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Sample records for generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts

  1. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths coral Leptoseris

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    Kahng Samuel E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30 - 150 m provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67 - 100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2, respectively. Results Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363 and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2 alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  2. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths) coral Leptoseris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yvonne L; Pochon, Xavier; Fisher, Marla A; Wagner, Daniel; Concepcion, Gregory T; Kahng, Samuel E; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-09-11

    Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30-150 m) provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67-100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2), respectively. Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363) and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2) alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  3.  Serial replacement of diatom endosymbiont in two freshwater dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis spp., (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Y.; Hansen, Gert; Fujita, D.

    2008-01-01

    structure and possessed an endosymbiotic diatom. The diatom endosymbiont, which contained a eukaryotic nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, was separated from the dinoflagellate cytoplasm by a single unit membrane. The dinoflagellate cytoplasm contained a triple-membrane-bound eyespot, in addition......Two freshwater armoured dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis cf. kevei from Japan and Peridiniopsis penardii from Japan and Italy, were examined by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Morphological studies indicated that the two dinoflagellates had similar type of cellular...

  4. Evolutionary relationship between dinoflagellates bearing obligate diatom endosymbionts: insight into tertiary endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Y; Dacks, J B; Doolittle, W F; Watanabe, K I; Ohama, T

    2000-11-01

    The marine dinoflagellates Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum are known for bearing diatom endosymbionts instead of peridinin-containing plastids. While evidence clearly indicates that their endosymbionts are closely related, the relationship between the host dinoflagellate cells is not settled. To examine the relationship of the two dinoflagellates, the DNA sequences of nuclear small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA) from Peridinium balticum, Peridinium foliaceum and one other peridinin-containing species, Peridinium bipes, were amplified, cloned and sequenced. While phylogenetic analyses under simple models of nucleotide substitution weakly support the monophyly of Peridinium balticum and Peridinium foliaceum, analyses under more sophisticated models significantly increased the statistical support for this relationship. Combining these results with the similarity between the two endosymbionts, it is concluded that (i) the two hosts have the closest sister relationship among dinoflagellates tested, (ii) the hypothesis that the diatom endosymbiosis occurred prior to the separation of the host cells is most likely to explain their evolutionary histories, and (iii) phylogenetic inferences under complex nucleotide evolution models seem to be able to compensate significant rate variation in the two SSU rDNA.

  5. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae), and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

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    Xia, Shuang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Cheng, Yingyin; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  6. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae, and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

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    Shuang Xia

    Full Text Available New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta, and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  7. Glucose-Induced Trophic Shift in an Endosymbiont Dinoflagellate with Physiological and Molecular Consequences.

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    Xiang, Tingting; Jinkerson, Robert E; Clowez, Sophie; Tran, Cawa; Krediet, Cory J; Onishi, Masayuki; Cleves, Phillip A; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2018-02-01

    Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g. corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with Glc, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host. Here we show that Glc supplementation of SSB01 cultures causes a loss of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity, disorganization of thylakoid membranes, accumulation of lipid bodies, and alterations of cell-surface morphology. We used global transcriptome analyses to determine if these physiological changes were correlated with changes in gene expression. Glc-supplemented cells exhibited a marked reduction in levels of plastid transcripts encoding photosynthetic proteins, although most nuclear-encoded transcripts (including those for proteins involved in lipid synthesis and formation of the extracellular matrix) exhibited little change in their abundances. However, the altered carbon metabolism in Glc-supplemented cells was correlated with modest alterations (approximately 2x) in the levels of some nuclear-encoded transcripts for sugar transporters. Finally, Glc-bleached SSB01 cells appeared unable to efficiently populate anemone larvae. Together, these results suggest links between energy metabolism and cellular physiology, morphology, and symbiotic interactions. However, the results also show that in contrast to many other organisms, Symbiodinium can undergo dramatic physiological changes that are not reflected by major changes in the abundances of nuclear-encoded transcripts and thus presumably reflect posttranscriptional regulatory processes. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Ribosomal RNA analysis indicates a benthic pennate diatom ancestry for the endosymbionts of the dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum (Pyrrhophyta).

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    Chesnick, J M; Kooistra, W H; Wellbrock, U; Medlin, L K

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of chloroplasts as cellular organelles in the dinoflagellate, heterokont (stramenopile), haptophyte, and cryptophyte algae is widely accepted to have been the result of secondary endosymbiotic events, that is, the uptake of a photosynthetic eukaryote by a phagotrophic eukaryote. However, the circumstances that promote such associations between two phylogenetically distinct organisms and result in the integration of their genomes to form a single functional photosynthetic cell is unclear. The dinoflagellates Peridinium foliaceum and Peridinium balticum are unusual in that each contains a membrane-bound eukaryotic heterokont endosymbiont. These symbioses have been interpreted, through data derived from ultrastructural and biochemical investigations, to represent an intermediate stage of secondary endosymbiotic chloroplast acquisition. In this study we have examined the phylogenetic origin of the P. foliaceum and P. balticum heterokont endosymbionts through analysis of their nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate both endosymbionts are pennate diatoms belonging to the family Bacillariaceae. Since members of the Bacillariaceae are usually benthic, living on shallow marine sediments, the manner in which establishment of a symbiosis between a planktonic flagellated dinoflagellate and a bottom-dwelling diatom is discussed. In particular, specific environmentally-associated life strategy stages of the host and symbiont, coupled with diatom food preferences by the dinoflagellate, may have been vital to the formation of this association.

  9. A Game of Russian Roulette for a Generalist Dinoflagellate Parasitoid: Host Susceptibility Is the Key to Success.

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    Alacid, Elisabet; Park, Myung G; Turon, Marta; Petrou, Katherina; Garcés, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Marine microbial interactions involving eukaryotes and their parasites play an important role in shaping the structure of phytoplankton communities. These interactions may alter population densities of the main host, which in turn may have consequences for the other concurrent species. The effect generalist parasitoids exert on a community is strongly dependent on the degree of host specificity. Parvilucifera sinerae is a generalist parasitoid able to infect a wide range of dinoflagellates, including toxic-bloom-forming species. A density-dependent chemical cue has been identified as the trigger for the activation of the infective stage. Together these traits make Parvilucifera-dinoflagellate hosts a good model to investigate the degree of specificity of a generalist parasitoid, and the potential effects that it could have at the community level. Here, we present for the first time, the strategy by which a generalist dinoflagellate parasitoid seeks out its host and determine whether it exhibits host preferences, highlighting key factors in determining infection. Our results demonstrate that in its infective stage, P. sinerae is able to sense potential hosts, but does not actively select among them. Instead, the parasitoids contact the host at random, governed by the encounter probability rate and once encountered, the chance to penetrate inside the host cell and develop the infection strongly depends on the degree of host susceptibility. As such, their strategy for persistence is more of a game of Russian roulette, where the chance of survival is dependent on the susceptibility of the host. Our study identifies P. sinerae as a potential key player in community ecology, where in mixed dinoflagellate communities consisting of hosts that are highly susceptible to infection, parasitoid preferences may mediate coexistence between host species, reducing the dominance of the superior competitor. Alternatively, it may increase competition, leading to species exclusion. If

  10. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

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    D Tye Pettay

    Full Text Available The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1, obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton speciation in marine ecosystems.

  11. New insights into the dynamics between reef corals and their associated dinoflagellate endosymbionts from population genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Devlin-Durante, Meghann K; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2014-09-01

    The mutualistic symbioses between reef-building corals and micro-algae form the basis of coral reef ecosystems, yet recent environmental changes threaten their survival. Diversity in host-symbiont pairings on the sub-species level could be an unrecognized source of functional variation in response to stress. The Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, associates predominantly with one symbiont species (Symbiodinium 'fitti'), facilitating investigations of individual-level (genotype) interactions. Individual genotypes of both host and symbiont were resolved across the entire species' range. Most colonies of a particular animal genotype were dominated by one symbiont genotype (or strain) that may persist in the host for decades or more. While Symbiodinium are primarily clonal, the occurrence of recombinant genotypes indicates sexual recombination is the source of this genetic variation, and some evidence suggests this happens within the host. When these data are examined at spatial scales spanning the entire distribution of A. palmata, gene flow among animal populations was an order of magnitude greater than among populations of the symbiont. This suggests that independent micro-evolutionary processes created dissimilar population genetic structures between host and symbiont. The lower effective dispersal exhibited by the dinoflagellate raises questions regarding the extent to which populations of host and symbiont can co-evolve during times of rapid and substantial climate change. However, these findings also support a growing body of evidence, suggesting that genotype-by-genotype interactions may provide significant physiological variation, influencing the adaptive potential of symbiotic reef corals to severe selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Donald M; Erdner Deana L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very differen...

  13. Synchronized sexuality of an algal symbiont and its dinoflagellate host, Peridinium balticum (Levander) Lemmermann.

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    Chesnick, J M; Cox, E R

    1987-01-01

    We report synchronized sexual reproduction between the chlorophyll c-containing algal endosymbiont and its dinoflagellate host in Peridinium balticum (Pyrrhophyta). This organism's importance lies in that it may represent an intermediate between primitive non-photosynthetic and advanced photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Fusion of the endosymbionts and their nuclei occurred concomitantly with syngamy of the host gametes. Significant morphological changes, including condensation of chromatin and crystalline rod formation, occurred in the symbiont nucleus during zygote development. These observations provide evidence that the endosymbiotic nucleus is not passive in sexual processes, as opposed to its reported passive state during mitosis. P. balticum may not only represent an intermediate in the evolution of chloroplast acquisition by dinoflagellates, but also, an intermediate in the evolution of the peridinian dinoflagellate sexual life history.

  14. The histones of the endosymbiont alga of Peridinium balticum (Dinophyceae).

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    Rizzo, P J; Morris, R L; Zweidler, A

    1988-01-01

    The histones of the endosymbiont nucleus of the binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum were characterized by amino acid analysis and peptide mapping, and compared to calf thymus histones. Using these and various other criteria we have identified two H1-like histones as well as the highly conserved histones H3 and H4. A 13,000 dalton component in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gels can be separated into two components in Triton-containing gels. We suggest that these histones (HPb1 and HPb2) correspond to the vertebrate histones H2A and H2B, respectively.

  15. Comparative aspects of basic chromatin proteins in dinoflagellates.

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    Rizzo, P J

    1981-01-01

    Previous work on histone-like proteins in dinoflagellates is summarized, together with some new data to give an overview of basic proteins in these algae. The first two dinoflagellates studied were both found to contain one major acid-soluble protein that migrated to the same position in acidic-urea gels. When several other genera were studied however, it became apparent that the histone-like proteins from different dinoflagellates were similar but not identical. In view of the great diversity of living dinoflagellates it is speculated that further differences in dinoflagellate basic chromatin proteins will be revealed. Electrophoretic data from the eukaryotic (endosymbiont) nucleus of Peridinium balticum showed the presence of five major components. It is speculated that two of these proteins represent an H1-like doublet and two others correspond to the highly conserved histones H3 and H4. The fifth component is a new histone that may substitute for H2A and H2B in the nucleosome. Because histones and nucleosomes are present in all higher organisms but completely lacking in procaryotes, studies on basic proteins in dinoflagellates will provides insights into the evolution of histones and eucaryotic chromatin organization.

  16. Apparent amitosis in the binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippit, D H; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    1976-07-01

    Mitosis and cytokinesis in the free-living binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum are described, P. balticum contains 2 nuclei; one is a typical dinoflagellate nucleus and the other resembles the interphase nuclei of some eucaryotic cells and is here named the supernumerary nucleus (formerly called the eucaryotic nucleus). The dinoflagellate nucleus divides in the characteristic manner already described for certain other dinoflagellates. The supernumerary nucleus does not undergo normal mitosis; its chromatin does not condense, a spindle is not differentiated for its division, nor are any microtubules present inside the nucleus during any stage of its division. Instead the supernumerary nucleus divides by simple cleavage, which is concurrent with cytoplasmic cleavage. The nucleus cleaves first on its side facing the wall, but later it cleaves circumferentially as the cytoplasmic cleavage furrow draws closer. Invariably at late cytokinesis, a portion of the dividing nucleus passes through the only remaining uncleaved area of the cell. The final separation of the supernumerary nucleus is probably accomplished by the ingrowing furrow pinching the nucleus in two. There is no apparent precise segregation of genetic material during division, nor are there any structural changes inside the dividing nucleus which distinguish it from the interphase nucleus. Certain aspects of amitosis, and previously postulated theories concerning the endosymbiont origin of the second nucleus, are discussed.

  17. Genomes of coral dinoflagellate symbionts highlight evolutionary adaptations conducive to a symbiotic lifestyle

    KAUST Repository

    Aranda, Manuel

    2016-12-22

    Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis. We sequenced the genome of the ancestral Symbiodinium microadriaticum and compared it to the genomes of the more derived Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium kawagutii and eukaryote model systems as well as transcriptomes from other dinoflagellates. Comparative analyses of genome and transcriptome protein sets show that all dinoflagellates, not only Symbiodinium, possess significantly more transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, lipids, and glycerol than other eukaryotes. Importantly, we find that only Symbiodinium harbor an extensive transporter repertoire associated with the provisioning of carbon and nitrogen. Analyses of these transporters show species-specific expansions, which provides a genomic basis to explain differential compatibilities to an array of hosts and environments, and highlights the putative importance of gene duplications as an evolutionary mechanism in dinoflagellates and Symbiodinium.

  18. Nuclear and plastid DNAs from the binucleate dinoflagellates Glenodinium (Peridinium) foliaceum and Peridinium balticum.

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    Kite, G C; Rothschild, L J; Dodge, J D

    1988-01-01

    The binucleate dinoflagellates Glenodinium (Peridinium) foliaceum Stein and Peridinium balticum (Levander) Lemmermann were found to contain two major buoyant density classes of DNA. The heavier peak (1.730 g/cm3) was derived from the "dinokaryotic" nucleus and the lighter peak (1.706 g/cm3) from the "endosymbiont" nucleus and this allowed for the fractionation of G. foliaceum DNA in CsCl/EtBr density gradients. An initial CsCl/Hoechst Dye gradient removed a minor A-T rich satellite species which was identified as plastid DNA with a size of about 100-106 kb. Analysis of the nuclear DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and renaturation studies showed that the endosymbiont nucleus lacked amplified gene-sized DNA molecules, however, this nucleus did have a comparatively high level of DNA. The total amount of DNA per cell and the relative contributions of the two nuclei appeared to vary between two strains of G. foliaceum (75 pg/cell in CCAP strain and 58 pg in UTEX strain). The only strain of P. balticum examined contained 73 pg cell. These results are discussed in relation to the status and possible functioning of the endosymbiont nucleus and the idea that these dinoflagellates provide model systems with which to study the evolution of plastids.

  19. Evidence for miRNA-mediated modulation of the host transcriptome in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2017-12-08

    Reef-building corals and other cnidarians living in symbiotic relationships with intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium undergo transcriptomic changes during infection with the algae and maintenance of the endosymbiont population. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms modulating the host transcriptome are unknown. Here we report apparent post-transcriptional gene regulation by miRNAs in the sea anemone Aiptasia, a model system for cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. Aiptasia encodes mainly species-specific miRNAs, and there appears to have been recent differentiation within the Aiptasia genome of miRNAs that are commonly conserved among anthozoan cnidarians. Analysis of miRNA expression showed that both conserved and species-specific miRNAs are differentially expressed in response to endosymbiont infection. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation of Argonaute, the central protein of the miRNA-induced silencing complex, we identified miRNA binding sites on a transcriptome-wide scale and found that the targets of the miRNAs regulated in response to symbiosis include genes previously implicated in biological processes related to Symbiodinium infection. Our study shows that cnidarian miRNAs recognize their mRNA targets via high-complementarity target binding and suggests that miRNA-mediated modulations of genes and pathways are important during the onset and maintenance of cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Functional Diversity Mediates Coral Survival under Ecological Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Warner, Mark E; Leggat, William

    2017-10-01

    Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts. In doing so we propose a mechanistic framework integrating the primary traits of resource acquisition and utilisation as a means to explain Symbiodinium functional diversity and to resolve the role of Symbiodinium in driving the stability of coral reefs under an uncertain future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Wolbachia endosymbiont from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.

  2. Generalist palliative care in hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbæk, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-01-01

    hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Results: Two overall themes emerged: (1) ‘generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital’, suggesting contrasting issues regardingprioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) ‘knowledge and use......Background: It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-orientedtreatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactionsthat occur is sparse. Aim......: To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, ifpossible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. Design: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies...

  3. Molecular diagnosis of Wolbachia endosymbiont from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... the biocontrol of insect pests (Ravikumar et al., 2011) and vector-born diseases such as dangue ... dNTP, 0.4 mM of each primer, 1 µl of the crude DNA extract, 1 Mm. MgCl2, 2.5 µl of 10 x PCR buffer, 0.3 U .... protocol to obtain highly pure Wolbachia endosymbiont DNA for genome sequencing. J. Microbiol.

