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Sample records for generalization psychology

  1. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... found to be associated with adverse health outcomes and potentially suboptimal healthcare. The link between stress and multimorbidity could substantiate the efforts to develop management guidelines for primary care, stress‐targeted interventions, and to accommodate the healthcare system to better...... and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity...

  2. Types of Generalization: Introduction to Special Section of Perspectives on Psychological Science on Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Cultural psychology represents one of the broadest types of generalization of psychological findings. We all need to pay attention to cultural findings because many of our most treasured "truisms" fail to generalize when looked at across cultural contexts.

  3. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  4. An Examination of General Psychology as a Foundation Block in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Thomas S.; Swenka, Jobyna J.

    2007-01-01

    What is "General Psychology?" Is it just one course that could be an elective, part of a minor, or part of a student's major? Or could "General Psychology" literally be the "corner stone" or "foundation block" upon which all the other psychology courses, taken afterwards, add to like bricks upon a "foundation block?" This paper will seek to…

  5. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  6. Professional Human Service Occupation Biases Represented in General Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Johnson, Erica J.; Wikler, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    We examined the coverage given by General Psychology textbooks, representing 8 major commercial publishers, regarding the professions of psychology, counseling, marriage & family therapy, and social workers. Of the 24 textbooks assessed, we found substantial bias favoring the coverage of psychology. While 25% of the texts mentioned social workers,…

  7. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. General Psychological Implications of the Human Capacity for Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2018-06-01

    Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena. My suggestion is not simply to replace the hypothetico-deductive model with an inductive one, but to argue that the most direct route to theories of the human mind that grasp its complexity is to begin with the Kantian question of transcendental philosophy: X exists - how is X possible? In the context of this article, I apply this questioning to the phenomenon of grief: Grief exists - what general psychological theory of the mind do we need in order to account for its possibility? I attempt to extract three general psychological points from the existence of grief, viz. (1) the deep relationality of the self, (2) the limitations of evolutionary accounts, and (3) the normativity of psychological phenomena. I shall argue that these are general psychological lessons to be learned from grief, although they could also be arrived at by considering several other significant psychological phenomena.

  9. Problem-Based Learning in a General Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sandra A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the adoption of problem-based learning (PBL) techniques in a general psychology course. States that the instructor used a combination of techniques, including think-pair-share, lecture/discussion, and PBL. Notes means and standard deviations for graded components of PBL format versus lecture/discussion format. (Contains 18 references.)…

  10. Conference Report: Sixth Annual Meeting of Qualitative Psychology "Generalization in Qualitative Psychology"

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    Leo Gürtler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This conference report gives an overview of the 6th Annual Conference of the Qualitative Psychology Initiative held in Velden, Austria from 21-23 October, 2005 sponsored by the Center for Qualitative Psychology (Tübingen. Only in its sixth year, the conference has already become a tradition and was once again attended by researchers from a wide variety of professions and different countries. This year the conference focused on the subject of generalization in qualitative psychology and looked at different ways in which generalization can be handled in qualitative research in psychology. This conference report aims to convey an impression of the conference as a whole, to situate it within the context of psychological research and to point towards current issues and trends in qualitative research that are related to generalization. The individual presentations are first briefly summarized in this context, but are also presented again in greater detail in the Appendix C. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604152

  11. Introducing Students to Psychological Research: General Psychology as a Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, Thomas J.; Clary, E. Gil; Olson, Andrea M.; Dauner, Rachel C.; Ring, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    For 6 years, we have offered an integrated weekly laboratory focusing on research methods as part of our general psychology course. Through self-report measures and controlled comparisons, we found that laboratory projects significantly increase students' knowledge and comfort level with scientific approaches and concepts, sustain interest in…

  12. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life). The omnipresence of tension and suspense suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie) build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying tension and suspense. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.

  13. General versus gender-specific attributes of the psychology major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Jason A; King, Alan R; Bailly, Matthew D

    2005-04-01

    In the present study, the authors extended the search for general and gender-specific factors associated with the selection of psychology as a college major by using the Family Environment Scale (FES; R. H. Moos & B. S. Moos, 1994) and Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; F. L. Coolidge & M. M. Merwin, 1992). The findings were restricted to one general (Schizoid) and one gender-specific (Self-Defeating) set of personality traits that seemed to be associated with the selection of a college major. The intuitive role of many presumed gender-specific factors (e.g., women are more open to discussing personal problems with others) may prove difficult to establish empirically.

  14. The General and the Specific in the Psychological ModelsElites

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    N B Karabuschenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the general and specific features of the psychology of the political, business and cultural-intellectual elites, reflecting the basic structural components of the psychological concept of elites.

  15. The workload of general practitioners does not affect their awareness of patients' psychological problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Kerssens, J.J.; Meer, K. van der; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if general practitioners (GPs) with a higher workload are less inclined to encourage their patients to disclose psychological problems, and are less aware of their patients' psychological problems. METHODS: Data from 2095 videotaped consultations from a representative

  16. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  17. General practice, primary care, and health service psychology: concepts, competencies, and the Combined-Integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Timothy J; Isley, Elayne; Link, Nancy; Shealy, Craig N; Winfrey, LaPearl Logan

    2004-10-01

    The profession of psychology is being impacted profoundly by broader changes within the national system of health care, as mental and behavioral health services are being recognized as essential components of a comprehensive, preventive, and cost-efficient primary care system. To fully define and embrace this role, the discipline of professional psychology must develop a shared disciplinary identity of health service psychology and a generalized competency-based model for doctoral education and training. This very framework has been adopted by Combined-Integrated (C-I) doctoral programs in professional psychology, which train across the practice areas (clinical, counseling, and school psychology) to provide a general and integrative foundation for their students. Because C-I programs produce general practitioners who are competent to function within a variety of health service settings, this innovative training approach has great potential to educate and train psychologists for a changing health care marketplace. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Consultation for and identification of child and adolescent psychological problems in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and

  19. The discontinuity in scientific psychology at the University of Rome, 1907-1947: From general psychology to psychotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Albani, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    This article examines the areas of research conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the University of Rome from 1907 to 1947, directed first by Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), and then, from 1931 on, by Mario Ponzo (1882-1960). The method used to distinguish the topics and areas of research that characterized the Roman School during this period is the textual analysis of the titles of the journal in which studies completed at the laboratory were published, namely, Contributi del Laboratorio di Psicologia sperimentale [Psychological Contributions of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology]. This empirical analysis, which complements and supports the historiographical interpretation, demonstrates the disciplines that emerged under a system managed by the directors over 2 periods of time in the pursuit of scientific psychology in Rome and in Italy. This analysis highlights the process of adjustment from a traditional, general approach to a more theoretical-technical application. This article is a new contribution to the Italian debate on the periodization of the "crisis" in Italian psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Sijbrandij, M.; Koole, S.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Berking, M.; Andersson, G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132

  1. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Moth, Grete

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors' influence on the contact. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified.

  2. Dynamics of synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general incidence rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Xiang, Hong; Li, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic drugs are replacing traditional ones and becoming the main popular ones gradually, which have given rise to serious social issues in recent years. In this paper, a synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general contact rate is proposed. The local and global stabilities are decided by the basic reproduction number R0. By analyzing the sensitivity of parameters, we obtain that controlling psychological addiction is better than drugs treatment. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  3. Do longer consultations improve the management of psychological problems in general practice? A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutton Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological problems present a huge burden of illness in our community and GPs are the main providers of care. There is evidence that longer consultations in general practice are associated with improved quality of care; but this needs to be balanced against the fact that doctor time is a limited resource and longer consultations may lead to reduced access to health care. The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine whether management of psychological problems in general practice is associated with an increased consultation length and to explore whether longer consultations are associated with better health outcomes for patients with psychological problems. Methods A search was conducted on Medline (Ovid databases up to7 June 2006. The following search terms, were used: general practice or primary health care (free text or family practice (MeSH AND consultation length or duration (free text or time factors (MeSH AND depression or psychological problems or depressed (free text. A similar search was done in Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library and no other papers were found. Studies were included if they contained data comparing consultation length and management or detection of psychological problems in a general practice or primary health care setting. The studies were read and categories developed to enable systematic data extraction and synthesis. Results 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. Consultations with a recorded diagnosis of a psychological problem were reported to be longer than those with no recorded psychological diagnosis. It is not clear if this is related to the extra time or the consultation style. GPs reported that time pressure is a major barrier to treating depression. There was some evidence that increased consultation length is associated with more accurate diagnosis of psychological problems. Conclusion Further research is needed to

  4. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  5. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...... screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. Conclusions: This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons.This study included...

  6. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.

  7. The Inequivalence of an Online and Classroom Based General Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-five students enrolled in either a traditional classroom lecture section of General Psychology or in an online section of the same course were compared on exam performance. When covariates of high school grade point average and SAT composite scores were entered into the analysis, students enrolled in the classroom based lecture…

  8. In-Course Instructor-Guided Service Learning in a Community College General Psychology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Weston, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    Students enrolled in two general psychology classes at El Centro College (ECC) of the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) were offered the opportunity to earn extra credit by performing up to 20 hours of service learning. Benefits of service learning were observed in student development, including exploration of career possibilities,…

  9. The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological life satisfaction is a robust predictor of wellbeing. Public health measures to improve wellbeing would benefit from an understanding of how overall life satisfaction varies as a function of satisfaction with multiple life domains, an area that has been little explored. We examine a sample of drought-affected Australian farmers and a general community sample of Australians to investigate how domain satisfaction combines to form psychological satisfaction. In particular, we introduce a way of statistically testing for the presence of “supra-domains” of satisfaction to propose a novel way of examining the composition of psychological life satisfaction to gain insights for health promotion and policy. Methods Covariance between different perceptions of life domain satisfaction was identified by conducting correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analyses on responses to the Personal Wellbeing Index. Structural equations modelling was then used to (a) validate satisfaction supra-domain constructs emerging from different perceptions of life domain satisfaction, and (b) model relationships between supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction. Results Perceived satisfaction with eight different life domains loaded onto a single unitary satisfaction construct adequately in each sample. However, in both samples, different domains better loaded onto two separate but correlated constructs (‘supra-domains’): “satisfaction with connectedness” and “satisfaction with efficacy”. Modelling reciprocal pathways between these supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction revealed that efficacy mediated the link between connectedness and psychological satisfaction. Conclusions If satisfaction with connectedness underlies satisfaction with efficacy (and thus psychological satisfaction), a novel insight for health policy emerges: psychological life satisfaction, a vital part of

  10. The structure of psychological life satisfaction: insights from farmers and a general community sample in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OBrien Léan V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological life satisfaction is a robust predictor of wellbeing. Public health measures to improve wellbeing would benefit from an understanding of how overall life satisfaction varies as a function of satisfaction with multiple life domains, an area that has been little explored. We examine a sample of drought-affected Australian farmers and a general community sample of Australians to investigate how domain satisfaction combines to form psychological satisfaction. In particular, we introduce a way of statistically testing for the presence of “supra-domains” of satisfaction to propose a novel way of examining the composition of psychological life satisfaction to gain insights for health promotion and policy. Methods Covariance between different perceptions of life domain satisfaction was identified by conducting correlation, regression, and exploratory factor analyses on responses to the Personal Wellbeing Index. Structural equations modelling was then used to (a validate satisfaction supra-domain constructs emerging from different perceptions of life domain satisfaction, and (b model relationships between supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction. Results Perceived satisfaction with eight different life domains loaded onto a single unitary satisfaction construct adequately in each sample. However, in both samples, different domains better loaded onto two separate but correlated constructs (‘supra-domains’: “satisfaction with connectedness” and “satisfaction with efficacy”. Modelling reciprocal pathways between these supra-domains and an explicit measure of psychological life satisfaction revealed that efficacy mediated the link between connectedness and psychological satisfaction. Conclusions If satisfaction with connectedness underlies satisfaction with efficacy (and thus psychological satisfaction, a novel insight for health policy emerges: psychological life satisfaction

  11. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Examining the Role of Psychological Inflexibility, Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern in Generalized Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Vilardaga, Roger; Lillis, Jason; Nobles, Richard; Hayes, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice meas...

  13. Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Barrios, Velma; Forsyth, John P; Steger, Michael F

    2006-09-01

    Extending previous work, we conducted two studies concerning the toxic influences of experiential avoidance (EA) as a core mechanism in the development and maintenance of psychological distress, and disruption of pleasant, engaging, and spontaneous activity. Of particular interest was whether EA accounted for relationships between coping and emotion regulation strategies on anxiety-related pathology (Study 1) and psychological distress and hedonic functioning over the course of a 21-day monitoring period (Study 2). In Study 1, EA mediated the effects of maladaptive coping, emotional responses styles, and uncontrollability on anxiety-related distress (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, trait anxiety, suffocation fears, and body sensation fears). In Study 2, EA completely mediated the effects of two emotion regulation strategies (i.e., suppression and reappraisal) on daily negative and positive experiences and was associated with diminished daily positive affective experiences and healthy life appraisals, diminished frequency of positive events and more frequent negative life events, and greater negative affective experiences. The present data show that cognitive reappraisal, a primary process of traditional cognitive-behavior therapy, was much less predictive of the quality of psychological experiences and events in everyday life compared with EA. Further consideration of experiential avoidance as a generalized diathesis and toxic process will be useful in improving our understanding of the etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety conditions, general human suffering, and disruptions in hedonic capacity.

  14. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Parks, Craig D.

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ce...

  15. Children's and parent's psychological profiles in selective mutism and generalized anxiety disorder: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Flavia; Manti, Filippo; Di Trani, Michela; Romani, Maria; Vigliante, Miriam; Sogos, Carla

    2017-10-28

    Selective mutism (SM) is classified in DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the psychological features of children with SM and their parental psychological profiles, compared to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) children and their parents. The parents of 26 preschool children with SM and 32 with children with GAD filled out the child behavior check list for 1½-5 years (CBCL1½-5) and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Information about the children and their parents' histories was collected through clinical interviews. Children with SM scored higher than children with GAD on the CBCL1½-5 withdrawn scale and lower on the attention problems, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems scales. Mothers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R obsessive-compulsive subscale and Global Severity Index than mothers of children with GAD, while fathers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R Phobic Anxiety subscale and on the Global Severity Index than fathers of children with GAD. Parents of children with SM displayed a greater presence of stressful life events than parents of children with GAD. Data appeared to confirm that SM and GAD share a common anxious core, though some differences in the children's psychological profiles and the parents' history and personality emerged. Future research should focus on the role of external factors, such as parent-child relationship, in the development of SM.

