substantive changes to the affected parts of the... editorial changes to correct inaccurate references and citations, improve clarity, and fix errors. The....'' This correction is made to conform to Government Printing Office style.\\1\\ \\1\\ Government Printing...

  5. Searching for dark matter-dark energy interactions: Going beyond the conformal case

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Mifsud, Jurgen

    2018-01-01

    We consider several cosmological models which allow for nongravitational direct couplings between dark matter and dark energy. The distinguishing cosmological features of these couplings can be probed by current cosmological observations, thus enabling us to place constraints on these specific interactions which are composed of the conformal and disformal coupling functions. We perform a global analysis in order to independently constrain the conformal, disformal, and mixed interactions between dark matter and dark energy by combining current data from: Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies, a combination of measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations, a supernova type Ia sample, a compilation of Hubble parameter measurements estimated from the cosmic chronometers approach, direct measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe today, and a compilation of growth of structure measurements. We find that in these coupled dark-energy models, the influence of the local value of the Hubble constant does not significantly alter the inferred constraints when we consider joint analyses that include all cosmological probes. Moreover, the parameter constraints are remarkably improved with the inclusion of the growth of structure data set measurements. We find no compelling evidence for an interaction within the dark sector of the Universe.

  6. Connecting free energy surfaces in implicit and explicit solvent: an efficient method to compute conformational and solvation free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanjie; Zhang, Bin W; Levy, Ronald M

    2015-06-09

    The ability to accurately model solvent effects on free energy surfaces is important for understanding many biophysical processes including protein folding and misfolding, allosteric transitions, and protein–ligand binding. Although all-atom simulations in explicit solvent can provide an accurate model for biomolecules in solution, explicit solvent simulations are hampered by the slow equilibration on rugged landscapes containing multiple basins separated by barriers. In many cases, implicit solvent models can be used to significantly speed up the conformational sampling; however, implicit solvent simulations do not fully capture the effects of a molecular solvent, and this can lead to loss of accuracy in the estimated free energies. Here we introduce a new approach to compute free energy changes in which the molecular details of explicit solvent simulations are retained while also taking advantage of the speed of the implicit solvent simulations. In this approach, the slow equilibration in explicit solvent, due to the long waiting times before barrier crossing, is avoided by using a thermodynamic cycle which connects the free energy basins in implicit solvent and explicit solvent using a localized decoupling scheme. We test this method by computing conformational free energy differences and solvation free energies of the model system alanine dipeptide in water. The free energy changes between basins in explicit solvent calculated using fully explicit solvent paths agree with the corresponding free energy differences obtained using the implicit/explicit thermodynamic cycle to within 0.3 kcal/mol out of ∼3 kcal/mol at only ∼8% of the computational cost. We note that WHAM methods can be used to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of the implicit/explicit thermodynamic cycle.

  7. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. Conformal Collineations of the Ricci and Energy-Momentum Tensors in Static Plane Symmetric Space-Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Hussain, T.; Bokhari, A. H.; Khan, F.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a complete classification of static plane symmetric space-times according to conformal Ricci collineations (CRCs) and conformal matter collineations (CMCs) in both the degenerate and nondegenerate cases. In the case of a nondegenerate Ricci tensor, we find a general form of the vector field generating CRCs in terms of unknown functions of t and x subject to some integrability conditions. We then solve the integrability conditions in different cases depending upon the nature of the Ricci tensor and conclude that the static plane symmetric space-times have a 7-, 10- or 15-dimensional Lie algebra of CRCs. Moreover, we find that these space-times admit an infinite number of CRCs if the Ricci tensor is degenerate. We use a similar procedure to study CMCs in the case of a degenerate or nondegenerate matter tensor. We obtain the exact form of some static plane symmetric space-time metrics that admit nontrivial CRCs and CMCs. Finally, we present some physical applications of our obtained results by considering a perfect fluid as a source of the energy-momentum tensor.

  9. A coarse-grained generalized second law for holographic conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, William; Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2016-03-01

    We consider the universal sector of a d\\gt 2 dimensional large-N strongly interacting holographic CFT on a black hole spacetime background B. When our CFT d is coupled to dynamical Einstein-Hilbert gravity with Newton constant G d , the combined system can be shown to satisfy a version of the thermodynamic generalized second law (GSL) at leading order in G d . The quantity {S}{CFT}+\\frac{A({H}B,{perturbed})}{4{G}d} is non-decreasing, where A({H}B,{perturbed}) is the (time-dependent) area of the new event horizon in the coupled theory. Our S CFT is the notion of (coarse-grained) CFT entropy outside the black hole given by causal holographic information—a quantity in turn defined in the AdS{}d+1 dual by the renormalized area {A}{ren}({H}{{bulk}}) of a corresponding bulk causal horizon. A corollary is that the fine-grained GSL must hold for finite processes taken as a whole, though local decreases of the fine-grained generalized entropy are not obviously forbidden. Another corollary, given by setting {G}d=0, states that no finite process taken as a whole can increase the renormalized free energy F={E}{out}-{{TS}}{CFT}-{{Ω }}J, with T,{{Ω }} constants set by {H}B. This latter corollary constitutes a 2nd law for appropriate non-compact AdS event horizons.

  10. The free energy profile of tubulin straight-bent conformational changes, with implications for microtubule assembly and drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili X Peng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available αβ-tubulin dimers need to convert between a 'bent' conformation observed for free dimers in solution and a 'straight' conformation required for incorporation into the microtubule lattice. Here, we investigate the free energy landscape of αβ-tubulin using molecular dynamics simulations, emphasizing implications for models of assembly, and modulation of the conformational landscape by colchicine, a tubulin-binding drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization. Specifically, we performed molecular dynamics, potential-of-mean force simulations to obtain the free energy profile for unpolymerized GDP-bound tubulin as a function of the ∼12° intradimer rotation differentiating the straight and bent conformers. Our results predict that the unassembled GDP-tubulin heterodimer exists in a continuum of conformations ranging between straight and bent, but, in agreement with existing structural data, suggests that an intermediate bent state has a lower free energy (by ∼1 kcal/mol and thus dominates in solution. In agreement with predictions of the lattice model of microtubule assembly, lateral binding of two αβ-tubulins strongly shifts the conformational equilibrium towards the straight state, which is then ∼1 kcal/mol lower in free energy than the bent state. Finally, calculations of colchicine binding to a single αβ-tubulin dimer strongly shifts the equilibrium toward the bent states, and disfavors the straight state to the extent that it is no longer thermodynamically populated.

  11. Generalizing the bms3 and 2D-conformal algebras by expanding the Virasoro algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroca, Ricardo; Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio

    2018-03-01

    By means of the Lie algebra expansion method, the centrally extended conformal algebra in two dimensions and the bms3 algebra are obtained from the Virasoro algebra. We extend this result to construct new families of expanded Virasoro algebras that turn out to be infinite-dimensional lifts of the so-called Bk, Ck and Dk algebras recently introduced in the literature in the context of (super)gravity. We also show how some of these new infinite-dimensional symmetries can be obtained from expanded Kač-Moody algebras using modified Sugawara constructions. Applications in the context of three-dimensional gravity are briefly discussed.

  12. Conformal Infinity

    OpenAIRE

    Frauendiener, J?rg

    2000-01-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory...

  13. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-06-19

    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  14. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  15. Quantum-chemical calculation of energies and spectral characteristics of conformers in derivatives of phenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvashev, D.D.; Ratovskii, G.V.; Zakzhevskii, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The phenylphosphines PhPX 2 calculated by the MNDO method are characterized by two potential minima corresponding to the bisector and gonal conformations. For X = Cl, F, and C=N the bisector conformer predominates considerably, but for X = H and CH 3 the populations of the conformers are approximately the same. The characteristics of the electron transitions of the conformers found, determined by the CNDO/S method, differ substantially, which makes it possible to analyze the conformational compositions of arylphosphines by means of UV spectroscopy. In excited ππ* states the gonal conformation is characterized by a substantial donor effect of the PX 2 group, whereas the bisector conformation gives a certain acceptor effect

  16. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  17. Conformal Infinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendiener, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  18. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  19. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-05

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces: Impact of contact contaminations on the interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Sumona, E-mail: sumona.net.09@gmail.com [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Wang, C.-H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Mukherjee, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Impact of contact contaminations on the energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces. • Adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. • Hole injection barrier height and interface dipole at rubrene/Ag interfaces depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. • Molecular conformation as well as orientation controlled by the cleanliness of Ag surface. • Resulted different surface morphology of rubrene thin films on unclean and clean Ag substrate. - Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of electrode contaminations on the interfacial energy level alignment, the molecular conformation, orientation and surface morphology deposited organic film at organic semiconductor/noble metal interfaces by varying of film thickness from sub-monolayer to multilayer, which currently draws significant attention with regard to its application in organic electronics. The UHV clean Ag and unclean Ag were employed as substrate whereas rubrene was used as an organic semiconducting material. The photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) was engaged to investigate the evolution of interfacial energetics; polarization dependent near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was employed to understand the molecular conformation as well as orientation whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the films. The adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between clean Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. As a consequence, hole injection barrier height, interface dipole as well as molecular-conformation, molecular-orientation and surface morphology of rubrene thin films were found to depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. The results have important inferences about the understanding of the impact of substrate contamination on the energy level alignment, the molecular conformation

  1. Energy information systems: a general overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The unprecedented energy crises that engulfed the world in early 1970s brought about a spurt in energy research all over the world, which in turn caused the rapid growth of literature in the field. In order to achieve effective bibliographical control, proper dissemination of information, and rapid access to the desired document, energy information systems of diverse scope came into being. The paper describes the special features of several information systems like (i) International Nuclear Information Systems, which covers world literature on nuclear science and technology (ii) Energy Information Services which takes cares of energy information transfer among the Commonwealth countries of the Asia and Pacific region; (ii) Information Network on New Energy Sources and Technologies for Asia And Pacific. This system is being developed to ensure smooth energy information transfer amongst non-commonwealth countries of Asia and the Pacific. (author)

  2. A non-conforming generalization of Raviart-Thomas elements to the spherical harmonic form of the even-parity neutron transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Criekingen, S. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique (CEA-Saclay), DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LENR (Bat 470), 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: serge.van-criekingen@cea.fr

    2006-05-15

    The Raviart-Thomas finite elements provide an appropriate spatial discretization of the mixed-dual form of the diffusion equation. This discretization can then be coupled to an efficient solution method. The high performances achieved by such an approach triggered research on its possible generalization to the transport equation using a spherical harmonic (or P {sub N}) angular approximation. In view of the difficulty of developing a straightforward generalization within the mixed-dual framework, we here consider 2D non-conforming (i.e., allowing interface discontinuities) finite elements coupled to the second-order form of the transport equation. This non-conforming approach keeps the mixed-dual property of the relaxation of the flux interface continuity constraint. We investigate different non-conforming elements and compare them to the well-known Lagrangian conforming elements.

  3. A non-conforming generalization of Raviart-Thomas elements to the spherical harmonic form of the even-parity neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Raviart-Thomas finite elements provide an appropriate spatial discretization of the mixed-dual form of the diffusion equation. This discretization can then be coupled to an efficient solution method. The high performances achieved by such an approach triggered research on its possible generalization to the transport equation using a spherical harmonic (or P N ) angular approximation. In view of the difficulty of developing a straightforward generalization within the mixed-dual framework, we here consider 2D non-conforming (i.e., allowing interface discontinuities) finite elements coupled to the second-order form of the transport equation. This non-conforming approach keeps the mixed-dual property of the relaxation of the flux interface continuity constraint. We investigate different non-conforming elements and compare them to the well-known Lagrangian conforming elements

  4. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima; Guimaraes, Luciana; Vieira Filho, Sidney A.

    2012-01-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  5. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guimaraes, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: bibo@ef.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  6. Dissecting CFT Correlators and String Amplitudes. Conformal Blocks and On-Shell Recursion for General Tensor Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    This thesis covers two main topics: the tensorial structure of quantum field theory correlators in general spacetime dimensions and a method for computing string theory scattering amplitudes directly in target space. In the first part tensor structures in generic bosonic CFT correlators and scattering amplitudes are studied. To this end arbitrary irreducible tensor representations of SO(d) (traceless mixed-symmetry tensors) are encoded in group invariant polynomials, by contracting with sets of commuting and anticommuting polarization vectors which implement the index symmetries of the tensors. The tensor structures appearing in CFT d correlators can then be inferred by studying these polynomials in a d + 2 dimensional embedding space. It is shown with an example how these correlators can be used to compute general conformal blocks describing the exchange of mixed-symmetry tensors in four-point functions, which are crucial for advancing the conformal bootstrap program to correlators of operators with spin. Bosonic string theory lends itself as an ideal example for applying the same methods to scattering amplitudes, due to its particle spectrum of arbitrary mixed-symmetry tensors. This allows in principle the definition of on-shell recursion relations for string theory amplitudes. A further chapter introduces a different target space definition of string scattering amplitudes. As in the case of on-shell recursion relations, the amplitudes are expressed in terms of their residues via BCFW shifts. The new idea here is that the residues are determined by use of the monodromy relations for open string theory, avoiding the infinite sums over the spectrum arising in on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the method are presented, including a derivation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. It is argued that this method provides a target space definition of the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree-level in a at background in terms of a small

  7. Hydrogen abstraction from n-butanol by the methyl radical: high level ab initio study of abstraction pathways and the importance of low energy rotational conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikadakos, D; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P; Hunt, P A

    2012-07-21

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions by the methyl radical from n-butanol have been investigated at the ROCBS-QB3 level of theory. Reaction energies and product geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol (ROH) have been computed, the reaction energies order α channel more stable than the β-channel? Why do the two C(γ)-H H-abstraction TS differ in energy? The method and basis set dependence of the TS barriers is investigated. The Boltzmann probability distribution for the n-butanol conformers suggests that low energy conformers are present in approximately equal proportions to the most stable conformer at combustion temperatures where ĊH(3) radicals are present. Thus, the relative significance of the various H-abstraction channels has been assessed for a selection of higher energy conformers (ROH'). Key results include finding that higher energy n-butanol conformers (E(ROH') > E(ROH)) can generate lower energy product radicals, E(ROH') < E(ROH). Moreover, higher energy conformers can also have a globally competitive TS energy for H-abstraction.

  8. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  9. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, S. D.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F( R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy.

  10. Quantum vacuum energy in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Christian [University of Technology at Clausthal, Department of Mathematics, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The paper deals with the scale discrepancy between the observed vacuum energy in cosmology and the theoretical quantum vacuum energy (cosmological constant problem). Here, we demonstrate that Einstein's equation and an analogy to particle physics leads to the first physical justification of the so-called fine-tuning problem. This fine-tuning could be automatically satisfied with the variable cosmological term Λ(a) = Λ{sub 0} + Λ{sub 1}a{sup -(4-ε)}, 0 < ε << 1, where a is the scale factor. As a side effect of our solution of the cosmological constant problem, the dynamical part of the cosmological term generates an attractive force and solves the missing mass problem of dark matter. (orig.)

  11. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  12. Superspace conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quella, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  13. High energy asymptotics of multi-colour QCD and two-dimensional conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1993-04-01

    In the multi-colour limit of perturbative QCD the holomorphic factorization of wave functions of compound states of n reggeized gluons in the impact parameter space is shown. The conformally invariant Hamiltonian for each holomorphic factor has a nontrivial integral of motion. The odderon in QCD is the simplest example of the composite system with these properties. (orig.)

  14. Energy levels and quantum states of [Leu]enkephalin conformations based on theoretical and experimental investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Bohr, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical and experimental study of [Leu]enkephalin conformations with respect to the quantum estates of the atomic structure of the peptide. Results from vibrational absorption measurements and quantum calculations are used to outline a quantum picture and to assign vibr...

  15. Conformational energy calculations on polypeptides and proteins: use of a statistical mechanical procedure for evaluating structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, H A; Paine, G H

    1986-01-01

    We are using a variety of theoretical and computational techniques to study protein structure, protein folding, and higher-order structures. Our earlier work involved treatments of liquid water and aqueous solutions of nonpolar and polar solutes, computations of the stabilities of the fundamental structures of proteins and their packing arrangements, conformations of small cyclic and open-chain peptides, structures of fibrous proteins (collagen), structures of homologous globular proteins, introduction of special procedures as constraints during energy minimization of globular proteins, and structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. Recently, we presented a new methodology for predicting polypeptide structure (described here); the method is based on the calculation of the probable and average conformation of a polypeptide chain by the application of equilibrium statistical mechanics in conjunction with an adaptive, importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm. As a test, it was applied to Met-enkephalin.

  16. On the report of the Nuclear Energy Section Meeting, General Survey Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Shigehiro

    1979-01-01

    The demand and supply of petroleum have relaxed temporarily, but in the long run, the difficulty of energy problem does not change. More powerful promotion of general energy policy with conformity and effectiveness is a worldwide problem. In order to cope with such situation, General Energy Survey Committee has examined the concrete measures, and drawn up the interim report in August, 1977. The present report does not change from the interim report in its basic framework, but the background on which this framework is based is clarified, and the contents of the concrete measures are examined in more detail. The Nuclear Energy Sectional Meeting has obtained the conclusions about the basic matters in the development and utilization of nuclear energy and the concrete measures required to be taken urgently. The domestic and foreign situations about the development and utilization of nuclear energy are explained, and the location of nuclear power stations is the most serious bottleneck, therefore the measures to obtain national consensus are the most important problem in every country. The nuclear power generation in Japan is expected to reach 33 million kW by 1985 and 60 million kW by 1990. As the concrete measures, improvement of safety and reliability, establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, development and adoption of new type nuclear reactors, strengthening of the base of nuclear energy industries, promotion of research and development, and contribution to international activities are briefly discussed. (Kako, I.)

  17. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, C; Leuenberger, J [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In view of its mission to contribute towards the development of a globally more sustainable energy supply system, the General Energy Department is focusing on four topical areas: advancing technologies for the use of renewable energies; investigating options for chemical and electrochemical energy storage on various time scales; developing highly efficient converters for the low emission use of fossil and renewable fuels, including both combustion devices and fuel cells; analyzing the consequences of energy use, and advancing scenarios for the development of the energy supply system. Progress in 1998 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1998 is also provided. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  18. Constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traschen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conditions are found for the existence of integral constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity. The integral constraints can be thought of as a general-relativistic generalization of the conservation of energy and momentum of matter perturbations in special relativity. The constraints are stated in terms of a vector field V, and the Robertson-Walker spacetimes are shown to have such constraint vectors. Although in general V is not a Killing vector, in a vacuum spacetime the constraint vectors are precisely the Killing vectors

  19. Assessment of conformity and suitability for use of the energy subsystem of interoperable high-speed lines; Konformitaetsbewertung und EG-Pruefverfahren fuer das Teilsystem Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, D. [Steglitzer Damm, Deutschen Bahn, Berlin (Germany); Brodkorb, A.; Matthes, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The directive 96/48/EG governs the conformity assessment of conformity of interoperability constituents and of suitability for use of subsystems of the trans-European high-speed rail system. The assessment of the overhead contact line type SICAT H 1.0 and the energy subsystem of the new high-speed line Belgian boundary-Rotterdam-Hoofddop (HSL Zuid) in the Netherlands establish examples for the application of the technical specification for the energy subsystem. (orig.) [German] Die Richtlinie 96/48/EG regelt die Bewertung der Konformitaet von Komponenten und das EG-Pruefverfahren von Teilsystemen des interoperablen transeuropaeischen Hochgeschwindigkeitsbahnsystems. Beispiele fuer diese beiden Vorgaenge sind die Bewertung der Oberleitungsbauart SICAT H 1.0 und die Pruefung der Energieversorgung der Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke belgische Grenze-Rotterdam-Hoofddop (HSL Zuid) in den Niederlanden. (orig.)

  20. High energy physics signatures from inflation and conformal symmetry of de Sitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    During inflation, the geometry of spacetime is described by a (quasi-)de Sitter phase. Inflationary observables are determined by the underlying (softly broken) de Sitter isometry group SO(1, 4) which acts like a conformal group on R 3 : when the fluctuations are on super-Hubble scales, the correlators of the scalar fields are constrained by conformal invariance. Heavy fields with mass m larger than the Hubble rate H correspond to operators with imaginary dimensions in the dual Euclidean three-dimensional conformal field theory. By making use of the dS/CFT correspondence we show that, besides the Boltzmann suppression expected from the thermal properties of de Sitter space, the generic effect of heavy fields in the inflationary correlators of the light fields is to introduce power-law suppressed corrections of the form O(H 2 / m 2 ). This can be seen, for instance, at the level of the four-point correlator for which we provide the correction due to a massive scalar field exchange. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  2. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  3. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F(R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy. (orig.)

  4. Covariant generalized holographic dark energy and accelerating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the generalized holographic dark energy model where the infrared cutoff is identified with the combination of the FRW universe parameters: the Hubble rate, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant, the universe lifetime (if finite) and their derivatives. It is demonstrated that with the corresponding choice of the cutoff one can map such holographic dark energy to modified gravity or gravity with a general fluid. Explicitly, F(R) gravity and the general perfect fluid are worked out in detail and the corresponding infrared cutoff is found. Using this correspondence, we get realistic inflation or viable dark energy or a unified inflationary-dark energy universe in terms of covariant holographic dark energy. (orig.)

  5. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  6. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  7. Generalized formulation of free energy and application to photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hwe Ik; Choi, M. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The origin of free energy on the earth is solar radiation. However, the amount of free energy it contains has seldom been investigated, because the free energy concept was believed to be inappropriate for a system of photons. Instead, the origin of free energy has been sought in the process of photosynthesis, imposing a limit of conversion given by the Carnot efficiency. Here we present a general formulation, capable of not only assessing accurately the available amount of free energy in the photon gas but also explaining the primary photosynthetic process more succinctly. In this formulation, the problem of "photosynthetic conversion of the internal energy of photons into the free energy of chlorophyll" is replaced by simple "free energy transduction" between the photons and chlorophyll. An analytic expression for the photosynthetic efficiency is derived and shown to deviate from the Carnot efficiency. Some predictions verifiable possibly by observation are also suggested.

  8. Supersonic Jet Studies of Benzyl Alcohols: Minimum Energy Conformations and Torsional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-13

    New York: 1980. (46) Bernstein, E. R.; Law, K.; Schauer, M. J. Chem. Phys. 1984, 80, 207. (47) Hanzlik , R. P.; Schaefer , A. R.; Moon , J. B.; Judson , C...M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987 , 109 , 4926 . -32- Table I. Conformations of substituted benzenes as established by laser jet spectroscopy. jY x 1 ortho T...Chem. Soc. 1987 , 109 , 3453. -29- (11) Breen, P. J.; Bernstein, E. R.; Seeman, J. I. J. Chem, Phys. 1987 , 87, 3269. (12) Breen, P. J.; Warren, J. A

  9. 18 CFR 153.21 - Conformity with requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity with requirements. 153.21 Section 153.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Requirements § 153.21 Conformity with requirements. (a) General Rule. Applications under subparts B and C of...