  4. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdner, Deana L; Anderson, Donald M

    2006-04-25

    Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very different from that of most eukaryotes. To investigate the content and regulation of the dinoflagellate genome, we performed a global analysis of the transcriptome of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense under nitrate- and phosphate-limited conditions using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). Data from the two MPSS libraries showed that the number of unique signatures found in A. fundyense cells is similar to that of humans and Arabidopsis thaliana, two eukaryotes that have been extensively analyzed using this method. The general distribution, abundance and expression patterns of the A. fundyense signatures were also quite similar to other eukaryotes, and at least 10% of the A. fundyense signatures were differentially expressed between the two conditions. RACE amplification and sequencing of a subset of signatures showed that multiple signatures arose from sequence variants of a single gene. Single signatures also mapped to different sequence variants of the same gene. The MPSS data presented here provide a quantitative view of the transcriptome and its regulation in these unusual single-celled eukaryotes. The observed signature abundance and distribution in Alexandrium is similar to that of other eukaryotes that have been analyzed using MPSS. Results of signature mapping via RACE indicate that many signatures result from sequence variants of individual genes. These data add to the growing body of evidence for widespread gene duplication in dinoflagellates, which would contribute to

  5. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Donald M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very different from that of most eukaryotes. To investigate the content and regulation of the dinoflagellate genome, we performed a global analysis of the transcriptome of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense under nitrate- and phosphate-limited conditions using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. Results Data from the two MPSS libraries showed that the number of unique signatures found in A. fundyense cells is similar to that of humans and Arabidopsis thaliana, two eukaryotes that have been extensively analyzed using this method. The general distribution, abundance and expression patterns of the A. fundyense signatures were also quite similar to other eukaryotes, and at least 10% of the A. fundyense signatures were differentially expressed between the two conditions. RACE amplification and sequencing of a subset of signatures showed that multiple signatures arose from sequence variants of a single gene. Single signatures also mapped to different sequence variants of the same gene. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here provide a quantitative view of the transcriptome and its regulation in these unusual single-celled eukaryotes. The observed signature abundance and distribution in Alexandrium is similar to that of other eukaryotes that have been analyzed using MPSS. Results of signature mapping via RACE indicate that many signatures result from sequence variants of individual genes. These data add to the growing body of evidence for widespread gene

  6. Patterns and mechanisms in instances of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W-J; Schwander, T

    2017-05-01

    Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in hosts with other sex determination systems. In at least one taxon, hymenopterans, endosymbionts are a significant driver of transitions from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction, with one-third of lineages being parthenogenetic as a consequence of endosymbiont infection. Endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis appears to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive polymorphism: at least 50% of species comprise both sexual (uninfected) and parthenogenetic (infected) strains. These strains feature distribution differences similar to the ones documented for lineages with genetically determined parthenogenesis, with endosymbiont-induced parthenogens occurring at higher latitudes than their sexual relatives. Finally, although gamete duplication is often considered as the main mechanism for endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis, it underlies parthenogenesis in only half of the host species studied thus far. We point out caveats in the methods used to test for endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis and suggest specific approaches that allow for firm conclusions about the involvement of endosymbionts in the origin of parthenogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Metabolic pathway redundancy within the apicomplexan-dinoflagellate radiation argues against an ancient chromalveolate plastid

    KAUST Repository

    Waller, Ross F.

    2015-12-08

    The chromalveolate hypothesis presents an attractively simple explanation for the presence of red algal-derived secondary plastids in 5 major eukaryotic lineages: “chromista” phyla, cryptophytes, haptophytes and ochrophytes; and alveolate phyla, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans. It posits that a single secondary endosymbiotic event occurred in a common ancestor of these diverse groups, and that this ancient plastid has since been maintained by vertical inheritance only. Substantial testing of this hypothesis by molecular phylogenies has, however, consistently failed to provide support for the predicted monophyly of the host organisms that harbour these plastids—the “chromalveolates.” This lack of support does not disprove the chromalveolate hypothesis per se, but rather drives the proposed endosymbiosis deeper into the eukaryotic tree, and requires multiple plastid losses to have occurred within intervening aplastidic lineages. An alternative perspective on plastid evolution is offered by considering the metabolic partnership between the endosymbiont and its host cell. A recent analysis of metabolic pathways in a deep-branching dinoflagellate indicates a high level of pathway redundancy in the common ancestor of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and differential losses of these pathways soon after radiation of the major extant lineages. This suggests that vertical inheritance of an ancient plastid in alveolates is highly unlikely as it would necessitate maintenance of redundant pathways over very long evolutionary timescales.

  8. Mutational meltdown in primary endosymbionts: selection limits Muller's ratchet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Allen

    Full Text Available Primary bacterial endosymbionts of insects (p-endosymbionts are thought to be undergoing the process of Muller's ratchet where they accrue slightly deleterious mutations due to genetic drift in small populations with negligible recombination rates. If this process were to go unchecked over time, theory predicts mutational meltdown and eventual extinction. Although genome degradation is common among p-endosymbionts, we do not observe widespread p-endosymbiont extinction, suggesting that Muller's ratchet may be slowed or even stopped over time. For example, selection may act to slow the effects of Muller's ratchet by removing slightly deleterious mutations before they go to fixation thereby causing a decrease in nucleotide substitutions rates in older p-endosymbiont lineages.To determine whether selection is slowing the effects of Muller's ratchet, we determined the age of the Candidatus Riesia/sucking louse assemblage and analyzed the nucleotide substitution rates of several p-endosymbiont lineages that differ in the length of time that they have been associated with their insect hosts. We find that Riesia is the youngest p-endosymbiont known to date, and has been associated with its louse hosts for only 13-25 My. Further, it is the fastest evolving p-endosymbiont with substitution rates of 19-34% per 50 My. When comparing Riesia to other insect p-endosymbionts, we find that nucleotide substitution rates decrease dramatically as the age of endosymbiosis increases.A decrease in nucleotide substitution rates over time suggests that selection may be limiting the effects of Muller's ratchet by removing individuals with the highest mutational loads and decreasing the rate at which new mutations become fixed. This countering effect of selection could slow the overall rate of endosymbiont extinction.

  9. A phylogenetic mosaic plastid proteome and unusual plastid-targeting signals in the green-colored dinoflagellate Lepidodinium chlorophorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inagaki Yuji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid replacements through secondary endosymbioses include massive transfer of genes from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and require a new targeting system to enable transport of the plastid-targeted proteins across 3-4 plastid membranes. The dinoflagellates are the only eukaryotic lineage that has been shown to have undergone several plastid replacement events, and this group is thus highly relevant for studying the processes involved in plastid evolution. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic origin and N-terminal extensions of plastid-targeted proteins from Lepidodinium chlorophorum, a member of the only dinoflagellate genus that harbors a green secondary plastid rather than the red algal-derived, peridinin-containing plastid usually found in photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Results We sequenced 4,746 randomly picked clones from a L. chlorophorum cDNA library. 22 of the assembled genes were identified as genes encoding proteins functioning in plastids. Some of these were of green algal origin. This confirms that genes have been transferred from the plastid to the host nucleus of L. chlorophorum and indicates that the plastid is fully integrated as an organelle in the host. Other nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted protein genes, however, are clearly not of green algal origin, but have been derived from a number of different algal groups, including dinoflagellates, streptophytes, heterokonts, and red algae. The characteristics of N-terminal plastid-targeting peptides of all of these genes are substantially different from those found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and green algae. Conclusions L. chlorophorum expresses plastid-targeted proteins with a range of different origins, which probably arose through endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The N-terminal extension of the genes is different from the extensions found in green alga and other dinoflagellates (peridinin- and

  10. Can alien plants support generalist insect herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Tallamy; Meg Ballard; Vincent. D' Amico

    2009-01-01

    Rearing experiments were conducted to address two questions relevant to understanding how generalist lepidopteran herbivores interact with alien plants. We reared 10 yellow-striped armyworms (Spodoptera ornithogalli),...

  11. Generalist genes and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2005-07-01

    The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates III:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    . dodgei may form brown, never truly red blooms as in the case of T. sanguinea. The transverse flagellum of Borghiella carries, in addition to thin hairs found also in other dinoflagellates, a row of shorter, thicker hairs resembling the curly hairs on the homologous, anterior flagellum of the perkinsid...... cyst is smooth, in contrast to the cysts of other woloszynskioids such as Tovellia and some species of Woloszynskia. The new species has been previously confused with Tovellia sanguinea, which was responsible for colouring the water of Lake Tovel, in the Italian Alps, blood-red up to 1964. However, B...

  13. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kneeland, J.

    2013-08-30

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Codon optimization underpins generalist parasitism in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Remi; Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Derbyshire, Mark; Oliver, Richard P; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2017-02-03

    The range of hosts that parasites can infect is a key determinant of the emergence and spread of disease. Yet, the impact of host range variation on the evolution of parasite genomes remains unknown. Here, we show that codon optimization underlies genome adaptation in broad host range parasites. We found that the longer proteins encoded by broad host range fungi likely increase natural selection on codon optimization in these species. Accordingly, codon optimization correlates with host range across the fungal kingdom. At the species level, biased patterns of synonymous substitutions underpin increased codon optimization in a generalist but not a specialist fungal pathogen. Virulence genes were consistently enriched in highly codon-optimized genes of generalist but not specialist species. We conclude that codon optimization is related to the capacity of parasites to colonize multiple hosts. Our results link genome evolution and translational regulation to the long-term persistence of generalist parasitism.

  15. Hard ticks and their bacterial endosymbionts (or would be pathogens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Trinachartvanit, W.; Baimai, V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2013), s. 419-428 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii * Francisella-like endosymbionts * vector Ambylomma americanum * fever group Rickettsiae * Dermacentor and ersoni * spotted fever * borne pathogens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2013

  16. Host specialist clownfishes are environmental niche generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Kostikova, Anna; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-11-22

    Why generalist and specialist species coexist in nature is a question that has interested evolutionary biologists for a long time. While the coexistence of specialists and generalists exploiting resources on a single ecological dimension has been theoretically and empirically explored, biological systems with multiple resource dimensions (e.g. trophic, ecological) are less well understood. Yet, such systems may provide an alternative to the classical theory of stable evolutionary coexistence of generalist and specialist species on a single resource dimension. We explore such systems and the potential trade-offs between different resource dimensions in clownfishes. All species of this iconic clade are obligate mutualists with sea anemones yet show interspecific variation in anemone host specificity. Moreover, clownfishes developed variable environmental specialization across their distribution. In this study, we test for the existence of a relationship between host-specificity (number of anemones associated with a clownfish species) and environmental-specificity (expressed as the size of the ecological niche breadth across climatic gradients). We find a negative correlation between host range and environmental specificities in temperature, salinity and pH, probably indicating a trade-off between both types of specialization forcing species to specialize only in a single direction. Trade-offs in a multi-dimensional resource space could be a novel way of explaining the coexistence of generalist and specialists. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Aesthetic Encounters: Contributions to Generalist Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Boyd

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the learning experiences of three pre-service teachers within a university-level course entitled "Aesthetics and Art Criticism for the Classroom." Discussion is focused on the nature of the meaning-making that emerges from aesthetic encounters and its educational value. Specifically, what can pre-service generalist teachers…

  18. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetill S. Jakobsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin.

  20. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  1. Diversity, frequency, and geographic distribution of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in introduced aphid pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Daniela A; Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca; Ramírez, Claudio C; Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C

    2017-06-01

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts in insects have been under intense study during the last years. Endosymbionts can modify the insect's phenotype, conferring adaptive advantages under environmental stress. This seems particularly relevant for a group of worldwide agricultural aphid pests, because endosymbionts modify key fitness-related traits, including host plant use, protection against natural enemies and heat tolerance. Aimed to understand the role of facultative endosymbionts on the success of introduced aphid pests, the distribution and abundance of 5 facultative endosymbionts (Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Serratia symbiotica, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma) were studied and compared in 4 cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae, Diuraphis noxia, Metopolophium dirhodum and Schizaphis graminium) and in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum complex from 2 agroclimatic zones in Chile. Overall, infections with facultative endosymbionts exhibited a highly variable and characteristic pattern depending on the aphid species/host race and geographic zone, which could explain the success of aphid pest populations after their introduction. While S. symbiotica and H. defensa were the most frequent endosymbionts carried by the A. pisum pea-race and A. pisum alfalfa-race aphids, respectively, the most frequent facultative endosymbiont carried by all cereal aphids was R. insecticola. Interestingly, a highly variable composition of endosymbionts carried by S. avenae was also observed between agroclimatic zones, suggesting that endosymbionts are responding differentially to abiotic variables (temperature and precipitations). In addition, our findings constitute the first report of bacterial endosymbionts in cereal aphid species not screened before, and also the first report of aphid endosymbionts in Chile. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Degenerative minimalism in the genome of a psyllid endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Baumann, L; Thao, M L; Moran, N A; Baumann, P

    2001-03-01

    Psyllids, like aphids, feed on plant phloem sap and are obligately associated with prokaryotic endosymbionts acquired through vertical transmission from an ancestral infection. We have sequenced 37 kb of DNA of the genome of Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbiont of psyllids, and found that it has a number of unusual properties revealing a more extreme case of degeneration than was previously reported from studies of eubacterial genomes, including that of the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola. Among the unusual properties are an exceptionally low guanine-plus-cytosine content (19.9%), almost complete absence of intergenic spaces, operon fusion, and lack of the usual promoter sequences upstream of 16S rDNA. These features suggest the synthesis of long mRNAs and translational coupling. The most extreme instances of base compositional bias occur in the genes encoding proteins that have less highly conserved amino acid sequences; the guanine-plus-cytosine content of some protein-coding sequences is as low as 10%. The shift in base composition has a large effect on proteins: in polypeptides of C. ruddii, half of the residues consist of five amino acids with codons low in guanine plus cytosine. Furthermore, the proteins of C. ruddii are reduced in size, with an average of about 9% fewer amino acids than in homologous proteins of related bacteria. These observations suggest that the C. ruddii genome is not subject to constraints that limit the evolution of other known eubacteria.

  3. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  4. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    Virgin Gorda Prorocu’nt~um lirna 885 Little Lameshur Bay, St. John Prorocentrum lima 838 Unknown (cold water form) Prorocontrum lima 62, 105, 142... Prorocentrum concavum, Conference on Natural Toxins from Aquatic and Marine Environments. 4. Tindall, D.R. and Miller, D.M., (1987) Two potent tox-is fiom...NO. NO. N. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (iclude Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA POISONING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  5. Functional diversity in coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Morris, Emily; Gates, Ruth D

    2008-07-08

    Symbioses are widespread in nature and occur along a continuum from parasitism to mutualism. Coral-dinoflagellate symbioses are defined as mutualistic because both partners receive benefit from the association via the exchange of nutrients. This successful interaction underpins the growth and formation of coral reefs. The symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is genetically diverse containing eight divergent lineages (clades A-H). Corals predominantly associate with clade C Symbiodinium and to a lesser extent with clades A, B, D, F, and G. Variation in the function and interactive physiology of different coral-dinoflagellate assemblages is virtually unexplored but is an important consideration when developing the contextual framework of factors that contribute to coral reef resilience. In this study, we present evidence that clade A Symbiodinium are functionally less beneficial to corals than the dominant clade C Symbiodinium and may represent parasitic rather than mutualistic symbionts. Our hypothesis is supported by (i) a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium clade A and health-compromised coral; (ii) a phylogeny and genetic diversity within Symbiodinium that suggests a different evolutionary trajectory for clade A compared with the other dominant Symbiodinium lineages; and (iii) a significantly lower amount of carbon fixed and released by clade A in the presence of a coral synthetic host factor as compared with the dominant coral symbiont lineage, clade C. Collectively, these data suggest that along the symbiotic continuum the interaction between clade A Symbiodinium and corals may be closer to parasitism than mutualism.

  6. Intracellular bacteria: the origin of dinoflagellate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E S

    1990-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms of the same species have been registered either as toxic or nontoxic and, in the latter case, toxicity may be of different types. A hypothesis has been formulated according to which the bacteria having in some way taken part in the toxin formation are either inside the dinoflagellate cell or in the nutritive liquid. The presence of intracellular bacteria in those microorganisms has been studied mainly in material from cultures, a few from the sea, and several strains were isolated from different species. Experiments with crossed inoculations have shown that the bacterial strain from Gonyaulax tamarensis caused the cells of some other species to become toxic. From nontoxic clonal cultures of Prorocentrum balticum, Glenodinium foliaceum, and Gyrodinium instriatum, after inoculation of that bacterial strain, cultures were obtained whose cell extracts showed the same kind of toxicity as G. tamarensis. No toxic action could be found in the extracts of the bacterial cells form the assayed strains. The interference of intracellular bacteria in the metabolism of dinoflagellates must be the main cause of their toxicity.