  16. Mechanisms for Creating a Psychologically Safe Learning Environment in an Educational Institution of General Education

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    Leonova O.I.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the question of how to create and maintain the psychological safety of the educational environment of the school is not sufficiently studied. Meanwhile, there has been proved its positive effect on the psychological health of students, their emotional and personal well-being, the formation of a meta-subjective and personal educational outcomes. This paper describes a study the purpose of which was to examine and verify empiricaly the features of management activities in the educational organization to create a psychologically safe learning environment. We studied personality traits of the Head of an educational organization by the procedure "Troubleshooting leadership abilities" (E. Zharikova, E. Krushelnytsky, techniques "Diagnosis of the level of burnout" (V.V. Boyko, methods of self-management style assessment (A.V. Agrashenkova, modified by E.P. Ilyin, and methods for rapid assessment of health, activity, mood (SAN. We proposed mechanisms to solve the problem of creating a comfortable and safe learning environment in the educational organization of general education

  17. Psychological Profile in a General Population in Central Part of Iran

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    Hamid Afshar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of demographic features and associated risk factors provides a perspective for the development of health and prevention policies for psychological screening or referrals. Thus, updated data on epidemiologic profile of depression and anxiety in the society are necessary. This study aims to describe the psychological profile of a general population in central Iran.Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed as part of the SEPAHAN project (Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological‐Alimentary Health and Nutrition. The participants were working in 50 different centers across Isfahan Province, Iran. The data on 4628 adults who had completeddemographic questionnaires and psychological questionnaires for depression and anxiety, coping styles,and stressful life events were included in the analysis. The data collection tools were the Demographicinformation questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Coping Strategies Scale(Cope, and Stressful Life Event (SLE questionnaire.Results: The frequency and intensity of all considered stressors were found to be significantly associated withboth depression and anxiety. Adaptive coping strategies were found to function as protective factors against bothdepression and anxiety. However, avoidance, as a maladaptive coping strategy, was found to be a risk factor.Conclusion: The present survey reveals that the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28% and 14%,respectively. Scholastic education plays a protective role against both depression and anxiety. All coping strategies, except avoidance, function to protect against depression and anxiety.

  18. Healthcare utilization in general practice before and after psychological treatment: a follow-up data linkage study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Marijn A; Verhaak, Peter F M; Smit, Dineke; Verheij, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Literature suggests that serious mental health problems increase the use of health services and psychological interventions can reduce this effect. This study investigates whether this effect is also found in primary care patients with less serious mental health problems. Routine electronic health records (EHR) from a representative sample of 128 general practices were linked to patient files from 150 primary care psychologists participating in the NIVEL Primary Care Database, using a trusted third party. Data were linked using the date of birth, gender, and postcode. This yielded 503 unique data pairs that were listed in one of the participating GP practices in 2008-2010, for people who had psychological treatment from a psychologist that ended in 2009. The number of contacts, health problems presented, and prescribed medication in general practice were analysed before and after the psychological treatment. Nearly all 503 patients consulted their GP during the six months preceding the psychological treatment (90.9%) and also in the six months after this treatment had ended (83.7%). The frequency of contacts was significantly higher before than after the psychological treatment (6.1 vs. 4.8). Fewer patients contacted their GPs specifically for psychological or social problems (46.3% vs. 38.8%) and fewer patients had anxiolytic drug prescriptions (15.5% vs. 7.6%) after psychological treatment. After psychological treatment, patients contact their GPs less often and present fewer psychological or social problems. Although contact rates seem to decrease, clients of psychologists are still frequent GP attenders.

  19. Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors.

  20. An evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing general psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions and comorbid mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Medical psychology services in dutch general hospitals: state of the art developments and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Paul; Denollet, Johan

    2009-06-01

    In this article an overview is presented of the emergence of medical psychology in the care of somatically ill patients. The situation in the Netherlands can be considered as prototypical. For 60 years, clinical psychologists have been working in general, teaching and academic hospitals. Nowadays, they are an integrated non-medical specialism working in the medical setting of hospitals in the Netherlands, and are a full-member of the medical board. This paper discusses several topics: the position of the general hospital in the health care system in the Netherlands, the emergence of medical psychology in Dutch hospitals, the role of the professional association of medical psychologists, and the characteristics of patients seen by clinical psychologists. Following the discussion about the situation of medical psychology in other countries, recommendations are formulated for the further development of medical psychology in the Netherlands as well as in other countries.

  2. Anxiety, Depression, and General Psychological Distress in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

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    Mehmet Baran Karataş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF.Methods:In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scales were administered to each patient.Results:The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 [7], p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 [7], p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively. Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01, BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01, and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01. The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis.Conclusion:Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies.

  3. Anxiety, Depression, and General Psychological Distress in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baran Karataş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF. Methods: In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scales were administered to each patient. Results: The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 [7], p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 [7], p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively. Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01, BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01, and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01. The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies.

  4. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

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    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.

  5. Systematic review protocol of interventions to improve the psychological well-being of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael

    2015-09-22

    The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings

  6. Cognitive and psychological reactions of the general population three months after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.

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    Yasushi Kyutoku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The largest earthquake on record in Japan (magnitude 9.0 occurred on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of Northern Japan. These further triggered the Fukushima I nuclear power plant accidents. Such a hugely complex disaster inevitably has negative psychological effects on general populations as well as on the direct victims. While previous disaster studies enrolled descriptive approaches focusing on direct victims, the structure of the psychological adjustment process of people from the general population has remained uncertain. The current study attempted to establish a path model that sufficiently reflects the early psychological adaptation process of the general population to large-scale natural disasters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants from the primary disaster area (n = 1083 and other areas (n = 2372 voluntarily participated in an online questionnaire study. By constructing path models using a structural equation model procedure (SEM, we examined the structural relationship among psychological constructs known related to disasters. As post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS were significantly more present in people in the primarily affected area than in those in secondary- or non-affected areas, the path models were constructed for the primary victims. The parsimoniously depicted model with the best fit was achieved for the psychological-adjustment centered model with quality of life (QoL as a final outcome. CONCLUSION: The paths to QoL via negative routes (from negative cognitive appraisal, PTS, and general stress were dominant, suggesting the importance of clinical intervention for reducing negative cognitive appraisal, and for caring for general stress and PTS to maintain QoL at an early stage of psychological adaptation to a disaster. The model also depicted the presence of a positive route where positive cognitive appraisal facilitates post-traumatic growth (PTG to achieve a higher Qo

  7. Psychological distress, optimism and general health in breast cancer survivors: a data linkage study using the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Atherton, Iain; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between optimism and psychological distress in women with breast cancer after taking into account their self-rated general health. Data were aggregated from the Scottish Health Survey (2008 to 2011) to derive a nationally representative sample of 12,255 women (11,960 cancer-free controls, and 295 breast cancer cases identified from linked cancer registry data). The explanatory variables were optimism and general health, and the outcome variable was symptoms of psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, with optimism entered in step 1 and general health entered in step 2. In an unadjusted model, higher levels of optimism were associated with lower odds of psychological distress in both the control group (OR = 0. 57, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.60) and breast cancer group (OR = 0. 64, 95 % CI = 0.47-0.88). However, in a model adjusting for general health, optimism was associated with lower odds of psychological distress only in the control group (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.44-0.57), but not significantly in the breast cancer group (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.32-4.11). In the breast cancer group, poor general health was a stronger associate of psychological distress (OR = 4. 98, 95 % CI = 1.32-18.75). Results were consistent after adjusting for age, years since breast cancer diagnosis, survey year, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. This research confirms the value of multicomponent supportive care interventions for women with breast cancer. Specifically, it suggests that following breast cancer diagnosis, health care professionals need to provide advice and signpost to services that assist women to maintain or improve both their psychological and general health.

  8. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia

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    Solomon H. Tesfaye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART. Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19. Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81, low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29, number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99, not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62, and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83 and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73. Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in general and psychological health among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece

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    Zissi Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.

  10. Quantum generalized observables framework for psychological data: a case of preference reversals in US elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Politics is regarded as a vital area of public choice theory, and it is strongly relying on the assumptions of voters' rationality and as such, stability of preferences. However, recent opinion polls and real election outcomes in the USA have shown that voters often engage in `ticket splitting', by exhibiting contrasting party support in Congressional and Presidential elections (cf. Khrennikova 2014 Phys. Scripta T163, 014010 (doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2014/T163/014010); Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106); Smith et al. 1999 Am. J. Polit. Sci. 43, 737-764 (doi:10.2307/2991833)). Such types of preference reversals cannot be mathematically captured via the formula of total probability, thus showing that voters' decision making is at variance with the classical probabilistic information processing framework. In recent work, we have shown that quantum probability describes well the violation of Bayesian rationality in statistical data of voting in US elections, through the so-called interference effects of probability amplitudes. This paper is proposing a novel generalized observables framework of voting behaviour, by using the statistical data collected and analysed in previous studies by Khrennikova (Khrennikova 2015 Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 8951, 196-209) and Khrennikova & Haven (Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106)). This framework aims to overcome the main problems associated with the quantum probabilistic representation of psychological data, namely the non-double stochasticity of transition probability matrices. We develop a simplified construction of generalized positive operator valued measures by formulating special non-orthonormal bases with respect to these operators. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  11. "K"-Balance Partitioning: An Exact Method with Applications to Generalized Structural Balance and Other Psychological Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael; Steinley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Structural balance theory (SBT) has maintained a venerable status in the psychological literature for more than 5 decades. One important problem pertaining to SBT is the approximation of structural or generalized balance via the partitioning of the vertices of a signed graph into "K" clusters. This "K"-balance partitioning problem also has more…

  12. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  13. Effect of physical and psychological puberty training on general well being and its dimensions in girl students

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    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behavior and emotion. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of training puberty (physical and psychological matters in general well being and its dimensions in girl adolescents. This was a quasi-experimental study in which the target population included all girl students at the first grade of high school in Jiroft, Iran. 40 students (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group was selected using multi stage sampling method. The experimental group was educated in twelve-90- minute sessions. The content of the educational course included physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, hygiene, nutrition, and psychological changes of puberty. The participants completed the Skehill's general well being questionnaire before and after the intervention. Covariance analysis revealed the efficacy of education on the enhancement of psychological well being and psychological distress reduction. Therefore, it is recommended to implement health educational programs about physical and psychological matters during puberty to elementary and secondary school students to improve their mental health

  14. Association of general psychological factors with frequent attendance in primary care: a population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Bock, Jens-Oliver; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-03-24

    Whereas several studies have examined the association between frequent attendance in primary care and illness-specific psychological factors, little is known about the relation between frequent attendance and general psychological factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between being a frequent attender in primary care and general psychological factors. Data were used from a large, population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 and above in Germany in 2014 (n = 7,446). Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as general psychological factors. The number of self-reported GP visits in the past twelve months was used to quantify frequency of attendance; individuals with more than 9 visits (highest decile) were defined as frequent attenders. Multiple logistic regressions showed that being a frequent attender was positively associated with less life satisfaction [OR: 0.79 (0.70-0.89)], higher negative affect [OR: 1.38 (1.17-1.62)], less self-efficacy [OR: 0.74 (0.63-0.86)], less self-esteem [OR: 0.65 (0.54-0.79)], less self-regulation [OR: 0.74 (0.60-0.91)], and higher perceived stress [OR: 1.46 (1.28-1.66)], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and lifestyle factors. However, frequent attendance was not significantly associated with positive affect and self-regulation. The present study highlights the association between general psychological factors and frequent attendance. As frequent GP visits produce high health care costs and are potentially associated with increased referrals and use of secondary health care services, this knowledge might help to address these individuals with high needs.

  15. [The medico-psychological rehabilitation of participants in combat actions in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinskiĭ, A V; Liamin, M V

    2000-01-01

    There were investigated 453 servicemen--participants of fighting actions in Chechnya [correction of Chechenskaya] Republic in whom the incidence of psychologic stress reactions nearly twice exceeded disorders of other types of psychic dysfunction. 5 groups of combatants were selected and severity of psychic disorders depending on duration of participation in fighting actions was determined. Posttraumatic stress disorders were revealed in 14.5% of servicemen, no signs of psychologic desadaptation were detected in 16.6%, 16.9% had pathologic psychogenic reactions, 18.6% showed pathologic level of psychic disorders, and psychologic stress reactions were noted in 33.4%. The developed individual programs of medico-psychologic rehabilitation depending on type and severity of psychic disorders will allow to reduce the period of restorative treatment and significantly decrease servicemen discharge from the Armed Forces because of psychic disorders.

  16. General Inattentiveness Is a Long-Term Reliable Trait Independently Predictive of Psychological Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe

    2016-01-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the l......The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts......, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy...... adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress...

  17. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  18. The Role of University Students' General Self-Efficacy, Depression and Psychological Well-Being in Predicting Their Exercise Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between exercise and general self-efficacy, depression, and psychological well-being of college students. Five hundred and twenty-two university students (n[subscript male] = 273; X[subscript age] = 23.33 ± 4.36 and n[subscript female] = 279; X[subscript age] = 25.91 ± 7.11) have participated…

  19. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  20. Necessity of Dividing General Methodology of Psychology into a Number of Particular Trends of Meta-Scientific Research

    OpenAIRE

    D A Yatsenko

    2013-01-01

    The article states the illegitimacy of including the problems and matters not directly connected with the methods of scientific studying the psychological phenomena in the works on the methodology of psychology. It also argues about the necessity of separating such problems from the methodology of psycho­logy and transferring them into different meta-psychological sciences: philosophy of psychology, logics of psychology, fundamental problem psychology, meta-theoretical psychology. In conclusi...

  1. Is there a relation between dental anxiety, fear and general psychological status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Talo Yildirim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dental anxiety is a widespread problem in many populations. This problem can be a barrier to dental care and may lead to poor oral health. Dental anxiety may be related to psychological status. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety, dental fear, Beck Depression, and state-trait anxiety according to age, gender and education level in patients at the periodontology clinic in the Diyarbakır Mouth and Dental Health Center. Study Design A total of 231 patients (115 males, 116 females filled out dental fear scale (DFS, dental anxiety scale (DAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, state-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S, and state-trait anxiety inventory–trait (STAI-T questionnaires, and evaluations of DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T were conducted according to age, gender, and education level. Results The mean DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-T, and STAI –S were 45.64, 9.15, 13.16, 38.90, and 40.18, respectively. There was a significant association among DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. These surveys scores were significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicated that gender age and education level have important effects on DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. Conclusion Dental anxiety and dental fear were found to be related to psychological status (BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T over time. There are some patients with unaddressed psychological distress.

  2. Managing work-related psychological complaints by general practitioners, in coordination with occupational physicians: A pilot Study - Developing and testing a guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.C.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Evers, M.; Klink, J.J.L. van de; Anema, H.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, workers have psychological work-related complaints, endangering their work ability and causing considerable economic losses. Many employees consult their general practitioner (GP). He, however, often pays insufficient attention to work-relatedness or to coordination with occupational

  3. Demand and supply for psychological help in general practice in different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.; Gask, L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The general practitioner is usually the first health care contact for mental problems. The position of a general practitioner may vary between health care systems, depending on the referral system (gatekeepers versus directly accessible specialists), presence of fixed lists and the

  4. [The influence of general magnetic therapy on the psychological status of the patients presenting with osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarev, V K; Aleksandrov, A V; Nenasheva, N V; Cherkashina, I V; Nikitin, M V

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the influence of general magnetic therapy on the psychical conditions of 151 patients presenting with degenerative joint diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). It was shown that the application of general magnetic therapy for the rehabilitative treatment of osteoarthrosis promotes the improvement of the psycho-emotional state of the patients. It is concluded that prescription of general magnetic therapy to the patients with OA suffering from serious psycho-emotional disorders brings about beneficial changes in their anxiety- and depression-related personality traits.