  10. Kerr-Taub-NUT General Frame, Energy, and Momentum in Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal G. L. Nashed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new exact solution describing a general stationary and axisymmetric object of the gravitational field in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR is derived. The solution is characterized by three parameters “the gravitational mass M, the rotation a, and the NUT L.” The vierbein field is axially symmetric, and the associated metric gives the Kerr-Taub-NUT spacetime. Calculation of the total energy using two different methods, the gravitational energy momentum and the Riemannian connection 1-form Γα̃β, is carried out. It is shown that the two methods give the same results of energy and momentum. The value of energy is shown to depend on the mass M and the NUT parameter L. If L is vanishing, then the total energy reduced to the energy of Kerr black hole.

  11. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  12. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  13. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  14. Supergravitational conformal Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-08-01

    The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios

  15. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy

  16. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy

  17. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Strengthening of international collaborations represented a strategic goal of the General Energy Research Department for 1999. For the Fifth Framework Program of the European Union, we participated in consortia and in the successful preparation of several proposals. National networks with partners from academia and Industry have been formed in two topical areas of central interest in the context of sustainability, i.e. 'Ecoefficient energy use and material cycles' and 'Sustainable transportation' on the other hand. Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to

  18. General shape and hapten-induced conformational changes of pig anti-dinitrophenyl antibody. A small-angle scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cher, L.; Gladkikh, I.A.; Franek, F.; Kunchenko, A.B.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1980-01-01

    Pig anti-dinitrophenyl antibodies were studied by neutron and X-ray small-angle scattering. Observed scattering curves show that the shapes of two antibody types, precipitating and non-precipitating, are similar, however the latter being more compact. A hapten binding induced conformational change of antibody is observed. This conformational change might be described as a contraction of the whole molecule via similarity transformation. The spatial models of pig antibody molecule based on the existing experimental data were designed. Most probable models have a cavity in the Fsub(c) part and the Fsub(ab) parts are either fully extended or slightly bent down to the Fsub(c) part

  19. Generalized entropy formalism and a new holographic dark energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayahian Jahromi, A.; Moosavi, S. A.; Moradpour, H.; Morais Graça, J. P.; Lobo, I. P.; Salako, I. G.; Jawad, A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Rényi and Tsallis generalized entropies have extensively been used in order to study various cosmological and gravitational setups. Here, using a special type of generalized entropy, a generalization of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropy, together with holographic principle, we build a new model for holographic dark energy. Thereinafter, considering a flat FRW universe, filled by a pressureless component and the new obtained dark energy model, the evolution of cosmos has been investigated showing satisfactory results and behavior. In our model, the Hubble horizon plays the role of IR cutoff, and there is no mutual interaction between the cosmos components. Our results indicate that the generalized entropy formalism may open a new window to become more familiar with the nature of spacetime and its properties.

  20. Holographic Dark Energy with Generalized Chaplygin Gas in Higher Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Saha, A.; Paul, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate holographic dark energy (HDE) correspondence of interacting Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) in the framework of compact Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology. The evolution of the modified HDE with corresponding equation of state is obtained here. Considering the present value of the density parameter a stable configuration is found which accommodates Dark Energy (DE). We note a connection between DE and Phantom fields. It reveals that the DE might have evolved from a Phantom state in the past.

  1. Some general scaling rules in high energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Idh, J.; Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.

    1988-09-01

    We show, using the Fritiof model scenario that the wide variation in the number of participating nucleons tend to drown other dynamical variations in the measurables of high energy ion collisions. We propose a set if general scaling laws for inclusive distributions in which it is the mean multiplicity and the mean transverse energy from each source which are the measurables in the interactions. (authors)

  2. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  3. Conformational Dynamics and Binding Free Energies of Inhibitors of BACE-1: From the Perspective of Protonation Equilibria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olivia Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACE-1 is the β-secretase responsible for the initial amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease, catalyzing hydrolytic cleavage of substrate in a pH-sensitive manner. The catalytic mechanism of BACE-1 requires water-mediated proton transfer from aspartyl dyad to the substrate, as well as structural flexibility in the flap region. Thus, the coupling of protonation and conformational equilibria is essential to a full in silico characterization of BACE-1. In this work, we perform constant pH replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations on both apo BACE-1 and five BACE-1-inhibitor complexes to examine the effect of pH on dynamics and inhibitor binding properties of BACE-1. In our simulations, we find that solution pH controls the conformational flexibility of apo BACE-1, whereas bound inhibitors largely limit the motions of the holo enzyme at all levels of pH. The microscopic pKa values of titratable residues in BACE-1 including its aspartyl dyad are computed and compared between apo and inhibitor-bound states. Changes in protonation between the apo and holo forms suggest a thermodynamic linkage between binding of inhibitors and protons localized at the dyad. Utilizing our recently developed computational protocol applying the binding polynomial formalism to the constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD framework, we are able to obtain the pH-dependent binding free energy profiles for various BACE-1-inhibitor complexes. Our results highlight the importance of correctly addressing the binding-induced protonation changes in protein-ligand systems where binding accompanies a net proton transfer. This work comprises the first application of our CpHMD-based free energy computational method to protein-ligand complexes and illustrates the value of CpHMD as an all-purpose tool for obtaining pH-dependent dynamics and binding free energies of biological systems.

  4. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)

    2016-03-03

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  5. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2003. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2004-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  6. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2004. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2005-01-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  7. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina [eds.

    2002-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2001 is also provided.

  9. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2001-07-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  10. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, Christina; Leuenberger, Jakob [eds.

    2001-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around (1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; (2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; (3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; (4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; (5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina [eds.

    2003-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  12. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  13. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2004. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  14. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2003-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided

  15. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2003. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, Alexander; Daum, Christina (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    Research at PSI comprises all aspects of human energy use, with the ultimate goal of promoting development towards a sustainable energy supply system. In the General Energy Research Department, technologies are being advanced for the utilization of renewable energy sources, low-loss energy storage, efficient conversion, and low emission energy use. Experimental and model-based assessment of these emissions forms the basis of a comprehensive assessment of economic, ecological and environmental consequences, for both present and future energy supply systems. The research program of the department is centered around 1) development, use, and characterisation of catalysts for energy technologies in many different fields, like e.g. the partial oxidation of methanol for hydrogen production, the processing of methane by catalytic combustion and reforming; 2) use of concentrated solar radiation to induce chemical conversions, thereby producing energy carriers; 3) development of efficient, less polluting combustion engines and burners by advancing the detailed understanding of reaction mechanisms and combustion pathways; 4) research and development of low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, novel batteries and capacitors, with applications envisaged for electric vehicles, photovoltaics and on-site load leveling; 5) experimental and model based research concerning transportation and chemistry of atmospheric trace gases related to anthropogenic energy transformations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2002 is also provided.

  16. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  17. Energy spectra of odd nuclei in the generalized model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Korzh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the generalized nuclear model, energy spectra of the odd nuclei of such elements as 25Mg, 41K, and 65Cu are determined, and the structure of wave functions of these nuclei in the excited and normal states is studied. High quality in determining the energy spectra is possible due to the accurate calculations of all elements of the energy matrix. It is demonstrated that the structure of the wave functions so determined provides the possibility to more accurately select the nuclear model and the method for calculating the nucleon cross-sections of the inelastic scattering of nucleons by odd nuclei.

  18. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  19. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Claude

    1991-07-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M].

  20. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBrun, C. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-07-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason (B-M). (orig.).

  1. Thickenings and conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, C.

    1991-01-01

    A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M]. (orig.)

  2. The notion of general interest in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauby, P.

    2008-01-01

    The 1980's have been marked by a reversal of the reference paradigm concerning the manner in which energy issues are tackled: whilst during the whole period following the Second World War, primacy was placed on the pursuit of general interest in energy policies like in the industrial forms of organisation, the issues have tended to be tackled first of all in terms of 'markets', particularly in Europe and in developed countries. This article aims to raise once more and redefine energy issues, not using the opposition and exclusion between markets and general interest as a reference, but their relations and interactions as they are constructed, in particular within the framework of European integration processes. After giving a reminder of the essence of 'general interest', it will examine the energy issues in Europe and the construction of their relationship with the europeanization of public services. It will analyse the perspectives of a Community energy policy around three key questions: what internal market? What common policy? What public service obligations? (authors)

  3. Instantons in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.; Horowitz, G.T.; Perry, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Fe study extrema of the general conformally invariant action: Ssub(c)=∫1/sub(α) 2 Csup(abcd)Csub(abcd)+γRsup(abcd*)Rsup(*)sub(abcd)+iTHETARsup(abcd)*Rsub(abcd). We find the first examples in four dimensions of asymptotically euclidean gravitational instantons. These have arbitrary Euler number and Hirzebruch signature. Some of these instantons represent tunneling between zero-curvature vacua that are not related by small gauge transformations. Others represent tunneling between flat space and topologically non-trivial zero-energy initial data. A general formula for the one-loop determinant is derived in terms of the renormalization group invariant masses, the volume of space-time, the Euler number and the Hirzebruch signature. (orig.)

  4. Perspective of long term demand and supply of energy and general inspection of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil crisis, Japanese energy policy was promoted to get rid of the excess dependence on petroleum and to attain energy security, but energy situation largely changed during the past ten years, and it has become necessary to make general inspection on the long term demand and supply of energy and the energy policy. After the second oil crisis, the worldwide demand of petroleum decreased drastically due to the rapid price rise, and the base price of crude oil was lowered for the first time. It is necessary to positively endeavor to reduce energy cost with new idea. The points of the general inspection are the correspondence of the energy policy to the large structural change of energy, the most desirable system for attaining the optimum structure of energy demand and supply and the utilization of market mechanism as far as possible. This report is the results of discussion held eight times since April, 1983. The change of energy situation in Japan and abroad and the perspective, the new problems in energy countermeasures and the trend of response, the preferential and effective promotion of general energy countermeasures and so on are reported. This report shows the fundamental direction of energy countermeasures hereafter, and the concrete and special examination must be made on many remaining problems. (Kako, I.)

  5. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  6. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  7. Exploring Reaction Mechanism on Generalized Force Modified Potential Energy Surfaces (G-FMPES) for Diels-Alder Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sanjiv; Brown, Katie; Subramanian, Gopinath

    We apply a recent formulation for searching minimum energy reaction path (MERP) and saddle point to atomic systems subjected to an external force. We demonstrate the effect of a loading modality resembling hydrostatic pressure on the trans to cis conformational change of 1,3-butadiene, and the simplest Diels-Alder reaction between ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The calculated MERP and saddle points on the generalized force modified potential energy surface (G-FMPES) are compared with the corresponding quantities on an unmodified potential energy surface. Our study is performed using electronic structure calculations at the HF/6-31G** level as implemented in the AIMS-MOLPRO code. Our calculations suggest that the added compressive pressure lowers the energy of cis butadiene. The activation energy barrier for the concerted Diels-Alder reaction is found to decrease progressively with increasing compressive pressure.

  8. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown, that the introduction of a fundamental length constant into the operator representation of the quantum mechanical commutation relations, as suggested by Bagge, leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Lorentz transformations. The theory requires the introduction of a substratum (ether) and which can be identified as the zero point vacuum energy. At very high energies a non-Lorentz invariant behaviour for the cross sections between elementary particles is predicted. Using the Einstein clock synchronisation definition, the velocity of light is also constant and equal to c in the new theory, but the zero point vacuum energy becomes finite, as are all other quantities which are divergent in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories. In the limiting case where the length constant is set equal to zero, the zero point vacuum energy diverges and special relativity is recovered. (orig.) [de

  9. Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Sil, A.

    2014-08-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  10. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  11. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Positive Energy in General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deser, S. [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1969-07-15

    A review is first given of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; the gravitational field is a self-interacting massless spin-two system within the framework of ordinary Lorentz covariant field theory. The recently solved problem of positive-definiteness of the field energy is then discussed. The latter, a conserved functional of the dynamical variables, is shown to have only one extremum, a local minimum, which is the vacuum state (flat space). This implies positive energy for the field, with the vacuum as ground-state. Similar results hold when minimally coupled matter is present. (author)

  12. Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short peptides probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the 10A domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Nau, Werner M

    2007-03-26

    Phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in short polypeptides were probed by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method by employing a short-distance FRET pair (R(0) approximately 10 A) based on tryptophan as natural donor and a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as synthetic acceptor. Two substrates for kinases, LeuArgArgTrpSerLeuGly-Dbo (peptide I) and TrpLysArgThrLeuArgArg-Dbo (peptide II), were investigated, with serine and threonine, respectively, as phosphorylation sites. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments in H(2)O revealed a decrease in FRET efficiency for peptide I and an increase for peptide II; this suggested that the effective distances between donor and acceptor increased and decreased, respectively. The same trends and similar absolute variations in effective donor-acceptor distances were observed in propylene glycol, a less polar and highly viscous solvent; this suggested that the variations are due to intrinsic structural preferences. Fitting of the time-resolved decay traces according to a distribution function model (Gaussian distribution) provided the mean donor-acceptor distances, which showed an increase upon phosphorylation for peptide I (from 9.7 to 10.5 A) and a decrease for peptide II (from 10.9 to 9.3 A) in H(2)O. The broadness (half-width) of the distributions, which provides a measure of the rigidity of the peptides, remained similar upon phosphorylation of peptide I (3.0 versus 3.1 A), but decreased for peptide II (from 3.1 to 0.73 A in H(2)O); this suggests a more compact, structured conformation upon phosphorylation of the latter peptide. The elongation of the peptide backbone (by ca. 0.7 A) for peptide I is attributed to an increase in steric demand upon phosphorylation, which favors an extended conformation. The contraction (by ca. 1.4 A) and structural rigidification of peptide II is attributed to attractive Coulombic interactions and hydrogen bonding between the

  13. The dependence of the electronic coupling on energy gap and bridge conformation - Towards prediction of the distance dependence of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Mattias P.; Albinsson, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation factor, β, for the distance dependence of electron exchange reactions is a sensitive function of the donor-bridge energy gap and bridge conformation. In this work the electronic coupling for electron and triplet excitation energy transfer has been investigated for five commonly used repeating bridge structures. The investigated bridge structures are OF (oligo fluorene), OP (oligo phenylene), OPE (oligo p-phenyleneethynylene), OPV (oligo phenylenevinylene), and OTP (oligo thiophene). Firstly, the impact of the donor-bridge energy gap was investigated by performing calculations with a variety of donors appended onto bridges that were kept in a planar conformation. This resulted in, to our knowledge, the first presented sets of bridge specific parameters to be inserted into the commonly used McConnell model. Secondly, since at experimental conditions large conformational flexibility is expected, a previously developed model that takes conformational disorder of the bridge into account has been applied to the investigated systems [M.P. Eng, T. Ljungdahl, J. Martensson, B. Albinsson, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 6483]. This model is based on Boltzmann averaging and has been shown to describe the temperature dependence of the attenuation factor through OPE-bridges. Together, the parameters describing the donor-bridge energy gap dependence, for planar bridge structures, and the Boltzmann averaging procedure, describing the impact of rotational disorder, have the potential to a priori predict attenuation factors for electron and excitation energy transfer reactions through bridged donor-acceptor systems

  14. Ligand Conformational and Solvation/Desolvation Free Energy in Protein-Ligand Complex Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Michal; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hobza, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 16 (2011), s. 4718-4724 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0295 Grant - others:Korea Science and Engineering Foundation(KR) R32-2008-000-10180-0; European Science Fund(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : solvation free energy * SMD * HIV protease inhibitors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  15. A more general interacting model of holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fei; Zhang Jingfei; Lu Jianbo; Wang Wei; Gui Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    So far, there have been no theories or observational data that deny the presence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter. We extend naturally the holographic dark energy (HDE) model, proposed by Granda and Oliveros, in which the dark energy density includes not only the square of the Hubble scale, but also the time derivative of the Hubble scale to the case with interaction and the analytic forms for the cosmic parameters are obtained under the specific boundary conditions. The various behaviors concerning the cosmic expansion depend on the introduced numerical parameters which are also constrained. The more general interacting model inherits the features of the previous ones of HDE, keeping the consistency of the theory.

  16. The Generalized Conversion Factor in Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein's September 1905 paper is origin of light energy-mass inter conversion equation ($L = Delta mc^{2}$ and Einstein speculated $E = Delta mc^{2}$ from it by simply replacing $L$ by $E$. From its critical analysis it follows that $L = Delta mc^{2}$ is only true under special or ideal conditions. Under general cases the result is $L propto Delta mc^{2}$ ($E propto Delta mc^{2}$. Consequently an alternate equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$ has been suggested, which implies that energy emitted on annihilation of mass can be equal, less and more than predicted by $Delta E = Delta mc^{2}$. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U-235 or Pu-239 is found experimentally 20-60 MeV less than Q-value predicted by $Delta mc^{2}$. The mass of particle Ds (2317 discovered at SLAC, is more than current estimates. In many reactions including chemical reactions $E = Delta mc^{2}$ is not confirmed yet, but regarded as true. It implies the conversion factor than $c^{2}$ is possible. These phenomena can be explained with help of generalized mass-energy equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$.

  17. Parton self-energies for general momentum-space anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Strickland, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an efficient general method for calculating the self-energies, collective modes, and dispersion relations of quarks and gluons in a momentum-anisotropic high-temperature quark-gluon plasma. The method introduced is applicable to the most general classes of deformed anisotropic momentum distributions and the resulting self-energies are expressed in terms of a series of hypergeometric basis functions which are valid in the entire complex phase-velocity plane. Comparing to direct numerical integration of the self-energies, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster and provides results with similar or better accuracy. To extend previous studies and demonstrate the application of the proposed method, we present numerical results for the parton self-energies and dispersion relations of partonic collective excitations for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy. Finally, we also present, for the first time, the gluon unstable mode growth rate for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy.

  18. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, ZhenHua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens B; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-28

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site usually have quite different but ordered formation energies. On the other hand, for a given A-site cation, (III) the formation energies of perovskites vary linearly with respect to the atomic number of the elements at the B site within the same period of the periodic table, and the slopes depend systematically on the oxidation state of the A-site cation; and (IV) the trends in formation energies of perovskites with elements from different periods at the B site depend on the oxidation state of A-site cations. Since the energetics of perovskites is shown to be the superposition of the individual contributions of their constituent oxides, the trends can be rationalized in terms of A-O and B-O interactions in the ionic crystal. These findings reveal the existence of general systematic trends in the formation energies of perovskites and provide further insight into the role of ion-ion interactions in the properties of ternary compounds.

  19. Positive energy theorem in generalized Kaluza-Klein theories of higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreschi, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of using spinors in the proof of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is extended to the case of Kaluza-Klein theories in spaces of 4 + n dimensions. First a useful presentation of generalized Kaluza-Klein theories is introduced, in which just from the observation of conformal symmetries it is possible to detect a nice splitting of the Ricci tensor into a 4-dimensional Ricci part and a Yang-Mills part, among others. Consideration of linear dependence among the symmetries is not excluded in this treatment. Relevant to the introduction of spinors, a discussion of Clifford Algebras is presented. In particular a real representation of these algebras is introduced for spaces of higher dimensions and its structure is analyzed. The Lie derivative of spinors is presented probably more clearly than in former treatments. After the introduction of these preliminary themes, a brief review of the relevant aspects of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is presented, followed by the extension of these ideas to the case of 5 dimensions. Here an earlier result involving gravitational mass and electromagnetic charges is improved. Finally the results are generalized to spaces of 4 + n dimensions, and a more complicated condition to be satisfied by the usual matter tensor is discovered. This procedure leads to a natural definition of invariant Yang-Mills charges, which is compared with former studies

  20. Quantitative assessment of force fields on both low-energy conformational basins and transition-state regions of the (phi-psi) space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Ensing, B.; Moore, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    The free energy surfaces (FESs) of alanine dipeptide are studied to illustrate a new strategy to assess the performance of classical molecular mechanics force field on the full range of the (phi-psi) conformational space. The FES is obtained from metadynamics simulations with five commonly used

  1. Entropy of holographic dark energy and the generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praseetha, P; Mathew, Titus K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have considered holographic dark energy and studied its cosmology and thermodynamics. We have analyzed the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in a flat universe consisting of interacting dark energy and dark matter. We performed the analysis under both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. If the apparent horizon is taken as the boundary of the universe, we have shown that the rate of change of the total entropy of the universe is proportional to (1+q) 2 , which in fact shows that the GSL is valid at the apparent horizon, irrespective of the sign of the deceleration parameter, q. Hence, for any form of dark energy, the apparent horizon can be considered as a perfect thermodynamic boundary of the universe. We confirmed this conclusion by using the holographic dark energy model. When the event horizon is taken as the boundary, we found that the GSL is only partially satisfied. The analysis under nonequilibrium conditions revealed that the GSL is satisfied if the temperature of the dark energy is greater than the temperature of the dark matter. (paper)

  2. Porous TiO2 Conformal Coating on Carbon Nanotubes as Energy Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Litao; Xu, Yun; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Gen; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei; Zou, Guifu

    2015-01-01

    The controllable synthesis of strongly coupled inorganic materials/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrids represents a long-standing challenge for developing advanced catalysts and energy-storage materials. Here we report a simple sol-gel method for facile synthesis of TiO 2 /CNTs hybrid. The porous anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles are uniformly coated on the CNTs conducting network, which leads to remarkably improved electrochemical performances such as exceptional cycling stability, good high rate durability, and reduced resistance. This hybrid exhibits a reversible capacity as high as 200 mA·h g −1 at a current density of 0.1 A g −1 as an anode in lithium-ion battery (LIB). As a supercapacitor (SC), it shows a specific supercapacitance of 145 F g −1 in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 electrolyte, higher than that of the previously reported TiO 2 based supercapacitors. Moreover, this hybrid also exhibits excellent durability after 1000 cycles for both LIBs and SCs. Such superior performance and cycling durability demonstrate the reinforced synergistic effects between the porous TiO 2 and interweaved CNTs network, indicating a great application potential for such hybrid materials in high power LIBs and SCs

  3. Conformal Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    We study tachyons conformally coupled to the background geometry of a Milne universe. The causality of superluminal signal transfer is scrutinized in this context. The cosmic time of the comoving frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. An observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. All observers can in this way arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. An unambiguous energy concept for tachyonic rays is defined by means of the cosmic time of the comoving reference frame, without resorting to an antiparticle interpretation. On that basis we give an explicit proof that no signals can be sent into the past of observers. Causality violating signals are energetically forbidden, as they would have negative energy in the rest frame of the emitting observer. If an observer emits a superluminal signal, the tachyonic respon...