  7. Maintenance of algal endosymbionts in Paramecium bursaria: a simple model based on population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Sosuke; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tamura, Takuro

    2016-09-01

    Algal endosymbiosis is widely distributed in eukaryotes including many protists and metazoans, and plays important roles in aquatic ecosystems, combining phagotrophy and phototrophy. To maintain a stable symbiotic relationship, endosymbiont population size in the host must be properly regulated and maintained at a constant level; however, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of algal endosymbionts are still largely unknown. Here we investigate the population dynamics of the unicellular ciliate Paramecium bursaria and its Chlorella-like algal endosymbiont under various experimental conditions in a simple culture system. Our results suggest that endosymbiont population size in P. bursaria was not regulated by active processes such as cell division coupling between the two organisms, or partitioning of the endosymbionts at host cell division. Regardless, endosymbiont population size was eventually adjusted to a nearly constant level once cells were grown with light and nutrients. To explain this apparent regulation of population size, we propose a simple mechanism based on the different growth properties (specifically the nutrient requirements) of the two organisms, and based from this develop a mathematical model to describe the population dynamics of host and endosymbiont. The proposed mechanism and model may provide a basis for understanding the maintenance of algal endosymbionts. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Distributions of Bacterial Generalists among the Guts of Birds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex distributions of bacterial taxa within diverse animal microbiomes have inspired ecological and biogeographical approaches to revealing the functions of taxa that may be most important for host health. Of particular interest are bacteria that find many diverse habitats suitable for growth and remain competitive amongst finely-tuned host specialists. While previous work has focused on identifying these specialists, here our aims were to 1) identify generalist taxa, 2) identify taxonomic clades with enriched generalist diversity, and 3) describe the distribution of the largest generalist groups among hosts. We analyzed existing bacterial rRNA tag-sequencing data (v6) available on VAMPs (vamps.mbl.edu) from the microbiomes of 12 host species (106 samples total) spanning birds, mammals, and fish for generalist taxa using the CLAM test. OTUs with approximately equal abundance and a minimum of 10 reads in two hosts were classified as generalists. Generalist OTUs (n=2,982) were found in all hosts tested. Bacterial families Alcaligenaceae and Burkholderiaceae were significantly enriched with generalists OTUs compared to other families. Bacterial families such as Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae significantly lacked generalists OTUs compared to other families. Enterobacteriaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae more so than other bacterial families were widely distributed and abundant in birds, mammals, and fish suggesting that these taxa mainta

  9. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Furihata

    Full Text Available Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK and noninfected Iriomote (IR strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  10. Hv 1 Proton Channels in Dinoflagellates: Not Just for Bioluminescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigundu, Gabriel; Cooper, Jennifer L; Smith, Susan M E

    2018-04-26

    Bioluminescence in dinoflagellates is controlled by H V 1 proton channels. Database searches of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and genomes yielded hits with sequence features diagnostic of all confirmed H V 1, and show that H V 1 is widely distributed in the dinoflagellate phylogeny including the basal species Oxyrrhis marina. Multiple sequence alignments followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed three major subfamilies of H V 1 that do not correlate with presence of theca, autotrophy, geographic location, or bioluminescence. These data suggest that most dinoflagellates express a H V 1 which has a function separate from bioluminescence. Sequence evidence also suggests that dinoflagellates can contain more than one H V 1 gene. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Methods for the Extraction of Endosymbionts from the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Tong; Wang, Xin-Ru; Ban, Fei-Xue; Zou, Chi; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2017-06-19

    Bacterial symbionts form an intimate relationship with their hosts and confer advantages to the hosts in most cases. Genomic information is critical to study the functions and evolution of bacterial symbionts in their host. As most symbionts cannot be cultured in vitro, methods to isolate an adequate quantity of bacteria for genome sequencing are very important. In the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a number of endosymbionts have been identified and are predicted to be of importance in the development and reproduction of the pests through multiple approaches. However, the mechanism underpinning the associations remains largely unknown. The obstacle partially comes from the fact that the endosymbionts in whitefly, mostly restrained in bacteriocytes, are hard to separate from the host cells. Here we report a step-by-step protocol for the identification, extraction and purification of endosymbionts from the whitefly B. tabaci mainly by dissection and filtration. Endosymbiont samples prepared by this method, although still a mixture of different endosymbiont species, are suitable for subsequent genome sequencing and analysis of the possible roles of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. This method may also be used to isolate endosymbionts from other insects.

  12. Inhibitory effects of copper on marine dinoflagellates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifullah, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of copper on three species of marine dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella faeroense (Paulsen) Balech et Soares, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg, Gymnodinium splendens Lebour) was studied. It inhibited the growth of all species and was lethal to one species in batch cultures. The effect was more pronounced in semicontinuous culture than in batch cultures. Chlorophyll concentrations and rate of uptake of radioactive carbon by cells of S. faeroense were affected in a manner similar to cell numbers. Copper inhibited growth of cells, most probably either by arresting cell division or by penetrating inside the cell and affecting metabolism.

  13. A preliminary survey of zoantharian endosymbionts shows high genetic variation over small geographic scales on Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hatsuko; Parkinson, John Everett; Yang, Sung-Yin; Reimer, James Davis

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium ) shape the responses of their host reef organisms to environmental variability and climate change. To date, the biogeography of Symbiodinium has been investigated primarily through phylogenetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Although the marker can approximate species-level diversity, recent work has demonstrated that faster-evolving genes can resolve otherwise hidden species and population lineages, and that this diversity is often distributed over much finer geographical and environmental scales than previously recognized. Here, we use the noncoding region of the chloroplast psbA gene (psbA ncr ) to examine genetic diversity among clade C Symbiodinium associating with the common reef zoantharian Palythoa tuberculosa on Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. We identify four closely related Symbiodinium psbA ncr lineages including one common generalist and two potential specialists that appear to be associated with particular microhabitats. The sea surface temperature differences that distinguish these habitats are smaller than those usually investigated, suggesting that future biogeographic surveys of Symbiodinium should incorporate fine scale environmental information as well as fine scale molecular data to accurately determine species diversity and their distributions.

  14. A novel statistical method for classifying habitat generalists and specialists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    as well as bias due to insufficient sampling within each habitat. The method permits a robust statistical classification of habitat specialists and generalists, without excluding rare species a priori. Based on a user-defined specialization threshold, the model classifies species into one of four groups...... class (40.6%), followed by generalist tree species (36.7%) and SG specialists (22.7%). The multinomial model was more sensitive than indicator value analysis or abundance-based phi coefficient indices in detecting habitat specialists and also detects generalists statistically. Classification...

  15. Feeding on copepod fecal pellets: a new trophic role of dinoflagellates as detritivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, M.; Berge, T.

    2011-01-01

    in this study were: dinoflagellate concentration, the dinoflagellate-to-pellet size ratio, the feeding mechanism, pellet food source, and pellet age. This study reveals a new trophic role for dinoflagellates as detritivores, and shows that large (>20 µm) heterotrophic dinoflagellates alone can account...... for reported pellet degradation rates in field studies. Thus, dinoflagellates can function as an effective ‘protozoan filter’ for fecal pellets in the water column...

  16. Evidence for metabolic provisioning by a common invertebrate endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, during periods of nutritional stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brownlie, J.C.; Cass, B.N.; Riegler, M.; Witsenburg, J.J.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, I.; McGraw, E.A.; O'Neill, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia are ubiquitous inherited endosymbionts of invertebrates that invade host populations by modifying host reproductive systems. However, some strains lack the ability to impose reproductive modification and yet are still capable of successfully invading host populations. To explain this

  17. Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A; Patil, J.S.; Hegde, S.; DeSilva, M.S.; Chourasia, M.

    The changes in dinoflagellate community structure in both e the water column and sediment in a mesotrophic, tropical port environment were investigated in this study. Since the South West Monsoon (SWM) is the main source of climatic variation...

  18. Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Jeremiah D; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Brosnahan, Michael L; Kulis, David M; Anderson, Donald M; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Plumley, F Gerald; Erdner, Deana L

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites that have a significant impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also made by some freshwater cyanobacteria. Genes involved in STX synthesis have been identified in cyanobacteria but are yet to be reported in the massive genomes of dinoflagellates. We have assembled comprehensive transcriptome data sets for several STX-producing dinoflagellates and a related non-toxic species and have identified 265 putative homologs of 13 cyanobacterial STX synthesis genes, including all of the genes directly involved in toxin synthesis. Putative homologs of four proteins group closely in phylogenies with cyanobacteria and are likely the functional homologs of sxtA, sxtG, and sxtB in dinoflagellates. However, the phylogenies do not support the transfer of these genes directly between toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. SxtA is split into two proteins in the dinoflagellates corresponding to the N-terminal portion containing the methyltransferase and acyl carrier protein domains and a C-terminal portion with the aminotransferase domain. Homologs of sxtB and N-terminal sxtA are present in non-toxic strains, suggesting their functions may not be limited to saxitoxin production. Only homologs of the C-terminus of sxtA and sxtG were found exclusively in toxic strains. A more thorough survey of STX+ dinoflagellates will be needed to determine if these two genes may be specific to SXT production in dinoflagellates. The A. tamarense transcriptome does not contain homologs for the remaining STX genes. Nevertheless, we identified candidate genes with similar predicted biochemical activities that account for the missing functions. These results suggest that the STX synthesis pathway was likely assembled independently in the distantly related cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although using some

  19. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  20. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  1. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  2. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  3. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-03-16

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  4. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  5. Evolutionary Convergence and Nitrogen Metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, Primary Endosymbiont of the Cockroach Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J.; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  6. Plants, endosymbionts and parasites: Abscisic acid and calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Xiong, Liming; Chini, Eduardo; Sibley, L David

    2008-01-01

    It was recently discovered that the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii produces and uses the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), for communication. Following intracellular replication, ABA production influences the timing of parasite egress from the host cell. This density-dependent signal may serve to coordinate exit from the host cell in a synchronous manner by triggering calcium-dependent activation of motility. In the absence of ABA production, parasites undergo differentiation to the semidormant, tissue cyst. The pathway for ABA production in T. gondii may be derived from a relict endosymbiont, acquired by ingestion of a red algal cell. Although the parasite has lost the capacity for photosynthesis, the plant-like nature of this signaling pathway may be exploited to develop new drugs. In support of this idea, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis protected mice against lethal infection with T. gondii. Here, we compare the role of ABA in parasites to its activities in plants, where it is know to control development and stress responses.

  7. Relationship Between Light Intensity and Abundance of Dinoflagellate in Samalona Island, Makassar (Keterkaitan Intensitas Cahaya dan Kelimpahan Dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albida Rante Tasak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cahaya merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam proses fotosintesis dinoflagellate dan pertumbuhan variabilitas harian. Intensitas cahaya memengaruhi aktivitas fotosintesis dan kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan pola kecenderungan kelimpahan dinoflagellate dan klorofil serta lama penyinaran terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Perairan Pulau Samalona. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menginkubasi sampel dinoflagellate kedalam botol sejak pagi-sore hari dengan inkubasi waktu pengamatan setiap 2 jam dengan ulangan sebanyak 3 kali. Pengambilan mencakup kelimpahan dinoflagellate, nutrient dan intensitas cahaya dalam perairan. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai intensitas cahaya berkisar antara 50–3000 lux; kelimpahan dinoflagellate berkisar antara 9–1105 sel.L-1, dan kandungan klorofil a lebih dominan dengan kisaran  0.00069–0.50321 µg.L-1. Intensitas cahaya mempengaruhi kelimpahan dinoflagellate, namun pengaruh kandungan nutrient sangat kecil terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Pola kelimpahan dinoflagellate bervariasi dari pagi hingga sore hari yang dipengaruhi oleh intensitas cahaya dalam melakukan proses fotosintesis serta kondisi lingkungan lain seperti klorofil a dan nutrient. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi variasi temporal harian kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar.

  8. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  9. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Julie M; Cryan, Jason R

    2012-06-14

    Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also

  10. Genome Evolution and Phylogenomic Analysis of Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium, the Betaproteobacterial Endosymbionts of Strigomonas and Angomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João M.P.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Maia da Silva, Flávia; Voegtly, Logan J.; Matveyev, Andrey V.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been long known that insect-infecting trypanosomatid flagellates from the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas harbor bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium or TPE [trypanosomatid proteobacterial endosymbiont]) that supplement the host metabolism. Based on previous analyses of other bacterial endosymbiont genomes from other lineages, a stereotypical path of genome evolution in such bacteria over the duration of their association with the eukaryotic host has been characterized. In this work, we sequence and analyze the genomes of five TPEs, perform their metabolic reconstruction, do an extensive phylogenomic analyses with all available Betaproteobacteria, and compare the TPEs with their nearest betaproteobacterial relatives. We also identify a number of housekeeping and central metabolism genes that seem to have undergone positive selection. Our genome structure analyses show total synteny among the five TPEs despite millions of years of divergence, and that this lineage follows the common path of genome evolution observed in other endosymbionts of diverse ancestries. As previously suggested by cell biology and biochemistry experiments, Ca. Kinetoplastibacterium spp. preferentially maintain those genes necessary for the biosynthesis of compounds needed by their hosts. We have also shown that metabolic and informational genes related to the cooperation with the host are overrepresented amongst genes shown to be under positive selection. Finally, our phylogenomic analysis shows that, while being in the Alcaligenaceae family of Betaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of these endosymbionts are not in the genus Bordetella as previously reported, but more likely in the Taylorella genus. PMID:23345457

  11. Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara cedri: a missing link from facultative to obligate insect endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Lamelas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequencing of Buchnera aphidicola BCc from the aphid Cinara cedri, which is the smallest known Buchnera genome, revealed that this bacterium had lost its symbiotic role, as it was not able to synthesize tryptophan and riboflavin. Moreover, the biosynthesis of tryptophan is shared with the endosymbiont Serratia symbiotica SCc, which coexists with B. aphidicola in this aphid. The whole-genome sequencing of S. symbiotica SCc reveals an endosymbiont in a stage of genome reduction that is closer to an obligate endosymbiont, such as B. aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum, than to another S. symbiotica, which is a facultative endosymbiont in this aphid, and presents much less gene decay. The comparison between both S. symbiotica enables us to propose an evolutionary scenario of the transition from facultative to obligate endosymbiont. Metabolic inferences of B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc reveal that most of the functions carried out by B. aphidicola in A. pisum are now either conserved in B. aphidicola BCc or taken over by S. symbiotica. In addition, there are several cases of metabolic complementation giving functional stability to the whole consortium and evolutionary preservation of the actors involved.

  12. An effective molecular approach for assessing cereal aphid-parasitoid-endosymbiont networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhengpei; Vollhardt, Ines M G; Girtler, Susanne; Wallinger, Corinna; Tomanovic, Zeljko; Traugott, Michael

    2017-06-09

    Molecular approaches are increasingly being used to analyse host-parasitoid food webs as they overcome several hurdles inherent to conventional approaches. However, such studies have focused primarily on the detection and identification of aphids and their aphidiid primary parasitoids, largely ignoring primary parasitoid-hyperparasitoid interactions or limiting these to a few common species within a small geographical area. Furthermore, the detection of bacterial secondary endosymbionts has not been considered in such assays despite the fact that endosymbionts may alter aphid-parasitoid interactions, as they can confer protection against parasitoids. Here we present a novel two-step multiplex PCR (MP-PCR) protocol to assess cereal aphid-primary parasitoid-hyperparasitoid-endosymbiont interactions. The first step of the assay allows detection of parasitoid DNA at a general level (24 primary and 16 hyperparasitoid species) as well as the species-specific detection of endosymbionts (3 species) and cereal aphids (3 species). The second step of the MP-PCR assay targets seven primary and six hyperparasitoid species that commonly occur in Central Europe. Additional parasitoid species not covered by the second-step of the assay can be identified via sequencing 16S rRNA amplicons generated in the first step of the assay. The approach presented here provides an efficient, highly sensitive, and cost-effective (~consumable costs of 1.3 € per sample) tool for assessing cereal aphid-parasitoid-endosymbiont interactions.

  13. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  14. A novel statistical method for classifying habitat generalists and specialists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    We develop a novel statistical approach for classifying generalists and specialists in two distinct habitats. Using a multinomial model based on estimated species relative abundance in two habitats, our method minimizes bias due to differences in sampling intensities between two habitat types...... as well as bias due to insufficient sampling within each habitat. The method permits a robust statistical classification of habitat specialists and generalists, without excluding rare species a priori. Based on a user-defined specialization threshold, the model classifies species into one of four groups......: (1) generalist; (2) habitat A specialist; (3) habitat B specialist; and (4) too rare to classify with confidence. We illustrate our multinomial classification method using two contrasting data sets: (1) bird abundance in woodland and heath habitats in southeastern Australia and (2) tree abundance...

  15. Re-imagining the (Welfare) Professional as a Specialised Generalist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2005-01-01

    aspiring to rewrite themselves as being professional. Based on an empirical analysis of the development of the politico-administrative discourse concerning Danish home helpers, I argue that a new discursive ideal of the professional, the specialised generalist, has emerged. This ideal unites...... the contradictory poles of the generalist and the specialist. This re-imagination in the politico-administrative discourse provides input into both the contemporary, general, theoretical debates about the postmodern professional as well as, more specifically, contributing to the theorization of the welfare...... professions. The re-imagination presents a strategic opening for groups aspiring to become welfare professionals. This paradise, however, also contains some dangers. Key words: welfare professions, specialised generalist, home help, discourse, feminist....