  5. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  6. A sketch of feeling generalization : a cognitive-existential analysis of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Zubriki, Tadeus Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Following a review of literature regarding autobiographical memories, retrieval-induced forgetting, and emotion relative to memory, a theory is devised to find solutions to the questions: How do we conceptualize; what does it mean to conceptualize; and how is memory retrieval possible? Feeling generalization is a universal system of thinking which postulates that which we conceive and retrieve is feeling upon which we conceptualize to conceptions in accord to the moment of arousal...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  8. Medicalizing versus psychologizing mental illness: what are the implications for help seeking and stigma? A general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Sercu, C; Bracke, P

    2013-10-01

    This study contrasts the medicalized conceptualization of mental illness with psychologizing mental illness and examines what the consequences are of adhering to one model versus the other for help seeking and stigma. The survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study" (2009) conducted face-to-face interviews among a representative sample of the general Belgian population using the vignette technique to depict schizophrenia (N = 381). Causal attributions, labeling processes, and the disease view are addressed. Help seeking refers to open-ended help-seeking suggestions (general practitioner, psychiatrist, psychologist, family, friends, and self-care options). Stigma refers to social exclusion after treatment. The data are analyzed by means of logistic and linear regression models in SPSS Statistics 19. People who adhere to the biopsychosocial (versus psychosocial) model are more likely to recommend general medical care and people who apply the disease view are more likely to recommend specialized medical care. Regarding informal help, those who prefer the biopsychosocial model are less likely to recommend consulting friends than those who adhere to the psychosocial model. Respondents who apply a medical compared to a non-medical label are less inclined to recommend self-care. As concerns treatment stigma, respondents who apply a medical instead of a non-medical label are more likely to socially exclude someone who has been in psychiatric treatment. Medicalizing mental illness involves a package deal: biopsychosocial causal attributions and applying the disease view facilitate medical treatment recommendations, while labeling seems to trigger stigmatizing attitudes.

  9. Psychological and emotional methods of affecting consumers’ behavior: generalization of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.О. Borodkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic conditions with the development of trade, intensifying of competition and strengthening of general informative pressure on a man, the efficiency of traditional methods of stimulation of sales (in particular, discounts, bonuses, gifts, free concomitant services, price methods and etc. substantially grows short. Such a situation induces specialists (marketing specialists, managers, managers of companies to search for new unconventional and non-standard approaches of moving of commodities and services, in particular, directly in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean marketing technologies used for designing of consumers’ behavior. Specialists say that for successful moving of commodities it is necessary to call to the emotional, subconscious sphere. The role of marketing is taken to communication with a consumer directly in the places of sale, where there is the possibility to provide the most complete immersion of a consumer in the world of brand and to stimulate spontaneous purchases. The task of marketing consists in forming of so-called indoor-environment that is the atmosphere in the places of sale. Foremost, we mean visual (color, voice (audiomarketing and aromatic (aromamarketing design inside a building. The essence of such technologies consists in the influence on man’s subconsciousness and in the creation of manipulation mechanism of management of consumer’s actions and behavior by complex influence on 5 organs of man’s feeling such as sight, hearing, sense of smell, touch, taste. The article generalizes the existent experience of the use of psycho-emotional methods of stimulation of sales used to influence on consumer’s behavior. The authors describe the basic methods of psyho-emotional influence such as color, audiomarketing (or voice design and aromamarketing. It is marked that there is the necessity of the complex use of psyho-emotional methods and receptions from the point of view of their utility for all

  10. Behavioural and psychological symptoms in general hospital patients with dementia, distress for nursing staff and complications in care: results of the General Hospital Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, J B; Schäufele, M; Hendlmeier, I; Junge, M N; Leonhardt, S; Weber, J; Bickel, H

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about how behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) manifest in the general hospital. The aim was to examine the frequency of BPSD in general hospitals and their associations with nursing staff distress and complications in care. Cross-sectional representative study with 1469 patients aged ≥65, including 270 patients with dementia, of 33 randomly selected general hospitals in Germany. BPSD and complications were reported by nurses. Overall frequency of BPSD was higher in patients with dementia (76%) than without (38%). The most frequent symptoms in patients with dementia were nighttime disturbances (38%), depression (29%) and aberrant motor behaviour (28%) and the most distressing symptoms for nursing staff were delusions, aggression and nighttime disturbances. The overall frequency of BPSD increased from 67% in mild dementia, to 76% in moderate dementia and to 88% in severe dementia. The most frequent symptoms in patients without dementia were depression (19%), nighttime disturbances (13%) and irritability (13%). The most distressing symptoms were aggression and delusions, while the same symptoms were consistently rated as less distressing than in patients with dementia. Factor analysis revealed three independent groups of BPSD that explained 45% of the total variance. First, expansive symptoms (aggression, irritability, nighttime disturbances, aberrant motor behaviour and disinhibition) were frequent, distressing for nursing staff and associated with many complications. Second, psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) were infrequent, distressing and associated with some complications. Third, affective symptoms (apathy, anxiety and depression) were frequent, non-distressing and associated with few complications. The results did not change when cases with delirium were excluded from both groups. BPSD are common in older hospital patients with dementia and associated with considerable distress in nursing staff, as well as

  11. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  12. The association of psychological factors and healthcare use with the discrepancy between subjective and objective respiratory-health complaints in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinheimo, Sanna; Vasankari, Tuula; Jokela, Markus; Kanervisto, Merja; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina

    2018-03-20

    We examined the prevalence of self-perceived respiratory symptoms (SRS) in the absence of any objective findings of respiratory pathology, and the association of such prevalence with psychological factors and healthcare use in the general population. The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of Finnish adults (BRIF8901). Respiratory functioning was measured by a spirometry test. Structured questionnaires were used to measure SRS, physician visits and psychological factors of alexithymia, sense of coherence, illness worry and common mental disorders. Individuals with a diagnosed respiratory disease or a severe psychiatric disorder, determined in a diagnostic interview, were excluded, giving a sample comprising 4544 participants. Twenty-six per cent of the general population and 36% of those with no diagnosed severe psychiatric disorder or respiratory disease experienced SRS despite a normal spirometry result. Psychological factors were associated with SRS (0.0001 Respiratory symptoms without objective findings are common in the general population. The study results underline the role of psychological factors in the reporting of respiratory symptoms and the associated medical burden, thereby indicating the functional nature of the symptomatology.

  13. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523

  14. Effects of occupational role conflict and emotional demands on subsequent psychological distress: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore; Sterud, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To examine the impact of occupational role conflict and emotional demands on subsequent psychological distress. A randomly drawn cohort from the general Norwegian working-age population was followed up for 3 years (n = 12,550; response rate = 67%). Eligible respondents were in paid work during the reference week in 2006 and 2009 or temporarily absent from such work (n = 6,745; response rate = 68%). In the fully adjusted model, both high role conflict (odds ratios = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.03) and high emotional demands (odds ratios = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.69) were significant predictors of psychological distress. Additional significant predictors were low job control, bullying/harassment, and job insecurity (P < 0.05). Considering all of the evaluated work-related factors, role conflict and emotional demands contributed the most to the population risk of developing psychological distress.

  15. Assessment of the relatives or spouses cohabiting with the fibromyalgia patients: is there a link regarding fibromyalgia symptoms, quality of life, general health and psychologic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem

    2011-09-01

    It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.

  16. It Isn’t All Just Fun and Games: Collegiate Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Risk for Generalized and Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) i...

  17. Clicking in the Community College Classroom: Assessing the Effectiveness of Clickers on Student Learning in a General Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symister, Petra; VanOra, Jason; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Troy, David

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of clickers in a community college classroom. Specifically we sought to compare the effects of clicker technology on perceived knowledge and exam scores with the effectiveness of essays and pop quizzes. One hundred students completed surveys measuring presemester motivation to take psychology and baseline…

  18. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  19. Psychological impact of unexpected explicit recall of events occurring during surgery performed under sedation, regional anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia: data from the Anesthesia Awareness Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C D; Mashour, G A; Metzger, N A; Posner, K L; Domino, K B

    2013-03-01

    Anaesthetic awareness is a recognized complication of general anaesthesia (GA) and is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although complete amnesia for intraprocedural events during sedation and regional anaesthesia (RA) may occur, explicit recall is expected by anaesthesia providers. Consequently, the possibility that there could be psychological consequences associated with unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation and RA has not been investigated. This study investigated the psychological sequelae of unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA that was reported to the Anesthesia Awareness Registry. The Registry recruited subjects who self-identified as having had anaesthetic awareness. Inclusion criteria were a patient-reported awareness experience in 1990 or later and availability of medical records. The sensations experienced by the subjects during their procedure and the acute and persistent psychological sequelae attributed to this explicit recall were assessed for patients receiving sedation/RA and those receiving GA. Among the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, medical record review identified 27 sedation/RA and 50 GA cases. Most patients experienced distress (78% of sedation/RA vs 94% of GA). Approximately 40% of patients with sedation/RA had persistent psychological sequelae, similar to GA patients. Some sedation/RA patients reported an adverse impact on their job performance (15%), family relationships (11%), and friendships (11%), and 15% reported being diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who self-reported to the Registry unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA experienced distress and persistent psychological sequelae comparable with those who had reported anaesthetic awareness during GA. Further study is warranted to determine if patients reporting distress with explicit recall after sedation/RA require psychiatric follow-up.

  20. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  1. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  2. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  3. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2015-09-28

    Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (pstress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be included in educational plans of university.

  4. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies": Correction to Hubbard et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” should have read: “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires that contained scales to reflect the Prosocial Disposition construct: the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991), from which we used the agreeableness scale to measure prosocial disposition; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), from which we used the empathic concern and perspective-taking scales; and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-39037-001.) Individual and life span differences in charitable giving are an important economic force, yet the underlying motives are not well understood. In an adult, life span sample, we assessed manifestations of prosocial tendencies across 3 different measurement domains: (a) psychological self-report measures, (b) actual giving choices, and (c) fMRI-derived, neural indicators of “pure altruism.” The latter expressed individuals’ activity in neural valuation areas when charities received money compared to when oneself received money and thus reflected an altruistic concern for

  6. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  7. Interconsulta psicológica: demanda e assistência em hospital geral Interconsulta psicológica: demanda y asistencia en hospital general Consultation-liaison psychology: demand and assistance in general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nátali Castro Antunes Santos

    2011-06-01

    adaptación del paciente a la hospitalización (41%. El modelo adoptado referencia psicológica era apropiado en el contexto estudiado, con la participación del equipo multidisciplinario en la efectividad de la práctica.The consultation-liaison psychology in general hospitals represents a modality of clinical and a methodological tool used by psychologists in inpatient care, upon the request of other health professionals. The study aimed to characterize the psychological demands of the liaison in a general hospital, from the analysis of attendance records request. One hundred and seven patients were treated between January and June 2010, in which 53% of the participants were male and 57% of adults over 45 years. Most requests were performed by physicians (44% and nurses (38%, formally (59%, and previous contact between interconsultor and the applicant (85%. The main reasons given for the request liaison were: psychological symptoms related to illness (43% and identification of impairment in the patient's adaptation to hospitalization (41%. The psychological liaison model adopted was appropriate to the studied context, with engagement of the multidisciplinary team in the effectiveness of practice.

  8. An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J

    2016-05-20

    Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.

  9. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Pirko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental feature of economy of postindustrial society is the knowledge that represents the basic source of competitive advantage. In the article the circle of didactic, psychological indicators in researches of problems of achievement of a high degree of quality of education and educational services is considered and described. The attention is paid to pedagogical requirements of the given period which are a standard substantiation in orientations for quality estimation of software tools for educational purpose of the general educational environment in Ukraine. The scheme of internal model of maintenance of quality of software tools for educational purpose is considered, the aspects integrated by internal model of quality of software for educational purpose are listed. The article describes the directions of researches in the conditions of formation of the global international educational environment and uniform information space of  education system taking into account the growth of availability of educational services. It is specified the main principles in the organization of pedagogical software tools.

  10. Screening instruments for a population of older adults: The 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel

    2015-07-30

    Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....

  13. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  14. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  15. Construct validity of the psychological general well being index (PGWBI in a sample of patients undergoing treatment for stress-related exhaustion: a rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The Psychological General Well Being Index (PGWBI is a widely used scale across many conditions. Over time issues have been raised about the dimensional structure of the scale, and it has not yet been subjected to scrutiny by modern Psychometric approaches. The current study thus evaluates the PGWBI with Rasch- and factor analysis. Methods Consecutive patients recruited to a tertiary stress clinic were administered the PGBWI as part of routine clinical assessment at baseline and three months. Data from the scale was subjected to Factor Analyses and to Rasch analysis. In both cases adjustments for local independence violations were allowed. Results 179 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 43 years, and of whom 70% were female. An initial Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA with baseline data failed, but the modification indices also indicated considerable levels of local dependency requiring errors to be correlated. An EFA highlighted positive and negative effect domains. Rasch analysis confirmed that fit of data to the model was influenced by local dependency, and that in practice if the items from the six underlying domains were treated as six ‘super’ items, the scale was shown to measure one dominant construct of well being. An interval scale transformation was therefore possible. A significant improvement in well-being was observed over a three month period. Conclusion The PGWBI scale has satisfactory internal construct validity when tested with modern psychometric techniques, using data obtained from patients treated for stress-related exhaustion. The instrument has qualities that make it suitable also for monitoring well-being during interventions for stress-related exhaustion/clinical burnout.

  16. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  17. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  18. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  1. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Clinical psychology of religion. A training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, M.H.F. van; Pieper, J.Z.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of

  3. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  4. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  5. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  6. 18-21 Yaş Grubu Bireylerin Genel Zekâ Düzeyleri İle Psikolojik Semptom Dü- zeyleri Arasındaki İlişki (The Relation between General Intelligence Levels and Psychological Symptom Levels of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Aydın

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Researchers have stated that high intelligence might bring about psycho-logical problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships be-tween general intelligence and some psychological symptoms.Method: Research participants included 73 students who were either university students in their first year or preparing for university. Their age ranged from 18 to 21 with a mean of 19,93. Female participants constituted 42,5% of the total and male participants included 57,5% of the total. The Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM and the Psychological Symptoms Scanning Scale-90-R were used to collect data. The former was used to measure the participants’ general intelli-gence while the latter was used to measure their psychological symptoms. Meas-urement instruments were administered to the participants in their classrooms. Data analysis included correlational analysis between general intelligence scores and psychological symptom scores. Results: Findings showed that correlations between general intelligence scores and psychological symptom scores for the total sample ranged from -0,04 to -0,29, respectively. Anger score had the lowest correlation with general intelligence and the sensibility score had the highest correlation with general intelligence. Total psychological symptom scores had a correlation of -0,23 with general intelligence scores. Other psychological symptom scores also had negative correlations with general intelligence scores. General intelligence scores had a correlation of -,27 with obsessive compulsive disorder, -,24 with somatization, -,18 with depression, -,23 with anxiety, -,24 with phobia, -,09 with paranoid tendency, and -,16 with psikotism. Conclusions: Research findings show that in general, as general intelligence level increases, the level of psychological symptom decreases and as general intelli-gence level decreases, the level of psychological symptom increases. However, when data was

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Culture–General and –Specific Associations of Attachment Avoidance and Anxiety with Perceived Parental Warmth and Psychological Control among Turk and Belgian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent–child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Alto...