  4. Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.

  5. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  6. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied...... elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we...... extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site...

  7. General theory for environmental effects on (vertical) electronic excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2016-10-21

    Almost 70 years ago, the first theoretical model for environmental effects on electronic excitation energies has been derived. Since then, several different interpretations and refined models have been proposed for the perichromic shift of a chromophore due to its surrounding medium. Some of these models are contradictory. Here, the contributing terms are derived within the framework of long-range perturbation theory with the least approximations so far. The derivation is based on a state-specific interpretation of the interaction energies and all terms can be identified with individual properties of either the chromophore or the surroundings, respectively. Further, the much debated contribution due to transition moments coupled to the environment can be verified in the form of a non-resonant excitonic coupling to the dynamic polarizabilities in the environment. These general insights should clarify discussions and interpretations of environmental effects on electronic excitations and should foster the development of new models for the computation of these effects.

  8. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/ρ α , has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003

  9. Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2007-03-15

    The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency thirty-third general conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A brief account is given of the 33rd session of IAEA General Conference held in Vienna from 25 to 29 September 1989. The Minister for Primary Industry and Energy, Mr John Kerin, led the Australian delegation. His statement to the General Conference highlighted Australia's role as a major uranium exporter, its committment to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon Treaty and support for the role which the Agency plays in it. The major Australian policy initiatives in environmental areas were also outlined. Australia continues to make a substantial extra-budgetary contribution to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and Pacific (RCA), and it has recently expanded its committment by agreeing to support a series of new RCA projects. In this context, the role played by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization for the provision of technical assistance and cooperation in many areas of the Agency's activities is discussed. ills

  11. Maintaining Department of Energy facilities general design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A General Design Criteria (GDC) Planning Board has been established in the Department of Energy to streamline the improvement and maintenance of the GDC Manual. This Planning Board, composed of a membership from field organizations and Headquarters programmatic offices, started work on 15 enhancements to the GDC Manual. One of those enhancements details natural phenomena hazards criteria. In the past year the Planning Board submitted a major recommendation which has been implemented into what is known as the GDC Improvements project. The result of this project pledges to dramatically increase the GDC Manual's utilization and effectiveness

  12. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development

  13. Decipher the mechanisms of protein conformational changes induced by nucleotide binding through free-energy landscape analysis: ATP binding to Hsp70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Nicolaï

    Full Text Available ATP regulates the function of many proteins in the cell by transducing its binding and hydrolysis energies into protein conformational changes by mechanisms which are challenging to identify at the atomic scale. Based on molecular dynamics (MD simulations, a method is proposed to analyze the structural changes induced by ATP binding to a protein by computing the effective free-energy landscape (FEL of a subset of its coordinates along its amino-acid sequence. The method is applied to characterize the mechanism by which the binding of ATP to the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD of Hsp70 propagates a signal to its substrate-binding domain (SBD. Unbiased MD simulations were performed for Hsp70-DnaK chaperone in nucleotide-free, ADP-bound and ATP-bound states. The simulations revealed that the SBD does not interact with the NBD for DnaK in its nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states whereas the docking of the SBD was found in the ATP-bound state. The docked state induced by ATP binding found in MD is an intermediate state between the initial nucleotide-free and final ATP-bound states of Hsp70. The analysis of the FEL projected along the amino-acid sequence permitted to identify a subset of 27 protein internal coordinates corresponding to a network of 91 key residues involved in the conformational change induced by ATP binding. Among the 91 residues, 26 are identified for the first time, whereas the others were shown relevant for the allosteric communication of Hsp70 s in several experiments and bioinformatics analysis. The FEL analysis revealed also the origin of the ATP-induced structural modifications of the SBD recently measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The pathway between the nucleotide-free and the intermediate state of DnaK was extracted by applying principal component analysis to the subset of internal coordinates describing the transition. The methodology proposed is general and could be applied to analyze allosteric communication in

  14. Workers’ Conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

  15. Conformally connected universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, M.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)

  16. Decaying states as complex energy eigenvectors in generalized quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Gorini, V.

    1977-04-01

    The problem of particle decay is reexamined within the Hamiltonian formalism. By deforming contours of integration, the survival amplitude is expressed as a sum of purely exponential contributions arising from the simple poles of the resolvent on the second sheet plus a background integral along a complex contour GAMMA running below the location of the poles. One observes that the time dependence of the survival amplitude in the small time region is strongly correlated to the asymptotic behaviour of the energy spectrum of the system; one computes the small time behavior of the survival amplitude for a wide variety of asymptotic behaviors. In the special case of the Lee model, using a formal procedure of analytic continuation, it is shown that a complete set of complex energy eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian can be associated with the poles of the resolvent of the background contour GAMMA. These poles and points along GAMMA correspond to the discrete and the continuum states respectively. In this context, each unstable particle is associated with a well defined object, which is a discrete generalized eigenstate of the Hamiltonian having a complex eigenvalue, with its real and negative imaginary parts being the mass and half width of the particle respectively. Finally, one briefly discusses the analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude within this generalized scheme, and notes the appearance of ''redundant poles'' which do not correspond to discrete solutions of the modified eigenvalue problem

  17. Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-24

    Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.

  18. Conformational analysis by intersection: CONAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Andrew; Stanton, Robert; Henne, Randy; Teig, Steve

    2003-01-15

    As high throughput techniques in chemical synthesis and screening improve, more demands are placed on computer assisted design and virtual screening. Many of these computational methods require one or more three-dimensional conformations for molecules, creating a demand for a conformational analysis tool that can rapidly and robustly cover the low-energy conformational spaces of small molecules. A new algorithm of intersection is presented here, which quickly generates (on average heuristics are applied after intersection to generate a small representative collection of conformations that span the conformational space. In a study of approximately 97,000 randomly selected molecules from the MDDR, results are presented that explore these conformations and their ability to cover low-energy conformational space. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 10-20, 2003

  19. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  20. Logarithmic conformal field theory through nilpotent conformal dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Araghi, S.; Rouhani, S.; Saadat, M.

    2001-01-01

    We study logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs) through the introduction of nilpotent conformal weights. Using this device, we derive the properties of LCFTs such as the transformation laws, singular vectors and the structure of correlation functions. We discuss the emergence of an extra energy momentum tensor, which is the logarithmic partner of the energy momentum tensor

  1. The location and nature of general anesthetic binding sites on the active conformation of firefly luciferase; a time resolved photolabeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthaperumal Shanmugasundararaj

    Full Text Available Firefly luciferase is one of the few soluble proteins that is acted upon by a wide variety of general anesthetics and alcohols; they inhibit the ATP-driven production of light. We have used time-resolved photolabeling to locate the binding sites of alcohols during the initial light output, some 200 ms after adding ATP. The photolabel 3-azioctanol inhibited the initial light output with an IC50 of 200 µM, close to its general anesthetic potency. Photoincorporation of [(3H]3-azioctanol into luciferase was saturable but weak. It was enhanced 200 ms after adding ATP but was negligible minutes later. Sequencing of tryptic digests by HPLC-MSMS revealed a similar conformation-dependence for photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol into Glu-313, a residue that lines the bottom of a deep cleft (vestibule whose outer end binds luciferin. An aromatic diazirine analog of benzyl alcohol with broader side chain reactivity reported two sites. First, it photolabeled two residues in the vestibule, Ser-286 and Ile-288, both of which are implicated with Glu-313 in the conformation change accompanying activation. Second, it photolabeled two residues that contact luciferin, Ser-316 and Ser-349. Thus, time resolved photolabeling supports two mechanisms of action. First, an allosteric one, in which anesthetics bind in the vestibule displacing water molecules that are thought to be involved in light output. Second, a competitive one, in which anesthetics bind isosterically with luciferin. This work provides structural evidence that supports the competitive and allosteric actions previously characterized by kinetic studies.

  2. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  3. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  4. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  5. Toward a general mixed quantum/classical method for the calculation of the vibronic ECD of a flexible dye molecule with different stable conformers: Revisiting the case of 2,2,2-trifluoro-anthrylethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Javier; Aranda, Daniel; Avila Ferrer, Francisco J; Prampolini, Giacomo; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna; Abbate, Sergio; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2018-06-01

    We extend a recently proposed mixed quantum/classical method for computing the vibronic electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum of molecules with different conformers, to cases where more than one hindered rotation is present. The method generalizes the standard procedure, based on the simple Boltzmann average of the vibronic spectra of the stable conformers, and includes the contribution of structures that sample all the accessible conformational space. It is applied to the simulation of the ECD spectrum of (S)-2,2,2-trifluoroanthrylethanol, a molecule with easily interconvertible conformers, whose spectrum exhibits a pattern of alternating positive and negative vibronic peaks. Results are in very good agreement with experiment and show that spectra averaged over all the sampled conformational space can deviate significantly from the simple average of the contributions of the stable conformers. The present mixed quantum/classical method is able to capture the effect of the nonlinear dependence of the rotatory strength on the molecular structure and of the anharmonic couplings among the modes responsible for molecular flexibility. Despite its computational cost, the procedure is still affordable and promises to be useful in all cases where the ECD shape arises from a subtle balance between vibronic effects and conformational variety. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    1986-01-01

    The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)

  7. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...

  8. Generalized hidden symmetry for low-energy hadron phsics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.; Meissner, U.G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a detailed study of an effective chiral meson lagrangian involving pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. We employ the recently proposed technique to introduce vector and axial-vector mesons as composite gauge bosons of an extended hidden gauge symmetry of the non-linear σ-model. In particular, we write down the most general anomalous action (Wess-Zumino term) in accordance with low-energy theorems and chiral symmetry. The global flavor anomalies of QCD are given by the standard (5-dimensional) Wess-Zumino-Witten action of the pseudoscalar mesons, whereas all the processes violating natural parity for the vectors and axials are chirally (gauge) symmetric and therefore do not contribute to the Wess-Zumino anomaly equation. We find fourteen independent terms with a priori unknown (real) coefficients. We are able to fix some of these coefficients from anomalous hadronic and radiative vector/axial-vector meson decays. A comparison to the gauged Wess-Zumino action in the so-called massive Yang-Mills approach shows that both anomalous actions are indeed equivalent for a special choice of the unknown coefficients. We finally propose a realistic two-flavor chiral effective lagrangian incorporating pions, the vector mesons ρ and ω as well as the axial A 1 meson which should be used in skyrmion physics at energy scales up to about 1 GeV. (orig.)

  9. Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1999-01-01

    In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)

  10. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millisecond processes. Here we develop an analytical procedure for extracting the conformational distribution and dynamics of fast-folding proteins directly from time-stamped photon arrival trajectories produced by single molecule FRET experiments. Our procedure combines the maximum likelihood analysis originally developed by Gopich and Szabo with a statistical mechanical model that describes protein folding as diffusion on a one-dimensional free energy surface. Using stochastic kinetic simulations, we thoroughly tested the performance of the method in identifying diverse fast-folding scenarios, ranging from two-state to one-state downhill folding, as a function of relevant experimental variables such as photon count rate, amount of input data, and background noise. The tests demonstrate that the analysis can accurately retrieve the original one-dimensional free energy surface and microsecond folding dynamics in spite of the sub-megahertz photon count rates and significant background noise levels of current single molecule fluorescence experiments. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of single molecule FRET experiments of fast protein folding that is also potentially extensible to the analysis of any other biomolecular process governed by sub-millisecond conformational dynamics. PMID:25988351

  11. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  12. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  13. Conformationally averaged vertical detachment energy of finite size NO3(-)·nH2O clusters: a route connecting few to many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar; Samanta, Alok Kumar; Maity, Dilip Kumar

    2011-04-07

    We report conformationally averaged VDEs (VDE(w)(n)) for different sizes of NO(3)(-)·nH(2)O clusters calculated by using uncorrelated HF, correlated hybrid density functional (B3LYP, BHHLYP) and correlated ab intio (MP2 and CCSD(T)) theory. It is observed that the VDE(w)(n) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/Aug-cc-Pvtz and CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p) levels is very close to the experimentally measured VDE. It is shown that the use of calculated results of the conformationally averaged VDE for small-sized solvated negatively-charged clusters and a microscopic theory-based general expression for the same provides a route to obtain the VDE for a wide range of cluster sizes, including bulk.

  14. Frequent Questions about General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    These regulations ensure that federal activities or actions don't cause new violations to the NAAQS and ensure that NAAQS attainment is not delayed. This page has information about other agency representatives or stakeholders

  15. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  16. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Loyen, Richard; Khebchache, Bouzid; Cholin, Xavier; Leicher, David; Mozas, Kevin; Leclercq, Martine; Laugier, Patrick; Dias, Pedro; Kuczer, Eric; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Soussana, Max; Cheze, David; Mugnier, Daniel; Laplagne, Valerie; Mykieta, Frederic; Ducloux, Antoine; Egret, Dominique; Noisette, Nadege; Peneau, Yvan; Seguis, Anne-Sophie; Gerard, Roland

    2017-10-01

    After an introducing contribution which discussed the difficult evolution of the solar thermal energy sector in 2015, contributions addressed development plans for SOCOL (a plan for collective solar thermal and solar heat) which aims at reviving the market and at opening new markets. A next set of contributions discussed how solar thermal energy can be at the service of energy transition. Following sessions addressed issues like innovation at the service of solar thermal energy, energetic display of solar systems and application of the Ecodesign and Labelling directives, and the reduction of carbon footprint and the energy dependence of territories

  18. ENERGY AND CONSTRUCTION CONDITIONS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF APPAATUS FOR GENERAL CRYOTHERAPEUTIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Baranov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the correspondence of construction and power consumption of Cryotherapeutic Complexes (CTC with technological conditions of effectiveness of the General Cryotherapeutic Impact (GCI. Methods. The associated analysis method used Cryotherapeutic Complexes (CTC construction and power consumption with technological conditions of effectiveness of the General Cryotherapeutic Impact (GCI. Results. An explanation for the discrepancy of observations of different researchers in differences in design and available power of the CTC is proposed. The technical operating characteristics of single-seat and multi-seat CTC are provided and these significant differences in apparatus of identical technological designation are illustrated. The proposed system of specific CTC characteristics is capable of unifying their basic structural and energy characteristics. Calculation of the specific characteristics of existing systems showed that between objects of the same designation, there are differences in value, which may be the cause of discrepancies in their therapeutic efficacy. All functional CPC have a cryostatting cooling capacity system deficit of between 8 and 75%. In multi-seat CPC cooling capacity deficit exceeds 50%, which excludes the possibility of obtaining a significant therapeutic effect, as is confirmed by the results of independent studies that show that the procedures in multi-seat CTC safeguards skin from frigorism only up to 14°C, while at the same time for effective OKV frigorism of the skin surface is necessary to a temperature of less than about 2°C. Prior to research on the effectiveness of OKV, it is necessary to assess the energy consumption conformity of cryotherapy equipment. Conclusion. For the successful implementation of OKV in medicine and sport, it is necessary to increase energy efficiency and optimise cryotherapeutic temperature control settings. A cryotheraputic complex should safeguard such physical

  19. Ingerop - Energy activities and industry - General brochure 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Ingerop is a leading player in France and a major player internationally in engineering and consulting in sustainable mobility, energy transition and living environment and in major issues of today and tomorrow. The industrial engineering provided by Ingerop in France and for export, provides a response to customer expectations, integrating more and more the theme of sustainable development. Faced with a growing demand for electricity both in the world and in Europe Ingerop made the energy sector its priority development. The controlled use of energy (energy efficiency, renewable energy) is an ongoing challenge for Ingerop. The group continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad until the decommissioning phases in France and abroad. Ingerop continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad to decommissioning in France and abroad. Ingerop strengthens its expertise in new energy with new projects in biomass boilers and heat networks. The group has profound geothermal skills in heating networks or fatal energy recovery, permitting them to intervene with local authorities such as farmers, from feasibility studies to commissioning and assisting project management with technical studies. The expertise acquired by the group Ingerop in the 1990's, through the construction of fifty data centers on behalf of SFR, enables a significant experience going back twenty years. Furthermore, development continued on the design of more energy-efficient projects and ensuring increasingly high reliability. This brochure presents Ingerop's skills and main references in its four domains of intervention: energy industry (operation in nuclear environment, conventional power plants, new energy technologies, data centers), other industries, infrastructures, and building industry

  20. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  1. Conformality lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.

  2. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA) [fr

  3. Vacuum polarization energy for general backgrounds in one space dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weigel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For field theories in one time and one space dimensions we propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow a decomposition into symmetric and anti-symmetric channels. The method also applies to scenarios in which the masses of the quantum fluctuations at positive and negative spatial infinity are different. As an example we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the soliton to the different masses.

  4. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

  5. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  6. Dark energy cosmology with generalized linear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, E; Dokuchaev, V; Eroshenko, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy with the usually used equation of state p = wρ, where w const 0 ), where the constants α and ρ 0 are free parameters. This non-homogeneous linear equation of state provides the description of both hydrodynamically stable (α > 0) and unstable (α < 0) fluids. In particular, the considered cosmological model describes the hydrodynamically stable dark (and phantom) energy. The possible types of cosmological scenarios in this model are determined and classified in terms of attractors and unstable points by using phase trajectories analysis. For the dark energy case, some distinctive types of cosmological scenarios are possible: (i) the universe with the de Sitter attractor at late times, (ii) the bouncing universe, (iii) the universe with the big rip and with the anti-big rip. In the framework of a linear equation of state the universe filled with a phantom energy, w < -1, may have either the de Sitter attractor or the big rip

  7. General aspects concerning the nuclear energy and the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodeanu, F.; Bilegan, I.; Chirica, T.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power successfully competes, from technical and economic point of view all the other energy sources, having a much less environmental impact. Its expansion is limited in our days by the acceptance of local communities. Thus, for the success of a nuclear power project, the public information becomes a strategic option of the company management, and the Romanian Energy Authority - RENEL is now implementing the first steps of its programme aiming at this objective. (author). 23 refs

  8. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  9. Energy transition. To put an end to generally accepted ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    In a set of brief texts, this publication shows that many commonly heard statements regarding energy are wrong. These wrong statements are: Germany has replaced its nuclear by coal which is even more polluting and harmful for the climate; Renewable energies will never cover all our electricity needs, and we'll still need nuclear or gas when wind turbines and solar arrays do not produce; French people are largely opposed to renewable energies, notably those located at the proximity of wind energy projects; Doing without nuclear is depriving of an electricity which is lastingly cheaper than that of our neighbours; Closing nuclear and coal plants will automatically increase unemployment, that which is unacceptable in these times of crisis; Renewable energies will have negative impacts on landscapes as territories will be covered with wind turbines and solar arrays; Renewable energies are harmful for the environment (wind turbine kill huge amounts of birds, and solar arrays use rare earth materials); Ecologists always want to create more additional taxes; Car is necessary, notably in rural areas where there is no public transports; Pollution peaks are mainly caused by pollution coming from Germany and by chimneys and farmers, and cars are not responsible for that; Eating organic food is much more expensive; Helping countries of the South to struggle against climate change is an expense France cannot afford; France almost does not emit greenhouse gases in comparison with China and the USA, and thus, why should we make efforts when other countries do not make them?; Thanks to nuclear, France is more energetically independent; Nuclear does not emit greenhouse gases, it's a clean energy

  10. Integrating renewable energy into general practice : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-01

    This feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of integrating solar thermal residential domestic hot water systems and community ground source heating and air conditioning within low-income housing projects in Toronto. The study examined the organizational changes needed to incorporate renewable energy systems for small-scale district and individual homes. The study was conducted on behalf of Habitat for Humanity (HFHT). Results of the study showed that the most significant benefits of integrating renewable energy systems will be the elimination of fossil fuel usage; reductions in home operating costs for partner families; and the potential for leveraging increased sponsorship funds. A geoexchange heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system was recommended for the new HFHT headquarters as well as for future housing projects. It was concluded that HFHT should prepare for increased integration of renewable energy technologies as capital costs decrease and greater financial incentives become available. 15 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    1999-01-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  12. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  13. Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data

    OpenAIRE

    Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis

    2000-01-01

    We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.

  14. DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Yeremy [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Santiago (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)

    2014-11-15

    The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch (element of = +1). For the negative branch (element of = -1) we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form αH{sup 2} + βH, H being the Hubble parameter and α, β positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for r{sub c}H(z), where r{sub c} is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters α and β, in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as r{sub c}H{sub 0} in the positive branch, where H{sub 0} is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for (r{sub c}H{sub 0}, α, β) lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  15. Energy taxes and wages in a general equilibrium model of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxes are responsible for a good deal of observed differences in energy prices across states and countries. They alter patterns of production and income distribution. The present paper examines the potential of energy taxes to lower wages in a general equilibrium model of production with capital, labour and energy inputs. (Author)

  16. A study of the linear free energy model for DNA structures using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, M., E-mail: yavari@iaukashan.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Kashan Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    We generalize the results of Nesterenko [13, 14] and Gogilidze and Surovtsev [15] for DNA structures. Using the generalized Hamiltonian formalism, we investigate solutions of the equilibrium shape equations for the linear free energy model.

  17. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  18. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy–momentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou and Möller to compute the energy–momentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space–times under

  19. Study on the generalized WKB approximation for the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy for complex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, Yu.A.; Terenetskij, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The approximate method for solution of the inverse scattering problem (ISP) at fixed energy for complex spherically symmetric potentials decreasing faster 1/r is considered. The method is based on using a generalized WKB approximation. For the designed potential V(r) a sufficiently ''close'' reference potential V(r) has been chosen. For both potentials S-matrix elements (ME) have been calculated and inversion procedure has been carried out. S-ME have been calculated for integral-valued and intermediate angular moment values. S-ME are presented in a graphical form for being restored reference, and restored potentials for proton scattering with Esub(p)=49.48 MeV energy on 12 C nuclei. The restoration is the better the ''closer'' the sought-for potential to the reference one. This allows to specify the potential by means of iterations: the restored potential can be used as a reference one, etc. The operation of a restored potential smoothing before the following iteration is introduced. Drawbacks and advantages of the ISP solution method under consideration are pointed out. The method application is strongly limited by the requirement that the energy should be higher than a certain ''critical'' one. The method is applicable in a wider region of particle energies (in the low-energies direction) than the ordinary WKB method. The method is more simple in realization conformably to complex potentials. The investigations carried out of the proposed ISP solution method at fixed energy for complex spherically-symmetric potentials allow to conclude that the method can be successFully applied to specify the central part of interaction of nucleons, α-particles and heavy ions of average and high energies with atomic nuclei [ru

  20. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...