  16. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  17. Occurrence of bacterial endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from corneal and environmental specimens and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, T R; Gautom, R K; Seyedirashti, S; Bergeron, D L; Lindquist, T D

    1993-01-01

    Free-living and parasitic protozoa are known to harbor a variety of endosymbiotic bacteria, although the roles such endosymbionts play in host survival, infectivity, and invasiveness are unclear. We have identified the presence of intracellular bacteria in 14 of 57 (24%) axenically grown Acanthamoeba isolates examined. These organisms are gram negative and non-acid fast, and they cannot be cultured by routine methodologies, although electron microscopy reveals evidence for multiplication within the amoebic cytoplasm. Examination for Legionella spp. with culture and nucleic acid probes has proven unsuccessful. We conclude that these bacteria are endosymbionts which have an obligate need to multiply within their amoebic hosts. Rod-shaped bacteria were identified in 5 of 23 clinical Acanthamoeba isolates (3 of 19 corneal isolates and 2 of 4 contact lens isolates), 4 of 25 environmental Acanthamoeba isolates, and 2 of 9 American Type Culture Collection Acanthamoeba isolates (ATCC 30868 and ATCC 30871) previously unrecognized as having endosymbionts. Coccus-shaped bacteria were present in one clinical (corneal) isolate and two environmental isolates. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.8) between the numbers of endosymbiont strains originating from clinical (26% positive) and environmental (24% positive) amoebic isolates, suggesting that the presence alone of these bacteria does not enhance amoebic infectivity. Rods and cocci were found in both clinical and environmental isolates from different geographical areas (Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oreg.), demonstrating their widespread occurrence in nature. Our findings suggest that endosymbiosis occurs commonly among members of the family Acanthamoebidae and that the endosymbionts comprise a diverse taxonomic assemblage. The role such endosymbionts may play in pathogenesis remains unknown, although a variety of exogenous bacteria have been implicated in the development of amoebic keratitis, warranting further

  18. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Juan C; Herren, Jeremy K; Schüpfer, Fanny; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-07-12

    Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi) construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided. Virtually all insects, including crop pests and disease vectors, harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts. They are vertically transmitted from mothers to

  19. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  20. Spiniferites cruciformis: a fresh water dinoflagellate cyst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouli, K; Brinkhuis, H; Dale, B

    2001-04-01

    Palynological studies of cored lacustrine sediments from the late Quaternary of Lake Kastoria, northern Greece, revealed a Late Glacial interval with abundant dinoflagellate cysts. Cyst assemblages include two identifiable species, Spiniferites cruciformis and Gonyaulax apiculata. The presence of the fresh water species G. apiculata is consistent with the lacustrine setting of these deposits, but that of S. cruciformis is anomalous. Previously, this species has only been recorded in abundance from presumed brackish marine sediments from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea sediments where geochemical data clearly record brackish salinities. Therefore, it has been regarded as a low salinity cyst type with a wide range of morphological variation that some workers have suggested to reflect salinity fluctuations. Specimens from Greece display only part of the range of morphological variability previously described from these (brackish) marine settings. Encountered morphological variation includes ellipsoidal/pentameral and cruciform endocyst shapes with rare intermediate shapes, and highly variable septa development. Specimens characterized by extremely reduced ornamentation known from (brackish) marine environments have not been recorded. Our records of S. cruciformis indicate that: (1) it could thrive in fresh water conditions; and (2) that apparently most of the strong morphological variations of the cysts are an intrinsic phenomenon for this taxon, and may only partly be linked to salinity variations as suggested earlier. We suggest that S. cruciformis essentially is a fresh water taxon, and that its records in (brackish) marine environments, with the exception of specimens with strongly reduced ornamentation, may be due to transportation, to short-lived fresh water surface conditions in such environments, or to tolerance of the species to brackish conditions.

  1. Musical Knowledge, Musical Identity, and the Generalist Teacher: Vicki's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes excerpts from an undergraduate elementary education student's journal to examine generalist teachers' attitudes towards musical competency and the necessary qualifications for teachers. Traces one teacher's recognition of her own musicality and the corresponding influence on her feelings of competency to teach this subject in an…

  2. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  3. Evolution of pollination niches in a generalist plant clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José María; Perfectti, Francisco; Abdelaziz, Mohamed; Lorite, Juan; Muñoz-Pajares, Antonio Jesús; Valverde, Javier

    2015-01-01

    It is widely assumed that floral diversification occurs by adaptive shifts between pollination niches. In contrast to specialized flowers, identifying pollination niches of generalist flowers is a challenge. Consequently, how generalist pollination niches evolve is largely unknown. We apply tools from network theory and comparative methods to investigate the evolution of pollination niches among generalist species belonging to the genus Erysimum. These species have similar flowers. We found that the studied species may be grouped in several multidimensional niches separated not by a shift of pollinators, but instead by quantitative variation in the relative abundance of pollinator functional groups. These pollination niches did not vary in generalization degree; we did not find any evolutionary trend toward specialization within the studied clade. Furthermore, the evolution of pollination niche fitted to a Brownian motion model without phylogenetic signal, and was characterized by frequent events of niche convergences and divergences. We presume that the evolution of Erysimum pollination niches has occurred mostly by recurrent shifts between slightly different generalized pollinator assemblages varying spatially as a mosaic and without any change in specialization degree. Most changes in pollination niches do not prompt floral divergence, a reason why adaptation to pollinators is uncommon in generalist plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Flower visitation by generalists and specialists : Analysis of pollinator quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Velterop, O; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1997-01-01

    Flowers of Scabiosa columbaria (Dipsacaceae) are visited by a large number of insect species, generalists and one specialist. Per population one insect species or group was dominant. Syrphids, bumblebee males and the day-active night moth Autographa gamma were the most numerous visitors in Dutch

  5. Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena F Stern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known "species", as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments.In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean, including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species.COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of natural diversity in dinoflagellates. This highlights

  6. Macrophytes shape trophic niche variation among generalist fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vejříková

    Full Text Available Generalist species commonly have a fundamental role in ecosystems as they can integrate spatially distinct habitats and food-web compartments, as well as control the composition, abundance and behavior of organisms at different trophic levels. Generalist populations typically consist of specialized individuals, but the potential for and hence degree of individual niche variation can be largely determined by habitat complexity. We compared individual niche variation within three generalist fishes between two comparable lakes in the Czech Republic differing in macrophyte cover, i.e. macrophyte-rich Milada and macrophyte-poor Most. We tested the hypothesis that large individual niche variation among generalist fishes is facilitated by the presence of macrophytes, which provides niches and predation shelter for fish and their prey items. Based on results from stable nitrogen (δ15N and carbon (δ13C isotopic mixing models, perch (Perca fluviatilis L. and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L. showed larger individual variation (i.e., variance in trophic position in Milada as compared to Most, whereas no significant between-lake differences were observed for roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.. Contrary to our hypothesis, all the three species showed significantly lower individual variation in the relative reliance on littoral food resources in Milada than in Most. Rudd relied significantly more whereas perch and roach relied less on littoral food resources in Milada than in Most, likely due to prevalent herbivory by rudd and prevalent zooplanktivory by perch and roach in the macrophyte-rich Milada as compared to macrophyte-poor Most. Our study demonstrates how the succession of macrophyte vegetation, via its effects on the physical and biological complexity of the littoral zone and on the availability of small prey fish and zooplankton, can strongly influence individual niche variation among generalist fishes with different ontogenetic trajectories, and hence

  7. Diversifying selection and host adaptation in two endosymbiont genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slatko Barton

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis infects a broad range of arthropod and filarial nematode hosts. These diverse associations form an attractive model for understanding host:symbiont coevolution. Wolbachia's ubiquity and ability to dramatically alter host reproductive biology also form the foundation of research strategies aimed at controlling insect pests and vector-borne disease. The Wolbachia strains that infect nematodes are phylogenetically distinct, strictly vertically transmitted, and required by their hosts for growth and reproduction. Insects in contrast form more fluid associations with Wolbachia. In these taxa, host populations are most often polymorphic for infection, horizontal transmission occurs between distantly related hosts, and direct fitness effects on hosts are mild. Despite extensive interest in the Wolbachia system for many years, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate its varied interactions with different hosts. We have compared the genomes of the Wolbachia that infect Drosophila melanogaster, wMel and the nematode Brugia malayi, wBm to that of an outgroup Anaplasma marginale to identify genes that have experienced diversifying selection in the Wolbachia lineages. The goal of the study was to identify likely molecular mechanisms of the symbiosis and to understand the nature of the diverse association across different hosts. Results The prevalence of selection was far greater in wMel than wBm. Genes contributing to DNA metabolism, cofactor biosynthesis, and secretion were positively selected in both lineages. In wMel there was a greater emphasis on DNA repair, cell division, protein stability, and cell envelope synthesis. Conclusion Secretion pathways and outer surface protein encoding genes are highly affected by selection in keeping with host:parasite theory. If evidence of selection on various cofactor molecules reflects possible provisioning, then both insect as

  8. Kentomonas gen. n., a New Genus of Endosymbiont-containing Trypanosomatids of Strigomonadinae subfam. n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Kostygov, A.Y.; Kraeva, N.; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, A.; Tesařová, Martina; Grybchuk, D.; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 6 (2014), s. 825-838 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Kentomonas * Trypanosomatidae * bacterial endosymbionts * phylogeny Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2014

  9. Establishment and maintenance of aphid endosymbionts after horizontal transfer is dependent on host genotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parker, B. J.; McLean, A. H. C.; Hrček, Jan; Gerardo, N. M.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 20170016. ISSN 1744-9561 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endosymbionts * horizontal transfer * pea aphid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.089, year: 2016 http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/13/5/20170016.long

  10. Species and endosymbiont diversity of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on vegetable crops in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélène, Delatte; Rémy, Baudin; Nathalie, Becker; Anne-Laure, Girard; Traoré, Ramatoulaye Sidebe; Jean-Michel, Lett; Bernard, Reynaud

    2015-03-01

    Bemisia tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses are one of the major threats on cassava and vegetable crops in Africa. However, to date, few studies are available on the diversity of B. tabaci and their associated endosymbionts in Africa. More than 28 species have been described in the complex of B. tabaci cryptic species; among them, 2 are invasive pests worldwide: MED and MEAM1. In order to assess the species diversity of B. tabaci in vegetable crops in Senegal, several samplings in different localities, hosts and seasons were collected and analyzed with nuclear (microsatellite) and mitochondrial (COI) markers. The bacterial endosymbiont community was also studied for each sample. Two species were detected: MED Q1 and MEAM1 B. Patterns of MED Q1 (dominance on most of the samples and sites, highest nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and broader secondary endosymbiont community: Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Wolbachia and Rickettsia), point toward a predominant resident begomovirus vector group for MED Q1 on market gardening crops. Furthermore, the lower prevalence of the second species MEAM1 B, its lower nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and a narrower secondary endosymbiont community (Hamiltonella/Rickettsia), indicate that this genetic group is exotic and results from a recent invasion in this area. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stern, R. F.; Horák, Aleš; Andrew, R. L.; Coffroth, M. A.; Andersen, R. A.; Kupper, F. C.; Jameson, I.; Hoppenrath, M.; Véron, B.; Kasai, F.; Brand, J.; James, E. R.; Keeling, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2010), e13991 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Keywords : RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENE * FREE-LIVING STRAIN * SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE * TOXIC DINOFLAGELLATE * MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY * COASTAL WATERS * NATURAL-ENVIRONMENT * RDNA SEQUENCES * SYMBIODINIUM Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010

  12. Impact of tropical storms and drought on the dinoflagellates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Carolina experienced three hurricanes during autumn 1999, an ongoing drought from October 2001 to October 2002, one hurricane during autumn 2003, and remnants from seven tropical systems during August–September 2004. These weather events impacted the abundance patterns of both dinoflagellates.

  13. Potentiality of benthic dinoflagellate cultures and screening of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... 3Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, College of Ocean Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea. Accepted 24 .... epifluorescence microscope (violate excitation ca 430 nm, blue emission ca 490 nm; ...... feeding as a newly identified survival strategy of the dinoflagellate symbiodinium.

  14. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  15. A southern North Sea Miocene dinoflagellate cyst zonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsterman, D.K.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    An integrated stratigraphical analysis emphasizing organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution has been carried out on multiple boreholes penetrating the Miocene in the subsurface of the Netherlands (southern North Sea Basin). The bulk of the investigated successions is attributed to

  16. Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts and thermal maturity from Pabdeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palynological investigation on 132 samples from the 428m thick outcrop section of Late Paleocene to Early Oligocene of the Pabdeh Formation in southwestern Iran yielded 55 species of dinoflagellate cysts and allowed establishment of seven biozones. Quantity of marine palynomorph elements indicate an open marine ...

  17. Late Paleocene to early Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts of the Zagros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... outcrop section of late Paleocene to early Oligocene of the Pabdeh Formation, southwestern in Iran yield 55 species of dinoflagellate results to defined 7 biozone. The quantities of marine palynomorph elements are indicated of open marine at this time, but a low increase number of spore and pollen in some of the sample ...

  18. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  19. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  20. A Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont Is a Potential Vitamin Source for the Lone Star Tick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Todd A; Driscoll, Timothy; Gillespie, Joseph J; Raghavan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the United States. It transmits several human pathogens, including the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and southern tick-associated rash illness. Blood-feeding insects (Class Insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in blood. It is unclear how this deficiency is compensated in ticks (Class Arachnida) that feed exclusively on mammalian blood. A bacterium related to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has been observed previously within cells of A. americanum. Eliminating this bacterium (CLEAA, Coxiella-like endosymbiont of A. americanum) with antibiotics reduced tick fecundity, indicating that it is an essential endosymbiont. In an effort to determine its role within this symbiosis, we sequenced the CLEAA genome. While highly reduced (656,901 bp) compared with C. burnetii (1,995,281 bp), the CLEAA genome encodes most major vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis pathways, implicating CLEAA as a vitamin provisioning endosymbiont. In contrast, CLEAA lacks any recognizable virulence genes, indicating that it is not a pathogen despite its presence in tick salivary glands. As both C. burnetii and numerous “Coxiella-like bacteria” have been reported from several species of ticks, we determined the evolutionary relationship between the two bacteria. Phylogeny estimation revealed that CLEAA is a close relative of C. burnetii, but was not derived from it. Our results are important for strategies geared toward controlling A. americanum and the pathogens it vectors, and also contribute novel information regarding the metabolic interdependencies of ticks and their nutrient-provisioning endosymbionts. PMID:25618142

  1. A continuum of specialists and generalists in empirical communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Poisot

    Full Text Available Understanding the persistence of specialists and generalists within ecological communities is a topical research question, with far-reaching consequences for the maintenance of functional diversity. Although theoretical studies indicate that restricted conditions may be necessary to achieve co-occurrence of specialists and generalists, analyses of larger empirical (and species-rich communities reveal the pervasiveness of coexistence. In this paper, we analyze 175 ecological bipartite networks of three interaction types (animal hosts-parasite, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator, and measure the extent to which these communities are composed of species with different levels of specificity in their biotic interactions. We find a continuum from specialism to generalism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that diversity tends to be greatest in networks with intermediate connectance, and argue this is because of physical constraints in the filling of networks.

  2. A continuum of specialists and generalists in empirical communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisot, Timothée; Kéfi, Sonia; Morand, Serge; Stanko, Michal; Marquet, Pablo A; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the persistence of specialists and generalists within ecological communities is a topical research question, with far-reaching consequences for the maintenance of functional diversity. Although theoretical studies indicate that restricted conditions may be necessary to achieve co-occurrence of specialists and generalists, analyses of larger empirical (and species-rich) communities reveal the pervasiveness of coexistence. In this paper, we analyze 175 ecological bipartite networks of three interaction types (animal hosts-parasite, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator), and measure the extent to which these communities are composed of species with different levels of specificity in their biotic interactions. We find a continuum from specialism to generalism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that diversity tends to be greatest in networks with intermediate connectance, and argue this is because of physical constraints in the filling of networks.

  3. The balance between generalists and specialists in the Medialogy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Nordahl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the tradeoff between educating specialists and generalists in the Medialogy Master education at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The Medialogy education was established in 2002 with the goal to combine technology and creativity in designing, implementing and evaluating media technology applications. The curriculum of the education has been through several revisions, the last of which, discussed in this paper, was performed during the Spring 2011.

  4. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  5. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

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    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees determining the three bee species of each surveyed locality that presented the highest number of interactions. We found 47 localities and 39 species of bees. Most of them belong to Apidae (31 species and Halictidae (6 families and to Meliponini (14 and Xylocopini (6 tribes. However, most of the surveys presented Apis mellifera and/or Trigona spinipes as the most generalist species. Apis mellifera is an exotic bee species and Trigona spinipes, a native species, is also widespread and presents broad diet breath and high number of individuals per colony.

  6. Bacterial Associates Modify Growth Dynamics of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Christopher J S; Bejoy, Thaila A; Green, David H

    2017-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton cells grow in close association with a complex microbial associate community known to affect the growth, behavior, and physiology of the algal host. The relative scale and importance these effects compared to other major factors governing algal cell growth remain unclear. Using algal-bacteria co-culture models based on the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum , we tested the hypothesis that associate bacteria exert an independent effect on host algal cell growth. Batch co-cultures of G. catenatum were grown under identical environmental conditions with simplified bacterial communities composed of one-, two-, or three-bacterial associates. Modification of the associate community membership and complexity induced up to four-fold changes in dinoflagellate growth rate, equivalent to the effect of a 5°C change in temperature or an almost six-fold change in light intensity (20-115 moles photons PAR m -2 s -1 ). Almost three-fold changes in both stationary phase cell concentration and death rate were also observed. Co-culture with Roseobacter sp. DG874 reduced dinoflagellate exponential growth rate and led to a more rapid death rate compared with mixed associate community controls or co-culture with either Marinobacter sp. DG879, Alcanivorax sp. DG881. In contrast, associate bacteria concentration was positively correlated with dinoflagellate cell concentration during the exponential growth phase, indicating growth was limited by supply of dinoflagellate-derived carbon. Bacterial growth increased rapidly at the onset of declining and stationary phases due to either increasing availability of algal-derived carbon induced by nutrient stress and autolysis, or at mid-log phase in Roseobacter co-cultures potentially due to the onset of bacterial-mediated cell lysis. Co-cultures with the three bacterial associates resulted in dinoflagellate and bacterial growth dynamics very similar to more complex mixed bacterial community controls, suggesting that

  7. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Parshad, Rana D.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a...