  9. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  10. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  11. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  12. [The effect of age, gender and socioeconomic status on the use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector: Results from the ESA research program on mental health and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia-Djemaâ; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was, first, to document the psychometric characteristics of a measure of the older adults' socioeconomic status and, secondly, to test the effect of the socioeconomic status on the association between the older adults perceived need to improve their mental health and their use of services in the general medical sector for psychological distress symptoms taking into account the effect of age and gender. Data used in this study come from the ESA study (Enquête sur la santé des ainés) on mental health and aging, conducted in 2005-2008 using a probabilistic sample (n=2811) of the older adult population aged 65 years and over living at home in Quebec. Our results showed that a measurement model of the older adults' socioeconomic status including an individual-level (SES_I) and an area/contextual-level dimension of socioeconomic deprivation (SES_C) was plausible. The reliability of the SES index used in the ESA research program was .92. Our results showed that women (b=-.43) and older people (b=-.16) were more at risk to have a disadvantaged socioeconomic status. However, our results did not show evidence of a significant association between the older adults' socioeconomic status, their perception of a need to improve their mental health and the use of medical services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector in the older adult population in Quebec. Our results do not support the idea suggested in other studies that socioeconomic status has an effect on the older adults use of services for psychological distress symptoms in the general medical sector and suggest that in a context where medical health services are provided under a public insurance programme context, the socioeconomic status does not influence access to services in the general medical sector in the older adult population.

  13. Giving Psychology Away: How George Miller's Vision Is Being Realised by Psychological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Hulme, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In George Miller's famous address to the American Psychological Association in 1969 he explored the aims and future direction of psychology. Psychology could develop as a professional elite that develops specialised knowledge that experts can hold on to or it could aim to "give psychology away" and to allow the general public access to…

  14. Clustering eating habits: frequent consumption of different dietary patterns among the Italian general population in the association with obesity, physical activity, sociocultural characteristics and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoth, Francesca; Scalese, Marco; Siciliano, Valeria; Di Renzo, Laura; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-06-01

    (a) To identify clusters of eating patterns among the Italian population aged 15-64 years, focusing on typical Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) items consumption; (b) to examine the distribution of eating habits, as identified clusters, among age classes and genders; (c) evaluate the impact of: belonging to a specific eating cluster, level of physical activity (PA), sociocultural and psychological factors, as elements determining weight abnormalities. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using self-reporting questionnaires administered to a sample of 33,127 subjects participating in the Italian population survey on alcohol and other drugs (IPSAD(®)2011). The cluster analysis was performed on a subsample (n = 5278 subjects) which provided information on eating habits, and adapted to identify categories of eating patterns. Stepwise multinomial regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between weight categories and eating clusters, adjusted for the following background variables: PA levels, sociocultural and psychological factors. Three clusters were identified: "Mediterranean-like", "Western-like" and "low fruit/vegetables". Frequent consumption of Med-diet patterns was more common among females and elderly. The relationship between overweight/obesity and male gender, educational level, PA, depression and eating disorders (p obesity. The low consumption of Med-diet patterns among youth, and the frequent association of sociocultural, psychological issues and inappropriate lifestyle with overweight/obesity, highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach including market policies, to promote a wider awareness of the Mediterranean eating habit benefits in combination with an appropriate lifestyle.

  15. The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process - The Integrative Governor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair Gibson, A; Swart, J; Tucker, R

    2018-02-01

    Either central (brain) or peripheral (body physiological system) control mechanisms, or a combination of these, have been championed in the last few decades in the field of Exercise Sciences as how physiological activity and fatigue processes are regulated. In this review, we suggest that the concept of 'central' or 'peripheral' mechanisms are both artificial constructs that have 'straight-jacketed' research in the field, and rather that competition between psychological and physiological homeostatic drives is central to the regulation of both, and that governing principles, rather than distinct physical processes, underpin all physical system and exercise regulation. As part of the Integrative Governor theory we develop in this review, we suggest that both psychological and physiological drives and requirements are underpinned by homeostatic principles, and that regulation of the relative activity of each is by dynamic negative feedback activity, as the fundamental general operational controller. Because of this competitive, dynamic interplay, we propose that the activity in all systems will oscillate, that these oscillations create information, and comparison of this oscillatory information with either prior information, current activity, or activity templates create efferent responses that change the activity in the different systems in a similarly dynamic manner. Changes in a particular system are always the result of perturbations occurring outside the system itself, the behavioural causative 'history' of this external activity will be evident in the pattern of the oscillations, and awareness of change occurs as a result of unexpected rather than planned change in physiological activity or psychological state.

  16. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  17. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  18. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066 ...

  19. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  20. Demand and supply for psychological help in general practice in different European countries: access to primary mental health care in six European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.; Gask, L.

    2004-01-01

    The general practitioner is usually the first health care contact for mental problems. The position of a general practitioner may vary between health care systems, depending on the referral system (gatekeepers versus directly accessible specialists), presence of fixed lists and the payment system.

  1. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychology at Chinese universities and in Chinese society: with special reference to clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Guoan; Perrez, Meinrad; Han, Xiulan

    2011-01-01

    The following contribution gives a short introduction to Chinese psychology, history, psychological research and teaching institutions and student selection for universities. After a brief overview of the theoretical traditions and contemporary trends in general and experimental psychology it focuses in more detail on the recent developments in clinical and medical psychology. Research domains, academic training in clinical psychology and its applications in modern China are discussed with sp...

  3. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  4. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  6. Effects of psychosocial work factors and psychological distress on self-assessed work ability: A 7-year follow-up in a general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Balliu, Natalja; Lundin, Andreas; Vaez, Marjan; Kjellberg, Katarina; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Toinvestigate the effects of psychosocial work factors (PWF) and psychological distress (PD) on self-assessed work ability. This follow-up study included 7,810 individuals (55%women) with good work ability at baseline. PWFandPD (measured by GHQ-12) were assessed at baseline and work ability at 7-year follow-up. Effects of PWF and PD on work ability were analyzed by logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI, and by mediation analysisusing 4-way decomposition. Low support was associated with poor work ability for both women and men (OR 1.78 and 1.89). For men, also low skill discretion was associated with poor work ability (OR 2.07). For both women and men, PD was associated with poor work ability (OR 3.41 and 1.84). PD did not act as an intermediate variablein the association between PWF and work ability. Strategies for sustainable work ability should focus on both working conditions and health factors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:121-130, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The nature and psychological content of information psychological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny G. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of «information-psychological impact» category. The study aims to determine the role and place of impacts of such kind in the upbringing process, and in education in general. The paper contrasts comparative analysis of existing scientific approaches to understanding the nature and psychological content of the concept of “information” and psychological impact. Based on the data mentioned above, the conclusion is made that the psychological impact is the influence of surrounding elements of the physical and social environment on the people, which change the course of their mental processes, mental state, psychological structure of consciousness and behaviour. In addition, the purposeful psychological impact carried out either by an individual or a collective entity can be direct or indirect (e.g. information psychological. Based on the performed analysis the conclusion is made that depending on their purpose and nature of influence, information and psychological impact can be manipulative (subject-object or developmental (subject-subject. Manipulative impact creates temporary, unstable mental forms, while developing impact creates stable personality forms. Both kinds of information and psychological influences can be observes in the educational process. The teacher selects types of influence based on his/her own pedagogical qualifications and teaching objectives: to develop the personality of the student or to form behavioural stereotypes.

  8. Could psychology be critically transformed from within?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Georgievska, Emilija

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... of the qualitative stance as they correspond to the fundamental assumptions within the more general field of critical psychology.......This paper introduces a new way of thinking and speaking about psychology research and practice ? known as critical psychology and qualitative research methodology?which, as we argue throughout the text, is virtually absent in the context of Macedonian psychology. We delineate the key differences...... between the two main paradigms of psychology today?traditional and critical psychology?by discussing the basic ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions that define each of the two paradigms. Furthermore, we contrast the two fundamentally different sets of assumptions regarding...

  9. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  10. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  11. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  12. Pathways to care and psychological problems of general practice patients in a "gate keeper" and an "open access" health care system - A comparison of Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M; Gothe, H; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    Background The comparison of different health care systems is one way to give empirical evidence to health care reform and policy. The differences between health care systems in which general practitioners serve as gate keepers in comparison to systems in which patients are free to contact every

  13. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  14. Discursive psychology, rhetoric and the issue of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Billig, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen the growth of a movement which has aimed to re-orientate the discipline of psychology around the study of discourse. Generally known as discursive psychology, this movement has had a large effect on social psychology, particularly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Scandinavia and South America. Its effect in the United States has been less marked. Discursive psychology is part of the general movement of critical psychology, which has been reacting against mainst...

  15. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  16. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  17. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  18. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. Problems of psychological monitoring in astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgun, V V

    1997-10-01

    Monitoring of the goal-oriented psychological changes of a man during professional training is necessary. The level development of the astronaut psychic features is checked by means of psychological testing with the final aim to evaluate each professionally important psychological qualities and to evaluate in general. The list of psychological features needed for evaluation is determined and empirically selected weight factors based on wide statistical sampling is introduced. Accumulation of psychological test results can predict an astronaut's ability of solving complicated problems in a flight mission. It can help to correct the training process and reveal weakness.

  1. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  3. Varieties of Fame in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L

    2016-11-01

    Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  5. Cross-cultural patterns of the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety: secondary analysis of the WHO Collaborative Study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Stefanos; Skapinakis, Petros; Rai, Dheeraj; Zitko, Pedro; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Lionis, Christos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2013-12-15

    Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  7. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.

  8. Guidelines for postdoctoral training in rehabilitation psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, William; Hanson, Stephanie; Turner, Aaron P; Stucky, Kirk; Barisa, Mark; Brownsberger, Mary; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Ashman, Teresa; Kuemmel, Angela

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the methods and results of a national conference that was held to (1) develop consensus guidelines about the structure and process of rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training programs and (2) create a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs to promote training programs' abilities to implement the guidelines and to formally recognize programs in compliance with the guidelines. Forty-six conference participants were chosen to include important stakeholders in rehabilitation psychology, representatives of rehabilitation psychology training and practice communities, representatives of psychology accreditation and certification bodies, and persons involved in medical education practice and research. Consensus guidelines were developed for rehabilitation psychology postdoctoral training program structure and process and for establishing the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs. The Conference developed aspirational guidelines for postdoctoral education and training programs in applied rehabilitation psychology and established a Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs as a means of promoting their adoption by training programs. These efforts are designed to promote quality, consistency, and excellence in the education and training of rehabilitation psychology practitioners and to promote competence in their practice. It is hoped that these efforts will stimulate discussion, assist in the development of improved teaching and evaluation methods, lead to interesting research questions, and generally facilitate the continued systematic development of the profession of rehabilitation psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  10. The psychology of multimedia databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.L.M. van Doorn (Mark); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMultimedia information retrieval in digital libraries is a difficult task for computers in general. Humans on the other hand are experts in perception, concept representation, knowledge organization and memory retrieval. Cognitive psychology and science describe how cognition works in

  11. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  12. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismeijer, A.A.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners. Aim The aim of

  13. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Rathna

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of ethical issues in clinical psychology. Specifically, it addresses the broad philosophical ideas and views on mental illness on which ethical principles are based, including Greek philosophy and Christianity. It goes on to describe the ethical code of the American Psychological Association as it pertains to general principles, psychological assessment or psychometry, education or training and psychological interventions. The principles of the code and research on the same are discussed with relevance to issues and challenges to ethical practice in India, and suggestions for ethical conduct are made. The paper emphasises the need to consider different viewpoints and take individual responsibility for difficult decisions.

  14. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  15. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  16. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  17. Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice....

  18. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  19. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  20. The internet as psychological laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J; Sargis, Edward G

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews studies published in American Psychological Association (APA) journals from 2003-2004 and additional studies (received in response to listserv requests) that used the Internet to collect data (N=121 total studies). Specific examples of three kinds of Web-based research are reviewed: (a) translational (established methods and research questions are adapted to the Web), (b) phenomenological (behavior on the Web is the focus of study), and (c) novel (methodologically innovations unique to Web-based research). Among other findings, our review indicated that 21% of APA journals published at least one article that reported on Web-based research, most Web-based psychological research uses experimental methods, a surprising number use college student samples, and deception in Web-based research is not uncommon. Strengths and weaknesses of Web-based psychological research in general, and our sample of studies in particular, are reviewed with special attention to possible concerns about sampling and the use of deception.

  1. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  2. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  3. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  4. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  5. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) created to develop these strengths further in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care...

  6. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature...

  7. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  8. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war

  9. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  10. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  11. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  12. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  13. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  14. How Strong Is the Evidence that Illicit Drug Use by Young People Is an Important Cause of Psychological or Social Harm? Methodological and Policy Implications of a Systematic Review of Longitudinal, General Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, John; Oakes, Rachel; Oppenkowski, Thomas; Stokes-Lampard, Helen; Copello, Alex; Crome, Ilana; Davey Smith, George; Egger, Matthias; Hickman, Mathew; Judd, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Recreational use of illicit drugs (i.e. use not associated with a diagnosed drug problem) may cause psychological and social harm. A recent systematic review found that evidence for this was equivocal. Extensive evidence was only available in relation to cannabis use. This was relatively consistently associated with lower educational attainment…

  15. Economics and psychology. The framing of decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In the Theory of Rational Decision Making the psychological aspects are set aside. This contribution seeks to point out the relevance of psychology into economic decisions. The essay treats the "framing of decisions", which is a pillar of Kahneman's behavioral theory. Framing must be considered a special case of the more general phenomenon of dependency from the representation. The best-known risky choice-framing problem, i.e. the "Asian Disease Problem", is shown where an essential aspect of...

  16. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention

  17. Psychological Problems of Non-psychopathic Patients in General Hospital and Preventions%非精神科患者常见心理问题与纠纷防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段力萨; 韩晨光; 李玉明; 冯俊敏; 徐磊

    2013-01-01

    Non -psychopathic patients with anxiety , depression and personality disorder tend to cause medical disputes in clinic , who with paranoid and antisocial type of personality disorder more easily tend to cause violence against doctors .Attending physician should pay more attention to the communication skills and humanistic concern to patients with psychological problems , according to whose psychological status to choose different kinds of treatment options such as crisis monitoring , intervention , psychological consultation , referral to prevent severe med-ical disputes .%临床上非精神科患者出现焦虑、抑郁、人格障碍时容易引发医疗纠纷,其中偏执型人格和反社会型人格易发生极端、暴力行为,主诊医师应在注重医患沟通技巧和人文关怀的同时,对患者的心理状况做出准确评估,视情况给予心理危机干预、常态监测、心理咨询或药物治疗,必要时转介至精神科施以专科规范化治疗,有效防范重大医疗纠纷。

  18. Public skepticism of psychology: why many people perceive the study of human behavior as unscientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2012-01-01

    Data indicate that large percentages of the general public regard psychology's scientific status with considerable skepticism. I examine 6 criticisms commonly directed at the scientific basis of psychology (e.g., psychology is merely common sense, psychology does not use scientific methods, psychology is not useful to society) and offer 6 rebuttals. I then address 8 potential sources of public skepticism toward psychology and argue that although some of these sources reflect cognitive errors (e.g., hindsight bias) or misunderstandings of psychological science (e.g., failure to distinguish basic from applied research), others (e.g., psychology's failure to police itself, psychology's problematic public face) reflect the failure of professional psychology to get its own house in order. I offer several individual and institutional recommendations for enhancing psychology's image and contend that public skepticism toward psychology may, paradoxically, be one of our field's strongest allies.