  1. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  2. DNA – A General Energy System Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of the energy system simulation tool DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis). DNA has been developed since 1989 to be able to handle models of any kind of energy system based on the control volume approach, usually systems of lumped parameter components. DNA has proven...... to be a useful tool in the analysis and optimization of several types of thermal systems: Steam turbines, gas turbines, fuels cells, gasification, refrigeration and heat pumps for both conventional fossil fuels and different types of biomass. DNA is applicable for models of both steady state and dynamic...... operation. The program decides at runtime to apply the DAE solver if the system contains differential equations. This makes it easy to extend an existing steady state model to simulate dynamic operation of the plant. The use of the program is illustrated by examples of gas turbine models. The paper also...

  3. Hot Conformal Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i......We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...

  4. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyen, Richard; Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Laplagne, Valerie; Lambertucci, Stefano; Hauser, Eva; Delmas, Pierre; Mozas, Kevin; Servier, Gerard; Girard, Jean-Paul; Haim, Philippe; Gendron, Marc; Haas, Benjamin; Leclech, Rodrigue; Eberhardt, Mathieu; Bettwy, Fabrice; Berthomieu, Nadine; Barais, Claire; Mingant, Sylvie; Daniel, Charles; GODIN, Olivier; PELe, Charles; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Marchal, David; Khebchache, Bouzid

    2017-10-01

    The contributions of this conference first proposed an overview of the status and perspectives of the solar thermal energy sector with a presentation of the present situation and perspectives for the French market, and an overview of situations and initiatives in neighbouring European countries. A second session addressed the possible new economical and marketing models able to face challenges of solar thermal energy in 2018 with focuses on heat kWh purchase, on supply portage through a global operator contract (design-realisation-exploitation-maintenance contracts or CREM contracts, energy performance contracts or CPE), and on issues related to building renovation (solar-gas synergy) and to new buildings (regulatory evolution, E+C label). The third session proposed examples of local good practices: development of solar thermal networks in Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes with the development of these networks and a support to commissioners, ADEME's support with patrimony-rehabilitation contracts, and the solar policy implemented by the Brest metropole. A technological focus was then proposed. It addressed communications about the SOCOL approach, concentration-based solar technology (technology, applications, realisations), and solar heating (assets in new and renovated buildings). Before a synthesis, two interventions addressed the production of solar electron and calories, and works performed on the increase of the solar coverage rate

  5. The logarithmic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi Tabar, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.

    1997-01-01

    We study the correlation functions of logarithmic conformal field theories. First, assuming conformal invariance, we explicitly calculate two- and three-point functions. This calculation is done for the general case of more than one logarithmic field in a block, and more than one set of logarithmic fields. Then we show that one can regard the logarithmic field as a formal derivative of the ordinary field with respect to its conformal weight. This enables one to calculate any n-point function containing the logarithmic field in terms of ordinary n-point functions. Finally, we calculate the operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of a logarithmic conformal field theory, and show that these can be obtained from the corresponding coefficients of ordinary conformal theory by a simple derivation. (orig.)

  6. General Astrophysics with TPF: Not Just Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Besides searching for Earth-LIke Planets, TPF can study Jupiters, Neptunes, and all sorts of exotic planets. It can image debris-disks, YSO disks, AGN disks, maybe even AGB disks. And you are probably aware that a large optical space telescope like TPF-C or TPF-O can be a fantastic tool for studying the equation of state of the Dark Energy. I will review some of the future science of TPF-C, TPF-I and TPF-O, focusing on the applications of TPF to the study of objects in our Galaxy: especially circumstellar disks and planets other than exo-Earths.

  7. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C.

    2002-03-01

    Major advances in 'Energy and Materials Cycles' have been achieved in the removal of heavy metals from the solid residues of municipal waste incineration. It has been conclusively shown that the oxidation/reduction conditions established during the thermal treatment of filter ash have a decisive influence on the evaporation of groups of heavy metals. With respect to biomass gasification, studies have been carried out with respect to the best way of extracting pure hydrogen from the low calorific value gas that is typically obtained from a biomass gasifier. The overarching goal of the laboratory 'High Temperature Solar Technology' is the use of solar energy for the production of solar fuels, or for the reduction of CO 2 emissions in large scale industrial processes that are conventionally carried out with the use of fossil fuels. In a short-term project targeted at the solar production of lime, highly encouraging results (98% degree of calcination, adjustable reactivity of the lime) have been obtained in a 10 kW prototype reactor. Hybrid processes, in which the calorific value of fossil fuels is upgraded by solar energy, represent the medium-term strategy. In this context, the successful operation of the SYNMET reactor, in which zinc oxide is reacted with methane to produce zinc and synthesis gas, represents an important milestone. The physical sciences group has come up with a novel scheme in which sulfides, rather than oxides, are used as starting materials. Copper sulfide Cu 2 S has been identified as a promising raw material, from which metallic copper would be produced in a solar reduction step. For the use of a catalytic combustor upstream of the main burning chamber of the gas turbine, it is crucial to know the stream wise distance over the catalyst where homogeneous ignition is initiated. The combustion-group working at this concept has made great advances in matching the observed ignition distances with theory. In addition, the influence of turbulence was

  9. Unconstrained multiplet in N=2 conformal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Uehara, Shozo.

    1985-02-01

    An unconstrained (general) multiplet was studied in N = 2 conformal supergravity. Transformation law, embedding formula and multiplication rule are explicitly presented at the linearized level. (author)

  10. Skyrmion vibrational energies together with a generalized mass term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Merlin C.; Marleau, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We study various properties of a one-parameter mass term for the Skyrme model, originating from the works of Kopeliovich, Piette and Zakrzewski [V. B. Kopeliovich, B. Piette, and W. J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rev. D 73, 014006 (2006).], through the use of axially symmetric solutions obtained numerically by simulated-annealing. These solutions allow us to observe asymptotic behaviors of the B=2 binding energies that differ to those previously obtained [B. Piette and W. J. Zakrzewski, Phys. Rev. D 77, 074009 (2008).]. We also decipher the characteristics of three distinct vibrational modes that appear as eigenstates of the vibrational Hamiltonian. This analysis further examine the assertion that the one-parameter mass term offers a better account of baryonic matter than the traditional mass term.

  11. Correspondence between the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes 5 attachments: the letter of 9 April 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the letter of 11 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the text of the telex of 27 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General, the text of the telex of 28 May 1984 from the Director General to the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and the text of the telex from 30 May 1984 from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General refering to ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  12. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, A; Daum, C [eds.

    2002-03-01

    Major advances in 'Energy and Materials Cycles' have been achieved in the removal of heavy metals from the solid residues of municipal waste incineration. It has been conclusively shown that the oxidation/reduction conditions established during the thermal treatment of filter ash have a decisive influence on the evaporation of groups of heavy metals. With respect to biomass gasification, studies have been carried out with respect to the best way of extracting pure hydrogen from the low calorific value gas that is typically obtained from a biomass gasifier. The overarching goal of the laboratory 'High Temperature Solar Technology' is the use of solar energy for the production of solar fuels, or for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in large scale industrial processes that are conventionally carried out with the use of fossil fuels. In a short-term project targeted at the solar production of lime, highly encouraging results (98% degree of calcination, adjustable reactivity of the lime) have been obtained in a 10 kW prototype reactor. Hybrid processes, in which the calorific value of fossil fuels is upgraded by solar energy, represent the medium-term strategy. In this context, the successful operation of the SYNMET reactor, in which zinc oxide is reacted with methane to produce zinc and synthesis gas, represents an important milestone. The physical sciences group has come up with a novel scheme in which sulfides, rather than oxides, are used as starting materials. Copper sulfide Cu{sub 2}S has been identified as a promising raw material, from which metallic copper would be produced in a solar reduction step. For the use of a catalytic combustor upstream of the main burning chamber of the gas turbine, it is crucial to know the stream wise distance over the catalyst where homogeneous ignition is initiated. The combustion-group working at this concept has made great advances in matching the observed ignition distances with theory. In addition, the influence of

  13. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume V: General Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokaun, A.; Daum, C. (eds.)

    2002-03-01

    Major advances in 'Energy and Materials Cycles' have been achieved in the removal of heavy metals from the solid residues of municipal waste incineration. It has been conclusively shown that the oxidation/reduction conditions established during the thermal treatment of filter ash have a decisive influence on the evaporation of groups of heavy metals. With respect to biomass gasification, studies have been carried out with respect to the best way of extracting pure hydrogen from the low calorific value gas that is typically obtained from a biomass gasifier. The overarching goal of the laboratory 'High Temperature Solar Technology' is the use of solar energy for the production of solar fuels, or for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in large scale industrial processes that are conventionally carried out with the use of fossil fuels. In a short-term project targeted at the solar production of lime, highly encouraging results (98% degree of calcination, adjustable reactivity of the lime) have been obtained in a 10 kW prototype reactor. Hybrid processes, in which the calorific value of fossil fuels is upgraded by solar energy, represent the medium-term strategy. In this context, the successful operation of the SYNMET reactor, in which zinc oxide is reacted with methane to produce zinc and synthesis gas, represents an important milestone. The physical sciences group has come up with a novel scheme in which sulfides, rather than oxides, are used as starting materials. Copper sulfide Cu{sub 2}S has been identified as a promising raw material, from which metallic copper would be produced in a solar reduction step. For the use of a catalytic combustor upstream of the main burning chamber of the gas turbine, it is crucial to know the stream wise distance over the catalyst where homogeneous ignition is initiated. The combustion-group working at this concept has made great advances in matching the observed ignition distances with theory. In addition, the

  14. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. How Many Conformations Need To Be Sampled To Obtain Converged QM/MM Energies? The Curse of Exponential Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryde, Ulf

    2017-11-14

    Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations is a popular approach to study enzymatic reactions. They are often based on a set of minimized structures obtained on snapshots from a molecular dynamics simulation to include some dynamics of the enzyme. It has been much discussed how the individual energies should be combined to obtain a final estimate of the energy, but the current consensus seems to be to use an exponential average. Then, the question is how many snapshots are needed to reach a reliable estimate of the energy. In this paper, I show that the question can be easily be answered if it is assumed that the energies follow a Gaussian distribution. Then, the outcome can be simulated based on a single parameter, σ, the standard deviation of the QM/MM energies from the various snapshots, and the number of required snapshots can be estimated once the desired accuracy and confidence of the result has been specified. Results for various parameters are presented, and it is shown that many more snapshots are required than is normally assumed. The number can be reduced by employing a cumulant approximation to second order. It is shown that most convergence criteria work poorly, owing to the very bad conditioning of the exponential average when σ is large (more than ∼7 kJ/mol), because the energies that contribute most to the exponential average have a very low probability. On the other hand, σ serves as an excellent convergence criterion.

  16. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Adam R. Brandt; Michael Dale

    2011-01-01

    The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy ...

  17. Study of conformally flat polytropes with tilted congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia

    This paper is aimed to study the modeling of spherically symmetric spacetime in the presence of anisotropic dissipative fluid configuration. This is accomplished for an observer moving relative to matter content using two cases of polytropic equation-of-state under conformally flat condition. We formulate the corresponding generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, mass equation, as well as energy conditions for both cases. The conformally flat condition is imposed to find an expression for anisotropy which helps to study spherically symmetric polytropes. Finally, Tolman mass is used to analyze stability of the resulting models.

  18. Conformational changes in glycine tri- and hexapeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of the characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods...... also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids....

  19. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-376] Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe...

  20. Non-linear realizations of conformal symmetry and effective field theory for the pseudo-conformal universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of writing down geometric scalars in terms of the conformal mode. Using this general effective action, we compute the two-point function for the Goldstone and a fiducial weight-0 field, as well as some sample three-point functions involving these fields

  1. Conformal field theory in conformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preitschopf, C.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new framework for a Lagrangian description of conformal field theories in various dimensions based on a local version of d + 2-dimensional conformal space. The results include a true gauge theory of conformal gravity in d = (1, 3) and any standard matter coupled to it. An important feature is the automatic derivation of the conformal gravity constraints, which are necessary for the analysis of the matter systems

  2. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE κ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u 2 , led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  3. Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, B O J; Keane, A J; Hall, G S; Coley, A A; Carot, J

    2003-01-01

    We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case

  4. Intramolecular ex vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET of Dihydropyridine Receptor (DHPR β1a Subunit Reveals Conformational Change Induced by RYR1 in Mouse Skeletal Myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR β1a subunit is essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, but the structural organization of β1a as part of the macromolecular DHPR-ryanodine receptor type I (RyR1 complex is still debatable. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to probe proximity relationships within the β1a subunit in cultured skeletal myotubes lacking or expressing RyR1. The fluorescein biarsenical reagent FlAsH was used as the FRET acceptor, which exhibits fluorescence upon binding to specific tetracysteine motifs, and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as the FRET donor. Ten β1a reporter constructs were generated by inserting the CCPGCC FlAsH binding motif into five positions probing the five domains of β1a with either carboxyl or amino terminal fused CFP. FRET efficiency was largest when CCPGCC was positioned next to CFP, and significant intramolecular FRET was observed for all constructs suggesting that in situ the β1a subunit has a relatively compact conformation in which the carboxyl and amino termini are not extended. Comparison of the FRET efficiency in wild type to that in dyspedic (lacking RyR1 myotubes revealed that in only one construct (H458 CCPGCC β1a -CFP FRET efficiency was specifically altered by the presence of RyR1. The present study reveals that the C-terminal of the β1a subunit changes conformation in the presence of RyR1 consistent with an interaction between the C-terminal of β1a and RyR1 in resting myotubes.

  5. Towards conformal loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-01-01

    A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity

  6. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  7. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  8. Proceedings of the 4. General Congress on Nuclear Energy. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The first volume of the 4. General Congress on Nuclear Energy presents works about transient and accident analysis; thermohydraulics; radioisotopes uses; fuel cycle; shield; material technology; nuclear installation construction and reactor and nuclear physics. (C.G.C.)

  9. P-loop conformation governed crizotinib resistance in G2032R-mutated ROS1 tyrosine kinase: clues from free energy landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinases are regarded as excellent targets for chemical drug therapy of carcinomas. However, under strong purifying selection, drug resistance usually occurs in the cancer cells within a short term. Many cases of drug resistance have been found to be associated with secondary mutations in drug target, which lead to the attenuated drug-target interactions. For example, recently, an acquired secondary mutation, G2032R, has been detected in the drug target, ROS1 tyrosine kinase, from a crizotinib-resistant patient, who responded poorly to crizotinib within a very short therapeutic term. It was supposed that the mutation was located at the solvent front and might hinder the drug binding. However, a different fact could be uncovered by the simulations reported in this study. Here, free energy surfaces were characterized by the drug-target distance and the phosphate-binding loop (P-loop conformational change of the crizotinib-ROS1 complex through advanced molecular dynamics techniques, and it was revealed that the more rigid P-loop region in the G2032R-mutated ROS1 was primarily responsible for the crizotinib resistance, which on one hand, impaired the binding of crizotinib directly, and on the other hand, shortened the residence time induced by the flattened free energy surface. Therefore, both of the binding affinity and the drug residence time should be emphasized in rational drug design to overcome the kinase resistance.

  10. Ligand induced change of β2 adrenergic receptor from active to inactive conformation and its implication for the closed/open state of the water channel: insight from molecular dynamics simulation, free energy calculation and Markov state model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qifeng; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yonghua; Shi, Danfeng; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-08-14

    The reported crystal structures of β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) reveal that the open and closed states of the water channel are correlated with the inactive and active conformations of β2AR. However, more details about the process by which the water channel states are affected by the active to inactive conformational change of β2AR remain illusive. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the dynamical inactive and active conformational change of β2AR induced by inverse agonist ICI 118,551. Markov state model analysis and free energy calculation are employed to explore the open and close states of the water channel. The simulation results show that inverse agonist ICI 118,551 can induce water channel opening during the conformational transition of β2AR. Markov state model (MSM) analysis proves that the energy contour can be divided into seven states. States S1, S2 and S5, which represent the active conformation of β2AR, show that the water channel is in the closed state, while states S4 and S6, which correspond to the intermediate state conformation of β2AR, indicate the water channel opens gradually. State S7, which represents the inactive structure of β2AR, corresponds to the full open state of the water channel. The opening mechanism of the water channel is involved in the ligand-induced conformational change of β2AR. These results can provide useful information for understanding the opening mechanism of the water channel and will be useful for the rational design of potent inverse agonists of β2AR.

  11. Naturality in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)

  12. Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.

  13. A chord error conforming tool path B-spline fitting method for NC machining based on energy minimization and LSPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Piecewise linear (G01-based tool paths generated by CAM systems lack G1 and G2 continuity. The discontinuity causes vibration and unnecessary hesitation during machining. To ensure efficient high-speed machining, a method to improve the continuity of the tool paths is required, such as B-spline fitting that approximates G01 paths with B-spline curves. Conventional B-spline fitting approaches cannot be directly used for tool path B-spline fitting, because they have shortages such as numerical instability, lack of chord error constraint, and lack of assurance of a usable result. Progressive and Iterative Approximation for Least Squares (LSPIA is an efficient method for data fitting that solves the numerical instability problem. However, it does not consider chord errors and needs more work to ensure ironclad results for commercial applications. In this paper, we use LSPIA method incorporating Energy term (ELSPIA to avoid the numerical instability, and lower chord errors by using stretching energy term. We implement several algorithm improvements, including (1 an improved technique for initial control point determination over Dominant Point Method, (2 an algorithm that updates foot point parameters as needed, (3 analysis of the degrees of freedom of control points to insert new control points only when needed, (4 chord error refinement using a similar ELSPIA method with the above enhancements. The proposed approach can generate a shape-preserving B-spline curve. Experiments with data analysis and machining tests are presented for verification of quality and efficiency. Comparisons with other known solutions are included to evaluate the worthiness of the proposed solution.

  14. Conformational dynamics data bank: a database for conformational dynamics of proteins and supramolecular protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Nyun; Altschuler, Josiah; Strong, Campbell; McGill, Gaël; Bathe, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The conformational dynamics data bank (CDDB, http://www.cdyn.org) is a database that aims to provide comprehensive results on the conformational dynamics of high molecular weight proteins and protein assemblies. Analysis is performed using a recently introduced coarse-grained computational approach that is applied to the majority of structures present in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB). Results include equilibrium thermal fluctuations and elastic strain energy distributions that identify rigid versus flexible protein domains generally, as well as those associated with specific functional transitions, and correlations in molecular motions that identify molecular regions that are highly coupled dynamically, with implications for allosteric mechanisms. A practical web-based search interface enables users to easily collect conformational dynamics data in various formats. The data bank is maintained and updated automatically to include conformational dynamics results for new structural entries as they become available in the EMDB. The CDDB complements static structural information to facilitate the investigation and interpretation of the biological function of proteins and protein assemblies essential to cell function.

  15. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced

  16. Proceedings of the 1. General Congress of Nuclear Energy. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of I General Congress of Nuclear Energy are presented. All fields related to nuclear energy are enclosed. In the second part the following fields are shown: reactor instrumentation and control, nuclear medicine, radioisotopes uses, fuel cycle and radiation protection. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Proceedings of the 1. General Congress of Nuclear Energy. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of 1 General Congress of Nuclear Energy are presented. All fields related to nuclear energy are enclosed. In the first part the following fields are shown: safety analysis, science and technology of materials, nuclear materials, nuclear laws, education and trainning, reactor physics, nuclear physics, quality assurance, mathematical models, reactor operation, safeguards, advanced technologies, thermohydraulic and reactor licensing. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  20. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  1. Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate Dependent Phosphotransferase System. NMR Studies of the Conformation of HPr and P-HPr and the Mechanism of Energy Coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijewaard, G.; Roossien, F.F.; Robillard, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of the phosphoprotein intermediate P-HPr and the parent molecule HPr of the E. coli phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) show that HPr can exist in two conformations. These conformations influence the protonation state of

  2. Agravity up to infinite energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2018-02-15

    The self-interactions of the conformal mode of the graviton are controlled, in dimensionless gravity theories (agravity), by a coupling f{sub 0} that is not asymptotically free. We show that, nevertheless, agravity can be a complete theory valid up to infinite energy. When f{sub 0} grows to large values, the conformal mode of the graviton decouples from the rest of the theory and does not hit any Landau pole provided that scalars are asymptotically conformally coupled and all other couplings approach fixed points. Then agravity can flow to conformal gravity at infinite energy. We identify scenarios where the Higgs mass does not receive unnaturally large physical corrections. We also show a useful equivalence between agravity and conformal gravity plus two extra conformally coupled scalars, and we give a simpler form for the renormalization group equations of dimensionless couplings as well as of massive parameters in the presence of the most general matter sector. (orig.)

  3. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  4. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  5. Elementary introduction to conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandati, Y.

    1992-01-01

    These notes constitute an elementary introduction to the concept of conformal invariance and its applications to the study of bidimensional critical phenomena. The aim is to give an access as pedestrian as possible to this vast subject. After a brief account of the general properties of conformal transformation in D dimensions, we study more specifically the case D = 2. The center of the discussion is then the consequences of the action of this symmetry group on bidimensional field theories, and in particular the links between the representations of the Virasoro algebra and the structure of the correlation functions of conformal field theories. Finally after showing how the Ising model reduces to a Majorana fermionic field theory, we see how the general formalism previously discussed can be applied to the Ising case at the critical point. (orig.)

  6. Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model. (author)

  7. Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, M.J. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1982-12-01

    A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model.

  8. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2014-07-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Shakir, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Gilani, Zaheer Abbas

    2014-01-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The energy efficiency partnership - Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.C.; Donoghue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During the past twenty years, inordinate shifts in the supply and demand of energy have forced both electric utility companies and their customers to investigate new and innovative ways to satisfy the ever increasing demand for electricity. The Energy Efficiency Partnership, developed between Kraft General Foods and Boston Edison Company, presents an exemplary study of how two corporate giants creatively solved the problem of uncontrolled energy costs and its positive effect on the overall operations of Kraft General Foods, Framingham. But the Energy Efficiency Partnership did more than reduce energy costs, it provided benefits to all parties on the playing field. To understand its significance, a review of the partnership's history is paramount. The first official announcement of the Energy Efficiency Partnership was made on April 9, 1990. Framingham, MA, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Kraft General Foods Framingham, and Boston Edison Company have joined forces in a $3.6 million dollar energy partnership that will help keep 250 industrial jobs in Massachusetts and could lead to the future expansion of the international food company's Framingham facility

  11. EC Declaration of conformity relating to the energy subsystem of the Loetschberg base line; EG-Prueferklaerung zum Teilsystem Energie der Loetschberg-Basisstrecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegeli, H.; Schaer, R.; Schulze, J. [ENOTRAC AG, Thun (Switzerland); Koch, M. [BLS AG, Bern (Switzerland); Loertscher, M. [Bundesamt fuer Verkehr, Bern (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    The Loetschberg base line was evaluated as a high speed line carrying also freight traffic according to the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) Energy. The evaluation method, assessed factors and results are presented in this article. Also included is a description of the extensive measurements and tests of the overall power supply system, the results of which were significant for the TSI evaluation. The positive results are part of the final commissioning document from the Swiss Railway Authority (FOT). (orig.)