  8. An overview of dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; DeCosta, P.M.

    . [Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, heterotrophic, harmful, sediment texture, west coast of India] Introduction Dinoflagellates are emerging as an important group due to their role in Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), toxin–producing abilities, varying modes... part of their life cycle, the study of cysts is important in elucidating bloom dynamics. There has been extensive work carried out on dinoflagellate cysts in other parts of the world17. Present study consist the spatial distribution...

  9. Response of sponges with autotrophic endosymbionts during the coral-bleaching episode in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, V. P.

    1990-04-01

    An updated list of sponges with algal endosymbionts including new records for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean, indicates that thirty-five species of common Caribbean sponges possess photosynthetic endosymbionts. Of these, 23 (67.6%) species in seven orders, were found with unicellular chroococcoid cyanobacteria ( Aphanocapsa-like) and 5 (14.7%) hadromerid species were found with zooxanthellae. Sponges with other algae as symbionts occur less frequently (≦6%). Thirty-one common sponge species were inspected for bleaching during coral-bleaching months (July-September 1987; January 1988) in Puerto Rico. Anthosigmella varians, Xestospongia muta and Petrosia pellasarca bleached partially, but only few individuals within any given population became bleached and the bleaching of sponges was very localized. Adaptations between cyanobacterial symbionts and sponges, acquired during the long evolutionary history of these two taxa may explain the paucity of bleached sponges when compared to the high incidence of bleached corals reported.

  10. Histone occurrence in chromatin from Peridinium balticum, a binucleate dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P J; Cox, E R

    1977-12-23

    Peridinium balticum is one of two dinoflagellates known to have dissimilar nuclei together in the same cell. One nucleus (dinokaryotic) has permanently condensed chromosomes, while the other (eukaryotic) does not have morphologically distinct chromosomes. Acid extracts of chromatin prepared from a mixture of dinokaryotic and eukaryotic nuclei and purified eukaryotic nuclei give four bands that co-migrate with four of the five histones from calf thymus when analyzed in urea-containing polyacrylamide gels.

  11. Localized uptake of 63-nickel into dinoflagellate chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigee, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of 63 Ni into cells of the binucleate dinoflagellate Glenodinium foliaceum was investigated using insoluble compound light and electron microscope autoradiography. Cells labelled over a period of 2 hours showed active uptake throughout the whole population, with an increase in mean cell grain count when the labelling period was extended to 4 hours and 24 hours. The mean grain count did not vary with type of fixation (glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde or acetic alcohol) suggesting that retention of 63 Ni is not a specific fixation-binding artefact. At light microscope level, silver grains were not localized to any major cell component, but with the greater resolution of electron microscope autoradiography, a high degree of localization was demonstrated in the typical dinoflagellate (dinocaryotic) nucleus - which contained about 83% of the cell label (cytoplasm 16%, supernumerary nucleus 1%). Silver grain distribution within the dinocaryotic nucleus was consistent with some degree of localization to the condensed chromatin. The autoradiographic results corroborate previous X-ray microanalytical data which demonstrated high levels of transition metals in dinoflagellate nuclei. The distinction between the two types of nucleus in Glenodinium is further emphasized, giving additional support to the concept of a separate phyllogenetic origin of the supernumerary nucleus. (author)

  12. Apple snails and their endosymbionts bioconcentrate heavy metals and uranium from contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Israel A; Arribére, María A; Almonacid, Andrea V; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-09-01

    The differential ability of apple snail tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs to bioaccumulate several metals (Sb, As, Ba, Br, Zn, Cr, Fe, Hg, Se, and U) was investigated. Metal concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in several tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs from mature apple snails cultured in either drinking water or reconstituted water (prepared with American Society for Testing and Materials type I water). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in the midgut gland were found for Ba, Zn, Se, As, U, Br, and Hg (in decreasing order), while the highest in the kidney were for Ba, Br, and Hg. The foot showed the highest BCFs for Ba, Hg, Br, and Se (in decreasing order). Calcified tissues (uterus, shell) and eggs showed low BCFs, except for Ba. Both C corpuscles and gland tissue showed statistically higher BCFs than K corpuscles for Ba, Fe, U, Br, and Sb. The concentration of most of the studied elements was significantly lower in tissues and endosymbionts obtained from snails cultured in reconstituted water instead of drinking water. Snails cultured in reconstituted water and then exposed or not to Hg, As, and U (at the maximum contaminant level allowed by the US Environmental Protection Agency) also resulted in high levels accumulated in midgut gland, endosymbionts and kidney. Our findings suggest that the midgut gland (and the symbionts contained therein), the kidney, and the foot of Pomacea canaliculata may be useful bioindicators of Hg, As and U pollution in freshwater bodies and that the unrestricted use of ampullariid snails as human and animal food must be considered with caution.

  13. Vertically transmitted viral endosymbionts of insects: do sigma viruses walk alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Jiggins, Francis M

    2012-10-07

    Insects are host to a wide range of vertically transmitted bacterial endosymbionts, but we know relatively little about their viral counterparts. Here, we discuss the vertically transmitted viral endosymbionts of insects, firstly examining the diversity of this group, and then focusing on the well-studied sigma viruses that infect dipterans. Despite limited sampling, evidence suggests that vertically transmitted viruses may be common in insects. Unlike bacteria, viruses can be transmitted through sperm and eggs, a trait that allows them to rapidly spread through host populations even when infection is costly to the host. Work on Drosophila melanogaster has shown that sigma viruses and their hosts are engaged in a coevolutionary arms race, in which the spread of resistance genes in the host population is followed by the spread of viral genotypes that can overcome host resistance. In the long-term, associations between sigma viruses and their hosts are unstable, and the viruses persist by occasionally switching to new host species. It therefore seems likely that viral endosymbionts have major impacts on the evolution and ecology of insects.

  14. A screen of maternally inherited microbial endosymbionts in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit

    2015-08-01

    We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate.

  15. Algal endosymbionts in European Hydra strains reflect multiple origins of the zoochlorella symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajević, Nives; Kovačević, Goran; Kalafatić, Mirjana; Gould, Sven B; Martin, William F; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic associations are of broad significance in evolution and biodiversity. Green Hydra is a classic example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors endosymbiotic unicellular green algae, most commonly from the genus Chlorella. We reconstructed the phylogeny of cultured algal endosymbionts isolated and maintained in laboratory conditions for years from green Hydra strains collected from four different geographical sites within Croatia, one from Germany and one from Israel. Nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS region) and chloroplast markers (16S, rbcL) for maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used. We focused on investigating the positions of these algal endosymbiotic strains within the chlorophyte lineage. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae are present as endosymbionts in green Hydra, showing that endosymbiotic algae growing within green Hydra sampled from four Croatian localities are not monophyletic. Our results indicate that the intracellular algal endosymbionts of green Hydra have become established several times independently in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insect Sex Determination Manipulated by Their Endosymbionts: Incidences, Mechanisms and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Narita, Satoko; Watanabe, Masaya

    2012-01-01

    The sex-determining systems of arthropods are surprisingly diverse. Some species have male or female heterogametic sex chromosomes while other species do not have sex chromosomes. Most species are diploids but some species, including wasps, ants, thrips and mites, are haplodiploids (n in males; 2n in females). Many of the sexual aberrations, such as sexual mosaics, sex-specific lethality and conversion of sexuality, can be explained by developmental defects including double fertilization of a binucleate egg, loss of a sex chromosome or perturbation of sex-determining gene expression, which occur accidentally or are induced by certain environmental conditions. However, recent studies have revealed that such sexual aberrations can be caused by various groups of vertically-transmitted endosymbiotic microbes such as bacteria of the genera Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and Cardinium, as well as microsporidian protists. In this review, we first summarize the accumulated data on endosymbiont-induced sexual aberrations, and then discuss how such endosymbionts affect the developmental system of their hosts and what kinds of ecological and evolutionary effects these endosymbionts have on their host populations. PMID:26467955

  17. Proof that dinoflagellate spliced leader (DinoSL) is a useful hook for fishing dinoflagellate transcripts from mixed microbial samples: Symbiodinium kawagutii as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Gill, John; Lin, Senjie

    2013-07-01

    The ability to analyze dinoflagellate lineage-specific transcriptomes in the natural environment would be powerful for gaining understanding on how these organisms thrive in diverse environments and how they form harmful algal blooms and produce biotoxins. This can be made possible by lineage-specific mRNA markers such as the dinoflagellate-specific trans-spliced leader (DinoSL). By constructing and sequencing a 5'-cap selective full-length cDNA library for a monoculture of the coral reef endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii and a DinoSL-based cDNA library for a mixture of S. kawagutii and other phytoplankton, we found DinoSL in essentially all full-length cDNAs in the 5'-cap selective library. We also discovered that the DinoSL-based library contained functionally diverse transcripts all belonging to dinoflagellates with no evidence of biases toward certain groups of functional genes. The results verified that DinoSL is specific to dinoflagellate mRNAs and is ubiquitous in the dinoflagellate transcriptomes. Annotation of the unigene dataset generated from the two libraries combined indicated high functional diversity of the transcriptome and revealed some biochemical pathways previously undocumented in Symbiodinium such as an mRNA splicing machinery potentially serving both cis- and trans-splicing. The protocol will be useful for transcriptomic studies of Symbiodinium in hospite and other dinoflagellates in natural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of bacterial endosymbiont diversity in Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larvae using a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus are regarded as devastating pests in a wide variety of horticultural crops worldwide. So far, little is known on the presence of endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp.. Investigation of endosymbiosis in this genus may help to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies in these weevils (parthenogenesis or sexual reproduction, host-symbiont interactions, and may provide a future basis for novel pest management strategy development. Here, we used a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach to assess the bacterial endosymbiont diversity in larvae of four economically important Otiorhynchus species. Results High-throughput tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing of a bacterial 16S rDNA fragment was used to characterise bacterial communities associated with different Otiorhynchus spp. larvae. By sequencing a total of ~48,000 PCR amplicons, we identified 49 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs as bacterial endosymbionts in the four studied Otiorhynchus species. More than 90% of all sequence reads belonged either to the genus Rickettsia or showed homology to the phylogenetic group of “Candidatus Blochmannia” and to endosymbionts of the lice Pedicinus obtusus and P. badii. By using specific primers for the genera Rickettsia and “Candidatus Blochmannia”, we identified a new phylogenetic clade of Rickettsia as well as “Candidatus Nardonella” endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp. which are closely related to “Candidatus Blochmannia” bacteria. Conclusions Here, we used multitag 454 pyrosequencing for assessment of insect endosymbiotic communities in weevils. As 454 pyrosequencing generates only quite short sequences, results of such studies can be regarded as a first step towards identifying respective endosymbiotic species in insects. In the second step of our study, we analysed sequences of specific gene regions for a more detailed phylogeny of selected endosymbiont genera

  19. An IMD-like pathway mediates both endosymbiont control and host immunity in the cereal weevil Sitophilus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Justin; Vincent-Monégat, Carole; Masson, Florent; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna; Heddi, Abdelaziz

    2018-01-08

    Many insects developing on nutritionally unbalanced diets have evolved symbiotic associations with vertically transmitted intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) that provide them with metabolic components, thereby improving the host's abilities to thrive on such poor ecological niches. While host-endosymbiont coevolutionary constraints are known to entail massive genomic changes in the microbial partner, host's genomic evolution remains elusive, particularly with regard to the immune system. In the cereal weevil Sitophilus spp., which houses Sodalis pierantonius, endosymbionts are secluded in specialized host cells, the bacteriocytes that group together as an organ, the bacteriome. We previously reported that at standard conditions, the bacteriome highly expresses the coleoptericin A (colA) antimicrobial peptide (AMP), which was shown to prevent endosymbiont escape from the bacteriocytes. However, following the insect systemic infection by pathogens, the bacteriome upregulates a cocktail of AMP encoding genes, including colA. The regulations that allow these contrasted immune responses remain unknown. In this short report, we provide evidence that an IMD-like pathway is conserved in two sibling species of cereal weevils, Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments showed that imd and relish genes are essential for (i) colA expression in the bacteriome under standard conditions, (ii) AMP up-regulation in the bacteriome following a systemic immune challenge, and (iii) AMP systemic induction following an immune challenge. Histological analyses also showed that relish inhibition by RNAi resulted in endosymbiont escape from the bacteriome, strengthening the involvement of an IMD-like pathway in endosymbiont control. We conclude that Sitophilus' IMD-like pathway mediates both the bacteriome immune program involved in endosymbiont seclusion within the bacteriocytes and the systemic and local immune responses to exogenous challenges. This

  20. Dinoflagellate blooms in upwelling systems: Seeding, variability, and contrasts with diatom bloom behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, T. J.; Trainer, V. L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of diatom bloom behaviour, dinoflagellate life cycles, propagule type and upwelling bloom cycles on the seeding of dinoflagellate blooms in eastern boundary current upwelling systems is evaluated. Winter-spring diatom bloom behaviour is contrasted with upwelling bloom behaviour because their phenology impacts dinoflagellate blooms. The winter-spring diatom bloom is usually sustained, whereas the classical upwelling diatom bloom occurs as a series of separate, recurrent mini-blooms intercalated by upwelling-relaxation periods, during which dinoflagellates often bloom. Four sequential wind-regulated phases characterize upwelling cycles, with each phase having different effects on diatom and dinoflagellate bloom behaviour: bloom “spin up”, bloom maximum, bloom “spin down”, and upwelling relaxation. The spin up - bloom maximum is the period of heightened diatom growth; the spin down - upwelling-relaxation phases are the periods when dinoflagellates often bloom. The duration, intensity and ratio of the upwelling and relaxation periods making up upwelling cycles determine the potential for dinoflagellate blooms to develop within a given upwelling cycle and prior to the subsequent “spin up” of upwelling that favours diatom blooms. Upwelling diatoms and meroplanktonic dinoflagellates have three types of propagules available to seed blooms: vegetative cells, resting cells and resting cysts. However, most upwelling dinoflagellates are holoplanktonic, which indicates that the capacity to form resting cysts is not an absolute requirement for growth and survival in upwelling systems. The long-term (decadal) gaps in bloom behaviour of Gymnodinium catenatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum, and the unpredictable bloom behaviour of dinoflagellates generally, are examined from the perspective of seeding strategies. Mismatches between observed and expected in situ bloom behaviour and resting cyst dynamics are common among upwelling dinoflagellates. This

  1. Weather conditions drive dynamic habitat selection in a generalist predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sunde

    Full Text Available Despite the dynamic nature of habitat selection, temporal variation as arising from factors such as weather are rarely quantified in species-habitat relationships. We analysed habitat use and selection (use/availability of foraging, radio-tagged little owls (Athene noctua, a nocturnal, year-round resident generalist predator, to see how this varied as a function of weather, season and availability. Use of the two most frequently used land cover types, gardens/buildings and cultivated fields varied more than 3-fold as a simple function of season and weather through linear effects of wind and quadratic effects of temperature. Even when controlling for the temporal context, both land cover types were used more evenly than predicted from variation in availability (functional response in habitat selection. Use of two other land cover categories (pastures and moist areas increased linearly with temperature and was proportional to their availability. The study shows that habitat selection by generalist foragers may be highly dependent on temporal variables such as weather, probably because such foragers switch between weather dependent feeding opportunities offered by different land cover types. An opportunistic foraging strategy in a landscape with erratically appearing feeding opportunities in different land cover types, may possibly also explain decreasing selection of the two most frequently used land cover types with increasing availability.

  2. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  3. Coexisting generalist herbivores occupy unique nutritional feeding niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Spencer T.; Joern, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A mainstay of ecological theory and practice is that coexisting species use different resources, leading to the local development of biodiversity. However, a problem arises for understanding coexistence of multiple species if they share critical resources too generally. Here, we employ an experimental framework grounded in nutritional physiology to show that closely related, cooccurring and generalist-feeding herbivores (seven grasshopper species in the genus Melanoplus; Orthoptera: Acrididae) eat protein and carbohydrate in different absolute amounts and ratios even if they eat the same plant taxa. The existence of species-specific nutritional niches provides a cryptic mechanism that helps explain how generalist herbivores with broadly overlapping diets might coexist. We also show that performance by grasshoppers allowed to mix their diets and thus regulate their protein–carbohydrate intake matched optimal performance peaks generated from no-choice treatments. These results indicate the active nature of diet selection to achieve balanced diets and provide buffering capacity in the face of variable food quality. Our empirical findings and experimental approach can be extended to generate and test predictions concerning the intensity of biotic interactions between species, the relative abundance of species, yearly fluctuations in population size, and the nature of interactions with natural enemies in tritrophic niche space. PMID:18238894

  4. Coexistence of Habitat Specialists and Generalists in Metapopulation Models of Multiple-Habitat Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, C.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    In coarse-grained environments specialists are generally predicted to dominate. Empirically, however, coexistence with generalists is often observed. We present a simple, but previously unrecognized, mechanism for coexistence of a habitat generalist and a number of habitat specialist species. In our

  5. Generalist Pre-Service Teacher Education, Self-Efficacy and Arts Education: An Impossible Expectation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Generalist teacher educators in Australia are struggling with an impossible expectation in the area of arts education. This is due to a cascading trio of systemic issues. Firstly generalist teachers are entering their teacher education courses with variable and often minimal personal arts training. Secondly they are ill supported to improve their…

  6. RNA-Seq as an Emerging Tool for Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptome Analysis: Process and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are the large group of marine phytoplankton with primary studies interest regarding their symbiosis with coral reef and the abilities to form harmful algae blooms (HABs. Toxin produced by dinoflagellates during events of HABs cause severe negative impact both in the economy and health sector. However, attempts to understand the dinoflagellates genomic features are hindered by their complex genome organization. Transcriptomics have been employed to understand dinoflagellates genome structure, profile genes and gene expression. RNA-seq is one of the latest methods for transcriptomics study. This method is capable of profiling the dinoflagellates transcriptomes and has several advantages, including highly sensitive, cost effective and deeper sequence coverage. Thus, in this review paper, the current workflow of dinoflagellates RNA-seq starts with the extraction of high quality RNA and is followed by cDNA sequencing using the next-generation sequencing platform, dinoflagellates transcriptome assembly and computational analysis will be discussed. Certain consideration needs will be highlighted such as difficulty in dinoflagellates sequence annotation, post-transcriptional activity and the effect of RNA pooling when using RNA-seq.