  19. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  20. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  1. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  2. The cultural psychology endeavor to make culture central to psychology: Comment on Hall et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorakova, Antonie

    2016-12-01

    When Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016) suggested that cultural psychology focused on reporting differences between groups, they described comparative research conducted in other fields, including cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a different discipline with methodological approaches reflecting its dissimilar goal, which is to highlight the cultural grounding of human psychological characteristics, and ultimately make culture central to psychology in general. When multicultural psychology considers, according to Hall et al., the mechanisms of culture's influence on behavior, it treats culture the same way as cross-cultural psychology does. In contrast, cultural psychology goes beyond treating culture as an external variable when it proposes that culture and psyche are mutually constitutive. True psychology of the human experience must encompass world populations through research of the ways in which (a) historically grounded sociocultural contexts enable the distinct meaning systems that people construct, and (b) these systems simultaneously guide the human formation of the environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  4. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  6. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  7. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...... the general population were investigated from 2008 to 2012. INTERVENTION(S): Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a four-item questionnaire about self-rated stress, had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOME...

  8. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  9. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L

    2012-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  10. Political diversity will improve social psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José L; Crawford, Jarret T; Stern, Charlotta; Haidt, Jonathan; Jussim, Lee; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists have demonstrated the value of diversity--particularly diversity of viewpoints--for enhancing creativity, discovery, and problem solving. But one key type of viewpoint diversity is lacking in academic psychology in general and social psychology in particular: political diversity. This article reviews the available evidence and finds support for four claims: (1) Academic psychology once had considerable political diversity, but has lost nearly all of it in the last 50 years. (2) This lack of political diversity can undermine the validity of social psychological science via mechanisms such as the embedding of liberal values into research questions and methods, steering researchers away from important but politically unpalatable research topics, and producing conclusions that mischaracterize liberals and conservatives alike. (3) Increased political diversity would improve social psychological science by reducing the impact of bias mechanisms such as confirmation bias, and by empowering dissenting minorities to improve the quality of the majority's thinking. (4) The underrepresentation of non-liberals in social psychology is most likely due to a combination of self-selection, hostile climate, and discrimination. We close with recommendations for increasing political diversity in social psychology.

  11. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  12. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  13. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  14. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  15. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  16. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  17. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  18. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  19. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  20. Quantitative Psychology Research : The 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Beijing, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ark, L.A.; Bolt, D.M.; Wang, W.-C.; Douglas, J.A.; Wiberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    The research articles in this volume cover timely quantitative psychology topics, including new methods in item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic modeling, and psychological scaling. Topics within general quantitative methodology include structural equation

  1. Psychological woundedness and its evaluation in applications for clinical psychology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gavin; Partington, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating clinical psychology programme selectors' perceptions of psychological 'woundedness' in the autobiographical narratives of applicants for clinical psychology training. Woundedness was here defined in terms of the ongoing or residual psychological impact of adverse experiences and psychic conflicts. Ten selectors were presented with a sample of applicants' written autobiographical narratives, differentiated by the conspicuous presence or absence of psychological woundedness. The selectors, who were not informed of the specific aims of the study, ranked applicant protocols and were interviewed individually about their impressions of the protocols and the criteria that they used to rank them. Most selectors were positively biased toward 'wounded' narratives and suspicious of those in which woundedness was manifestly absent. Although generally disposed to favour wounded applicants, how woundedness was presented, rather than the mere presence of it, was a discriminating feature in selectors' appraisal of wounded narratives. Selectors were concerned that unresolved woundedness may compromise applicants' professional boundaries, impair self-reflective capacity and lead to damaging countertransference enactments. The relative extent to which applicant woundedness appeared to be resolved was significant in selectors' assessment of applicants' clinical training potential. A distinction is thus proposed between obstructive and facilitative woundedness in clinical psychology applicants. A sample of clinical psychology programme selectors identified psychological woundedness as a significant feature in applicant autobiographies. Selectors favoured applicant autobiographies showing evidence of woundedness. The distinction between obstructive and facilitative woundedness is important in how the selector sample evaluated woundedness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  3. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  4. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  5. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  7. Early response to psychological trauma--what GPs can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Howard, Alexandra; Fletcher, Susan; Cooper, John; Forbes, David

    2013-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological trauma exposure among primary care patients. General practitioners are well placed to provide appropriate support for patients coping with trauma. This article outlines an evidence-based early response to psychological trauma. Psychological first aid is the preferred approach in providing early assistance to patients who have experienced a traumatic event. General practitioners can be guided by five empirically derived principles in their early response: promoting a sense of safety, calming, self efficacy, connectedness and hope. Structured psychological interventions, including psychological debriefing, are not routinely recommended in the first few weeks following trauma exposure. General practitioner self care is an important aspect of providing post-trauma patient care.

  8. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A-Level Psychology Teachers: Who Are They and What Do They Think about Psychology as a Subject and a Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Martin; Dalgarno, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    A-level psychology teachers (N=109) responded to a questionnaire asking about their academic background, their experience of and views about A-level psychology. Teachers were also asked about the scientific status of psychology as a discipline and about the nature of science in general. Most respondents thought that the A-level course provides…

  10. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  11. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  13. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  14. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  15. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  16. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  17. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  18. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  19. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  20. A Global Community Psychology of Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C. Carr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue heralds the coalescence of a new field in social sciences – the psychology of global mobility. This field whilst distinctive is certainly not insular. Contributions in this special issue are interdisciplinary and cross-level, reflecting an open systems perspective. Political motivation, sociological networks, community inclusion, educational institutions, socio-cultural identity processes, and organizational processes are all represented in the collection. Organizational dynamics are perhaps a special theme that runs throughout. They are a timely reminder that the organizational level of analysis in general, and the psychology of work in particular, is a major yet often overlooked component in the study of global mobility processes, including policy development. In a wider sense, the contributions in this special issue cast new light on the interaction between psychology and social/community structures, and the role of these essentially interactive processes in human development. The special issue is about a developing global consciousness, and a role that psychology as one discipline and applied profession can play in this process. A major challenge remains, of course: Connecting psychological research and evidence with social policymaking. To achieve more credibility in the policy domain, psychology will need itself to become more political, and overtly skilled in social advocacy. As these papers remind us, we will need to build more stakeholder alliances, including between research and community groups.

  1. Review: Erica Burman (2008. Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bróna Nic Giolla Easpaig

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We here offer a review of Erica BURMAN's "Deconstructing Developmental Psychology" (2nd ed. in the form of a critical reading of the book in so far as it relates to matters of knowledge and power, the truthing of particular claims, and to critical pedagogy. We express some concern about the vulnerability of students in mainstream higher psychology education contexts reading this textbook who might be penalised for resisting, as this book encourages them to do, the prescribed accounts of psychology which they are more generally required to digest and regurgitate. However we argue that the first two chapters alone provide the reader with a whole critical psychology education, which does more than touch on imperialism, colonisation and patriarchy and brilliantly links the inventions of psychology to the major issues of our time. We argue that one of the strongest features of the book is the way in which it addresses oppressive discourses which are reproduced in developmental psychology, particularly concerning gender, racism, disabling practices, and oppressive practices. This textbook is powerful in deconstructing oppressive discourses which masquerade as forms of "legitimate truth" and in equipping the reader to identify and critique research processes which privilege certain types of knowledge above others. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001127

  2. Music and religion: psychological perspectives and their limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Criticizing some psychological approaches that speak in too general terms about both music and religion, this article turns to a precise empirical observation and asks what psychology might possibly contribute to its understanding, after first necessarily questioning what terms such as

  3. A Dubious Distinction? The BA versus the BS in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Rory A.; Norcross, John C.; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S.; Stamm, Karen E.; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented small differences between the bachelor of arts (BA) and the bachelor of science (BS) psychology degrees in their general education core requirements, particularly mathematics and science courses. But are there differences between the BA and BS degrees within the psychology curriculum? Using data from the…

  4. Socio-psychological Communication in the Rhetoric of Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general notion of existence is conceptualized in terms of human relations in the society. The world is a cauldron of socio-psychological problems yet, some societies have made theirs a more conducive environment thus reducing the stress associated with socio-psychological problems. As an act of intentional ...

  5. Psychological distress among adults admitted to medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...

  6. A Program for Improving Undergraduate Psychology Students' Basic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…

  7. Psychology and Environmental Sustainability: A Call for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koger, Susan M.; Scott, Britain A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental scientists warn that the health of the planet is rapidly deteriorating, and the primary cause of the crisis is human behavior. Psychology can contribute greatly to understanding and changing behaviors that negatively impact global ecosystems; however, environmental issues are not generally included in psychology curricula, and…

  8. The Positive Psychology of Interested Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jeremy P.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Using the experience sampling method with a diverse national sample of 1,215 high school students, identified 2 groups of adolescents, those who experience chronic interest in everyday life experiences and those who experience widespread boredom. Suggests that a generalized chronic experience of interest can be a signal of psychological health.…

  9. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions

  10. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras , Harold

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  12. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  13. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  14. Operator psychological selection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed job analysis of nuclear power plant operator including operation procedures analysis, interview with personnel familiar with operator job, and 9 events happened in the past in the plant involved operator error analysis, several operator work characteristics and performance influence factors are obtained. According to these specific characteristics and factors, referring to the psychological selection research results in the other related critical occupational fields, a full psychological selection system of nuclear power plant operator is forwarded in this paper, including 21 dimensions in 3 facets as general psychological ability, personality and psychological healthy. Practical measurement methods for the proposed selection dimensions are discussed in the end

  15. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  16. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  17. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  18. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  19. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  20. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....

  1. Screening for psychological distress among High School Graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iman Hassan Diab

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... Background: Mental and psychological health of adolescents in general ... depression was diagnosed among 14.3% of students whereas, ..... Breslau J. The impact of early behaviour disturbances on academic achievement.

  2. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  3. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  4. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Social perception: historic-philosophical and psychological preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Pocelujko

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the prerequisite analysis of social perception in different epistemological, psychological General (socio­psychological) theories. Epistemology is the philosophy section, which explores the general premise of cognitive activity, the ratio of knowledge and reality, establishing the terms of true and certain knowledge creates a stable foundation for the study of social perception. Depending on a particular epistemological concepts can differentiate different understandi...

  6. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  7. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  8. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  9. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  11. Ubiquitous Quantum Structure From Psychology to Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei Y

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-like structure is present practically everywhere. Quantum-like (QL) models, i.e. models based on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and its generalizations can be successfully applied to cognitive science, psychology, genetics, economics, finances, and game theory. This book is not about quantum mechanics as a physical theory. The short review of quantum postulates is therefore mainly of historical value: quantum mechanics is just the first example of the successful application of non-Kolmogorov probabilities, the first step towards a contextual probabilistic description of natural, biological, psychological, social, economical or financial phenomena. A general contextual probabilistic model (Växjö model) is presented. It can be used for describing probabilities in both quantum and classical (statistical) mechanics as well as in the above mentioned phenomena. This model can be represented in a quantum-like way, namely, in complex and more general Hilbert spaces. In this way quantum prob...

  12. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  13. Health care reform: preparing the psychology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H

    2012-03-01

    This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.

  14. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  15. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  16. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  17. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  18. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  19. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Critical Analysis: A Comparison of Critical Thinking Changes in Psychology and Philosophy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…

  1. Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

  2. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  3. Understandings of psychological difficulties in people with the Huntington's disease gene and their expectations of psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theed, Rachael; Eccles, Fiona J R; Simpson, Jane

    2018-06-01

    This study sought to investigate how people who had tested positive for the Huntington's disease (HD) gene mutation understood and experienced psychological distress and their expectations of psychological therapy. A qualitative methodology was adopted involving semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A total of nine participants (five women and four men) who had opted to engage in psychological therapy were recruited and interviewed prior to the start of this particular psychological therapeutic intervention. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA whereby themes were analysed within and across transcripts and classified into superordinate themes. Three superordinate themes were developed: Attributing psychological distress to HD: 'you're blaming everything on that now'; Changes in attributions of distress over time: 'in the past you'd just get on with it'; and Approaching therapy with an open mind, commitment, and hope: 'a light at the end of the tunnel'. Understandings of psychological distress in HD included biological and psychological explanations, with both often being accepted simultaneously by the same individual but with biomedical accounts generally dominating. Individual experience seemed to reflect a dynamic process whereby people's understanding and experience of their distress changed over time. Psychological therapy was accepted as a positive alternative to medication, providing people with HD with hope that their psychological well-being could be enhanced. People with the Huntington's disease gene mutation have largely biomedical understandings of their psychological distress. This largely biomedical understanding does not, however, preclude them for being interested in the potential gains resulting from psychological therapy. The mechanisms of psychological therapy should be explained in detail before therapy and explored along with current attributions of distress. © 2017 The British

  4. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  7. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  8. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  9. Psychology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gretchen; Craig, Michelle L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an exhibition-based activity set that teaches important psychological processes such as attention (Interference), communication (Pattern Talk), and cooperation versus competition (Do Nice Guys Finish Last?). Activities follow the scientific method, and teachers can observe varying levels of skill and cognitive development in students of…

  10. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  11. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  12. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  13. Family Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  14. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  15. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  16. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  17. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  18. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness explain intuitive eating in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-07-01

    The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  20. The psychology of Kant's aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to both his own intentions and the views of both older and more recent commentators. I argue that Kant's aesthetics remains within the confines of eighteenth-century aesthetics as a branch of empirical psychology, as it was then practiced. Kant established a plausible connection between aesthetic experience and judgment on the one hand and cognition in general on the other, through his explanatory concept of the free play of our cognitive powers. However, there is nothing distinctly 'a priori' or 'transcendental' in his claim that this state of mind is what causes our pleasure in beauty or other aesthetic properties. Nor did Kant establish a genuinely a priori or transcendental principle that all human beings have the same disposition to experience a free play of their cognitive powers, let alone in response to the same objects. This failure, however, in no way limits the continuing significance of Kant's aesthetic theory.

  1. Psychological assessment for bariatric surgery: current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Carolina Aita

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients.

  2. [Status of health psychology teaching in Chilean schools of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L

    2012-07-01

    Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.