  12. Supertwistor connection and conformal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetry expansion of the geometry of local twistors is suggested. Definition of the space of local supertwistors is given and its differential geometry is formulated. Variational principles are discussed, and it is shown that corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations also coincide and result in superzero equations of N=1 conformal supergravitation, which generalize Bach equations

  13. Effects of Low Anisotropy on Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Galileon Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossienkhani, H.; Fayaz, V.; Jafari, A.; Yousefi, H.

    2018-04-01

    The definition of the Galileon gravity form is extended to the Brans-Dicke theory. Given, the framework of the Galileon theory, the generalized ghost dark energy model in an anisotropic universe is investigated. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy in Bianchi type I model. We also probe observational constraints by using the latest observational data on the generalized ghost dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy. In order to do so, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z). As a result, we show the influence of the anisotropy (although low) on the evolution of the universe in the statefinder diagrams for Galileon gravity.

  14. Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases.

  15. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penning, Julie [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Victor [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The DOE report, Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications, is a biannual report which models the adoption of LEDs in the U.S. general-lighting market, along with associated energy savings, based on the full potential DOE has determined to be technically feasible over time. This version of the report uses an updated 2016 U.S. lighting-market model that is more finely calibrated and granular than previous models, and extends the forecast period to 2035 from the 2030 limit that was used in previous editions.

  16. Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blazquez, J; Hunt, Lester; Manzano, B

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) announced its Vision 2030 strategic plan incorporating major changes to the economic structure of the country, including an intention to deploy 9.5 GW of renewable energy in an effort to reduce the penetration of oil in the electricity generation system. This paper assesses the macroeconomic impact of such changes in the KSA, coupled with reductions in implicit energy subsidies. Based on a dynamic general equilibrium model, our analysis suggests that...

  17. General Navier–Stokes-like momentum and mass-energy equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Jorge, E-mail: jmonreal@mail.usf.edu

    2015-03-15

    A new system of general Navier–Stokes-like equations is proposed to model electromagnetic flow utilizing analogues of hydrodynamic conservation equations. Such equations are intended to provide a different perspective and, potentially, a better understanding of electromagnetic mass, energy and momentum behaviour. Under such a new framework additional insights into electromagnetism could be gained. To that end, we propose a system of momentum and mass-energy conservation equations coupled through both momentum density and velocity vectors.

  18. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  19. Conformational landscape of an amyloid intra-cellular domain and Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm in protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng, E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2016-07-28

    The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm is proposed as a framework, to investigate the conformational landscape of intrinsically unstructured proteins. A universal Cα-trace Landau free energy is deduced from general symmetry considerations, with the ensuing all-atom structure modeled using publicly available reconstruction programs Pulchra and Scwrl. As an example, the conformational stability of an amyloid precursor protein intra-cellular domain (AICD) is inspected; the reference conformation is the crystallographic structure with code 3DXC in Protein Data Bank (PDB) that describes a heterodimer of AICD and a nuclear multi-domain adaptor protein Fe65. Those conformations of AICD that correspond to local or near-local minima of the Landau free energy are identified. For this, the response of the original 3DXC conformation to variations in the ambient temperature is investigated, using the Glauber algorithm. The conclusion is that in isolation the AICD conformation in 3DXC must be unstable. A family of degenerate conformations that minimise the Landau free energy is identified, and it is proposed that the native state of an isolated AICD is a superposition of these conformations. The results are fully in line with the presumed intrinsically unstructured character of isolated AICD and should provide a basis for a systematic analysis of AICD structure in future NMR experiments.

  20. Telex message to the Director General from the President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of a telex message dated 19 July 1988 from the Deputy Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran and President of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran to the Director General of the IAEA and the Director General's reply dated 29 July 1988, in connection with an Iraqi military attack of the Busher Nuclear Power Plant on 18 July 1988

  1. An energy recondensation method using the discrete generalized multigroup energy expansion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lei; Forget, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discrete-generalized multigroup method was implemented as a recondensation scheme. → Coarse group cross-sections were recondensed from core-level solution. → Neighboring effect of reflector and MOX bundle was improved. → Methodology was shown to be fully consistent when a flat angular flux approximation is used. - Abstract: In this paper, the discrete generalized multigroup (DGM) method was used to recondense the coarse group cross-sections using the core level solution, thus providing a correction for neighboring effect found at the core level. This approach was tested using a discrete ordinates implementation in both 1-D and 2-D. Results indicate that 2 or 3 iterations can substantially improve the flux and fission density errors associated with strong interfacial spectral changes as found in the presence of strong absorbers, reflector of mixed-oxide fuel. The methodology is also proven to be fully consistent with the multigroup methodology as long as a flat-flux approximation is used spatially.

  2. Conformational Dynamics of a Y-Family DNA Polymerase during Substrate Binding and Catalysis As Revealed by Interdomain F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Brian A.; Xu, Cuiling; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    Numerous kinetic, structural, and theoretical studies have established that DNA polymerases adjust their domain structures to enclose nucleotides in their active sites and then rearrange critical active site residues and substrates for catalysis, with the latter conformational change acting to kinetically limit the correct nucleotide incorporation rate. Additionally, structural studies have revealed a large conformational change between the apoprotein and the DNA?protein binary state for Y-fa...

  3. Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.

  4. Topics in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this work two major topics in Conformal Field Theory are discussed. First a detailed investigation of N = 2 Superconformal theories is presented. The structure of the representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebras is investigated and the character formulae are calculated. The general structure of N = 2 superconformal theories is elucidated and the operator algebra of the minimal models is derived. The first minimal system is discussed in more detail. Second, applications of the conformal techniques are studied in the Ashkin-Teller model. The c = 1 as well as the c = 1/2 critical lines are discussed in detail

  5. Quantum Conformal Algebras and Closed Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the quantum conformal algebras of N=2 and N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phenomena occurring at strong coupling are analysed using the Nachtmann theorem and very general, model-independent, arguments. The results lead us to introduce a novel class of conformal field theories, identified by a closed quantum conformal algebra. We conjecture that they are the exact solution to the strongly coupled large-N_c limit of the open conformal field theories. We study the basic properties of closed conformal field theory and work out the operator product expansion of the conserved current multiplet T. The OPE structure is uniquely determined by two central charges, c and a. The multiplet T does not contain just the stress-tensor, but also R-currents and finite mass operators. For this reason, the ratio c/a is different from 1. On the other hand, an open algebra contains an infinite tower of non-conserved currents, organized in pairs and singlets with respect to renormalization mixing. T mixes with a se...

  6. Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.

    2015-09-01

    Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.

  7. Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, Gernot; Peterson, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)

  8. An energy-stable generalized- α method for the Swift–Hohenberg equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Espath, L.F.R.; Vignal, P.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Parsani, Matteo; Calo, V.M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a second-order accurate energy-stable time-integration method that controls the evolution of numerical instabilities introducing numerical dissipation in the highest-resolved frequencies. Our algorithm further extends the generalized-α method and provides control over dissipation via the spectral radius. We derive the first and second laws of thermodynamics for the Swift–Hohenberg equation and provide a detailed proof of the unconditional energy stability of our algorithm. Finally, we present numerical results to verify the energy stability and its second-order accuracy in time.

  9. An energy-stable generalized- α method for the Swift–Hohenberg equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2017-11-16

    We propose a second-order accurate energy-stable time-integration method that controls the evolution of numerical instabilities introducing numerical dissipation in the highest-resolved frequencies. Our algorithm further extends the generalized-α method and provides control over dissipation via the spectral radius. We derive the first and second laws of thermodynamics for the Swift–Hohenberg equation and provide a detailed proof of the unconditional energy stability of our algorithm. Finally, we present numerical results to verify the energy stability and its second-order accuracy in time.

  10. Avoidance of singularity and global non-conservation of energy in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, M.M.

    2009-06-01

    We show that the singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is the expression of a non-Machian feature. It can be avoided with a scale-invariant dynamical theory, a property lacking in GTR. It is further argued that the global non-conservation of energy in GTR also results from the lack of scale-invariance, and the field formulation presented by several authors can only partly resolve the problem. Assuming the global energy conservation, we propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales. (author)

  11. Conformal Killing vectors in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.d.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that Robertson-Walker spacetimes admit a conformal Killingl vector normal to the spacelike homogeneous hypersurfaces. Because these spacetimes are conformally flat, there are a further eight conformal Killing vectors, which are neither normal nor tangent to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. The authors find these further conformal Killing vectors and the Lie algebra of the full G 15 of conformal motions. Conditions on the metric scale factor are determined which reduce some of the conformal Killing vectors to homothetic Killing vectors or Killing vectors, allowing one to regain in a unified way the known special geometries. The non-normal conformal Killing vectors provide a counter-example to show that conformal motions do not, in general, map a fluid flow conformally. These non-normal vectors are also used to find the general solution of the null geodesic equation and photon Liouville equation. (author)

  12. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  13. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  14. Analysis of Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in LQC and Galileon Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Mahasweta; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-01-01

    A so-called ghost dark energy was recently proposed to explain the present acceleration of the universe. The energy density of ghost dark energy, which originates from Veneziano ghost of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), in a time dependent background, can be written in the form, ρ_D = (αH + βH"2) where H is the Hubble parameter. We investigate the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model in the setup of loop quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Galileon Cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of the models. We also obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and differential equations governing the evolution of this dark energy model for LQC and Galileon Cosmology. (paper)

  15. Boundary conditions, energies and gravitational heat in general relativity (a classical analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M; Raiteri, M

    2004-01-01

    The variation of the energy for a gravitational system is directly defined from the Hamiltonian field equations of general relativity. When the variation of the energy is written in a covariant form, it splits into two (covariant) contributions: one of them is the Komar energy, while the other is the so-called covariant ADM correction term. When specific boundary conditions are analysed one sees that the Komar energy is related to the gravitational heat while the ADM correction term plays the role of the Helmholtz free energy. These properties allow one to establish, inside a classical geometric framework, a formal analogy between gravitation and the laws governing the evolution of a thermodynamical system. The analogy applies to stationary spacetimes admitting multiple causal horizons as well as to AdS Taub-bolt solutions

  16. Development of a global computable general equilibrium model coupled with detailed energy end-use technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed energy end-use technology information is considered within a CGE model. • Aggregated macro results of the detailed model are similar to traditional model. • The detailed model shows unique characteristics in the household sector. - Abstract: A global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model integrating detailed energy end-use technologies is developed in this paper. The paper (1) presents how energy end-use technologies are treated within the model and (2) analyzes the characteristics of the model’s behavior. Energy service demand and end-use technologies are explicitly considered, and the share of technologies is determined by a discrete probabilistic function, namely a Logit function, to meet the energy service demand. Coupling with detailed technology information enables the CGE model to have more realistic representation in the energy consumption. The proposed model in this paper is compared with the aggregated traditional model under the same assumptions in scenarios with and without mitigation roughly consistent with the two degree climate mitigation target. Although the results of aggregated energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions are similar, there are three main differences between the aggregated and the detailed technologies models. First, GDP losses in mitigation scenarios are lower in the detailed technology model (2.8% in 2050) as compared with the aggregated model (3.2%). Second, price elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency improvement are heterogeneous across regions and sectors in the detailed technology model, whereas the traditional aggregated model generally utilizes a single value for each of these variables. Third, the magnitude of emissions reduction and factors (energy intensity and carbon factor reduction) related to climate mitigation also varies among sectors in the detailed technology model. The household sector in the detailed technology model has a relatively higher reduction for both energy

  17. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  18. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  19. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics

    2016-04-18

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  20. Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Matti

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...

  1. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  2. The heterogeneous gas with singular interaction: generalized circular law and heterogeneous renormalized energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molino, Luis Carlos García del; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Touboul, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and analyze d-dimensional Coulomb gases with random charge distribution and general external confining potential. We show that these gases satisfy a large-deviation principle. The analysis of the minima of the rate function (which is the leading term of the energy) reveals that, at equilibrium, the particle distribution is a generalized circular law (i.e. with spherical support but not necessarily uniform distribution). In the classical electrostatic external potential, there are infinitely many minimizers of the rate function. The most likely macroscopic configuration is a disordered distribution in which particles are uniformly distributed (for d = 2, the circular law), and charges are independent of the positions of the particles. General charge-dependent confining potentials unfold this degenerate situation: in contrast, the particle density is not uniform, and particles spontaneously organize according to their charge. In this picture the classical electrostatic potential appears as a transition at which order is lost. Sub-leading terms of the energy are derived: we show that these are related to an operator, generalizing the Coulomb renormalized energy, which incorporates the heterogeneous nature of the charges. This heterogeneous renormalized energy informs us about the microscopic arrangements of the particles, which are non-standard, strongly dependent on the charges, and include progressive and irregular lattices. (paper)

  3. Student Conceptions about Energy Transformations: Progression from General Chemistry to Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Rowland, Susan L.; Lawrie, Gwendolyn A.; Wright, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Students commencing studies in biochemistry must transfer and build on concepts they learned in chemistry and biology classes. It is well established, however, that students have difficulties in transferring critical concepts from general chemistry courses; one key concept is "energy." Most previous work on students' conception of energy…

  4. Non-existence of global solutions to generalized dissipative Klein-Gordon equations with positive energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Olegovich Korpusov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial-boundary-value problem for generalized dissipative high-order equation of Klein-Gordon type is considered. We continue our study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems with arbitrary positive energy. The modified concavity method by Levine is used for proving blow-up of solutions.

  5. Generalized Riemann zeta-function regularization and Casimir energy for a piecewise uniform string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinzhou; Shi Xin; Zhang Jianzu.

    1990-12-01

    The generalized zeta-function techniques will be utilized to investigate the Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string. We find that zeta-function regularization method can lead straightforwardly to a correct result. (author). 6 refs

  6. The general form of the relaxation of a purely interfacial energy for structured deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), s. 191-215 ISSN 2326-7186 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : structured deformations * relaxation * subadditive envelope * interfacial energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://msp.org/memocs/2017/5-2/p04.xhtml

  7. A general purpose program system for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuren; Xing Yuguo; Jin Bingnian

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduced the functions, structure and system generation of a general purpose program system (Fermilab MULTI) for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis. Works concerning the reconstruction of MULTI system level 0.5 which can be run on the computer PDP-11/23 are also introduced briefly

  8. The Generalized Multipole Technique for the Simulation of Low-Loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiewidt, Lars; Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) to simulate low-loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) spectra of isolated spheriodal nanoparticles. The GMT provides certain properties, such as semi-analytical description of the electromagnetic fields...

  9. The energy and the linear momentum of space-times in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, R.; Yau, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    We extend our previous proof of the positive mass conjecture to allow a more general asymptotic condition proposed by York. Hence we are able to prove that for an isolated physical system, the energy momentum four vector is a future timelike vector unless the system is trivial. Furthermore, we allow singularities of the type of black holes. (orig.)

  10. Irreversibility and higher-spin conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    2000-01-01

    I discuss the idea that quantum irreversibility is a general principle of nature and a related "conformal hypothesis", stating that all fundamental quantum field theories should be renormalization-group (RG) interpolations between ultraviolet and infrared conformal fixed points. In particular, the Newton constant should be viewed as a low-energy effect of the RG scale. This approach leads naturally to consider higher-spin conformal field theories, which are here classified, as candidate high-energy theories. Bosonic conformal tensors have a positive-definite action, equal to the square of a field strength, and a higher-derivative gauge invariance. The central charges c and a are well defined and positive. I calculate their values and study the operator-product structure. Fermionic theories have no gauge invariance and can be coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in a renormalizable way. At the quantum level, they contribute to the one-loop beta function with the same sign as ordinary matter, admit a...

  11. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI and Other Energy Return Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs such as the net energy ratio (NER or energy return on investment (EROI. A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy extraction and conversion pathways. A bottom-up (process model formulation is developed for an n-stage energy harvesting and conversion pathway with various system boundaries. Formations with the broadest system boundaries use insights from life cycle analysis to suggest a hybrid process model/economic input output based framework. These models include indirect energy consumption due to external energy inputs and embodied energy in materials. Illustrative example results are given for simple energy extraction and conversion pathways. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of this approach and the intersection of this methodology with “top-down” economic approaches.

  12. Higher Curvature Gravity from Entanglement in Conformal Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Hijano, Eliot; Parrikar, Onkar; Rabideau, Charles

    2018-05-01

    By generalizing different recent works to the context of higher curvature gravity, we provide a unifying framework for three related results: (i) If an asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime computes the entanglement entropies of ball-shaped regions in a conformal field theory using a generalized Ryu-Takayanagi formula up to second order in state deformations around the vacuum, then the spacetime satisfies the correct gravitational equations of motion up to second order around the AdS background. (ii) The holographic dual of entanglement entropy in higher curvature theories of gravity is given by the Wald entropy plus a particular correction term involving extrinsic curvatures. (iii) Conformal field theory relative entropy is dual to gravitational canonical energy (also in higher curvature theories of gravity). Especially for the second point, our novel derivation of this previously known statement does not involve the Euclidean replica trick.

  13. Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...... the transposition process. We therefore conclude that a stronger focus on an effective sanctioning mechanism is warranted for safeguarding compliance with directives....

  14. Conformal anomalies in curved space--time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.

    1976-11-01

    The general form of the conformal anomaly in a dimensionally regularized theory of massless fermions in a background metric is shown to be determined by the first few terms of weak field perturbation theory.

  15. Steffensen's integral inequality for conformable fractional integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish some Steffensen’s type inequalities for conformable fractional integral. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works.

  16. Environment taxation and greenhouse gases (general tax on energy polluting activities and emissions trading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parayre, P.; Bruhnes, P.; Huglo, Ch.

    2000-12-01

    This document brings together 11 expert testimonies about the French general tax on polluting activities (GTPA). Content: 1 - the GTPA today and in 2001: the first year GTPA, the GTPA 2001 in the water sector, the everyday formal procedures linked with GTPA, the contentious aspects of GTPA; 2 - the eco-tax or energy-GTPA: European framework of energy products taxing, enforcement and implementation of the energy-GTPA in France; 3 - the negotiable emission permits: negotiable permits for companies with a strong energy intensity, functioning of emission permits in a global strategy, the position of the European Commission about negotiable permits and the perspectives in this domain at the community level; 4 - towards a reduction of greenhouse gases: the Goeteborg protocol, the consequences of La Haye's COP6, the position of a type-sector, an efficient system for the abatement of greenhouse gases by the producing sector. (J.S.)

  17. Implications of conformal invariance for quantum field theories in d>2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently obtained results for two and three point functions for quasi-primary operators in conformally invariant theories in arbitrary dimensions d are described. As a consequence the three point function for the energy momentum tensor has three linearly independent forms for general d compatible with conformal invariance. The corresponding coefficients may be regarded as possible generalisations of the Virasoro central charge to d larger than 2. Ward identities which link two linear combinations of the coefficients to terms appearing in the energy momentum tensor trace anomaly on curved space are discussed. The requirement of positivity for expectation values of the energy density is also shown to lead to positivity conditions which are simple for a particular choice of the three coefficients. Renormalisation group like equations which express the constraints of broken conformal invariance for quantum field theories away from critical points are postulated and applied to two point functions. (orig.)

  18. Bioactive focus in conformational ensembles: a pluralistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Computational generation of conformational ensembles is key to contemporary drug design. Selecting the members of the ensemble that will approximate the conformation most likely to bind to a desired target (the bioactive conformation) is difficult, given that the potential energy usually used to generate and rank the ensemble is a notoriously poor discriminator between bioactive and non-bioactive conformations. In this study an approach to generating a focused ensemble is proposed in which each conformation is assigned multiple rankings based not just on potential energy but also on solvation energy, hydrophobic or hydrophilic interaction energy, radius of gyration, and on a statistical potential derived from Cambridge Structural Database data. The best ranked structures derived from each system are then assembled into a new ensemble that is shown to be better focused on bioactive conformations. This pluralistic approach is tested on ensembles generated by the Molecular Operating Environment's Low Mode Molecular Dynamics module, and by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's conformation generator software.

  19. Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Farzana

    1997-01-01

    In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)

  20. Thermostatistic properties of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas with a general energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shukuan; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    The thermostatistic problems of a q-deformed ideal Fermi gas in any dimensional space and with a general energy spectrum are studied, based on the q-deformed Fermi-Dirac distribution. The effects of the deformation parameter q on the properties of the system are revealed. It is shown that q-deformation results in some novel characteristics different from those of an ordinary system. Besides, it is found that the effects of the q-deformation on the properties of the Fermi systems are very different for different dimensional spaces and different energy spectrums

  1. Generalized planar fault energies and twinning in Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibey, S.; Liu, J. B.; Johnson, D. D.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2006-11-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory calculations of generalized planar fault energies of fcc Cu -xAl (x =0, 5.0, and 8.3at.%) alloys. We investigate the effects of substitutional solute Al on the unstable intrinsic γus and twin γut stacking fault energies (SFEs). Our results reveal an increased tendency of Cu-Al to deform preferentially by twinning with increasing Al content, consistent with experiment. We attribute this mechanical behavior to appreciable lowering of the twinning barrier γut, along with the stable intrinsic and twin SFEs.

  2. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex V: PSI general energy technology newsletter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, C; Leuenberger, J [eds.

    1997-06-01

    Surveying the results of General Energy Research in 1996, three major trends can be identified. First, in areas where research results have reached an advanced stage, decisive steps have been taken to promote a transfer towards industrial realization; examples include biomass gasification, advanced battery concepts, and combustion research. Second, in projects with longer term orientation, several options are being evaluated by exploratory studies, e.g. in solar chemistry and reaction analysis. Third, in line with the strategic planning of our institute, the development and characterization of materials for energy research has received increased attention. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Generalizing a unified model of dark matter, dark energy, and inflation with a noncanonical kinetic term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Santiago, Josue; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2011-01-01

    We study a unification model for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation with a single scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term. In this model, the kinetic term of the Lagrangian accounts for the dark matter and dark energy, and at early epochs, a quadratic potential accounts for slow roll inflation. The present work is an extension to the work by Bose and Majumdar [Phys. Rev. D 79, 103517 (2009).] with a more general kinetic term that was proposed by Chimento in Phys. Rev. D 69, 123517 (2004). We demonstrate that the model is viable at the background and linear perturbation levels.