  7. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Abundance and vertical distribution of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans were studied during a diatom bloom in the Benguela current. Video observations showed the occurrence of abundant Chaetoceros spp. aggregates colonized by N. scintillans. The diatom aggregates were formed by regular...... coagulation of diatom cells and not by mucus feeding behavior of N. scintillans. N. scintillans can be positively buoyant, and estimates of encounter rates between N. scintillans and diatom aggregates during ascent demonstrates that this mechanism is sufficient to account for the observed colonization...

  8. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae from different geographical regions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti SL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.

  9. Testing the reproducibility of multiple displacement amplification on genomes of clonal endosymbiont populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Maren Ellegaard

    Full Text Available The multiple displacement amplification method has revolutionized genomic studies of uncultured bacteria, where the extraction of pure DNA in sufficient quantity for next-generation sequencing is challenging. However, the method is problematic in that it amplifies the target DNA unevenly, induces the formation of chimeric reads and also amplifies contaminating DNA. Here, we have tested the reproducibility of the multiple displacement amplification method using serial dilutions of extracted genomic DNA and intact cells from the cultured endosymbiont Bartonella australis. The amplified DNA was sequenced with the Illumina sequencing technology, and the results were compared to sequence data obtained from unamplified DNA in this study as well as from a previously published genome project. We show that artifacts such as the extent of the amplification bias, the percentage of chimeric reads and the relative fraction of contaminating DNA increase dramatically for the smallest amounts of template DNA. The pattern of read coverage was reproducibly obtained for samples with higher amounts of template DNA, suggesting that the bias is non-random and genome-specific. A re-analysis of previously published sequence data obtained after amplification from clonal endosymbiont populations confirmed these predictions. We conclude that many of the artifacts associated with the use of the multiple displacement amplification method can be alleviated or much reduced by using multiple cells as the template for the amplification. These findings should be particularly useful for researchers studying the genomes of endosymbionts and other uncultured bacteria, for which a small clonal population of cells can be isolated.

  10. Multiple Acquisitions of Pathogen-Derived Francisella Endosymbionts in Soft Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Jonathan G; Auguste Dutcher, H; Brenner, Amanda E; Moses, Abraham S; Grubhoffer, Libor; Raghavan, Rahul

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of ticks are of interest due to their close evolutionary relationships with tick-vectored pathogens. For instance, whereas many ticks contain Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs), others transmit the mammalian pathogen Francisella tularensis. We recently sequenced the genome of an FLE present in the hard tick Amblyomma maculatum (FLE-Am) and showed that it likely evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. In order to expand our understanding of FLEs, in the current study we sequenced the genome of an FLE in the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and compared it to the genomes of FLE-Am, Francisella persica-an FLE in the soft tick Argus (Persicargas) arboreus, Francisella sp. MA067296-a clinical isolate responsible for an opportunistic human infection, and F. tularensis, the established human pathogen. We determined that FLEs and MA067296 belonged to a sister taxon of mammalian pathogens, and contained inactivated versions of virulence genes present in F. tularensis, indicating that the most recent common ancestor shared by FLEs and F. tularensis was a potential mammalian pathogen. Our analyses also revealed that the two soft ticks (O. moubata and A. arboreus) probably acquired their FLEs separately, suggesting that the virulence attenuation observed in FLEs are not the consequence of a single acquisition event followed by speciation, but probably due to independent transitions of pathogenic francisellae into nonpathogenic FLEs within separate tick lineages. Additionally, we show that FLEs encode intact pathways for the production of several B vitamins and cofactors, denoting that they could function as nutrient-provisioning endosymbionts in ticks. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Introduction: on the role of a generalist journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Economists commonly specialize in some limited parts of the general field. This is a necessity, due to the complexity of the different issues, the amount of literature available on each of them and the possibility of recourse to different analytical or statistical tools. However, specialization has its drawbacks. Quite often, specialists in the fields of, for instance, labour economics or industrial organization, utilize tools such as the aggregate production function or Marshallian U-shaped cost curves for the firm and the industry; tools which any specialist in abstract theory knows to have been proved faulty. Again, quite often econometric exercises rely on implicit, forgotten assumptions which if duly recognized would deprive the results of any meaning with regard to the interpretation of real world events. The risks of field specialization are commonly countered by the existence of generalist journals, such as the present one.

  12. The Generalist Model: Where do the Micro and Macro Converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although macro issues are integral to social work, students continue to struggle with the acquisition of knowledge and skills pertaining to larger systems. Educators have developed innovative methods to integrate learning across systems of various sizes however it appears an imbalance persists. This challenge is supported by baccalaureate student responses to a social work program evaluation. Four years of data from 295 undergraduate students revealed that they felt less prepared to practice with larger, macro systems. Changes in curriculum to reflect collaboration and holism, and more research are needed to adequately provide macro learning and macro practice opportunities within the generalist model and in the context of the current socio-economic-political environment.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomics to Identify Novel Genes and Pathways in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.

    2016-02-01

    The unarmored dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is among the most prominent harmful, bloom-forming phytoplankton species in the Gulf of Mexico. During blooms, the polyketides PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 (brevetoxins) are produced by K. brevis. Brevetoxins negatively impact human health and the Gulf shellfish harvest. However, the genes underlying brevetoxin synthesis are currently unknown. Because the K. brevis genome is extremely large ( 1 × 1011 base pairs long), and with a high proportion of repetitive, non-coding DNA, it has not been sequenced. In fact, large, repetitive genomes are common among the dinoflagellate group. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology enabled us to assemble Karenia transcriptomes de novo and investigate potential genes in the brevetoxin pathway through comparative transcriptomics. The brevetoxin profile varies among K. brevis clonal cultures. For example, well-documented Wilson-CCFWC268 typically produces 8-10 pg PbTx per cell, whereas SP1 produces polyketide synthases (PKSs), were only expressed by brevetoxin-producing K. brevis and K. papilionacea, not K. mikimotoi. Examination of gene expression between the typical- and low-toxin Wilson clones identified about 3,500 genes with significantly different expression levels, including 2 putative PKSs. One of the 2 PKSs was only found in the brevetoxin-producing Karenia species. These transcriptomes could not have been characterized without high-throughput RNA sequencing.

  14. Fatty acid variations in symbiotic dinoflagellates from Okinawan corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia V; Titlyanov, Eduard A

    2003-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of polar lipids and triacylglycerols was determined in different morphophysiological types of symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD) isolated from the hydrocoral Millepora intricata and the scleractinian corals Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora caliendrum, Seriatopora hystrix and Stylophora pistillata from a fringing reef of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. The distribution of the fatty acids among the morphophysiologically distinct types of SD reported in these corals makes it possible to readily distinguish one type of SD from the other. Moreover, differences were found both in polar lipids and triacylglycerols. The polar lipids of SD from M. intricata showed a very distinctive fatty acid profile. A combination of large proportions of 18:4 (n-3), 18:5 (n-3), 22:5 (n-6), and 22:6 (n-3) and negligible amounts of 20:4 (n-6), and 20:5 (n-3) in SD from M. intricata was particularly noteworthy. The fatty acid profiles of SD from P. damicornis and SD isolated from S. caliendrum and S. hystrix differed in the proportion of 18:4 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). It is suggested that fatty acids might provide useful information on possible taxonomic differences among symbiotic dinoflagellates. It is assumed that biochemical differences can reflect the genetic diversity of the morphophysiological types of SD associated with several species of hermatypic corals from this region.

  15. Attitudes, practices on allergic rhinitis of generalists and specialists in Philippine National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdez, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) consistent with consensus guidelines is reported to result in better patient outcomes. However, physicians may manage patients independently of guidelines. Asian data on physician perspectives regarding AR diagnosis and management is limited. Objective The study objective is to assess attitudes and practices on AR of Filipino specialists and generalists. Methods A cross sectional survey of 100 specialists and 100 generalists was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. A previously validated and pilot tested questionnaire was administered via structured face to face interviews. Results Specialists reported greater adequate knowledge of AR (specialists, 58%; generalists, 39%) and adherence to guidelines (specialists, 84%; generalists, 54%). Diagnostic tests were not routinely used (specialists, 81%; generalists, 92%). Monotherapy, specifically antihistamines, was preferred for mild AR. For moderate-severe AR, preference for monotherapy versus combination therapy (specialists, 49% vs. 51%; generalists, 44% vs. 56%) was similar. Both groups preferred intranasal corticosteroid spray (INCS) for monotherapy and antileukotrienes, antihistamines, INCS for combination therapy. For adjuvant therapy, specialists (82%) preferred nasal irrigation/douche. Primary consideration for choice of therapy was efficacy. Cost was the perceived reason for patients' noncompliance with treatment. Conclusion Despite differences in awareness of and adherence to guidelines, prescribing patterns on management of mild and moderate-severe AR are similar among Filipino specialists and generalists. This can be attributed to a shared perception of efficacy and cost as drivers for therapeutic choices. PMID:26539402

  16. Discovering potential sources of emerging pathogens: South America is a reservoir of generalist avian blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Michaël A J; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Generalist pathogens are capable of infecting a wide range of host species, and may pose serious disease emergence threats if accidentally moved outside their native areas. To date little effort has been devoted to identifying geographic areas that may act as reservoirs of generalist pathogens. According to current theory, where host diversity is high, parasite specialisation in one host species may be penalised by reduced host availability, while generalist parasites may benefit from the exploitation of various host species. Therefore natural selection could favor generalist parasites where host diversity is high. Here we explored if, in a highly diverse bird community in Ecuador, a generalist strategy is promoted among local Haemoproteus and Plasmodium blood-borne parasites compared with similar parasite communities throughout the world. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of every parasite lineage in order to understand the evolution of host specificity in this megadiverse area. We found high levels of host generalisation for both parasite genera, and the mean host range of the Haemoproteus community in Ecuador was significantly higher than other parasite communities in other areas outside the Neotropics. Generalist Haemoproteus parasites in this bird community had diverse phylogenetic ancestry, were closely related to specialist parasites and were apparently endemic to the Amazon, showing that different parasites have independently evolved into host generalists in this region. Finally we show that Haemoproteus communities in Ecuador and South America are more generalist than in temperate areas, making this continent a hotspot of generalist Haemoproteus parasites for wild birds. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. When naked became armored: an eight-gene phylogeny reveals monophyletic origin of theca in dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J S Orr

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium.

  18. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  19. The evolutionary development of plant-feeding insects and their nutritional endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Isabel H; Hansen, Allison K

    2017-12-01

    Herbivorous insects have evolved diverse mechanisms enabling them to feed on plants with suboptimal nutrient availability. Low nutrient availability negatively impacts insect herbivore development and fitness. To overcome this obstacle numerous insect lineages have evolved intimate associations with nutritional endosymbionts. This is especially true for insects that specialize on nitrogen-poor substrates, as these insects are highly dependent on intracellular symbionts to provide nitrogen lacking in their insect host's diet. Emerging evidence in these systems suggest that the symbiont's and/or the insect's biosynthetic pathways are dynamically regulated throughout the insect's development to potentially cope with the insect's changing nutritional demands. In this review, we evaluate the evolutionary development of symbiotic insect cells (bacteriocytes) by comparing and contrasting genes and mechanisms involved in maintaining and regulating the nutritional symbiosis throughout insect development in a diversity of insect herbivore-endosymbiont associations. With new advances in genome sequencing and functional genomics, we evaluate to what extent nutritional symbioses are shaped by (i) the regulation of symbiont titer, (ii) the regulation of insect symbiosis genes, and (iii) the regulation of symbiont genes. We discuss how important these mechanisms are for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins across insect life stages in divergent insect-symbiont systems. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research to further elucidate the evolutionary development of bacteriocytes and the impact of these nutritional symbioses on insect-plant interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  1. Endosymbiont gene functions impaired and rescued by polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.; Nystedt, Björn; Kauppinen, Seth N.; Darby, Alistair C.; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Lundin, Daniel; Poole, Anthony M.; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Among host-dependent bacteria that have evolved by extreme reductive genome evolution, long-term bacterial endosymbionts of insects have the smallest (160–790 kb) and most A + T-rich (>70%) bacterial genomes known to date. These genomes are riddled with poly(A) tracts, and 5–50% of genes contain tracts of 10 As or more. Here, we demonstrate transcriptional slippage at poly(A) tracts within genes of Buchnera aphidicola associated with aphids and Blochmannia pennsylvanicus associated with ants. Several tracts contain single frameshift deletions; these apparent pseudogenes showed patterns of constraint consistent with purifying selection on the encoded proteins. Transcriptional slippage yielded a heterogeneous population of transcripts with variable numbers of As in the tract. Across several frameshifted genes, including B. aphidicola cell wall biosynthesis genes and a B. pennsylvanicus histidine biosynthesis gene, 12–50% of transcripts contained corrected reading frames that could potentially yield full-length proteins. In situ immunostaining confirmed the production of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme UDP-N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide synthase encoded by the frameshifted murF gene. Simulation studies indicated an overrepresentation of poly(A) tracts in endosymbiont genomes relative to other A + T-rich bacterial genomes. Polymerase infidelity at poly(A) tracts rescues the functionality of genes with frameshift mutations and, conversely, reduces the efficiency of expression for in-frame genes carrying poly(A) regions. These features of homopolymeric tracts could be exploited to manipulate gene expression in small synthetic genomes. PMID:18815381

  2. First report of endosymbionts in Dreissena polymorpha from the brackish Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Chuševė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of a parasitological study ofDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels from the brackishCuronian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea. Zebra mussels were collected monthlyfrom May to October 2011 from a site near the mouth of the River Nemunas.Three types of endosymbionts were found in the mantle cavity andvisceral mass of the molluscs during dissections, i.e. thecommensal ciliate Conchophthirus acuminatus and parasitic ciliateOphryoglena sp., and rarely encountered, unidentified nematodes.The abundances of C. cuminatus and Ophryoglena sp.were positively associated with host shell length and watertemperature, but no effect of water salinity was detected.As the endosymbionts are either highly host-specific to zebra mussels(C. acuminatus and Ophryoglena sp. or are probablyfree-living organisms that inadvertently infect the molluscs (nematodes,we conclude that the presence of D. polymorpha in theCuronian Lagoon does not pose any serious parasitologicalrisk to native biota. We emphasize, however, that this conclusionshould be treated with caution as it is based on a study conductedonly at a single location. Our work extends the currentlyscarce records of D. polymorpha parasites and commensals frombrackish waters, and adds to a better understanding of the ecologicalimpact this highly invasive mollusc causes in the areas it has invaded.

  3. Candidates of trichocyst matrix proteins of the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiel, Erhard; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Voget, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Trichocysts are a common cell organelle of ciliates and dinoflagellates. They are composed of trichocyst matrix proteins and have been intensely investigated and characterized in ciliates. Here, for the first time, data have been obtained for trichocyst matrix proteins of a dinoflagellate. A DELTA-BLAST search using 14 available and complete amino acid sequences of mature trichocyst matrix proteins of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia resulted in 16 hits for the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina when the E values and bit values to be scored were 40. They code for proteins with acidic pI values and exceeded the precursors of the trichocyst matrix proteins of the ciliate approximately twofold in length. The values calculated for coverage, identity, and positives ranged from 76 to 100, 21.5 to 28.3, and 44.9 to 53.9%, respectively. Protein conformation predictions indicate coiled-coil domains which are a common feature of mature ciliate trichocyst matrix proteins. As often several EST sequences of O. marina matched with a queried mature trichocyst matrix protein of P. tetraurelia, a multigene family can be assumed for trichocyst proteins in this dinophyte, too. Trichocyst-enriched fractions of O. marina were isolated and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When samples were incubated with loading buffer without a reducing agent, the banding pattern was mainly composed of three regions in the range of >90, 75-60, and 50-35 kDa, with each region consisting of four to five bands. Tryptic in gel digestion of proteins excised from these three gel regions followed by mass spectrometry confirmed that up to 14 of the 16 predicted proteins were present within the trichocyst-enriched fractions. When the samples were reduced with either ß-mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol, the proteins of the three regions disappeared almost completely and proteins in the range of 27 to 15 kDa became the dominating bands. Up to 12 of the predicted proteins

  4. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Raina

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects.