  3. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  4. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  5. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  6. The history of psychology course in Spanish psychology curricula: Past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert-Perales, Mauricio; Monteagudo-Soto, María J; Mestre, Vicenta

    2016-05-01

    Since the university education of psychologists began in Spain in 1954, the history of psychology course has been included in the curriculum. In the first few years, only half of the curricula offered the course. From 1973 to 2007, the universities' organization and regulation underwent successive reforms that involved changes in the curricula, decreeing specific national guidelines for each degree and establishing a minimum set of common required courses, called core courses, including the history of psychology. In 2007, the European Higher Education Area was set up, transforming the 5-year bachelor's degrees into 4-year degrees and eliminating the required guidelines, with each university being able to define the content of their curricula. The Dean's Conference for Psychology agreed on some recommendations related to core courses, which continued to include the history of psychology and were adopted by the majority of the universities. In 2015, the government established a new national regulation that makes it possible for each university to voluntarily reduce the length of the bachelor's degree to 3 years. Some psychology historians believe that this hypothetical reduction in the length of the degree, along with the already existing general tendency to prioritize applied or practical courses over basic or fundamental ones, could produce an appropriate scenario for the disappearance of the history of psychology course in some universities. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  8. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... case studies that are community-based and inter/intra-cultural on human behaviour, ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology.

  9. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  10. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  12. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  13. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  14. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  15. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  16. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  17. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  18. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  19. True information on the late effect of radiation for medical doctors and general public is indispensable for unimpeded development of atomic industry. Lessons learned from psychological aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainson, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The development of atomic industry in Russia and other countries was practically stopped after the Chernobyl accident. The general public opinion was that the potential hazard from atomic energy stations tremendously outbalanced their benefit. Mass media supplied the public with a lot of negative information on the risk of cancer for the exposed persons, making virtually no reference to the dose-effects of cancer induction, and, more frighteningly, of hereditary consequences of the exposure. Importantly, mass media was only a distributor of negative information, which ion fact was generated in scientific and medical circles. Not so many medical doctors performed real epidemiological studies, comparing the incidence of different sickness in the exposed and control groups and thus receiving true information on the health of their patients. On the other hand, many biologists studied the effects of small doses on the cellular level, and a number of statements about the pronounced biological effects of small radiation doses appeared as a result in the literature. For instance, the effects of genetic instability, bystander effect, and the greater death of radioresistant cancer cells after smaller than larger doses can be mentioned. The discovered effects are real, but their direct extrapolation on the state of human health may lead to wrong conclusions. It is also necessary to be cautious in application of non-human data on the hereditary effect of radiation to humans: Such effects are pronounced in Drosophila, well documented in mice but have not practically been registered among the descendants of thousands of persons exposed to doses of several Gy at the Mayak plutonium production/processing factories, or in the settlements downstream Techa river consuming Mayak's sewage waters. It also obligatory for the scientific community to use proper controls while examining the reported cases of the elevated illness among the descendants of the exposed persons to clarify

  20. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  1. The psychology of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  2. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  3. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  4. Building Psychological Contracts in Security-Risk Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio; Vélez-Zapata, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the reciprocal obligations between employers and employees that are framed as psychological contracts in security-risk environments. A total of 30 interviews based on psychological contract frameworks, duty-of-care strategies in terms of human resource management (HRM) systems...... and the impacts of narcoterrorism on firms were conducted with human resources (HR) personnel, line managers and subordinates at eight national and multinational corporations (MNCs) with subsidiaries in Colombia and Mexico. Our findings generally support the existence of a relational psychological contract in our...... sample. Duty-of-care strategies based on both HRM systems and the sensitivities of HR personnel and line managers to the narcoterrorism context, in combination with both explicit and implicit security policies, tend to be the sources of the content of psychological contracts. We propose a psychological...

  5. Psychological interventions and health: critical connections

    OpenAIRE

    Belar, Cynthia D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to discuss critical connections between psychological interventions and health can at various levels: the individual/family, the community/worksite, the health care system, and the general population itself. Psychologists have developed interventions that have positively impacted health in the areas of prevention and health promotion, recovery from illness, management of physical symptoms, stressful medical procedures, adherence and health care systems design. S...

  6. Criminal Psychological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-18

    went through on their way to establishing mental health . These stages are the oral, the anal, and the phallic. In each stage, the developing human will... health professionals. These professionals then provided psychological insights, based on the clinical or the academic point of view. The FBI was now...then ordered her to lie face down on the bed. He then pulled down her lower garments and then fondled and masturbated on her bare buttocks. The

  7. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  8. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  9. Vocational behavior analysis in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.

  10. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GIFTED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Nikola Stankovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giftedness is a multidimensional phenomenon that despite numerous studies and different approaches remains underexplored. It is known that there is different views about gifted children in psychological theory and practice. Giftedness represents general intellectual ability, general creative ability, productive and creative ability, the sum of specific skills, the ability of thinking, specific area of intelligence and creativity.Gifted child is a child who has above average skills and specific characteristics, which play an important role in the growth, development and education of these children. Researchers confirm the importance of early socialization, family and the primary teachers in the continually development of the gifted child on intellectual, social, emotional and somatic plan.It is known that e gifted child has specific characteristics and properties, such as originality, individuality, emotional stability, a high degree of intellectual capacity, independence, verbal fluency, perfectionism.Development and manifestation of creativity in gifted children depends of their cognitive component, personality traits, motivation. Gifted child early showed a specific interest in a particular area.This kind of child has a positive self-image, high self-esteem, self-confidence, high goals, a sense of self-worth, greater independence which manifests across the non-conformism and initiative.Every child deserves the special attention of parents, school and society, especially a gifted child which is a child with special needs about their average ability and special educational needs.

  12. Psychology Degrees: Employment, Wage, and Career Trajectory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H

    2011-07-01

    Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.

  13. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  14. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  15. INSTRUCTIONAL MANUALS OF BOUNDARY-WORK: PSYCHOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, STUDENT SUBJECTIVITIES, AND DISCIPLINARY HISTORIOGRAPHIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flis, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. One strand is developed by teachers of psychology-first as a general approach for investigating textbooks in a pedagogical setting, and then later upgraded into a full history of psychology textbooks in America. The other strand follows a more familiar perspective of historians of science and historians of psychology who build on various post-Kuhnian and post-Foucauldian perspectives on textbooks. I make an argument for integrating these two views for a more comprehensive historiography of textbooks in psychology, recasting textbooks as objects of research and sources that are interesting sui generis for historians of psychology in their investigations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Compassionate listening - managing psychological trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Joanne; Walker, Kate

    2010-04-01

    The physical and psychosocial effects of trauma in refugees are wide ranging and long lasting. They can affect symptom presentation, the patient-doctor relationship and management of refugee victims of trauma. This article discusses how refugees survivors of trauma may present to the general practitioner and gives an approach to psychological assessment and management. A strong therapeutic relationship built by patient led, sensitive assessment over time is the foundation to care. A management framework based on trauma recovery stages and adapted for general practice, is presented.

  17. Psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors in Brazil and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Vilas Boas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can

  18. Psychological testing and psychological assessment. A review of evidence and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G J; Finn, S E; Eyde, L D; Kay, G G; Moreland, K L; Dies, R R; Eisman, E J; Kubiszyn, T W; Reed, G M

    2001-02-01

    This article summarizes evidence and issues associated with psychological assessment. Data from more than 125 meta-analyses on test validity and 800 samples examining multimethod assessment suggest 4 general conclusions: (a) Psychological test validity is strong and compelling, (b) psychological test validity is comparable to medical test validity, (c) distinct assessment methods provide unique sources of information, and (d) clinicians who rely exclusively on interviews are prone to incomplete understandings. Following principles for optimal nomothetic research, the authors suggest that a multimethod assessment battery provides a structured means for skilled clinicians to maximize the validity of individualized assessments. Future investigations should move beyond an examination of test scales to focus more on the role of psychologists who use tests as helpful tools to furnish patients and referral sources with professional consultation.

  19. A developmental history of the Society of Pediatric Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S

    1991-08-01

    Presented history of the field of pediatric psychology in general and, more specifically, the development of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. Review began with 1896 concepts of Lightner Witmer and followed with 1960 activities by Logan Wright which led to the formation of the Society. The developmental phases of the Society are described with respect to goals, publications, financial status, training issues, and awards established. Present activities of liaisons with numerous outside organizations and agencies and regional conferences are detailed.

  20. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting a culture of innovation: BJSP and the emergence of new paradigms in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, Stephen

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I start by describing the role played by British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) in nurturing two important new paradigms in social psychology - the social identity approach and discourse psychology. I then consider the forces in contemporary academia, in general, and psychology, in particular, that militate against innovation. I conclude by suggesting some ways in which individual social psychologists and our journals, particularly BJSP, can contribute to the development of an innovative and intellectually dynamic discipline. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  5. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  6. Psychological Perspectives on Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M

    2017-11-01

    Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.

  7. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  8. Psychology of anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  9. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Historical spaces of social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...

  12. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  13. Teaching psychology to computing students

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...

  14. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  17. The eugenic legacy in psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2008-05-01

    Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.

  18. Investigating the psychological impact of bank robbery: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2014-06-01

    Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  20. Military Psychology | Ijide | African Journal for the Psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...

  1. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  2. Perceived Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Depressive Experiences: A Cross-Cultural Study with Belgian and South-Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Park, Seong-Yeon; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In recent research on psychologically controlling parenting, debate has arisen about the cross-cultural relevance of this construct, with some scholars arguing that the developmental outcomes of psychological control are culture-bound and others arguing that the detrimental effects of psychological control generalize across cultures. This study…

  3. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  4. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  5. Psychological First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996

  6. [Tinnitus and psychological comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirke, N; Goebel, G; Mazurek, B

    2010-07-01

    Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to the main disorder. Comorbidities negatively influence the development of the main disease. For patients with tinnitus a comorbidity is an additional component complicating the habituation of ear noise and patients with decompensated tinnitus often have psychological comorbidities, e.g. affective, somatoform or anxiety disorders. At the time of first presentation and also during further follow-up, it is essential to pay particular attention to the presence of potential comorbid mental disorders. This is of special importance for patients with decompensated ear noise (severity grades 3 and 4). For ENT specialists it is important that the mental discomfort of patients must be taken seriously and should be identified through a targeted diagnosis. Effective treatment of the co-symptoms using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in conjunction with medication often reduces the severity of tinnitus perception and discomfort.

  7. Globalization: Economic and psychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljajić Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization requires a change of human identity, stepping out from the field of their own culture and its solutions, which are becoming obsolete, and which block one to fit in. It changes ones understanding, knowledge, morality, competence, which causes insecurity and fear. Quickly unwinding change reduces the ability to predict future which evokes fear and resistance to the arrival of foreigners and their capital and values, which are seen as intrusive and aggressive, and extreme reactions emerge. The idyllic image of global prosperity becomes the image of a global catastrophe. Individuals give in to this pressure and incidence of mental illnesses such as depression, substance abuse, suicide and murder, is rising. The authors conclude that psychology has its place in the study of the influence of globalization on humans. At present, the research of the negative consequences of globalization in general and the economic crisis in particular on man should have primacy, and in this regard preventive actions should be developed in order to avoid deeper disorders in future.

  8. Psychological distress in remote mining and construction workers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jennifer; Lo, Johnny; Miller, Peta; Mawren, Daveena; Jones, Brooklyn

    2018-05-21

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a sample of remote mining and construction workers in Australia. Design, setting: A cross-sectional, anonymous Wellbeing and Lifestyle Survey at ten mining sites in South Australia and Western Australia, administered at meetings held during 2013-2015. 1124 employees at remote construction, and open cut and underground mining sites completed the survey. General psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K10) and self-reported overall mental health status; work, lifestyle and family factors correlated with level of psychological distress. The final sample comprised 1124 workers; 93.5% were men, 63% were aged 25-44 years. 311 respondents (28%) had K10 scores indicating high/very high psychological distress, compared with 10.8% for Australia overall. The most frequently reported stressors were missing special events (86%), relationship problems with partners (68%), financial stress (62%), shift rosters (62%), and social isolation (60%). High psychological distress was significantly more likely in workers aged 25-34 years (v ≥ 55 years: odds ratio [OR], 3.2; P = 0.001) and workers on a 2 weeks on/1 week off roster (v 4 weeks on/1 week off: OR, 2.4; P mental health problems were at the greatest risk of high/very high psychological distress (v not stressed: OR, 23.5; P mental ill health in these workers need to be addressed, and the stigma associated with mental health problems reduced.

  9. The "prehistory" of psychology: thoughts on a historiographical illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Although it is no longer as current as in the past to identify the "birth" of "scientific psychology" with the establishment of Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory in 1879, Hermann Ebbinghaus's dictum, "Psychology has a long past, but a short history," continues to inspire many authors, and to sustain the belief that there is a "prehistory" of psychology prior to the discipline's institutionalization and professionalization since the last third of the nineteenth century. Such "prehistory" is generally reconstructed by selecting the "psychological ideas" of past thinkers and looking for psychological themes in a variety of intellectual contexts, from medicine to theology. When one, however, considers the origins and uses of the word "psychology" in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the structure and contents of the scientia de anima in Aristotelian contexts, and how such science was remade in the eighteenth century, it becomes possible to write the early history of psychology as a discipline while avoiding the anachronisms and idiosyncrasies that afflict most reconstructions of its "long" prehistorical past.

  10. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  11. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  12. Psychological adaptation after peripartum cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wolff, Mie; Ersbøll, Anne Schjødt; Hegaard, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    of regaining psychological balance and wellbeing (i.e. psychological adaptation) after having experienced severe peripartum morbidity. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory research design was applied to guide the study. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured, face-toface telephone and e...

  13. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  14. Psychological constructionism and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-06-01

    Lindquist et al. argue that emotional categories do not map onto distinct regions within the brain, but rather, arise from basic psychological processes, including conceptualization, executive attention, and core affect. Here, we use examples from cultural neuroscience to argue that psychological constructionism, not locationism, captures the essential role of emotion in the social and cultural brain.

  15. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.

    2018-01-01

    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  16. Interdisciplinarity and Undergraduate Psychology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…

  17. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  18. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  19. [Psychological time, definition and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others.

  20. Psychology's dilemma: An institutional neurosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzko, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The term psychology refers both to an institutional discipline and to a subject matter. Henriques, in his article "Psychology Defined" (this issue) , emphasizes the second reference, and its focus can be sharpened by taking into account the first reference. On the one hand, epistemic progress in

  1. Psychological Assessment of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald A.

    The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…

  2. How Old Is Scientific Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John S.

    Scientific psychology did not begin with Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; its roots actually stretch back to 18th century Germany. The only detailed account of this period was published by Max Dessoir more than 80 years ago. Dessoir identified some of the crucial figures in early psychology, including Wolff, Bonnet, Kruger, Hissman, and…

  3. Psychologic Outcomes in Implant Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working

  4. 125 years of intelligence in the American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    A survey is made of intelligence research in the 125 years of The American Journal of Psychology. There are some major articles of note on intelligence, especially Spearman's (1904a) article that discovered general cognitive ability (g). There are some themes within intelligence on which articles appeared over the years, such as processing speed, age, and group differences. Intelligence has not been a major theme of the journal, nor has a differential approach to psychology more generally. There are periods of time--especially the 1970s--during which almost no articles appeared on intelligence. The key articles and themes on intelligence differences are discussed in detail.