  4. Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases. (paper)

  5. US Department of Energy Office of Inspector General report on audit of program administration by the Office of Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-02

    The objective of the audit was to determine whether Energy Research had established performance expectations, including performance criteria and metrics, and used these expectations to monitor progress for basic and applied research performed at the Department`s national laboratories. Congressional and Departmental initiatives envision improved contract and program performance by requiring program managers to set measurable performance expectations. Even though research outcomes are inherently unpredictable, performance expectations can and should be established for scopes of work, milestones, resource limits and deliverables. However, Energy Research generally did not clearly specify--at either an aggregated program or individual task level--such expectations for research at the Department`s national laboratories. While information was available in the contractor`s research proposals, Energy Research essentially relied on the contractors to initiate and execute the research without agreement on expectations. This practice provided the Department with little basis to measure and evaluate contractor performance. Energy Research agreed in part with the finding and will take action on the recommendations in the report.

  6. Conformal anomaly and elimination of infrared divergences in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.; Pritomanov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between the problem of eliminating the infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic spacetime. It is shown that elimination of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff or the introduction of a conformally invariant mass of the field leads to the absence of the conformal anomaly

  7. Selective stimulation of conformational conversions in free molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailzade, G.I.; Movsumov, I.Z.; Menzeleev, M.R.; Kazymova, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Application of double-resonance (RF-MW, IR-MW, MW-MW) methods to enhance studies of unstable isomeric structures was discussed. The use of infrared pump radiation to excite conformational energy levels in order to stimulate selectively conformational conversions and to correct spectral line intensities of separate conformations was substantiated. (authors)

  8. 40 CFR 86.407-78 - Certificate of conformity required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity required. 86... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.407-78 Certificate of conformity... conformity issued pursuant to this subpart, except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, or...

  9. Generalized Lorenz models and their routes to chaos. II. Energy-conserving horizontal mode truncations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.; Musielak, Z.E.

    2007-01-01

    All attempts to generalize the three-dimensional Lorenz model by selecting higher-order Fourier modes can be divided into three categories, namely: vertical, horizontal and vertical-horizontal mode truncations. The previous study showed that the first method allowed only construction of a nine-dimensional system when the selected modes were energy-conserving. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that a five-dimensional model is the lowest-order generalized Lorenz model that can be constructed by the second method and that its route to chaos is the same as that observed in the original Lorenz model. It is shown that the onset of chaos in both systems is determined by a number of modes that describe the vertical temperature difference in a convection roll. In addition, a simple rule that allows selecting modes that conserve energy for each method is derived

  10. Energy eigenvalues and squeezing properties of general systems of coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, N. N.; Chew, L. Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have generalized the two-step approach to the solution of systems of N coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators. By using the squeezed vacuum state of each individual oscillator, we construct the tensor product state, and obtain the optimal squeezed vacuum product state through energy minimization. We then employ this optimal state and its associated bosonic operators to define a basis set to construct the Heisenberg matrix. The diagonalization of the matrix enables us to obtain the energy eigenvalues of the coupled oscillators. In particular, we have applied our formalism to determine the eigenenergies of systems of two coupled quantum anharmonic oscillators perturbed by a general polynomial potential, as well as three and four coupled systems. Furthermore, by performing a first-order perturbation analysis about the optimal squeezed vacuum product state, we have also examined into the squeezing properties of two coupled oscillator systems

  11. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  12. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  13. Deformed potential energy of $^{263}Db$ in a generalized liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bao Qiu; Zhao Yao Lin; 10.1088/0256-307X/20/11/009

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy nuclei /sup 263/Db, which governs the entrance and alpha decay channels, is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the deformed potential energy of the experiment /sup 22/Ne+/sup 241/Am to /sup 263/Db* to /sup 259/Db+4 n, which was performed on the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t...

  14. On functional representations of the conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, Oliver J.

    2017-07-15

    Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)

  15. An efficient and accurate method to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for general potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics

  16. A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The minimum energy needed to ignite an inertial confinement fusion capsule is of considerable interest in the optimization of an inertial fusion driver. Recent computational work investigating this minimum energy has found that it depends on the capsule implosion history, in particular, on the capsule drive pressure. This dependence is examined using a series of LASNEX simulations to find ignited capsules which have different values of the implosion velocity, fuel adiabat and drive pressure. It is found that the main effect of varying the drive pressure is to alter the stagnation of the capsule, changing its stagnation adiabat, which, in turn, affects the energy required for ignition. To account for this effect a generalized scaling law has been devised for the ignition energy, E ign ∝α if 1.88±0.05 υ -5.89±0.12 P -0.77±0.03 . This generalized scaling law agrees with the results of previous work in the appropriate limits. (author)

  17. f(R in Holographic and Agegraphic Dark Energy Models and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Majumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a unified approach with the holographic, new agegraphic, and f(R dark energy model to construct the form of f(R which in general is responsible for the curvature driven explanation of the very early inflation along with presently observed late time acceleration. We considered the generalized uncertainty principle in our approach which incorporated the corrections in the entropy-area relation and thereby modified the energy densities for the cosmological dark energy models considered. We found that holographic and new agegraphic f(R gravity models can behave like phantom or quintessence models in the spatially flat FRW universe. We also found a distinct term in the form of f(R which goes as R 3 / 2 due to the consideration of the GUP modified energy densities. Although the presence of this term in the action can be important in explaining the early inflationary scenario, Capozziello et al. recently showed that f(R ~ R 3 / 2 leads to an accelerated expansion, that is, a negative value for the deceleration parameter q which fits well with SNeIa and WMAP data.

  18. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  19. Conformal symmetry and string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of various aspects of the 2-dimensional conformal field theory and its applications to strings. We make a short review of the conformal field theory and its supersymmetric extension, called superconformal field theory. We present an elegant superspace formulation of these theories and solve the condition for the closure of the superconformal algebra. The we go on to classify the superconformal field theories according to these solutions. We prove that N ≥ 5 superconformal algebra, with N being the number of supersymmetries, does not have central charge. We find the primary representations of all the interesting superconformal algebra. We study the quantization of the superconformal theories and derive the constraints on the central charge of the algebra that has to be satisfied for a consistent quantum theory. This quantization process also determines the ground state energy of the system and the spectrum of the model. We study the global aspects of the conformal symmetry and its role in the construction of consistent heterotic string theories. We prove the uniqueness of heterotic superstring theories in 10 dimensions in the fermionic constructions. We show how the vertex operators are closely associated with the primary field representation of the conformal algebra. We utilize these vertex operator constructions to obtain tree amplitudes in the 10-dimensional heterotic string theory. We show by explicit calculation at the 3-point level that the scattering amplitudes derived from the heterotic superstring are same as the ones obtained from 10-dimensional supergravity theories

  20. Inversion theory and conformal mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David E

    2000-01-01

    It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...

  1. Policy options for sustainable energy use in a general model of the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Ekins, P.; Johnstone, N.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative general economic model has been developed for options available in greenhouse gas abatement policy concerning energy use. It has been applied in three exercises to explore the effects of energy taxes on the United Kingdom economy. One of these examined the effect of the proposed European Commission carbon/energy tax; the second attempts to set out a policy framework which would enable the UK to reach the IPCC target of 60% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2040 and explores the economic implications; the third compares the proposal of the UK government to levy VAT on domestic fuel with the EC carbon/energy tax. Additionally, estimates have been made of the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions. The results present a striking contrast to much of the literature. They include the conclusions that: the EC carbon/energy tax would have negligible macroeconomic effects on the UK economy providing revenues were recycled in such a way as to neutralise inflation; reduction of UK CO 2 emissions by 60% would not necessarily cause great economic disruption; the secondary benefits of reducing CO 2 emissions are of sufficient size to alter radically the benefit cost profile of carbon abatement; equity and efficiency should be regarded as complementary, not competing, objectives in the abatement of CO 2 emissions from the domestic sector. (UK)

  2. On Comparison Theorems for Conformable Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the more general comparison theorems for conformable fractional differential equations is proposed and tested. Thus we prove some inequalities for conformable integrals by using the generalization of Sturm's separation and Sturm's comparison theorems. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works. The numerical example is also presented to verify the proposed theorem.

  3. Impact of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  4. Impacts of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  5. Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.

  6. Conformational effects in photoelectron circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a novel type of spectroscopy, which presents surprising sensitivity to conformational effects in chiral systems. While classical photoelectron spectroscopy mainly responds to conformational effects in terms of energy level shifts, PECD provides a rich and detailed response to tiny changes in electronic and structural properties by means of the intensity dispersion of the circular dichroism as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. In this work, the basics of PECD will be outlined, emphasizing the role of interference from the l,l+/- 1 outgoing partial wave of the photoelectron in the PECD transition matrix element, which is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to conformational effects. Examples using molecular systems and interfaces will shed light on the powerful application of PECD to classical conformational effects such as group substitution, isomerism, conformer population and clustering. Moreover, the PECD results will be reported in challenging new fields where conformations play a key role, such as vibrational effects, transient chirality and time- resolved experiments. To date, PECD has mostly been based on synchrotron radiation facilities, but it also has a future as a table-top lab experiment by means of multiphoton ionization. An important application of PECD as an analytical tool will be reported. The aim of this review is to illustrate that in PECD, the presence of conformational effects is essential for understanding a wide range of effects from a new perspective, making it different from classical spectroscopy.

  7. Conformal transformations in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Vong Duc

    1977-01-01

    The spinor extension of the conformal algebra is investigated. The transformation law of superfields under the conformal coordinate inversion R defined in the superspace is derived. Using R-technique, the superconformally covariant two-point and three-point correlation functions are found

  8. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  9. Non-local Effects of Conformal Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the nonlocal anomalous effective actions corresponding to the quantum breaking of the conformal symmetry can lead to observable modifications of Einstein's equations. The fact that Einstein's general relativity is in perfect agreement with all observations including cosmological or recently observed gravitational waves imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. It is shown that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D=4 for both the C^2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ≥ 5.

  10. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  11. On the generalized eigenvalue method for energies and matrix elements in lattice field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossier, Benoit [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Paris-XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Morte, Michele della [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Hippel, Georg von; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Mendes, Tereza [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). IFSC

    2009-02-15

    We discuss the generalized eigenvalue problem for computing energies and matrix elements in lattice gauge theory, including effective theories such as HQET. It is analyzed how the extracted effective energies and matrix elements converge when the time separations are made large. This suggests a particularly efficient application of the method for which we can prove that corrections vanish asymptotically as exp(-(E{sub N+1}-E{sub n}) t). The gap E{sub N+1}-E{sub n} can be made large by increasing the number N of interpolating fields in the correlation matrix. We also show how excited state matrix elements can be extracted such that contaminations from all other states disappear exponentially in time. As a demonstration we present numerical results for the extraction of ground state and excited B-meson masses and decay constants in static approximation and to order 1/m{sub b} in HQET. (orig.)

  12. Edge corrections to electromagnetic Casimir energies from general-purpose Mathieu-function routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Elizabeth Noelle; Ghimire, Biswash; Graham, Noah; Stratton-Smith, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Scattering theory methods make it possible to calculate the Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder opposite a perfectly conducting plane in terms of Mathieu functions. In the limit of zero radius, the elliptic cylinder becomes a finite-width strip, which allows for the study of edge effects. However, existing packages for computing Mathieu functions are insufficient for this calculation because none can compute Mathieu functions of both the first and second kind for complex arguments. To address this shortcoming, we have written a general-purpose Mathieu-function package, based on algorithms developed by Alhargan. We use these routines to find edge corrections to the proximity force approximation for the Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting strip opposite a perfectly conducting plane.

  13. CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui

    2009-01-01

    When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier (1). In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. (1) R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)

  14. On the generalized eigenvalue method for energies and matrix elements in lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossier, Benoit; Mendes, Tereza; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss the generalized eigenvalue problem for computing energies and matrix elements in lattice gauge theory, including effective theories such as HQET. It is analyzed how the extracted effective energies and matrix elements converge when the time separations are made large. This suggests a particularly efficient application of the method for which we can prove that corrections vanish asymptotically as exp(-(E N+1 -E n ) t). The gap E N+1 -E n can be made large by increasing the number N of interpolating fields in the correlation matrix. We also show how excited state matrix elements can be extracted such that contaminations from all other states disappear exponentially in time. As a demonstration we present numerical results for the extraction of ground state and excited B-meson masses and decay constants in static approximation and to order 1/m b in HQET. (orig.)

  15. Conformal invariance in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)

  17. A multi-harmonic generalized energy balance method for studying autonomous oscillations of nonlinear conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Nidish Narayanaa; Krishna, I. R. Praveen; Padmanabhan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) is a frequency-domain based approximation approach used for obtaining the steady state periodic behavior of forced dynamical systems. Intrinsically these systems are non-autonomous and the method offers many computational advantages over time-domain methods when the fundamental period of oscillation is known (generally fixed as the forcing period itself or a corresponding sub-harmonic if such behavior is expected). In the current study, a modified approach, based on He's Energy Balance Method (EBM), is applied to obtain the periodic solutions of conservative systems. It is shown that by this approach, periodic solutions of conservative systems on iso-energy manifolds in the phase space can be obtained very efficiently. The energy level provides the additional constraint on the HBM formulation, which enables the determination of the period of the solutions. The method is applied to the linear harmonic oscillator, a couple of nonlinear oscillators, the elastic pendulum and the Henon-Heiles system. The approach is used to trace the bifurcations of the periodic solutions of the last two, being 2 degree-of-freedom systems demonstrating very rich dynamical behavior. In the process, the advantages offered by the current formulation of the energy balance is brought out. A harmonic perturbation approach is used to evaluate the stability of the solutions for the bifurcation diagram.

  18. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  19. On the Conformable Fractional Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a conformable fractional quantum mechanic has been introduced using three postulates. Then in such a formalism, Schr¨odinger equation, probability density, probability flux and continuity equation have been derived. As an application of considered formalism, a fractional-radial harmonic oscillator has been considered. After obtaining its wave function and energy spectrum, effects of the conformable fractional parameter on some quantities have been investigated and plotted for different excited states.

  20. Low-energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom: a general microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, P.; Meyer, M.

    1988-01-01

    A general microscopic approach of low energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom is presented. The ingredients of a Bohr-Mottelson unified model description are determined consistently from the Skyrme SIII effective interaction, through the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation. Three specific aspects will be mostly developed: i) the effect of pairing correlations on adiabatic mass parameters and collective dynamics; ii) a consistent coupling of collective and individual degrees of freedom to describe odd nuclei; iii) a study of spectroscopic data in odd-odd nuclei as a test of effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. (author)

  1. The General Evolving Model for Energy Supply-Demand Network with Local-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Fang, Cuicui

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, two general bipartite network evolving models for energy supply-demand network with local-world are proposed. The node weight distribution, the "shifting coefficient" and the scaling exponent of two different kinds of nodes are presented by the mean-field theory. The numerical results of the node weight distribution and the edge weight distribution are also investigated. The production's shifted power law (SPL) distribution of coal enterprises and the installed capacity's distribution of power plants in the US are obtained from the empirical analysis. Numerical simulations and empirical results are given to verify the theoretical results.

  2. Proceedings of the 3. General Congress on Nuclear Energy. v. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 3. General Congress on Nuclear Energy (CGEN), present about 200 contributed papers. The topics covered by the meeting are: reactor physics and operation; risk analysis, safety analysis, nuclear power plants construction; thermohydraulics; nuclear power plants control and instrumentation; equipment and system design, radioactive management; fuel cycle; design and fabrication of fuel elements, science and technology materials; instrumentation for radiation detection and dosimetry; shielding, radiation protection, licensing, safeguards, social and environmental impacts; radioisotopes production and application; radiochemistry, radioecology; nuclear medicine and radiobiology. In this volume the contributed papers emphasize the topics shielding, radiation protection, licensing, safeguards and social and environmental impacts. (M.I.A.)

  3. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  4. Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Carlip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.

  5. 6d Conformal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotto, Michele Del; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Vafa, Cumrun

    2015-01-01

    A single M5-brane probing G, an ADE-type singularity, leads to a system which has G×G global symmetry and can be viewed as “bifundamental” (G,G) matter. For the A N series, this leads to the usual notion of bifundamental matter. For the other cases it corresponds to a strongly interacting (1,0) superconformal system in six dimensions. Similarly, an ADE singularity intersecting the Hořava-Witten wall leads to a superconformal matter system with E 8 ×G global symmetry. Using the F-theory realization of these theories, we elucidate the Coulomb/tensor branch of (G,G ′ ) conformal matter. This leads to the notion of fractionalization of an M5-brane on an ADE singularity as well as fractionalization of the intersection point of the ADE singularity with the Hořava-Witten wall. Partial Higgsing of these theories leads to new 6d SCFTs in the infrared, which we also characterize. This generalizes the class of (1,0) theories which can be perturbatively realized by suspended branes in IIA string theory. By reducing on a circle, we arrive at novel duals for 5d affine quiver theories. Introducing many M5-branes leads to large N gravity duals.

  6. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG0, which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG0 conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ molK1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG0/GT and GT/GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ molK1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonst...

  7. General theory of excitation energy transfer in donor-mediator-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-04-21

    General theory of the excitation energy transfer (EET) in the case of donor-mediator-acceptor system was constructed by using generalized master equation (GME). In this theory, we consider the direct and indirect transitions in the EET consistently. Hence, our theory includes the quantum mechanical interference between the direct and indirect transitions automatically. Memory functions in the GME were expressed by the overlap integrals among the time-dependent emission spectrum of the donor, the absorption spectrum of the mediator, the time-dependent emission spectrum of the mediator, and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. In the Markov limit of the memory functions, we obtained the rate of EET which consists of three terms due to the direct transition, the indirect transition, and the interference between them. We found that the interference works effectively in the limit of slow thermalization at the intermediate state. The formula of EET rate in this limit was expressed by the convolution of the EET interaction and optical spectra. The interference effect strongly depends on the width of the absorption spectrum of mediator molecule and the energy gap between the donor and the mediator molecules.

  8. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.

    2006-01-01

    New generalization of z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematical characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x 1 and x 2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, the x 1 and x 2 are functions of the momentum fractions y a and y b of the scattered and recoil constituents carried out by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the z are established to obtain energy, angular and multiplicity independence of the ψ(z). The scheme allows unique description of data on inclusive cross sections of charged particles, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and lambdas at high energies. The obtained results are of interest to use z-scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and high multiplicity region at the proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC

  9. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

  10. Conformal sequestering simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, Martin; Sundrum, Raman

    2006-01-01

    Sequestering is important for obtaining flavor-universal soft masses in models where supersymmetry breaking is mediated at high scales. We construct a simple and robust class of hidden sector models which sequester themselves from the visible sector due to strong and conformally invariant hidden dynamics. Masses for hidden matter eventually break the conformal symmetry and lead to supersymmetry breaking by the mechanism recently discovered by Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih. We give a unified treatment of subtleties due to global symmetries of the CFT. There is enough review for the paper to constitute a self-contained account of conformal sequestering

  11. Conformational Analysis of Contrast Media for X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The conformational analysis of iodinated non-ionic contrast agent, Iobitridol, was carried out using theoretical calculations to explore its conformational space, and to study different aspects connected with application of different search techniques. Monte Carlo (MC), random search (RS) and molecular dynamics (MD) based conformational search techniques were used to extract a reasonable-size sample that adequately represents and has an average behavior of the entire conformational ensemble.While MC is good for quick search for lowest energy conformer, RS is better in obtaining conformational sample that cover the whole conformational space and MD is the best for investigation of isomeric preferences inside the conformational ensemble at thermal equilibrium. Conformational analysis of the produced gas phase samples reveals that RS and MD methods could sufficiently present the 18 distinct isomeric classes that constitute the total conformational space of the Iobitridol. S samples of conformational space of Iobitridol are extensively studied, as it hypothetically cover the total conformational space. They are used to test the suitability of different methods (charge distribution methods, energy calculation methods) for Iobitridol molecular computations and internal structure forces (steric hindrance, resonance interaction), as well as dependences among the internal coordinates (dihedral angles correlations and coincidences). The atomic partial charge distribution is found to greatly affect the energy calculation for the molecular mechanics based conformational energy distributions. Further energy minimization of conformational sample by the quantum molecular orbital methods is crucial to obtain charge independent as well as energy balanced conformational sample.

  12. A general-purpose process modelling framework for marine energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Zymaris, Alexandros S.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process modelling techniques applied in marine engineering. • Systems engineering approaches to manage the complexity of modern ship machinery. • General purpose modelling framework called COSSMOS. • Mathematical modelling of conservation equations and related chemical – transport phenomena. • Generic library of ship machinery component models. - Abstract: High fuel prices, environmental regulations and current shipping market conditions impose ships to operate in a more efficient and greener way. These drivers lead to the introduction of new technologies, fuels, and operations, increasing the complexity of modern ship energy systems. As a means to manage this complexity, in this paper we present the introduction of systems engineering methodologies in marine engineering via the development of a general-purpose process modelling framework for ships named as DNV COSSMOS. Shifting the focus from components – the standard approach in shipping- to systems, widens the space for optimal design and operation solutions. The associated computer implementation of COSSMOS is a platform that models, simulates and optimises integrated marine energy systems with respect to energy efficiency, emissions, safety/reliability and costs, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. DNV COSSMOS can be used in assessment and optimisation of design and operation problems in existing vessels, new builds as well as new technologies. The main features and our modelling approach are presented and key capabilities are illustrated via two studies on the thermo-economic design and operation optimisation of a combined cycle system for large bulk carriers, and the transient operation simulation of an electric marine propulsion system

  13. A modified generalized Chaplygin gas as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei, E-mail: xmd@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2011-12-15

    A modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) is considered as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited. The character of MGCG is endued with the dual role, which behaves as matter at early times and as a quiescence dark energy at late times. The equation of state for MGCG is p = -{alpha}{rho}/(1 + {alpha}) - {upsilon}(z){rho}{sup -{alpha}/(1 + {alpha})}, where {upsilon}(z) = -[{rho}0{sub c}(1 + z){sup 3}] {sup (1+{alpha})} (1 - {Omega}{sub 0B}){sup {alpha} {l_brace}{alpha}{Omega}0{sub DM} + {Omega}{sub 0DE} [{omega}{sub DE} + {alpha}(1 +{omega}{sub DE})](1 + z){sup 3}{omega}DE(1+{alpha}){r_brace}}. Some cosmological quantities, such as the densities of different components of the universe {Omega}{sub i} (i, respectively, denotes baryons, dark matter, and dark energy) and the deceleration parameter q, are obtained. The present deceleration parameter q{sub 0}, the transition redshift z{sub T}, and the redshift z{sub eq}, which describes the epoch when the densities in dark matter and dark energy are equal, are also calculated. To distinguish MGCG from others, we then apply the Statefinder diagnostic. Later on, the parameters ({alpha} and {omega}{sub DE}) of MGCG are constrained by combination of the sound speed c{sup 2}{sub s} , the age of the universe t{sub 0}, the growth factor m, and the bias parameter b. It yields {alpha} = -3.07{sup +5.66} {sub -4.98} x 10{sup -2} and {omega}{sub DE} = -1.05 {sup +0.06} {sub -0.11}. Through the analysis of the growth of density perturbations for MGCG, it is found that the energy will transfer from dark matter to dark energy which reach equal at z{sub e}{approx} 0.48 and the density fluctuations start deviating from the linear behavior at z {approx} 0.25 caused by the dominance of dark energy. (author)

  14. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  15. Impact of Dust on Mars Surface Albedo and Energy Flux with LMD General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M.; Millour, E.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    Mars, just like Earth experience different seasons because of its axial tilt (about 25°). This causes growth and retreat of snow cover (primarily CO2) in Martian Polar regions. The perennial caps are the only place on the planet where condensed H2O is available at surface. On Mars, as much as 30% atmospheric CO2 deposits in each hemisphere depending upon the season. This leads to a significant variation on planet's surface albedo and hence effecting the amount of solar flux absorbed or reflected at the surface. General Circulation Model (GCM) of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) currently uses observationally derived surface albedo from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument for the polar caps. These TES albedo values do not have any inter-annual variability, and are independent of presence of any dust/impurity on surface. Presence of dust or other surface impurities can significantly reduce the surface albedo especially during and right after a dust storm. This change will also be evident in the surface energy flux interactions. Our work focuses on combining earth based Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model with current state of GCM to incorporate the impact of dust on Martian surface albedo, and hence the energy flux. Inter-annual variability of surface albedo and planet's top of atmosphere (TOA) energy budget along with their correlation with currently available mission data will be presented.