  5. ´Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii´, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sassera, D.; Beninati, T.; Bandi, C.; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Sacchi, L.; Fabbi, M.; Lo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 11 (2006), s. 2535-2540 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * endosymbiont * intramitochondrial Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2006

  6. The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' of bacteria: phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and endosymbiont members of various gut flagellated protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Moriya; Sato, Tomoyuki; Noda, Satoko; Ui, Sadaharu; Kudo, Toshiaki; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2007-06-01

    The candidate phylum 'Termite Group 1' (TG1) of bacteria, which is abundant in termite guts but has no culturable representative, was investigated with respect to the in situ localization, distribution, and diversity. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and FISH in termite guts, a number of lineages of TG1 members were identified as endosymbionts of a variety of gut flagellated protists from the orders Trichonymphida, Cristamonadida, and Oxymonadida that are mostly unique to termites. However, the survey in various environments using specific PCR primers revealed that TG1 members were also present in termites, a cockroach, and the bovine rumen that typically lack these protist orders. Most of the TG1 members from gut flagellates, termites, cockroaches, and the rumen formed a monophyletic subcluster that showed a shallow branching pattern in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting their recent diversification. Although endosymbionts of the same protist genera tended to be closely related, the endosymbiont lineages were often independent of the higher level classifications of their host protist and were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree. It appears that their cospeciation is not the sole rule for the diversification of TG1 members of endosymbionts.

  7. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Francisella-like endosymbionts detected in two species of Amblyomma from snakes in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sumrandee, C.; Hirunkanokpun, S.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Baimai, V.; Trinachartvanit, W.; Ahantarig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-32 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Francisella-like endosymbiont * Amblyomma varanense * Amblyomma helvolum * snake * Thailand Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  9. Pest species diversity enhances control of spider mites and whiteflies by a generalist phytoseiid predator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; van Maanen, R.; van Holstein-Saj, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pest species diversity enhances biological pest control with generalist predators, we studied the dynamics of three major pest species on greenhouse cucumber: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum

  10. Identification of okadaic acid from a Caribbean dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum concavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, R W; Bobzin, S C; Faulkner, D J; Bencsath, F A; Andrzejewski, D

    1990-01-01

    Lipid-soluble toxins were isolated from a Caribbean strain of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum concavum Fukuyo. The major lipid-soluble toxin (LD50 = 210 +/- 15 micrograms/kg i.p. in mice) was purified by normal and reversed-phase column chromatography and characterized by 1H NMR and mass spectrometry. The toxin was identified as okadaic acid by interpretation of the spectral data. Okadaic acid was previously identified as a toxic component of the related species P. lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge. The finding of okadaic acid production in P. concavum and P. lima, abundant primary producers in the ciguatera-endemic Caribbean, suggests that the role of this toxin in the etiology of ciguatera may be more significant than previously thought.

  11. Iron uptake and storage in the HAB dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarimizu, Kyoko; Cruz-López, Ricardo; Auerbach, Hendrik; Heimann, Larissa; Schünemann, Volker; Carrano, Carl J

    2017-12-01

    The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood with two basic strategies being distinguished: Strategy I involves the induction of an Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) along with Fe(II) or Fe(III) transporter proteins while strategy II plants have evolved sophisticated systems based on high-affinity, iron specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, there is little knowledge about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages. Herein we report a study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the harmful algal bloom dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum. L. polyedrum is an armored dinoflagellate with a mixotrophic lifestyle and one of the most common bloom species on Southern California coast widely noted for its bioluminescent properties and as a producer of yessotoxins. Short term radio-iron uptake studies indicate that iron is taken up by L. polyedrum in a time dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Based on inhibitor and other studies it appears that a reductive-oxidative pathway such as that found in yeast and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is likely. Of the various iron sources tested vibrioferrin, a photoactive and relatively weak siderophore produced by potentially mutualistic Marinobacter bacterial species, was the most efficient. Other more stable and non-photoactive siderophores such as ferrioxamine E were ineffective. Several pieces of data including long term exposure to 57 Fe using Mössbauer spectroscopy suggest that L. polyedrum does not possess an iron storage system but rather presumably relies on an efficient iron uptake system, perhaps mediated by mutualistic interactions with bacteria.

  12. Explaining postnatal growth plasticity in a generalist brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, Vladimír

    2010-03-01

    Selection of a particular host has clear consequences for the performance of avian brood parasites. Experimental studies showed that growth rate and fledging mass of brood parasites varied between host species independently of the original host species. Finding correlates of this phenotypic plasticity in growth is important for assessing adaptiveness and potential fitness consequences of host choice. Here, I analyzed the effects of several host characteristics on growth rate and fledging mass of the young of brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater), a generalist, non-evicting brood parasite. Cowbird chicks grew better in fast-developing host species and reached higher fledging mass in large hosts with fast postnatal development. A potential proximate mechanism linking fast growth and high fledging mass of cowbird with fast host development is superior food supply in fast-developing foster species. So far, we know very little about the consequences of the great plasticity in cowbird growth for later performance of the adult parasite. Thus, cowbird species could become interesting model systems for investigating the role of plasticity and optimization in the evolution of growth rate in birds.

  13. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. River Cetaceans and Habitat Change: Generalist Resilience or Specialist Vulnerability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available River dolphins are among the world’s most threatened mammals, and indeed the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, a species endemic to China's Yangtze River, is likely extinct. Exploitation for products such as meat, oil, and skins has been a lesser feature in the population histories of river dolphins compared to most large mammals. Habitat factors are therefore of particular interest and concern. In this paper we attempt to describe the population-level responses of river dolphins to habitat transformation. We find circumstantial but compelling evidence supporting the view that, at a local scale, river dolphins are opportunists (generalists capable of adapting to a wide range of habitat conditions while, at a river basin scale, they are more appropriately viewed as vulnerable specialists. The same evidence implies that the distributional responses of river dolphins to basinwide ecological change can be informative about their extinction risk, while their local behaviour patterns may provide important insights about critical ecological attributes. Empirical studies are needed on the ecology of river cetaceans, both to inform conservation efforts on behalf of these threatened animals and to help address broader concerns related to biodiversity conservation and the sustainability of human use in several of the world's largest river systems.

  15. Generalist versus specialist pollination systems in 26 Oenothera (Onagraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Neipp Krakos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although generalized and specialized plants are often discussed as alternative states, the biological reality may better be viewed as a continuum. However, estimations of pollinator specificity have been confounded in some studies by the assumption that all floral visitors are pollinators. Failure to account for pollen load can lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding the number of pollinators with which a species actually interacts. The aim of this study was to clarify the distribution of pollination-system specialization within one clade, using a more rigorous assessment of pollen flow. The genus Oenothera has long been used as a model system for studying reproductive biology, and it provides a diversity of pollination systems and a wealth of historical data. Both floral visitation rate and pollen-load analysis of sampled pollinators, combined into a metric of pollen flow, were used to quantify the pollination systems of 26 Oenothera taxa. Metric of pollinator specialization were calculated as functions of both total pollinator taxa, and as pollinator functional groups. We found that for Oenothera, the number of floral visitors highly overestimates the number of pollinators, and is inadequate for determining or predicting pollination system specialization. We found that that pollination systems were distributed on a gradient from generalized to specialized, with more pollinator-specialized plant taxa, especially when estimated using pollinator functional groups. These results are in conflict with previous studies that depict most plant species as generalists, and this finding may be related to how prior studies have estimated specialization.

  16. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  17. MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRY AS A METHOD TO IDENTIFY KLEPTOPLASTIDS IN THE NAKED FRESHWATER DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM ACIDOTUM(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Coltelli, Primo; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    A relatively small number of freshwater dinoflagellates are involved in symbiotic association with cryptophytes. The chloroplasts of the cryptophytes are retained by the dinoflagellate and give it the characteristic phycobilin pigmentation, either phycoerythrin or phycocyanin. The pigment characterization of the retained chloroplasts can give precise and accurate information about the type of cryptophyte preyed upon by the dinoflagellate. For this purpose, we performed microspectrophotometric evaluation of the pigments of Gymnodinium acidotum Nygaard and three different cryptophytes present in samples collected from a tributary of the river Arno, in Tuscany (Italy). The comparison of the different spectroscopic data allowed us to discriminate effectively among the cryptophytes preyed upon by the dinoflagellate. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates erythropsidinium and warnowia (warnowiaceae, dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2009-01-01

    Members of the family Warnowiaceae are unarmored phagotrophic dinoflagellates that possess an ocelloid. The genus Erythropsidinium (=Erythropsis) has also developed a unique dynamic appendage, the piston, which is able to independently retract and extend for at least 2 min after the cell lyses. We provide the first small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of warnowiid dinoflagellates, those of the type Erythropsidinium agile and one species of Warnowia. Phylogenetic analyses show that warnowiid dinoflagellates branch within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group, forming a cluster separated from the Polykrikos clade and with autotrophic Pheopolykrikos beauchampii as closest relative. This reinforces their classification as unarmored dinoflagellates based on the shape of the apical groove, despite the strong ecological and ultrastructural diversity of the Gymnodinium s.s. group. Other structures, such as the ocelloid and piston, have no systematic value above the genus level.

  19. Palynological investigation of the sediment cores from the Arabian Sea 2: Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, R.K.; Chandra, A.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    The present paper incorporates the study of dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs recovered from five sediment cores from the Arabian Sea This assemblage is represented by 15 genera and 22 species Of these, 14 species belonging to 11 genera...

  20. Host gene response to endosymbiont and pathogen in the cereal weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigneron Aurélien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects thriving on nutritionally poor habitats have integrated mutualistic intracellular symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts in a bacteria-bearing tissue (the bacteriome that isolates the endosymbionts and protects them against a host systemic immune response. Whilst the metabolic and physiological features of long-term insect associations have been investigated in detail over the past decades, cellular and immune regulations that determine the host response to endosymbionts and pathogens have attracted interest more recently. Results To investigate bacteriome cellular specificities and weevil immune responses to bacteria, we have constructed and sequenced 7 cDNA libraries from Sitophilus oryzae whole larvae and bacteriomes. Bioinformatic analysis of 26,886 ESTs led to the generation of 8,941 weevil unigenes. Based on in silico analysis and on the examination of genes involved in the cellular pathways of potential interest to intracellular symbiosis (i.e. cell growth and apoptosis, autophagy, immunity, we have selected and analyzed 29 genes using qRT-PCR, taking into consideration bacteriome specificity and symbiosis impact on the host response to pathogens. We show that the bacteriome tissue accumulates transcripts from genes involved in cellular development and survival, such as the apoptotic inhibitors iap2 and iap3, and endosomal fusion and trafficking, such as Rab7, Hrs, and SNARE. As regards our investigation into immunity, we first strengthen the bacteriome immunomodulation previously reported in S. zeamais. We show that the sarcotoxin, the c-type lysozyme, and the wpgrp2 genes are downregulated in the S. oryzae bacteriome, when compared to aposymbiotic insects and insects challenged with E. coli. Secondly, transcript level comparison between symbiotic and aposymbiotic larvae provides evidence that the immune systemic response to pathogens is decreased in symbiotic insects, as shown by the relatively high expression of

  1. Reevaluation of Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxin by Bacteria Associated with Dinoflagellates of the Portuguese Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Claudia A.; Alvito, Paula; Tavares, Maria João; Pereira, Paulo; Doucette, Gregory; Franca, Susana

    2003-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by certain dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial species. The autonomous production of PSTs by bacteria remains controversial. In this study, PST production by two bacterial strains, isolated previously from toxic dinoflagellates, was evaluated using biological and analytical methods. Analyses were performed under conditions determined previously to be optimal for toxin production and detection. Our data are inconsistent with autonomous bacterial PST production under these conditions, thereby challenging previous findings for the same strains. PMID:12957964

  2. Broad genomic and transcriptional analysis reveals a highly derived genome in dinoflagellate mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates comprise an ecologically significant and diverse eukaryotic phylum that is sister to the phylum containing apicomplexan endoparasites. The mitochondrial genome of apicomplexans is uniquely reduced in gene content and size, encoding only three proteins and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs within a highly compacted 6 kb DNA. Dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have been comparatively poorly studied: limited available data suggest some similarities with apicomplexan mitochondrial genomes but an even more radical type of genomic organization. Here, we investigate structure, content and expression of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes. Results From two dinoflagellates, Crypthecodinium cohnii and Karlodinium micrum, we generated over 42 kb of mitochondrial genomic data that indicate a reduced gene content paralleling that of mitochondrial genomes in apicomplexans, i.e., only three protein-encoding genes and at least eight conserved components of the highly fragmented large and small subunit rRNAs. Unlike in apicomplexans, dinoflagellate mitochondrial genes occur in multiple copies, often as gene fragments, and in numerous genomic contexts. Analysis of cDNAs suggests several novel aspects of dinoflagellate mitochondrial gene expression. Polycistronic transcripts were found, standard start codons are absent, and oligoadenylation occurs upstream of stop codons, resulting in the absence of termination codons. Transcripts of at least one gene, cox3, are apparently trans-spliced to generate full-length mRNAs. RNA substitutional editing, a process previously identified for mRNAs in dinoflagellate mitochondria, is also implicated in rRNA expression. Conclusion The dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome shares the same gene complement and fragmentation of rRNA genes with its apicomplexan counterpart. However, it also exhibits several unique characteristics. Most notable are the expansion of gene copy numbers and their arrangements

  3. Mimosine, the Allelochemical from the Leguminous Tree Leucaena leucocephala, Selectively Enhances Cell Proliferation in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Patrick K. K.; Wong, Francis T. W.; Wong, Joseph T. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Mimosine, the allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, is toxic to most terrestrial animals and plants. We report here that while mimosine inhibits major phytoplankton groups, it enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates. On addition to coastal seawater samples, mimosine is able to confer a growth advantage to dinoflagellates. The use of mimosine will promote the isolation and culture of this group of phytoplankton. PMID:12324368

  4. THE TOXIC DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM CATENATUM (DINOPHYCEAE) REQUIRES MARINE BACTERIA FOR GROWTH(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Christopher J S; Subramanian, Thaila A; Green, David H

    2011-10-01

    Interactions with the bacterial community are increasingly considered to have a significant influence on marine phytoplankton populations. Here we used a simplified dinoflagellate-bacterium experimental culture model to conclusively demonstrate that the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum H. W. Graham requires growth-stimulatory marine bacteria for postgermination survival and growth, from the point of resting cyst germination through to vegetative growth at bloom concentrations (10(3)  cells · mL(-1) ). Cysts of G. catenatum were germinated and grown in unibacterial coculture with antibiotic-resistant or antibiotic-sensitive Marinobacter sp. DG879 or Brachybacterium sp., and with mixtures of these two bacteria. Addition of antibiotics to cultures grown with antibiotic-sensitive strains of bacteria resulted in death of the dinoflagellate culture, whereas cultures grown with antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived antibiotic addition and continued to grow beyond the 21 d experiment. Removal of either bacterial type from mixed-bacterial dinoflagellate cultures (using an antibiotic) resulted in cessation of dinoflagellate growth until bacterial concentration recovered to preaddition concentrations, suggesting that the bacterial growth factors are used for dinoflagellate growth or are labile. Examination of published reports of axenic dinoflagellate culture indicate that a requirement for bacteria is not universal among dinoflagellates, but rather that species may vary in their relative reliance on, and relationship with, the bacterial community. The experimental model approach described here solves a number of inherent and logical problems plaguing studies of algal-bacterium interactions and provides a flexible and tractable tool that can be extended to examine bacterial interactions with other phytoplankton species. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  6. Occurrence of red tide caused by Karenia mikimotoi (toxic dinoflagellate) in the Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Reny, P.D.; Paul, M.; Ullas, N.; Resmi, P.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 40(6), December 2011, pp. 821-825 Occurrence of red tide caused by Karenia mikimotoi (toxic dinoflagellate) in the Southwest coast of India *N V Madhu, P D Reny, Meenu Paul, N Ullas & P Resmi CSIR.... [Keywords: - Dinoflagellate bloom; Karenia mikimotoi, Cochin estuary] Introduction Incidences of red tides are common, especially in the coastal waters that threaten marine living resources and local economy1. At times, red tides are dominated...

  7. Bacterial endosymbionts in field-collected samples of Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Bodil N; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts are common, influential associates of arthropods, yet their movement among host species has not been well documented. Plant-mediated transmission of Rickettsia has been shown for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Bemisia tabaci in USA cotton fields harbors the secondary symbionts Rickettsia and Hamiltonella, and co-occurs with Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus whiteflies. To determine whether symbionts may be shared, the microbial diversity of these whiteflies on cotton across the USA was analyzed. Trialeurodes sp. nr. abutiloneus bore Portiera, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia. No Rickettsia or Hamiltonella were detected. These results provide no evidence for horizontal transmission of symbionts between these whitefly genera. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M P Alves

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae.

  9. Bacterial DNA sifted from the Trichoplax adhaerens (Animalia: Placozoa) genome project reveals a putative rickettsial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy; Gillespie, Joseph J; Nordberg, Eric K; Azad, Abdu F; Sobral, Bruno W

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genome sequencing projects often yield bacterial DNA sequences, data typically considered as microbial contamination. However, these sequences may also indicate either symbiont genes or lateral gene transfer (LGT) to host genomes. These bacterial sequences can provide clues about eukaryote-microbe interactions. Here, we used the genome of the primitive animal Trichoplax adhaerens (Metazoa: Placozoa), which is known to harbor an uncharacterized Gram-negative endosymbiont, to search for the presence of bacterial DNA sequences. Bioinformatic and phylogenomic analyses of extracted data from the genome assembly (181 bacterial coding sequences [CDS]) and trace read archive (16S rDNA) revealed a dominant proteobacterial profile strongly skewed to Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) genomes. By way of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and 113 proteins conserved across proteobacterial genomes, as well as identification of 27 rickettsial signature genes, we propose a Rickettsiales endosymbiont of T. adhaerens (RETA). The majority (93%) of the identified bacterial CDS belongs to small scaffolds containing prokaryotic-like genes; however, 12 CDS were identified on large scaffolds comprised of eukaryotic-like genes, suggesting that T. adhaerens might have recently acquired bacterial genes. These putative LGTs may coincide with the placozoan's aquatic niche and symbiosis with RETA. This work underscores the rich, and relatively untapped, resource of eukaryotic genome projects for harboring data pertinent to host-microbial interactions. The nature of unknown (or poorly characterized) bacterial species may only emerge via analysis of host genome sequencing projects, particularly if these species are resistant to cell culturing, as are many obligate intracellular microbes. Our work provides methodological insight for such an approach.