  5. Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, K.; Barklin, A.; Hedegaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    habits, alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy, education and cohabitation failed to change the result. The results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of preterm deliveries. Exclusion of women with complications during pregnancy such as diabetes, hypertension, vaginal bleeding......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark,1989-98. POPULATION: A total of 19 282 singleton pregnancies in women with valid information about...... psychological stress during pregnancy. METHODS: Information about psychological stress during pregnancy was obtained from questionnaires and measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQ). A score was generated by the sum of all the answers, each contributing a value between 0 (low psychological...

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANT IN ETHICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the psychological profile of the professional accountant in an ethical context through the speciality literature. The starting point of this paper was Carl Gustav Jung’s book, Psychological Types. In the book, Jung presented the idea of personality type. As methodology, relevant articles of speciality literature from international databases have been used. According to literature, the most used methods for realizing a psychological profile are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test (MBTI test and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS test. The MBTI test focuses on way of thinking and perception while focuses on behaviour. Through this article we propose the improvement of the speciality literature regarding the multidisciplinary aspect or research in Accounting-Psychology. We also highlight the need to improve ethical behaviour in the Accounting profession. Currently the general public perceives a lack of transparency regarding the professional accountants’ activity worldwide.

  7. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature are incorrectly reported. Inconsistencies were more common in low-impact journals than in high-impact journals. Moreover, around 15% of the articles contained at least one statistical conclusion that proved, upon recalculation, to be incorrect; that is, recalculation rendered the previously significant result insignificant, or vice versa. These errors were often in line with researchers' expectations. We classified the most common errors and contacted authors to shed light on the origins of the errors.

  8. Five currents of organizational psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Organizational psychology may be seen as consisting of a number of mutually conflictual currents developed over several decades. This article discusses five currents in organizational psychology that have both been dominant in Scandinavia and have had particular significance in relation...... to the field of organizational development: The social psychological, the socio-technical, the humanistic, the work psychological and the social constructionist currents. Central arguments and works from leading scholars are discussed. It is argued that although treated differently the notions of the small...... group, group dynamics, resistance to change and process consultation constitute pivotal and through going tenets in all the currents. These notions, it is argued, link the discipline of organizational psychology together into a mutually discordant, but anyway relatively consistent research area...

  9. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  10. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  11. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  12. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  13. INSTRUCTIONAL MANUALS OF BOUNDARY‐WORK: PSYCHOLOGY TEXTBOOKS, STUDENT SUBJECTIVITIES, AND DISCIPLINARY HISTORIOGRAPHIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLIS, IVAN

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. One strand is developed by teachers of psychology—first as a general approach for investigating textbooks in a pedagogical setting, and then later upgraded into a full history of psychology textbooks in America. The other strand follows a more familiar perspective of historians of science and historians of psychology who build on various post‐Kuhnian and post‐Foucauldian perspectives on textbooks. I make an argument for integrating these two views for a more comprehensive historiography of textbooks in psychology, recasting textbooks as objects of research and sources that are interesting sui generis for historians of psychology in their investigations. PMID:27152736

  14. Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narens, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Composition - GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    . They contribute to define, establish and expand the fundamentals, even if their technical aspects are not directly a part of a psychological context. Here at VBN are given some examples of works, with the complete playing material and in some cases with several recordings for each so as to make it possible to get...... 2000 some works put special focus on tightening the interactional aspect beyond a more general indeterminate or loosely sequential situation - for instance Opportunities, Strategies, Cue Rondo, Cue Wheel. Further examples may be found in published fonograms (CD+DVD) (see bibliotek.dk - librarians.......snyk.dk. Additionally, the work database at the Danish copyright organisation KODA which is, however, not open to the general public. Please note that my father had exactly the same name. He published Danish literature....

  16. Examining Gender with General Creativity and Preferences for Creative Persons in College Students within the Sciences and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Basham, Kimberly M.; Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate gender similarities and differences in general creativity constructs with their preferences for creative persons. Data were collected from 247 participants (87 engineering, 24 psychology students with a psychology major, 51 psychology students with a major other than psychology, 30 English, and 55…

  17. Ubiquitous quantum structure. From psychology to finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-like structure is present practically everywhere. Quantum-like (QL) models, i.e. models based on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and its generalizations can be successfully applied to cognitive science, psychology, genetics, economics, finances, and game theory. This book is not about quantum mechanics as a physical theory. The short review of quantum postulates is therefore mainly of historical value: quantum mechanics is just the first example of the successful application of non-Kolmogorov probabilities, the first step towards a contextual probabilistic description of natural, biological, psychological, social, economical or financial phenomena. A general contextual probabilistic model (Vaexjoemodel) is presented. It can be used for describing probabilities in both quantum and classical (statistical) mechanics as well as in the above mentioned phenomena. This model can be represented in a quantum-like way, namely, in complex and more general Hilbert spaces. In this way quantum probability is totally demystified: Born's representation of quantum probabilities by complex probability amplitudes, wave functions, is simply a special representation of this type. (orig.)

  18. Ubiquitous quantum structure. From psychology to finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrennikov, Andrei [University of Vaexjoe (Sweden). International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics and Cognitive Science

    2010-07-01

    Quantum-like structure is present practically everywhere. Quantum-like (QL) models, i.e. models based on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and its generalizations can be successfully applied to cognitive science, psychology, genetics, economics, finances, and game theory. This book is not about quantum mechanics as a physical theory. The short review of quantum postulates is therefore mainly of historical value: quantum mechanics is just the first example of the successful application of non-Kolmogorov probabilities, the first step towards a contextual probabilistic description of natural, biological, psychological, social, economical or financial phenomena. A general contextual probabilistic model (Vaexjoemodel) is presented. It can be used for describing probabilities in both quantum and classical (statistical) mechanics as well as in the above mentioned phenomena. This model can be represented in a quantum-like way, namely, in complex and more general Hilbert spaces. In this way quantum probability is totally demystified: Born's representation of quantum probabilities by complex probability amplitudes, wave functions, is simply a special representation of this type. (orig.)

  19. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  20. The Generality of Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the statements of anti-psychologism in Husserl and Peirce and argues for their contemporary relevance faced with psychological experimentalism in cognitive science......The paper compares the statements of anti-psychologism in Husserl and Peirce and argues for their contemporary relevance faced with psychological experimentalism in cognitive science...

  1. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  2. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    INFO, PubMed, Web of Science, AMED, and Academic Search Premier) for the period from January 1, 1966, to April 30, 2015, in English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish languages. STUDY SELECTION: Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, or randomized controlled trials assessing psychological distress......-Depression Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Pooled results for these scales showed consistent elevations in depression, but not anxiety, and reduced mental health status in comparison with the general population...

  3. Qualitative research in multicultural psychology: philosophical underpinnings, popular approaches, and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the current and emerging status of qualitative research in psychology. The particular value of diverse philosophical paradigms and varied inquiry approaches to the advancement of psychology generally, and multicultural psychology specifically, is emphasized. Three specific qualitative inquiry approaches anchored in diverse philosophical research paradigms are highlighted: consensual qualitative research, grounded theory, and participatory action research. The article concludes by highlighting important ethical considerations in multicultural qualitative research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Theorizing political psychology: Doing integrative social science under the condition of postmodernity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Shawn W.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...

  5. Generalization as creative and reflective act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    It is argued that generalization in psychology is a creative, interpretative, and reflective act of thought, by accessing a higher level of abstraction from meaningful events. In the context of clarification of this claim, a fresh look at Lewin’s argumentation about the “Aristotelian” and “Galile...... in psychology can provide a relevant starting point to foster contemporary reflexivity in psychology. Scientific method provides conceptual artifacts, constraints, and norms of sharing that enable this particular type of sense-making process....

  6. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  7. My relational self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicholz, Judith Guss

    2009-04-01

    In this article, I suggest recent sources of influence on psychoanalysis and describe a contemporary relational self psychology that is my personal attempt at integration. Even with this integration, I struggle to find the right "therapeutic" balance between my essential but imperfect instrument for empathic listening, on the one hand, and the risks of authentic engagement, on the other. These dialectical tensions in me mirror those in the psychoanalytic community as a whole, poised between a scientifically based practice and a healing "art"--or between a complex but teachable methodology or discipline-and an ordinary (yet extraordinary) human relationship in which spontaneity and even improvisation play a role. Complicating this balancing act, there is new evidence from neuroscientists, attachment theorists, and infant-caregiver researchers that, from birth onward, bidirectional influences on brain and psychic development create contingent and unpredictable outcomes in every intimately related dyad. Thus, the contemporary analyst must expect to be changed by the work and--while taking full responsibility for his or her own contribution--must recognize patient and analyst as co-creators of the psychoanalytic project. At the same time that we now recognize contingency, complexity, and chaos at the heart of human minds and relationships, we also acknowledge the central importance of a sense of continuity and coherence as the individual undertakes the pursuit of goals and relationships in life. What kind of relationship can facilitate these qualities in the sense of self? That is the question that this article undertakes to answer.

  8. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  9. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  10. Dimensions of Ideology. A Review of Social-Psychological Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Todosijević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In social psychological literature, ideology is typically conceived as a relatively stable and organized set of general orientations that include interrelated attitudes grouped according to various sources of constraint, such as psychological disposition, general values, or ideological traditions. The paper reviews social-psychological literature on the organization of social attitudes. Research on this topic started nearly eight decades ago, inspired by the research on the structure of intellectual abilities. Since then, a large body of literature has been generated, which has not been systematically reviewed. Despite the long tradition, this literature has not resulted in proportional cumulative scientific development. The review should help improving this situation by listing the relevant studies, examining the research methodology and the main findings. The review ends with the critical summary of the man findings and methodological problems, and recommendations for the future research.

  11. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  12. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  14. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  15. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-05

    Accepted: November 05, 2014. Department of Psychology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... place attachment, a strong internal locus of control and strong and accessible ..... Scale for Turkish University students. Journal of ...

  16. Mapping the Development of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Flis, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    An invited presentation I gave at the PSI EGG One-day Conference for Early Career Psychologists in Ireland on my ongoing research of mapping the historical development of psychology through journal text-mining. 

  17. Health psychology and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Delshad Noghabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health psychology is the defined as studying of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It contributes to is concerned with the understanding of how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute role to in physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, health is hurt by the chronically occurring environmental stressors which cumulatively affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. On the other hand, a person's health is also interwoven with the Behavioral behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For exampleinstance, certain behaviors behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can, over time, harm (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption health but exercise and diet low in saturated fat or can enhance health (exercise, diet low in saturated fat.

  18. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  19. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  20. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  1. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  2. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  3. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  4. Representations of workplace psychological harassment in print news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Andréia De Conto; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-06-01

    To analyze discourses on workplace psychological harassment in print media. Documental study on workplace psychological harassment that analyzed news stories published in three major newspapers of the State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil) between 1990 and 2008. Discourse analysis was performed to identify discursive practices that reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.

  5. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  6. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, L.; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, G.J.; Riper, H.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  7. Diverse Pathways of Psychology Majors: Vocational Interests, Self-Efficacy, and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Gaffey, Abigail R.; Borgen, Fred H.; Ralston, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the differences in vocational interests and self-efficacy of 254 undergraduate psychology majors organized by 7 career intention groups (e.g., psychological research). The explanatory power of individual General Occupational Themes (GOTs), Basic Interest Scales (BISs), and Personal Style Scales (PPSs) of the Strong Interest…

  8. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  9. Positive Psychology in SLA: An Agenda for Learner and Teacher Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with an outline of the developments in Positive Psychology (PP) generally and specifically within SLA focusing on theoretical, empirical and practical developments. It moves on to consider PP's potential contribution to language teaching focusing on how it can help promote emotional, social and psychological wellbeing for…

  10. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  11. Thinking Makes It So: Cognitive Psychology and History Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Michael

    2017-01-01

    What, exactly, is learned knowledge? And why does it matter in history teaching? Does it matter? Michael Fordham seeks to use the general tenets of cognitive psychology to inform the debate about how history teachers might get the best from their students, in particular in considering the role of memory. Fordham surveys the latest research…

  12. Developing Sport Psychology in a girls' sport academy curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    then their self-respect and social interaction skills in preparation for .... Generally Sport Psychology is not presented in teacher education faculties (Le Roux, .... from smaller groups of approximately 10 to larger groups of 20 participants. ..... and scaffolding the cognitive and metacognitive developmental phases that charac-.

  13. Psychological Autopsy Provides Insight into Gifted Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy

    1996-01-01

    This article highlights findings of a study on the suicides of three academically talented male adolescents. Results of the psychological autopsies are reported in terms of commonalities with adolescent suicide in the general population; commonalities among the three cases related to their giftedness; and themes emerging across the cases,…

  14. Adaptive Learning in Psychology: Wayfinding in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Moskal, Patsy D.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Fawcett, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating the use of the Realizeit adaptive learning platform to deliver a fully online General Psychology course across two semesters. Through mutual cooperation, UCF and vendor (CCKF) researchers examined students' affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to the system. Student survey…

  15. Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dahra Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

  16. Job Satisfaction and Psychological Health of Long Distance Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to assess the level of and factors affecting job satisfaction and psychological health among long distance drivers in Benin City, Edo, Nigeria. A 21-item Job satisfaction questionnaire and the Golberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) were used for data collection ...

  17. Psychological determinants of the intention to educate patients about benzodiazepines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Wolde, Geeske Brecht; Dijkstra, A.; Van Empelen, P.; Neven, A. Knuistingh; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective General practitioners and pharmacists do not properly educate their patients about the disadvantages of benzodiazepines. In order to increase and improve education, this study will investigate which psychological factors (i.e., beliefs, outcome expectation, social norm and self-efficacy)

  18. Bringing Sport Psychology into Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Caroline; Walker, Natalie; Green, Alison; Rostron, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the benefits of sport psychology intervention during injury rehabilitation are well documented it appears that it remains underutilised by physiotherapists (Alexanders, Anderson and Henderson, 2015, Physiotherapy, 101, 95-102). A lack of education in this field for physiotherapists has been suggested as a causative factor. Preliminary studies undertaken on North American populations have shown support for sport psychology education interventions but no studies have examined physiothera...

  19. Psychological examinations of radiological personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litver, B.Ya.; Ivanov, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that a comprehensjve hygienic evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on man needs to take into account not only the biologic effects of these radiations, but also their psychologic and emotional effects, which may aggravate or lessen the disturbances caused by radiation. Several methods of psychologic examination of persons handling ionizing radiation sources are proposed, and the desirability of applying these methods in the dispensary system is indicated

  20. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Sebastian D; Mills, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  1. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  2. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  3. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A.