  16. Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1989-10-01

    I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology

  17. Conformal and Nearly Conformal Theories at Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnoplskiy, Grigory M.

    In this thesis we present new results in conformal and nearly conformal field theories in various dimensions. In chapter two, we study different properties of the conformal Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in continuous dimension d. At first we study conformal QED using large Nf methods, where Nf is the number of massless fermions. We compute its sphere free energy as a function of d, ignoring the terms of order 1/Nf and higher. For finite Nf we use the epsilon-expansion. Next we use a large Nf diagrammatic approach to calculate the leading corrections to CT, the coefficient of the two-point function of the stress-energy tensor, and CJ, the coefficient of the two-point function of the global symmetry current. We present explicit formulae as a function of d and check them versus the expectations in 2 and 4 - epsilon dimensions. In chapter three, we discuss vacuum stability in 1 + 1 dimensional conformal field theories with external background fields. We show that the vacuum decay rate is given by a non-local two-form. This two-form is a boundary term that must be added to the effective in/out Lagrangian. The two-form is expressed in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert decomposition for background gauge fields, and is given by its novel "functional'' version in the gravitational case. In chapter four, we explore Tensor models. Such models possess the large N limit dominated by the melon diagrams. The quantum mechanics of a real anti-commuting rank-3 tensor has a large N limit similar to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We also discuss the quantum mechanics of a complex 3-index anti-commuting tensor and argue that it is equivalent in the large N limit to a version of SYK model with complex fermions. Finally, we discuss models of a commuting tensor in dimension d. We study the spectrum of the large N quantum field theory of bosonic rank-3 tensors using the Schwinger-Dyson equations. We compare some of these results with the 4 - epsilon expansion, finding perfect agreement. We

  18. A generalized muon trajectory estimation algorithm with energy loss for application to muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hayward, Jason P.; Scaglione, John M.

    2018-03-01

    This work presents a generalized muon trajectory estimation algorithm to estimate the path of a muon in either uniform or nonuniform media. The use of cosmic ray muons in nuclear nonproliferation and safeguard verification applications has recently gained attention due to the non-intrusive and passive nature of the inspection, penetrating capabilities, as well as recent advances in detectors that measure position and direction of the individual muons before and after traversing the imaged object. However, muon image reconstruction techniques are limited in resolution due to low muon flux and the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS). Current reconstruction algorithms, e.g., point of closest approach (PoCA) or straight-line path (SLP), rely on overly simple assumptions for muon path estimation through the imaged object. For robust muon tomography, efficient and flexible physics-based algorithms are needed to model the MCS process and accurately estimate the most probable trajectory of a muon as it traverses an object. In the present work, the use of a Bayesian framework and a Gaussian approximation of MCS is explored for estimation of the most likely path of a cosmic ray muon traversing uniform or nonuniform media and undergoing MCS. The algorithm's precision is compared to Monte Carlo simulated muon trajectories. It was found that the algorithm is expected to be able to predict muon tracks to less than 1.5 mm root mean square (RMS) for 0.5 GeV muons and 0.25 mm RMS for 3 GeV muons, a 50% improvement compared to SLP and 15% improvement when compared to PoCA. Further, a 30% increase in useful muon flux was observed relative to PoCA. Muon track prediction improved for higher muon energies or smaller penetration depth where energy loss is not significant. The effect of energy loss due to ionization is investigated, and a linear energy loss relation that is easy to use is proposed.

  19. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  20. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  1. Incorporation of Hydrogen Bond Angle Dependency into the Generalized Solvation Free Energy Density Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songling; Hwang, Sungbo; Lee, Sehan; Acree, William E; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-04-23

    To describe the physically realistic solvation free energy surface of a molecule in a solvent, a generalized version of the solvation free energy density (G-SFED) calculation method has been developed. In the G-SFED model, the contribution from the hydrogen bond (HB) between a solute and a solvent to the solvation free energy was calculated as the product of the acidity of the donor and the basicity of the acceptor of an HB pair. The acidity and basicity parameters of a solute were derived using the summation of acidities and basicities of the respective acidic and basic functional groups of the solute, and that of the solvent was experimentally determined. Although the contribution of HBs to the solvation free energy could be evenly distributed to grid points on the surface of a molecule, the G-SFED model was still inadequate to describe the angle dependency of the HB of a solute with a polarizable continuum solvent. To overcome this shortcoming of the G-SFED model, the contribution of HBs was formulated using the geometric parameters of the grid points described in the HB coordinate system of the solute. We propose an HB angle dependency incorporated into the G-SFED model, i.e., the G-SFED-HB model, where the angular-dependent acidity and basicity densities are defined and parametrized with experimental data. The G-SFED-HB model was then applied to calculate the solvation free energies of organic molecules in water, various alcohols and ethers, and the log P values of diverse organic molecules, including peptides and a protein. Both the G-SFED model and the G-SFED-HB model reproduced the experimental solvation free energies with similar accuracy, whereas the distributions of the SFED on the molecular surface calculated by the G-SFED and G-SFED-HB models were quite different, especially for molecules having HB donors or acceptors. Since the angle dependency of HBs was included in the G-SFED-HB model, the SFED distribution of the G-SFED-HB model is well described

  2. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703

  3. S-Adenosylmethionine conformations in solution and in protein complexes: Conformational influences of the sulfonium group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, George D.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Bock, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and other sulfonium ions play central roles in the metabolism of all organisms. The conformational preferences of AdoMet and two other biologically important sulfonium ions, S-methylmethionine and dimethylsulfonioproprionic acid, have been investigated by NMR...... and computational studies. Molecular mechanics parameters for the sulfonium center have been developed for the AMBER force field to permit analysis of NMR results and to enable comparison of the relative energies of the different conformations of AdoMet that have been found in crystal structures of complexes...... with proteins. S-Methylmethionine and S-dimethylsulfonioproprionate adopt a variety of conformations in aqueous solution; a conformation with an electrostatic interaction between the sulfonium sulfur and the carboxylate group is not noticeably favored, in contrast to the preferred conformation found by in vacuo...

  4. arXiv Agravity up to infinite energy

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2018-02-10

    The self-interactions of the conformal mode of the graviton are controlled, in dimensionless gravity theories (agravity), by a coupling $f_0$ that is not asymptotically free. We show that, nevertheless, agravity can be a complete theory valid up to infinite energy. When $f_0$ grows to large values, the conformal mode of the graviton decouples from the rest of the theory and does not hit any Landau pole provided that scalars are asymptotically conformally coupled and all other couplings approach fixed points. Then agravity can flow to conformal gravity at infinite energy. We identify scenarios where the Higgs mass does not receive unnaturally large physical corrections. We also show a useful equivalence between agravity and conformal gravity plus two extra conformally coupled scalars, and we give a simpler form for the renormalization group equations of dimensionless couplings as well as of massive parameters in the presence of the most general matter sector.

  5. The impact of increased efficiency in the industrial use of energy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy

  6. Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne

    Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.

  7. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  8. General purpose dynamic Monte Carlo with continuous energy for transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjenitzer, B. L.; Hoogenboom, J. E. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    For safety assessments transient analysis is an important tool. It can predict maximum temperatures during regular reactor operation or during an accident scenario. Despite the fact that this kind of analysis is very important, the state of the art still uses rather crude methods, like diffusion theory and point-kinetics. For reference calculations it is preferable to use the Monte Carlo method. In this paper the dynamic Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code Tripoli4. Also, the method is extended for use with continuous energy. The first results of Dynamic Tripoli demonstrate that this kind of calculation is indeed accurate and the results are achieved in a reasonable amount of time. With the method implemented in Tripoli it is now possible to do an exact transient calculation in arbitrary geometry. (authors)

  9. Derrida's Generalized Random Energy models; 4, Continuous state branching and coalescents

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we conclude our analysis of Derrida's Generalized Random Energy Models (GREM) by identifying the thermodynamic limit with a one-parameter family of probability measures related to a continuous state branching process introduced by Neveu. Using a construction introduced by Bertoin and Le Gall in terms of a coherent family of subordinators related to Neveu's branching process, we show how the Gibbs geometry of the limiting Gibbs measure is given in terms of the genealogy of this process via a deterministic time-change. This construction is fully universal in that all different models (characterized by the covariance of the underlying Gaussian process) differ only through that time change, which in turn is expressed in terms of Parisi's overlap distribution. The proof uses strongly the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities that impose the structure of Neveu's process as the only possible asymptotic random mechanism.

  10. Generalized Gibbs distribution and energy localization in the semiclassical FPU problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Rafael; Danshita, Ippei; Oganesyan, Vadim; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2011-03-01

    We investigate dynamics of the weakly interacting quantum mechanical Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (qFPU) model in the semiclassical limit below the stochasticity threshold. Within this limit we find that initial quantum fluctuations lead to the damping of FPU oscillations and relaxation of the system to a slowly evolving steady state with energy localized within few momentum modes. We find that in large systems this state can be described by the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE), with the Lagrange multipliers being very weak functions of time. This ensembles gives accurate description of the instantaneous correlation functions, both quadratic and quartic. Based on these results we conjecture that GGE generically appears as a prethermalized state in weakly non-integrable systems.

  11. The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin with an additional intramolecular cross-link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brems, D.N.; Brown, P.L.; Nakagawa, S.H.; Tager, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conformational stability and flexibility of insulin containing a cross-link between the alpha-amino group of the A-chain to the epsilon-amino group of Lys29 of the B-chain was examined. The cross-link varied in length from 2 to 12 carbon atoms. The conformational stability was determined by guanidine hydrochloride-induced equilibrium denaturation and flexibility was assessed by H2O/D2O amide exchange. The cross-link has substantial effects on both conformational stability and flexibility which depend on its length. In general, the addition of a cross-link enhances conformational stability and decreases flexibility. The optimal length for enhanced stability and decreased flexibility was the 6-carbon link. For the 6-carbon link the Gibbs free energy of unfolding was 8.0 kcal/mol compared to 4.5 kcal/mol for insulin, and the amide exchange rate decreased by at least 3-fold. A very short cross-link (i.e. the 2-carbon link) caused conformational strain that was detectable by a lack of stabilization in the Gibbs free energy of unfolding and enhancement in the amide exchange rate compared to insulin. The effect of the cross-link length on insulin hydrodynamic properties is discussed relative to previously obtained receptor binding results

  12. The conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator and factor ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Michael P.; Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    In quantum mechanics the kinetic energy term for a single particle is usually written in the form of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. This operator is a factor ordering of the classical kinetic energy. We investigate other relatively simple factor orderings and show that the only other solution for a conformally flat metric is the conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator. For non-conformally-flat metrics this type of factor ordering fails, by just one term, to give the conformally invariant Laplace-Beltrami operator

  13. Introduction to twisted conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development

  14. Generalized magnetic susceptibilities in metals: application of the analytic tetrahedron linear energy method to Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, J.; Freeman, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed study of the generalized susceptibility chi(vector q) of Sc metal determined from an accurate augmented-plane-wave method calculation of its energy-band structure is presented. The calculations were done by means of a computational scheme for chi(vector q) derived as an extension of the work of Jepsen and Andersen and Lehmann and Taut on the density-of-states problem. The procedure yields simple analytic expressions for the chi(vector q) integral inside a tetrahedral microzone of the Brillouin zone which depends only on the volume of the tetrahedron and the differences of the energies at its corners. Constant-matrix-element results have been obtained for Sc which show very good agreement with the results of Liu, Gupta, and Sinha (but with one less peak) and exhibit a first maximum in chi(vector q) at (0, 0, 0.31) 2π/c [vs (0, 0, 0.35) 2π/c obtained by Liu et al.] which relates very well to dilute rare-earth alloy magnetic ordering at vector q/sub m/ = (0, 0, 0.28) 2π/c and to the kink in the LA-phonon dispersion curve at (0, 0, 0.27) 2π/c. (U.S.)

  15. Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A.; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Díaz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ∼0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach

  16. Fitting of Hadron Mass Spectra and Contributions to Perturbation Theory of Conformal Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Acosta, German Aurelio

    The masses of observed hadrons are fitted according to the kinematic predictions of Conformal Relativity. The hypothesis gives a remarkably good fit. The isospin SU(2) gauge invariant Lagrangian L(,(pi)NN)(x,(lamda)) is used in the calculation of d(sigma)/d(OMEGA) to 2nd-order Feynman graphs for simplified models of (pi)N(--->)(pi)N. The resulting infinite mass sums over the nucleon (Conformal) families are done via the Generalized-Sommerfeld-Watson Transform Theorem. Even though the models are too simple to be realistic, they indicate that if (DELTA)-internal lines were to be included, 2nd-order Feynman graphs may reproduce the experimental data qualitatively. The energy -dependence of the propagator and couplings in Conformal QFT is different from that of ordinary QFT. Suggestions for further work are made in the areas of ultra-violet divergences and OPEC calculations.

  17. Conformity and statistical tolerancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice

    2018-02-01

    Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).

  18. Axiomatic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Goddard, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes, which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Moebius invariance rather than full conformal invariance is required but it is shown that every Moebius theory can be extended to a conformal theory by the construction of a Virasoro field. In this approach, a representation of a conformal field theory is naturally defined in terms of a family of amplitudes with appropriate analytic properties. It is shown that these amplitudes can also be derived from a suitable collection of states in the meromorphic theory. Zhu's algebra then appears naturally as the algebra of conditions which states defining highest weight representations must satisfy. The relationship of the representations of Zhu's algebra to the classification of highest weight representations is explained. (orig.)

  19. On the coherence between high-energy total cross-section data when compared with general principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-12-01

    An essential model is performed - an independent study of the internal coherence between high-energy total cross-section data by using classes of functions satisfying general principles. The study is practically independent of the ρ-parameter values. This general analysis, made without any fit, reveals certain inconsistencies in the existing set of high-energy data. Some of these inconsistencies are eliminated by giving up arbitrary assumptions sometimes made in 'fitology'. It is shown that the ln 2 s increase of total cross-sections at high energies is clearly favoured when compared with other possible behaviours. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs

  20. How the removal of energy subsidy affects general price in China: A study based on input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhujun; Tan, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO 2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI

  1. Algebraic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1991-11-01

    Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  2. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S 3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities

  3. Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.

  4. Quantum Hamiltonian reduction and conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.

    1991-01-01

    It is proved that irreducible representation of the Virasoro algebra can be extracted from an irreducible representation space of the SL (2, R) current algebra by putting a constraint on the latter using the BRST formalism. Thus there is a SL(2, R) symmetry in the Virasoro algebra which is gauged and hidden. This construction of the Virasoro algebra is the quantum analog of the Hamiltonian reduction. The author then naturally leads to consider an SL(2, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model. This system is related to the quantum field theory of the coadjoint orbit of the Virasoro group. Based on this result he presents the canonical derivation of the SL(2, R) current algebra in Polyakov's theory of two dimensional gravity; it is manifestation of the SL(2, R) symmetry in the conformal field theory hidden by the quantum Hamiltonian reduction. He discusses the quantum Hamiltonian reduction of the SL(n, R) current algebra for the general type of constraints labeled by index 1 ≤ l ≤ (n - 1) and claim that it leads to the new extended conformal algebras W n l . For l = 1 he recovers the well known W n algebra introduced by A. Zamolodchikov. For SL(3, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model there are two different possibilities of constraining it. The first possibility gives the W 3 algebra, while the second leads to the new chiral algebra W 3 2 generated by the stress-energy tensor, two bosonic supercurrents with spins 3/2 and the U(1) current. He conjectures a Kac formula that describes the highly reducible representation for this algebra. He also makes some speculations concerning the structure of W gravity

  5. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  6. Universal hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic limit of non-conformal branes using the recently developed precise holographic dictionary. We first streamline the discussion of holography for backgrounds that asymptote locally to non-conformal brane solutions by showing that all such solutions can be obtained from higher dimensional asymptotically locally AdS solutions by suitable dimensional reduction and continuation in the dimension. As a consequence, many holographic results for such backgrounds follow from the corresponding results of the Asymptotically AdS case. In particular, the hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes is fully determined in terms of conformal hydrodynamics. Using previous results on the latter we predict the form of the non-conformal hydrodynamic stress tensor to second order in derivatives. Furthermore we show that the ratio between bulk and shear viscosity is fixed by the generalized conformal structure to be ζ/η = 2(1/(d-1)-c s 2 ), where c s is the speed of sound in the fluid.

  7. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  8. Virtual and solution conformations of oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, D.A.; Carver, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that observed nuclear Overhauser enhancements and bulk longitudinal relaxation times, parameters measured by 1 H NMR and often employed in determining the preferred solution conformation of biologically important molecules, are the result of averaging over many conformational states is quantitatively evaluated. Of particular interest was to ascertain whether certain 1 H NMR determined conformations are virtual in nature; i.e., the fraction of the population of molecules actually found at any time within the subset of conformational space defined as the solution conformation is vanishingly small. A statistical mechanics approach was utilized to calculate an ensemble average relaxation matrix from which (NOE)'s and (T 1 )'s are calculated. Model glycosidic linkages in four oligosaccharides were studied. The nature of the resultant population distributions is such that 50% of the molecular population is found within 1% of available microstates, while 99% of the molecular population occupies about 10% of the ensemble microstates, a number roughly equal to that sterically allowed. From this analysis the authors conclude that in many cases quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation data, which attempts to define a single set of allowable torsion angle values consistent with the observed data, will lead to solution conformations that are either virtual or reflect torsion angle values possessed by a minority of the molecular population. Observed values of NMR relaxation data are the result of the complex interdependence of the population distribution and NOE (or T 1 ) surfaces in conformational space. In conformational analyses, NMR data can therefore be used to test different population distributions calculated from empirical potential energy functions

  9. Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Department prepared the Fiscal Year 1998 Accountability Report to combine critical financial and program performance information in a single report. The Department`s consolidated financial statements and the related audit reports are included as major components of the Accountability Report. The Office of Inspector General audited the Department`s consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended September 30, 1998 and 1997. In the opinion of the Office of Inspector General, except for the environmental liabilities lines items in Fiscal year 1998, these financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Department as of September 30, 1998 and 1997, and its consolidated net cost, changes in net position, budgetary resources, financing activities, and custodial activities for the years then ended in conformity with Federal accounting standards. In accordance with Government Auditing Standards, the Office of Inspector General issued a separate report on the Department internal controls. This report discusses needed improvements to the environmental liabilities estimating process and the reporting of performance measure information.

  10. A generalized electron energy probability function for inductively coupled plasmas under conditions of nonlocal electron kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouris, S.; Kokkoris, G.

    2018-01-01

    A generalized equation for the electron energy probability function (EEPF) of inductively coupled Ar plasmas is proposed under conditions of nonlocal electron kinetics and diffusive cooling. The proposed equation describes the local EEPF in a discharge and the independent variable is the kinetic energy of electrons. The EEPF consists of a bulk and a depleted tail part and incorporates the effect of the plasma potential, Vp, and pressure. Due to diffusive cooling, the break point of the EEPF is eVp. The pressure alters the shape of the bulk and the slope of the tail part. The parameters of the proposed EEPF are extracted by fitting to measure EEPFs (at one point in the reactor) at different pressures. By coupling the proposed EEPF with a hybrid plasma model, measurements in the gaseous electronics conference reference reactor concerning (a) the electron density and temperature and the plasma potential, either spatially resolved or at different pressure (10-50 mTorr) and power, and (b) the ion current density of the electrode, are well reproduced. The effect of the choice of the EEPF on the results is investigated by a comparison to an EEPF coming from the Boltzmann equation (local electron kinetics approach) and to a Maxwellian EEPF. The accuracy of the results and the fact that the proposed EEPF is predefined renders its use a reliable alternative with a low computational cost compared to stochastic electron kinetic models at low pressure conditions, which can be extended to other gases and/or different electron heating mechanisms.

  11. Econometrically calibrated computable general equilibrium models: Applications to the analysis of energy and climate politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schu, Kathryn L.

    Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements

  12. Very special conformal field theories and their holographic duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Cohen and Glashow introduced the notion of very special relativity as viable space-time symmetry of elementary particle physics. As a natural generalization of their idea, we study the subgroup of the conformal group, dubbed very special conformal symmetry, which is an extension of the very special relativity. We classify all of them and construct field theory examples as well as holographic realization of the very special conformal field theories.

  13. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL 2 invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs

  14. From conformal Haag-Kastler nets to Wightman functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerss, M.

    1996-08-01

    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we present a canonical construction that leads to a complete set of conformally covariant N-point-functions fulfilling the Wightman axioms. Our method consists of an explicit use of the representation theory of the universal covering group of SL(2,R) combined with a generalization of the conformal cluster theorem to N-point-functions. (orig.)