    2011-01-01

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  4. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  5. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  6. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  7. Understanding Egorrhea from Cultural-Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eSasaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on his observations in Japanese clinical settings, Fujinawa (1972 conceptualized egorrhea syndrome, which includes symptoms such as olfactory reference syndrome, fear of eye-to-eye confrontation, delusions of sleep talking, delusions of soliloquy, and thought broadcasting. The key feature of this syndrome is self-leakage, a perceived sense that one’s personal internal information, such as feelings and thoughts, are leaking out. To reach a more comprehensive understanding of egorrhea, this paper aims to present general overview and reconsider the phenomenon of self-leakage using cultural-clinical psychology as a framework. First, the symptoms of egorrhea are reviewed in relation to other related psychopathologies such as social anxiety disorder (SAD and taijin kyofusho (TKS, as well as schizophrenia. Second, a series of empirical studies conducted using Japanese non-clinical samples are summarized. The results of these studies form the basis for subsequent discussions, which incorporates the cultural-clinical psychology perspective proposed by Ryder, Ban, Chentsova-Dutton (2011. This paper ends with a general discussion regarding implications for research and clinical practice.

  8. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  9. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested. PMID:28626435

  10. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Pphysiotherapy students, with academic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non medical factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Intikhab, K.; Saeed, K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find out major non-medial factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients. Design: An observational study conducted on adult cancer patients. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center Lahore Pakistan from January 1999. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four newly-diagnosed adult cancer patients were interviewed by the clinical psychologist and data was collected regarding non-medical causal factors, patients age, gender family support system, general home atmosphere and marital status. Collected data was analyzed by utilizing. SPSS for windows version 10.0. Results: Of the 224 patients 142 (63.4%) reported non-medical factors causing psychological distress and 82 (36.6%) reported that medical sources are the most distressing. Ten most common non-medical sources of developing psychological disorders were identified. It was observed that family support system and general home atmosphere were significantly associated with the development of psychological disorders whereas the other variables such as age, gender and marital status had no significant relationship with the non Medical factors. Conclusion: It was concluded that non-medical factors causing psychological problems are significant in cancer patients. The results suggest that we should identify these factors and target psychosocial intervention for those patients most at risk. (author)

  12. Imagine: towards an integrated and applied social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jackie; Walton, Chris

    2010-12-01

    This commentary does not aim to engage with the epistemological and ontological technicalities of the discursive psychology maintained by epistemological constructionism and discursive psychology reliant on ontological constructionism approaches that form the basis of the two papers under discussion; other commentators, both in this issue and in the future, are likely to do that. Instead, this commentary aims to situate both papers within a broader frame of contemporary, primarily British social psychology, to ponder the circumstances that gave rise to them and their implications for social psychologists, discursive and non-discursive, alike. We have organized this commentary into two parts. The first part considers two simple questions. First, why does Corcoran critique DPEC for failing to do things that other discursive approaches provide for? And, second, why does Corcoran take DPEC research to task for having too little potential for or made too little contribution to improving the lives and subjectivities of people in general? These two questions are not unrelated, but for clarity's sake we will try to answer them separately. The second part of this commentary will consider the influence of discursive psychology on social psychology more generally.

  13. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  14. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Preventing and managing awareness during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Berger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: General anesthesia is a reversible state of a temporary loss of consciousness, analgesia, muscle paralysis, blunted autonomic responses and amnesia. To achieve this, an adequate depth of anesthesia should be maintained throughout the surgery. Awareness is a serious complication of general anesthesia, which occurs when the depth of anesthesia is not appropriate due to various causes.In this paper the underlying neurobiology of intraoperative awareness is presented, as well as risk factors for awareness and methods for assessing the depth of anesthesia. Possible psychological consequences of awareness and their management are also discussed. At the end, the recommendations for preventing intraoperative awareness are given.Conclusions: Awareness during general anesthesia may have adverse psychological sequelae in individual patients, therefore guidelines for preventing and managing of intraoperative awareness need to be adopted. In case of a possible awareness, the recommendations for offering a psychological support should also be followed.

  16. Introductory Psychology Texts as a View of Sociobiology/Evolutionary Psychology's Role in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Elisabeth Cornwell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.

  17. Usefulness of a psychology proficiency test to evaluate psychology education : A study at a small psychology college

    OpenAIRE

    田積, 徹; 石原, 俊一; 嶋原, 栄子; 谷口, 麻起子; 新美, 秀和; 炭谷, 将史; 李, 艶; 高橋, 宗; 高橋, 啓子

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the association between results on a psychology proficiency test (PPT) and academic performance in psychology courses of students studying psychology at a small local college. This study controlled for factors of metacognition and motivation to achieve that are presumably related to results on the PPT. Two scores served as indicators of performance in psychology courses. These scores were calculated for students taking psychology courses, which included those cours...

  18. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  19. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  20. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  1. Graduate Study in Psychology, 2013 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    APA Books, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program;…

  2. From psychology of personality to psychology of persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnov Dušan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.

  3. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  5. Systems of psychology as epistemology of psychology: technical supplies and conceptual bases for psychology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriel Fierro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resuming the framework outlined in a previous analysis, the present work describes a proposal for teaching systems of psychology based on parameters of meta-theoretical analysis and specific meta-scientific models, with the aim of relocating psychological systems’ courses in systematology of psychology as a component of the epistemology of psychology. Three central issues for systematology in psychologists’ education are described: the importance of working with primary sources through specific pedagogical resources with the aim of developing scientific competences and attitudes, the need to have one (or several sets of fixed parameters to comparatively analyze theoretical systems, and the problems, criteria and options available when contextualizing such comparative meta-theoretical analysis in comprehensive meta-scientific models which belong to the philosophy of science and of psychology. We conclude on the need to transcend the teaching of systematology as a verbal enunciation of concepts proposed by 'great authors', and on certain risks and limitations regarding the teaching of psychological systems conceived as an epistemological exercise.

  6. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  7. Psychological Inflexibility and Child Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Verboon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Psychological flexibility is the main outcome of acceptance commitment therapy. Insight into the usefulness of measuring psychological flexibility is an important step to enable studies on the effectiveness of acceptance commitment therapy in middle-aged children (8-10 years). For this purpose, we examined the factor structure, the construct validity and the reliability of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth taps psychological inflexibility (the opposite of psychological flexibility) in children and adolescents. Although the questionnaire has been extensively validated in older children, this is not the case for middle-aged children. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth contains 17 items and is constituted of the subscales cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and behavioral ineffectiveness. A shortened 8-item version also exists, the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth-8, which does not distinguish between these subscales. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between psychological flexibility and child anxiety. Children, aged 8-10 years, were recruited via regular primary schools. Of the 459 approached children, 267 (58 %) parents signed informed consents for their children (Age: M  = 9.18; SD  = .79; Sex: n boys  = 137, 51 %). Children completed the questionnaires during regular classes. In this sample, the 17-item version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth was less appropriate for measuring psychological inflexibility than the 8-item version. Furthermore, we found a significant positive relationship between psychological inflexibility and child anxiety. We argue that acceptance commitment therapy would be an interesting candidate for intervening early on in dysfunctional child anxiety, as acceptance commitment therapy's cognitive elements require cognitive skills that children are likely to

  8. A cross-sectional study of psychological complaints and quality of life in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft-Schreurs, C C H M; van Bergen, J J M; van de Sande, P; Verhofstad, M H J; de Vries, J; de Jongh, M A C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of psychological complaints and the relationship of these complaints with the quality of life (QOL) and accident- and patient-related factors among severely injured patients after the rehabilitation phase. Patients of 18 years or older with an injury severity score above 15 were included 15-53 months after their accident. Accident and patient characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and the trauma registry. Several questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Events Scale, and Cognitive Failure Questionnaire) were used to determine the symptoms of psychological problems (anxiety or depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or subjective cognitive complaints, respectively). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref was used to determine QOL. A reference group of the Dutch general population was used for comparison of QOL scores. The participation rate was 62 % (n = 173). At the time of the study, 30.1 % (n = 52) of the investigated patients had psychological complaints. No relation between psychological complaints and somatic severity or type of injury was found. Patients who were employed before the accident or resumed working reported less psychological complaints. Use of any medication before the accident and treatment for pre-accidental psychological problems were positively related to psychological complaints afterwards. QOL of severely injured patients was impaired in comparison with the general Dutch population, but only for those with psychological complaints. Psychological complaints seem to be an important and underestimated factor for a decreased QOL among severely injured patients.

  9. The Psychology of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  10. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Patients with a psychiatric disorder in general practice: determinants of general practitioners' psychological diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nuijen, J.; Volkers, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in the community, many patients with a psychiatric morbidity remain unidentified as such in primary care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze which clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with psychiatric

  12. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  13. The concept of mindfulness: nonspecific factor of psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugovkina O.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the growing interest in the study of the concept of mindfulness as a psychological construct and a form of psychotherapeutic intervention for the prevention and treatment of various mental disorders has become prominent in the foreign literature. On the basis of empirical evidence the article describes the positive effects of psychological awareness, including an increase of the subjective well-being, satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, improvement of some cognitive performance (working memory, executive functions, decline in cognitive and emotional reactivity. The article gives a description of the presumed neurobiological correlates of awareness and formulate the general perspective for further research.

  14. Are GPs’ feelings of burnout and discontent reflected in the psychological content of their consultations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, E.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if consultations from general practitioners (GPs) with feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction contain less psychological elements compared to consultations from GPs without these negative feelings. It is known that GPs’ available time and specific communication tools are

  15. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  16. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Teaching the History of Psychology: A Content Analysis of Course Syllabi from Doctor of Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merced, Matthew; Stutman, Zachariah E.; Mann, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Psychology graduate students in the United States are expected to demonstrate competency in the history of psychology. Despite the topic's importance, there are limited guidelines. The present study examined history and systems of psychology (HSP) course syllabi from American Psychological Association accredited Doctor of Psychology programs. Of…

  18. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  19. From psychology of adaptation to psychology of social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    and is influenced by contemporary socio-political contexts, then we need to introduce the science as not only studying how individuals are inclined to adapt, conform, and assimilate to the world as is, but also how and under which conditions individuals are agents for social change. I will discuss challenges......Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...

  20. From Cross-Cultural Psychology to Cultural Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Eckensberger, Lutz H.

    1990-01-01

    “… psychology from the very beginning has been struggling for its identity as a human science. Although psychology may seem to have successfuIly come of age, it is still an open question whether or not it can be further developed according to the principles of natural science, or whether it should have some unique features. Human beings, the way they think, feel and act, cannot easily be explained by "natural laws" alone; "cultural rules" have also to be taken into consideration. But these ru...

  1. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  2. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  3. Doing Psychology With a Cultural Lens: A Half-Century Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem

    2017-09-01

    My first international publication started out with the following sentences: "Some findings of social psychology may refer to general panhuman relationships, others to relationships that hold only within specific socio-cultural settings. Only systematic cross-cultural comparison can separate these or identify the limits within which particular generalizations hold" (Kagitcibasi, 1970, p. 444). These words still reflect my orientation to psychology and have shaped my work over half a century.

  4. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  5. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  6. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  7. Psychological impact of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.

    2017-01-01

    There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment

  8. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  9. The Council of Psychological Advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2016-01-01

    Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches.

  10. Olfactory memory: a case study in cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M

    1996-05-01

    Over the last decade, interest in the general applicability of psychological research has increased significantly, leading to doubts among some critics of cognitive psychology regarding the usefulness of the modern information-processing approach. In particular, current cognitive models of memory address mainly visual and verbal information processing, with little acknowledgement of the existence of other sensory modalities. However, since the mid-1970's, the literature on olfactory memory has expanded rapidly, and it has remained relatively independent of mainstream memory research. This article outlines the olfactory literature, which has focused principally on examination of the Proustian characteristics of smell. The relationship between olfactory and other types of memory is also examined. The author notes that there is evidence that models of memory intended to be general have taken insufficient account of findings from olfaction and other sensory modalities, an approach that could be considered symptomatic of dangerous tendency to base purportedly general theories on databases that are too narrow.

  11. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities for Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Richardson, Robert C.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields. PMID:21811401

  13. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  14. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  15. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  16. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  17. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  18. Sample size in psychological research over the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Jacob M; Barber, Carolyn; Kohlhart, Julie; Holmes, Cooper B

    2011-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference was formed in 1996 in response to a growing body of research demonstrating methodological issues that threatened the credibility of psychological research, and made recommendations to address them. One issue was the small, even dramatically inadequate, size of samples used in studies published by leading journals. The present study assessed the progress made since the Task Force's final report in 1999. Sample sizes reported in four leading APA journals in 1955, 1977, 1995, and 2006 were compared using nonparametric statistics, while data from the last two waves were fit to a hierarchical generalized linear growth model for more in-depth analysis. Overall, results indicate that the recommendations for increasing sample sizes have not been integrated in core psychological research, although results slightly vary by field. This and other implications are discussed in the context of current methodological critique and practice.

  19. Wundt, Völkerpsychologie, and experimental social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, John D

    2003-02-01

    Wilhelm Wundt distinguished between "experimental psychology" and Volkerpsychologie. It is often claimed that Wundt maintained that social psychological phenomena, the subject matter of Völkerpsychologie, could not be investigated experimentally but must be explored via comparative-historical methods. In this article it is argued that it is doubtful if many of the passages usually cited as evidence that Wundt held such a view actually such such a view. It is also argued that if Wundt did hold such a view, it was inconsistent with his own general theoretical position and methodological practice. It is suggested that it is anachronistic to attribute such a view to Wundt, because he appears to have had little interest in the experimental analysis of the synchronic social dynamics of psychological processes. Most of Wundt's arguments about the inappropriateness of experimentation were directed against the introspective analysis of diachronic historical processes.

  20. Linguistic markers of psychological change surrounding September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Mehl, Matthias R; Pennebaker, James W

    2004-10-01

    The diaries of 1,084 U.S. users of an on-line journaling service were downloaded for a period of 4 months spanning the 2 months prior to and after the September 11 attacks. Linguistic analyses of the journal entries revealed pronounced psychological changes in response to the attacks. In the short term, participants expressed more negative emotions, were more cognitively and socially engaged, and wrote with greater psychological distance. After 2 weeks, their moods and social referencing returned to baseline, and their use of cognitive-analytic words dropped below baseline. Over the next 6 weeks, social referencing decreased, and psychological distancing remained elevated relative to baseline. Although the effects were generally stronger for individuals highly preoccupied with September 11, even participants who hardly wrote about the events showed comparable language changes. This study bypasses many of the methodological obstacles of trauma research and provides a fine-grained analysis of the time line of human coping with upheaval.

  1. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  2. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  3. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  4. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  5. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  6. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  7. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  8. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  9. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  10. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  11. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  12. Mindfulness mediates the relation between disordered eating-related cognitions and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated whether mindfulness mediates the relation between disordered eating-related cognitions and negative psychological outcomes within a non-clinical college sample. Disordered eating-related cognitions were positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress in interpersonal contexts and inversely related to mindfulness. Mindfulness, which was also inversely related to general psychological ill-health and emotional distress, was found to partially mediate the relations between disordered eating-related cognitions and the two predicted variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  14. The cultural psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...

  15. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  16. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  17. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  18. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  19. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  20. Advancing the Psychology of Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Psychological Literature and an Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides a narrative review of psychology of entrepreneurship research published in leading psychology journals, based on which we develop an organising framework for future psychological contributions to this field. Furthermore, we introduce the manuscripts collected in