  15. Reactions driving conformational movements (molecular motors) in gels: conformational and structural chemical kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Toribio F

    2017-01-18

    In this perspective the empirical kinetics of conducting polymers exchanging anions and solvent during electrochemical reactions to get dense reactive gels is reviewed. The reaction drives conformational movements of the chains (molecular motors), exchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte and structural (relaxation, swelling, shrinking and compaction) gel changes. Reaction-driven structural changes are identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The empirical reaction activation energy (E a ), the reaction coefficient (k) and the reaction orders (α and β) change as a function of the conformational energy variation during the reaction. This conformational energy becomes an empirical magnitude. E a , k, α and β include and provide quantitative conformational and structural information. The chemical kinetics becomes structural chemical kinetics (SCK) for reactions driving conformational movements of the reactants. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model describes empirical results and some results from the literature for biochemical reactions. In parallel the development of an emerging technological world of soft, wet, multifunctional and biomimetic tools and anthropomorphic robots driven by reactions of the constitutive material, as in biological organs, can be now envisaged being theoretically supported by the kinetic model.

  16. Interplay of charge distribution and conformation in peptides: comparison of theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Bagińska, Katarzyna; Kasprzykowski, F; Vila, Jorge A; Jagielska, Anna; Liwo, Adam; Chmurzyński, Lech; Scheraga, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the correlation between charge distribution and conformation of flexible peptides by comparing the theoretically calculated potentiometric-titration curves of two model peptides, Ac-Lys5-NHMe (a model of poly-L-lysine) and Ac-Lys-Ala11-Lys-Gly2-Tyr-NH2 (P1) in water and methanol, with the experimental curves. The calculation procedure consisted of three steps: (i) global conformational search of the peptide under study using the electrostatically driven Monte Carlo (EDMC) method with the empirical conformational energy program for peptides (ECEPP)/3 force field plus the surface-hydration (SRFOPT) or the generalized Born surface area (GBSA) solvation model as well as a molecular dynamics method with the assisted model building and energy refinement (AMBER)99/GBSA force field; (ii) reevaluation of the energy in the pH range considered by using the modified Poisson-Boltzmann approach and taking into account all possible protonation microstates of each conformation, and (iii) calculation of the average degree of protonation of the peptide at a given pH value by Boltzmann averaging over conformations. For Ac-Lys5-NHMe, the computed titration curve agrees qualitatively with the experimental curve of poly-L-lysine in 95% methanol. The experimental titration curves of peptide P1 in water and methanol indicate a remarkable downshift of the first pK(a) value compared to the values for reference compounds (n-butylamine and phenol, respectively), suggesting the presence of a hydrogen bond between the tyrosine hydroxyl oxygen and the H(epsilon) proton of a protonated lysine side chain. The theoretical titration curves agree well with the experimental curves, if conformations with such hydrogen bonds constitute a significant part of the ensemble; otherwise, the theory predicts too small a downward pH shift. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. CO2, energy and economy interactions: A multisectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium model for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonyoung

    While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With

  18. Expansion Formulation of General Relativity: the Gauge Functions for Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloushko, Konstantin; Karbanovski, Valeri

    At present the one of the GR (General Relativity) basic problem remains a definition of the gravitation field (GF) energy. We shall analyze this content. As well known, the energy-momentum ``tensor'' (EMT) of GF was introduced by Einstein [1] with purpose of the SRT (Special Relativity Theory) generalization. It supposed also, that EMT of matter satisfy to the condition begin{equation} ⪉bel{GrindEQ__1_1_} T^{ik} _{;i} =0 (a semicolon denotes a covariant differentiation with respect to coordinates). In absence of GF the equation (ref{GrindEQ__1_1_}) reduces to a corresponding SRT expression begin{equation} ⪉bel{GrindEQ__1_2_} T^{ik} _{,i} =0 (a comma denotes a differentiation with respect to coordinates of space-time). Obviously, the ``conservation law'' (ref{GrindEQ__1_2_}) is not broken by transformation begin{equation} ⪉bel{GrindEQ__1_3_} T^{ik} to tilde{T}^{ik} =T^{ik} +h^{ikl} _{,l} , where for h(ikl) takes place a constrain begin{equation} ⪉bel{GrindEQ__1_4_} h^{ikl} =-h^{ilk} Later the given property has been used for a construction ``pseudo-tensor'' tau (ik) of ``pure'' GF [2, S 96] begin{equation} ⪉bel{GrindEQ__1_5_} -gleft(frac{c^{4} }{8pi G} left(R^{ik} -frac{1}{2} g^{ik} Rright)+tau ^{ik} right)=h^{ikl} _{,l} However such definition was a consequence of non-covariant transition from a reference system with condition g(ik) _{,l} =0 to an arbitrary frame. Therefore the Landau-Lifshitz pseudo-tensor has no physical contents and considered problem remains actual. ``The non-covariant character'' of GF energy was the reason for criticism of GR as Einstein's contemporaries [3, 4], as and during the subsequent period (see, for example, [5]). In [6] were analyzed the grounds of given problem, which are connected with a formulation indefiniteness of ``the conservation law'' in curved space-time. In [7] contends, that the gravitational energy in EMT can be separated only ``artificially'' by a choice of the certain coordinate system. In [8] is concluded

  19. Protein Loop Structure Prediction Using Conformational Space Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seungryong; Lee, Juyong; Joo, Keehyoung; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Lee, Jooyoung

    2017-05-22

    We have developed a protein loop structure prediction method by combining a new energy function, which we call E PLM (energy for protein loop modeling), with the conformational space annealing (CSA) global optimization algorithm. The energy function includes stereochemistry, dynamic fragment assembly, distance-scaled finite ideal gas reference (DFIRE), and generalized orientation- and distance-dependent terms. For the conformational search of loop structures, we used the CSA algorithm, which has been quite successful in dealing with various hard global optimization problems. We assessed the performance of E PLM with two widely used loop-decoy sets, Jacobson and RAPPER, and compared the results against the DFIRE potential. The accuracy of model selection from a pool of loop decoys as well as de novo loop modeling starting from randomly generated structures was examined separately. For the selection of a nativelike structure from a decoy set, E PLM was more accurate than DFIRE in the case of the Jacobson set and had similar accuracy in the case of the RAPPER set. In terms of sampling more nativelike loop structures, E PLM outperformed E DFIRE for both decoy sets. This new approach equipped with E PLM and CSA can serve as the state-of-the-art de novo loop modeling method.

  20. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  1. Statement of the Director General to the forty-third regular session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his Statement on the forty-third regular session of the General Conference of the IAEA, the Director General of the Agency presented the past, present and future programme of the Agency in terms of the three 'pillars' that constitute its mandate: Nuclear technology (with emphasis on nuclear power and nuclear applications); Nuclear, radiation and waste safety (with emphasis on international conventions prescribing the basic legal norms for the safe use of nuclear energy, internationally accepted safety standards, and measures to assist Member States in the implementation of these conventions and standards, including technological solutions for improving safety); Nuclear verification and the security of material (with emphasis on IAEA safeguards, and physical protection of nuclear material), including possible new verification activities and specific verification issues (Iraq, DPRK, Middle East region). The Director General also touched in his Statement on two supporting elements that undergird these 'pillars': effective interaction with partners and the public, and achieving excellence in management

  2. Massive Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.

  3. Taming the conformal zoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.

    1989-01-01

    All known rational conformal field theories may be obtained from (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories by appropriate choice of gauge group. We conjecture that all rational field theories are classified by groups via (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories. (orig.)

  4. Conformal special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes

  5. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parafermionic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.

    1989-09-01

    Conformal parafermionic field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the computation of their OPE estructure constants. It is presented a simple computational of these for the Z(N) parafermions, unveilling their Lie algebra content. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Dilaton vs Higgs: Nearly Conformal Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the model in which the conformal symmetry can be broken spontaneously, and a light scalar dilaton could emerge in the low-energy spectrum. The contribution of the dark photon production relevant to two photons decays of a Higgs boson/dilaton is discussed.

  8. On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, S., E-mail: sibir@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); FSB/ITP/LPPC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-02-04

    We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS{sub 5}. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space–time domain.

  9. On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Libanov, M.; Sibiryakov, S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.

  10. Does Your Annual Financial Report Conform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements for consideration of the Certificate of Conformance award sponsored by the Association of School Business Officials to encourage school districts to adopt and use generally accepted accounting and reporting principles for all funds used in the financial management of the school systems. (Author/MLF)

  11. Conformity to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. Objectives: To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Design: Cross ...

  12. A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sensoy, Ozge; Peter, Christine; Sayar, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of coarse grained (CG) simulation models that aim at biomolecular structure formation processes is the correct representation of an environment-driven conformational change, for example, a folding/unfolding event upon interaction with an interface or upon aggregation. In the present study, we investigate this transferability challenge for a CG model using the example of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide displays a transition from a trans-like to a cis-like conformation upon aggregation as well as upon transfer from bulk water to the cyclohexane/water interface. Here, we show that one can construct a single CG model that can reproduce both the bulk and interface conformational behavior and the segregation between hydrophobic/hydrophilic medium. While the general strategy to obtain nonbonded interactions in the present CG model is to reproduce solvation free energies of small molecules representing the CG beads in the respective solvents, the success of the model strongly depends on nontrivial decisions one has to make to capture the delicate balance between the bonded and nonbonded interactions. In particular, we found that the peptide's conformational behavior is qualitatively affected by the cyclohexane/water interaction potential, an interaction that does not directly involve the peptide at all but merely influences the properties of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Furthermore, we show that a small modification to improve the structural/conformational properties of the CG model could dramatically alter the thermodynamic properties.

  13. A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sensoy, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of coarse grained (CG) simulation models that aim at biomolecular structure formation processes is the correct representation of an environment-driven conformational change, for example, a folding/unfolding event upon interaction with an interface or upon aggregation. In the present study, we investigate this transferability challenge for a CG model using the example of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide displays a transition from a trans-like to a cis-like conformation upon aggregation as well as upon transfer from bulk water to the cyclohexane/water interface. Here, we show that one can construct a single CG model that can reproduce both the bulk and interface conformational behavior and the segregation between hydrophobic/hydrophilic medium. While the general strategy to obtain nonbonded interactions in the present CG model is to reproduce solvation free energies of small molecules representing the CG beads in the respective solvents, the success of the model strongly depends on nontrivial decisions one has to make to capture the delicate balance between the bonded and nonbonded interactions. In particular, we found that the peptide's conformational behavior is qualitatively affected by the cyclohexane/water interaction potential, an interaction that does not directly involve the peptide at all but merely influences the properties of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Furthermore, we show that a small modification to improve the structural/conformational properties of the CG model could dramatically alter the thermodynamic properties

  14. A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sensoy, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet, E-mail: msayar@ku.edu.tr [College of Engineering, Koç University, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Peter, Christine [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78547 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    One of the major challenges in the development of coarse grained (CG) simulation models that aim at biomolecular structure formation processes is the correct representation of an environment-driven conformational change, for example, a folding/unfolding event upon interaction with an interface or upon aggregation. In the present study, we investigate this transferability challenge for a CG model using the example of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide displays a transition from a trans-like to a cis-like conformation upon aggregation as well as upon transfer from bulk water to the cyclohexane/water interface. Here, we show that one can construct a single CG model that can reproduce both the bulk and interface conformational behavior and the segregation between hydrophobic/hydrophilic medium. While the general strategy to obtain nonbonded interactions in the present CG model is to reproduce solvation free energies of small molecules representing the CG beads in the respective solvents, the success of the model strongly depends on nontrivial decisions one has to make to capture the delicate balance between the bonded and nonbonded interactions. In particular, we found that the peptide's conformational behavior is qualitatively affected by the cyclohexane/water interaction potential, an interaction that does not directly involve the peptide at all but merely influences the properties of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Furthermore, we show that a small modification to improve the structural/conformational properties of the CG model could dramatically alter the thermodynamic properties.

  15. Role of conformational dynamics in kinetics of an enzymatic cycle in a nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wei; Xie, X. Sunney; Bagchi, Biman

    2009-08-01

    Enzyme is a dynamic entity with diverse time scales, ranging from picoseconds to seconds or even longer. Here we develop a rate theory for enzyme catalysis that includes conformational dynamics as cycling on a two-dimensional (2D) reaction free energy surface involving an intrinsic reaction coordinate (X) and an enzyme conformational coordinate (Q). The validity of Michaelis-Menten (MM) equation, i.e., substrate concentration dependence of enzymatic velocity, is examined under a nonequilibrium steady state. Under certain conditions, the classic MM equation holds but with generalized microscopic interpretations of kinetic parameters. However, under other conditions, our rate theory predicts either positive (sigmoidal-like) or negative (biphasic-like) kinetic cooperativity due to the modified effective 2D reaction pathway on X-Q surface, which can explain non-MM dependence previously observed on many monomeric enzymes that involve slow or hysteretic conformational transitions. Furthermore, we find that a slow conformational relaxation during product release could retain the enzyme in a favorable configuration, such that enzymatic turnover is dynamically accelerated at high substrate concentrations. The effect of such conformation retainment in a nonequilibrium steady state is evaluated.

  16. Perspectives on electrostatics and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoian, Philip; Liu, C Tony; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Enzymes are essential for all living organisms, and their effectiveness as chemical catalysts has driven more than a half century of research seeking to understand the enormous rate enhancements they provide. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of the factors that govern the rate enhancements and selectivities of enzymes remains elusive, due to the extraordinary complexity and cooperativity that are the hallmarks of these biomolecules. We have used a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, pre-steady-state kinetics, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), vibrational and fluorescence spectroscopies, resonance energy transfer, and computer simulations to study the implications of conformational motions and electrostatic interactions on enzyme catalysis in the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We have demonstrated that modest equilibrium conformational changes are functionally related to the hydride transfer reaction. Results obtained for mutant DHFRs illustrated that reductions in hydride transfer rates are correlated with altered conformational motions, and analysis of the evolutionary history of DHFR indicated that mutations appear to have occurred to preserve both the hydride transfer rate and the associated conformational changes. More recent results suggested that differences in local electrostatic environments contribute to finely tuning the substrate pKa in the initial protonation step. Using a combination of primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects, we demonstrated that the reaction mechanism is consistent across a broad pH range, and computer simulations suggested that deprotonation of the active site Tyr100 may play a crucial role in substrate protonation at high pH. Site-specific incorporation of vibrational thiocyanate probes into the ecDHFR active site provided an experimental tool for interrogating these microenvironments and for investigating changes in electrostatics along the DHFR catalytic cycle

  17. Comprehensive optimisation of China’s energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.X.; Liu, Y.Y.; Du, M.; Zhang, J.X.; Pang, Y.X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy policy is defined as a complication of energy price, tax and subsidy policies. • The maximisation of total social benefit is the optimised objective. • A more rational carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton under the current situation. • The optimal coefficient pricing is more conducive to maximise total social benefit. - Abstract: Under the condition of increasingly serious environmental pollution, rational energy policy plays an important role in the practical significance of energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper defines energy policies as the compilation of energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies. Moreover, it establishes the optimisation model of China’s energy policy based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which maximises the total social benefit, in order to explore the comprehensive influences of a carbon tax, the sales pricing mechanism and the renewable energy fund policy. The results show that when the change rates of gross domestic product and consumer price index are ±2%, ±5% and the renewable energy supply structure ratio is 7%, the more reasonable carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton, and the optimal coefficient pricing mechanism is more conducive to the objective of maximising the total social benefit. From the perspective of optimising the overall energy policies, if the upper limit of change rate in consumer price index is 2.2%, the existing renewable energy fund should be improved

  18. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006

  19. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for

  20. Fiscal 1974 research report. General research on hydrogen energy subsystems; 1974 nendo suiso riyo subsystem sogoteki kento hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    Based on the contract research 'General research on hydrogen energy subsystems and their peripheral technologies' with Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, each of 7 organizations including Denki Kagaku Kyokai (Electrochemical Association) promoted the research on hydrogen energy subsystem, combustion, fuel cell, car engine, aircraft engine, gas turbine and chemical energy, respectively. This report summarizes the research result on the former of 2 committees on hydrogen energy and peripheral technologies promoted by Denki Kagaku Kyokai. The first part describes the merit, demerit, domestic and overseas R and D states, technical problems, and future research issue for every use form of hydrogen. This part also outlines the short-, medium- and long-term prospects for use of hydrogen and oxygen energy, and describes the whole future research issue. The second part summarizes the content of each committee report. Although on details the original reports of each committee should be lead, this report is useful for obtaining the outline of utilization of hydrogen energy. (NEDO)

  1. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili

    2014-06-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature effects on the generalized planar fault energies and twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu: First principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xiaozhi; Gan, Liyong; Wei, Qunyi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the quasiharmonic approach from first-principles phonon calculations, the volume versus temperature relations for Al, Ni and Cu are obtained. Using the equilibrium volumes at temperature T, the temperature dependences of generalized planar fault energies have also been calculated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the generalized planar fault energies reduce slightly with increasing temperature. Based on the calculated generalized planar fault energies, the twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu are discussed with the three typical criteria for crack tip twinning, grain boundary twinning and inherent twinning at different temperatures. The twinnabilities of Al, Ni and Cu also decrease slightly with increasing temperature. Ni and Cu have the inherent twinnabilities. But, Al does not exhibit inherent twinnability. These results are in agreement with the previous theoretical studies at 0 K and experimental observations at ambient temperature. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and null infinity via advanced and retarded conformal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to space-time asymptotics is presented, refining Penrose's idea of conformal transformations with infinity represented by the conformal boundary of space-time. It is proposed that the Penrose conformal factor be a product of advanced and retarded conformal factors, which asymptotically relate physical and conformal null coordinates and vanish at future and past null infinity respectively. A refined definition of asymptotic flatness at both spatial and null infinity is given, including that the conformal boundary is locally a light cone, with spatial infinity as the vertex. It is shown how to choose the conformal factors so that this asymptotic light cone is locally a metric light cone. The theory is implemented in the spin-coefficient (or null-tetrad) formalism by a joint transformation of the spin-metric and spin-basis (or metric and tetrad). Asymptotic regularity conditions are proposed, based on the conformal boundary locally being a smoothly embedded metric light cone. These conditions ensure that the Bondi-Sachs energy-flux integrals of ingoing and outgoing gravitational radiation decay at spatial infinity such that the total radiated energy is finite, and that the Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum has a unique limit at spatial infinity, coinciding with the uniquely rendered ADM energy-momentum

  4. Braneworlds and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Rui; Vaz, Cenalo

    2006-01-01

    In the Randall-Sundrum scenario, we analyse the dynamics of an AdS 5 braneworld when conformal matter fields propagate in five dimensions. We show that conformal fields of weight -4 are associated with stable geometries which describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust, generalized dark radiation and homogeneous polytropic dark energy on a spherically symmetric 3-brane embedded in the compact AdS 5 orbifold. We discuss aspects of the radion stability conditions and of the localization of gravity in the vicinity of the brane

  5. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  6. 4 CFR 25.5 - Conformity with signs and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with signs and directions. 25.5 Section 25.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.5 Conformity with signs and directions. Persons in the GAO...

  7. Non-singular cosmologies in the conformally invariant gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kembhavi, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of a conformally invariant gravitation theory, the singularity which is present in some anisotropic universes in general relativity is due to a wrong choice of conformal frame. Frames exist in which these models can be made singularity free. (author)

  8. Brane world black holes in teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity and their Killing vectors, energy, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2010-01-01

    The energy–momentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy–momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy–momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space–times are calculated. In spite of using a static space–time, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space–times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear. (general)

  9. Nilpotent weights in conformal field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rouhani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Logarithmic conformal field theory can be obtained using nilpotent weights. Using such scale transformations various properties of the theory were derived. The derivation of four point function needs a knowledge of singular vectors which is derived by including nilpotent variables into the Kac determinant. This leads to inhomogeneous hypergeometric functions. Finally we consider the theory near a boundary and also introduce the concept of superfields where a multiplet of conformal fields are dealt with together. This leads to the OPE of superfields and a logarithmic partner for the energy momentum tensor.

  10. Collective processes in a tokamak with high-energy particles: general problems of the linear theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some general problems of the theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions are considered. It is assumed that such ions are due to either ionization of fast neutral atoms, injected into the tokamak, or production of them under thermo-nuclear conditions. Small-oscillation equations are derived for the Alfven-type waves, which allow for both destabilizing effects, associated with the high-energy particles, and stabilizing ones, such as effects of shear and bulk-plasm dissipation. A high-energy ion contribution is calculated into the growth rate of the Alfven waves. The author considers the role of trapped-electron collisional dissipation

  11. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  12. Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle

    2016-01-01

    A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.

  13. Note on Weyl versus conformal invariance in field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng [Nanchang University, Department of Physics, Nanchang (China)

    2017-12-15

    It was argued recently that conformal invariance in flat spacetime implies Weyl invariance in a general curved background for unitary theories and possible anomalies in the Weyl variation of scalar operators are identified. We argue that generically unitarity alone is not sufficient for a conformal field theory to be Weyl invariant. Furthermore, we show explicitly that when a unitary conformal field theory couples to gravity in a Weyl-invariant way, each primary scalar operator that is either relevant or marginal in the unitary conformal field theory corresponds to a Weyl-covariant operator in the curved background. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear energy: work to be done. A report of the General Council to the 1986 TUC Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The paper on nuclear energy is a Report of the General Council to the United Kingdom 1986 TUC Congress. The contents contains four sections on:- 1) control of risks to health, safety and the environment: the TUC role, 2) radioactive waste, 3) Chernobyl reactor accident, and 4) TUC energy policy. The annex contains a report of a fact finding visit to Sellafield reprocessing plant by members of the TUC Radioactive Waste Group.

  15. Trace anomaly of the stress-energy tensor for massless vector particles propagating in a general background metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Lieberman, J.

    1978-01-01

    We reanalyze the problem of regularization of the stress-energy tensor for massless vector particles propating in a general background metric, using covariant point separation techniques applied to the Hadamard elementary solution. We correct an error, point out by Wald, in the earlier formulation of Adler, Lieberman, and Ng, and find a stress-energy tensor trace anomaly agreeing with that found by other regularization methods

  16. Theories of inflation and conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalara, S.; Kaloper, N.; Olive, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    We show that several different theories of inflation including R 2 , Brans-Dicke, and induced-gravity inflation are all related to generalized or power-law inflation by means of conformal transformations. These theories all involve non-standard gravity, and the use of conformal transformations allows one to obtain standard inflationary predictions such as the expansion time-scale, reheating and density perturbations in each case very simply. We also discuss the possibilities of this method to be applied to string theory. (orig.)

  17. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  18. Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmead, Christopher James

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358

  19. Annual Bulletin of General Energy Statistics for Europe. V. 23, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Bulletin is to provide basic data on the energy situation as a whole in European countries, Canada and the United States of America. This publication is purely statistical in character. As from the 1980 edition of the bulletin the scope of statistics comprises production of energy by form, overall energy balance sheets and deliveries of petroleum products for inland consumption. While less details are given for solid and gaseous fuels as sources of energy than in previous editions of the bulletin, more information is available for liquid fuels and nuclear, hydro- and geothermal energy

  20. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.