  10. Transfer of a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia endosymbiont derived from Trichogramma dendrolimi into Trichogramma evanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaya; Kageyama, Daisuke; Miura, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia, which are maternally transmitted endosymbionts, are considered to have moved horizontally between invertebrate hosts multiple times. However, it is not well understood how easily Wolbachia are transmitted horizontally between different hosts and how frequently horizontally-transmitted Wolbachia become established in their new hosts. We transferred a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia endosymbiont derived from the parasitic wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi to Trichogramma evanescens. Specifically, Wolbachia was cultivated in a mosquito cell line and the Wolbachia-infected cells were microinjected into uninfected T. evanescens. Among 276 pupae inoculated with Wolbachia-infected cells, 65 adults emerged (G0). Diagnostic PCR demonstrated that 25 of 37 G0 females (68%) were Wolbachia-positive. Among isofemale lines established from G0 females, the proportions of infected lines were 80% (20 of 25) in G1 and 100% (18 of 18) in G2. In an isofemale line, infection was stably maintained for more than 10 generations. These results indicate invasion of Wolbachia into the germline of the recipient insect. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that the Wolbachia titer in the recipient host was significantly lower than that in the native host. The absence or very low number, if any, of parthenogenetically-reproducing individuals in the recipient host may be caused by the low Wolbachia titer. The Wolbachia titer in the recipients was lower in G11 than in G5, suggesting a decline in the density. Together with a previous report, our study may imply that Wolbachia in Trichogramma species are highly adapted to their hosts, which hinders robust expression of the Wolbachia phenotype in non-native host species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generalist analysts at the edge and distributed analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gavin; Madahar, Bhopinder

    2015-05-01

    Joint Vision 2020 highlights that achievement of `full spectrum dominance rests upon information superiority' and that information capabilities are changing rapidly. Similarly the Eight Great Technologies and McKinsey Global Institute have highlighted the criticality of `Big Data' technologies. But most `Big Data' technologies are predicated on the availability of high quality/bandwidth distributed information Infrastructure and service rich systems, and much of the technology is designed for use by highly trained data scientists. In deployed military operations the context is radically different; many analysts are generalists as opposed to highly trained data scientists, and the information infrastructure is frequently significantly smaller, sparse and brittle but nevertheless complex. Further operations are highly dynamic, temporally challenging, and in an unfamiliar sociocultural environment. As Joint Vision 2020 states `the need to shape ambiguous situations at the low end of the range of operations will present special challenges'. This paper outlines the S&T challenges associated with adapting `Big Data' technologies to build a distributed analytic capability for the deployed operations. In particular we will discuss issues associated with: a) The adoption of data analytic platforms and the need for adaption to a distributed coalition environment and tactical information infrastructures; b) The Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, Viscosity and Value of information and information processing, storage and distribution capabilities; c) The nature of the situations to be understood and the resulting impact on abstract representations and synergistic human-machine teams; d) The role of the human in collaboratively extracting understanding from information and directing the information system.

  12. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  13. Putative N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria associated with dinoflagellate-Cyanobacteria consortia in the low-nitrogen Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farnelid, H.; Tarangkoon, Woraporn; Hansen, Gert

    2010-01-01

    , cloning, and sequencing. Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and eukaryotic algae were recognized as symbionts of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates. nifH gene sequences were obtained from 23 of 37 (62%) specimens of dinoflagellates (Ornithocercus spp. and Amphisolenia spp.). Interestingly, only 2...... assemblages were often found in single host cells. This study provides the first insights into the nifH diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts and suggests a symbiotic co-existence of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria and N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria in heterotrophic dinoflagellates...

  14. Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J S; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2013-04-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species.

  15. Contrasting effects of specialist and generalist herbivores on resistance evolution in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Pan, Xiaoyun; Blumenthal, Dana; van Kleunen, Mark; Liu, Mu; Li, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Invasive alien plants are likely to be released from specialist herbivores and at the same time encounter biotic resistance from resident generalist herbivores in their new ranges. The Shifting Defense hypothesis predicts that this will result in evolution of decreased defense against specialist herbivores and increased defense against generalist herbivores. To test this, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 61 common garden studies that provide data on resistance and/or tolerance for both introduced and native populations of 32 invasive plant species. We demonstrate that introduced populations, relative to native populations, decreased their resistance against specialists, and increased their resistance against generalists. These differences were significant when resistance was measured in terms of damage caused by the herbivore, but not in terms of performance of the herbivore. Furthermore, we found the first evidence that the magnitude of resistance differences between introduced and native populations depended significantly on herbivore origin (i.e., whether the test herbivore was collected from the native or non-native range of the invasive plant). Finally, tolerance to generalists was found to be higher in introduced populations, while neither tolerance to specialists nor that to simulated herbivory differed between introduced and native plant populations. We conclude that enemy release from specialist herbivores and biotic resistance from generalist herbivores have contrasting effects on resistance evolution in invasive plants. Our results thus provide strong support for the Shifting Defense hypothesis. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. The Application of Nursing Interventions: Generalist Therapy to Against Hopelessness on Elderly

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    Ike Mardiati Agustin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increasing number of elderly people followed the emergence of mental health problems. One of mental health problem that arises is hopelesness. Nursing action to hopelesness in elderly people in society is not to optimals. The aimed of this paper was gave an overview about the application of nursing intervention: generalist therapy to against hopelesness on elderly. Method: This research was used descriptive analytic design. Population were elders who lived at RW 3 and RW 4, Kelurahan Ciwaringin, Kota Bogor. Samples were 10 respondents, taken according to purposive sampling technique. Independent variable was generalist therapy, while dependent variables were sign and symptoms of hopelessness and ability to cope with hopelessness. Data were collected by using questionnaire, then analyzed by using frequency distribution. Result: The results showed that generalist therapy can decrease elder’s sign and symptoms of hopelessness (21% and increase their ability to cope with hopelessness (72%. Discussion: It can be concluded that generalist therapy can be used as one of nursing intervention to against hopelesness in the elderly. Keywords: hopelesness, elderly, generalist therapy

  17. Factors supporting good partnership working between generalist and specialist palliative care services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Clare; Gott, Merryn; Ingleton, Christine

    2012-05-01

    The care that most people receive at the end of their lives is provided not by specialist palliative care professionals but by generalists such as GPs, district nurses and others who have not undertaken specialist training in palliative care. A key focus of recent UK policy is improving partnership working across the spectrum of palliative care provision. However there is little evidence to suggest factors which support collaborative working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers. To explore factors that support partnership working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers. Systematic review. A systematic review of studies relating to partnership working between specialist and generalist palliative care providers was undertaken. Six electronic databases were searched for papers published up until January 2011. Of the 159 articles initially identified, 22 papers met the criteria for inclusion. Factors supporting good partnership working included: good communication between providers; clear definition of roles and responsibilities; opportunities for shared learning and education; appropriate and timely access to specialist palliative care services; and coordinated care. Multiple examples exist of good partnership working between specialist and generalist providers; however, there is little consistency regarding how models of collaborative working are developed, and which models are most effective. Little is known about the direct impact of collaborative working on patient outcomes. Further research is required to gain the direct perspectives of health professionals and patients regarding collaborative working in palliative care, and to develop appropriate and cost-effective models for partnership working.

  18. Benthic dinoflagellates from Red Sea, Egypt: Early records

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    Nermin El Semary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates from Red Sea are hardly studied, in particular the benthic forms. Samples collected from shallow intertidal zone, Ain Sokhna, Egypt were microscopically examined. Three genera with seven species were recorded. The most frequently-encountered was Katodinium sp., a small mushroom-like with epitheca being consistently larger than hypotheca. Light micrographs revealed the presence of a nucleus in the hyposome and descending cingulum. Scanning electromicrographs (SEM confirmed this orientation and revealed the presence of apical pore system. Another species showed similarity to the mushroom-like morphology but with large conical episome and small hyposome. Heterotrophic, naked Gyrodinium cf dominans and Gyrodinium sp. were also observed where in the former, there were conspicuous longitudinal striations. A frequently-observed species had naked Gyrodinium-like morphology but with much smaller size. One photosynthetic species had a characteristic stigma similar to type B eyespot in “dinotoms” and episome being slightly larger than hyposome. Gymnodinium sp. with sulcus extending slightly in the episome but deeply to the end of hyposome was also recorded. This genus is reported to be mostly toxic and its presence should be monitored. Finally, this study presents some early records for benthic dinophytes from rather underexplored locality and raises alerts about genus with reported toxicity.

  19. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

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    Dedmer B Van de Waal

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  20. Impact of Generalist Physician Initiatives on Residency Selection

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    Michael H. Malloy

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the residency selection choices of students who experienced courses resulting from generalist physician initiatives to choices made by students prior to the implementation of those courses and to describe the characteristics of students selecting primary care residencies. Background:In the fall of 1994 a first year Community Continuity Experience course was initiated and in the summer of 1995 a third year Multidisciplinary Ambulatory Clerkship was begun at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. These courses were inserted into the curriculum to enhance and promote primary care education. Design/Methods:We examined the residency selections of cohorts of graduating medical students before (1992-1996 and after (1997-1999 the implementation of the primary care courses. Survey information on career preferences at matriculation and in the fourth year of medical school were available for students graduating after the programs began. We compared the career preferences and characteristics of those students who selected a primary care residency to those who did not. Results:Prior to the implementation of the programs, 45%(425/950 of students graduating selected primary care residencies compared to 45% (210/465 of students participating in the programs (p=0.88. At matriculation, 45% of students had listed a primary care discipline as their first career choice. Among the students who had indicated this degree of primary care interest 61% ended up matching in a primary care discipline. At year 4, 31% of students indicated a primary care discipline as their first career choice and 92% of these students matched to a primary care residency. By univariate analysis, minority students (53% were more likely to select a primary care residency than non-minority students (40%; students in the two lowest grade point average quartiles (55% and 50% selected primary care residencies compared to 37% and 38% of students in the top 2

  1. Feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous marine diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Yoo, Yeong; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Mi Seon; Kang, Nam Seon; Song, Jae Yoon; Shin, Woongghi; Kim, Kwang Young; Lee, Kitack

    2009-01-01

    We investigated feeding by phototrophic red-tide dinoflagellates on the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema costatum to explore whether dinoflagellates are able to feed on S. costatum, inside the protoplasm of target dinoflagellate cells observed under compound microscope, confocal microscope, epifluorescence microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) after adding living and fluorescently labeled S. costatum (FLSc). To explore effects of dinoflagellate predator size on ingestion rates of S. costatum, we measured ingestion rates of seven dinoflagellates at a single prey concentration. In addition, we measured ingestion rates of the common phototrophic dinoflagellates Prorocentrum micans and Gonyaulax polygramma on S. costatum as a function of prey concentration. We calculated grazing coefficients by combining field data on abundances of P. micans and G. polygramma on co-occurring S. costatum with laboratory data on ingestion rates obtained in the present study. All phototrophic dinoflagellate predators tested (i.e. Akashiwo sanguinea, Amphidinium carterae, Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium tamarense, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, G. polygramma, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gymnodinium impudicum, Heterocapsa rotundata, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. micans, Prorocentrum minimum, Prorocentrum triestinum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea) were able to ingest S. costatum. When mean prey concentrations were 170-260 ng C/ml (i.e. 6,500-10,000 cells/ml), the ingestion rates of G. polygramma, H. rotundata, H. triquetra, L. polyedrum, P. donghaiense, P. micans, and P. triestinum on S. costatum (0.007-0.081 ng C/dinoflagellate/d [0.2-3.0 cells/dinoflagellate/d]) were positively correlated with predator size. With increasing mean prey concentration of ca 1-3,440 ng C/ml (40-132,200 cells/ml), the ingestion rates of P. micans and G. polygramma on S. costatum continuously increased. At the given prey concentrations, the maximum ingestion

  2. Biotechnological and Pharmacological Applications of Biotoxins and Other Bioactive Molecules from Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Assunção

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting interest in bioactive molecules (namely toxins produced by (microalga dinoflagellates has risen in recent years. Exhibiting wide diversity and complexity, said compounds are well-recognized for their biological features, with great potential for use as pharmaceutical therapies and biological research probes. Unfortunately, provision of those compounds is still far from sufficient, especially in view of an increasing demand for preclinical testing. Despite the difficulties to establish dinoflagellate cultures and obtain reasonable productivities of such compounds, intensive research has permitted a number of advances in the field. This paper accordingly reviews the characteristics of some of the most important biotoxins (and other bioactive substances produced by dinoflagellates. It also presents and discusses (to some length the main advances pertaining to dinoflagellate production, from bench to large scale—with an emphasis on material published since the latest review available on the subject. Such advances encompass improvements in nutrient formulation and light supply as major operational conditions; they have permitted adaptation of classical designs, and aided the development of novel configurations for dinoflagellate growth—even though shearing-related issues remain a major challenge.

  3. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gharbia, Hela; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons; Cecchi, Philippe; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Herve, Fabienne; Rovillon, Georges; Nouri, Habiba; M'Rabet, Charaf; Couet, Douglas; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella). Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  4. Phylogeny of five species of Nusuttodinium gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), a genus of unarmoured kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshihito; Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Inouye, Isao; Moestrup, Øjvind; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    Cells of five unarmoured kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates, Amphidinium latum, Amphidinium poecilochroum, Gymnodinium amphidinioides, Gymnodinium acidotum and Gymnodinium aeruginosum were observed under light and/or scanning electron microscopy and subjected to single-cell PCR. The SSU rDNA and the partial LSU rDNA of all the examined species were sequenced, and the SSU rDNA of G. myriopyrenoides was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the unarmoured kleptoplastidic species formed a monophyletic clade within the Gymnodinium-clade sensu Daugbjerg et al. (2000). The sister taxa for this clade were Gymnodinium palustre and Spiniferodinium galeiforme, both of which possess brown-coloured chloroplasts. The results indicated that acquisition of kleptoplastidy in these unarmoured dinoflagellates was a single event and that these unarmoured kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates may have evolved from a form with permanent chloroplasts. Molecular trees suggested that the acquisition of kleptoplastidy took place in a marine habitat and later some species colonized the freshwater habitat. Because these unarmoured kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates are monophyletic and characterized by distinct morphological and cytological features (including the presence of the same type of apical groove, absence of nuclear chambers in the nuclear envelope, absence of genuine chloroplasts, and the possession of kleptochloroplasts), we propose the establishment of a new genus, Nusuttodinium, to accommodate all these dinoflagellates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions between the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and red-tide dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kyeong Ah; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in marine and estuarine waters. To investigate interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and co-occurring redtide dinoflagellates, we monitored the daily abundance of 5 common red tide dinoflagellates in laboratory culture; Amphidinium carterae, Cochlodinium ploykrikoides, Gymnodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Additionally, we measured the ingestion rate of each dinoflagellate on V. parahaemolyticus as a function of prey concentration. Each of the dinoflagellates responded differently to the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. The abundances of A. carterae and P. micans were not lowered by V. parahaemolyticus, whereas that of C. polykrikodes was lowered considerably. The harmful effect depended on bacterial concentration and incubation time. Most C. polykrikoides cells died after 1 hour incubation when the V. parahaemolyticus concentration was 1.4×107 cells ml-1, while cells died within 2 days of incubation when the bacterial concentration was 1.5×106 cells ml-1. With increasing V. parahaemolyticus concentration, ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on the prey increased, whereas that on C. polykrikoides decreased. The maximum or highest ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on V. parahaemolyticus were 55, 5, and 2 cells alga-1 h-1, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that V. parahaemolyticus can be both the killer and prey for some red tide dinoflagellates.

  6. Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

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    Glöckner Gernot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

  7. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben Gharbia

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis. The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella. Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  8. A study of chlorophyll-like and phycobilin pigments in the C endosymbiont of the apple-snail pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Israel A; Dellagnola, Federico A; Hurst, Jorge A; Godoy, Martín S; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    Pigments present in the brown-greenish C morph of an intracellular endosymbiont of Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Acetone extracts of the endosymbiotic corpuscles showed an absorption spectrum similar to that of chlorophylls. Three fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of the acetone extracts (C(I), C(II), and C(III)), were studied by positive ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). Results indicated the presence of (1) a sterol in the yellow colored C(I) fraction; (2) a mixture ofpheophorbides a and b in the major green fraction, C(II); and (3) a modified pheophorbide a in the smaller green fraction, C(III). Aqueous extracts of the C endosymbiont did not show evidence of the occurrence of C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or phycoerithrin (light absorption, fluorescence emission, and electrophoresis of the protein moieties) while cyanobacterial cells (Nostoc sp.) showed evidence of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The possible phylogenetic and functional significance of the pigments present in the C endosymbiont is discussed.

  9. The cyanobacterial endosymbiont of the unicellular algae Rhopalodia gibba shows reductive genome evolution

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    Lockhart Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria occur in facultative association and intracellular symbiosis with a diversity of eukaryotic hosts. Recently, we have helped to characterise an intracellular nitrogen fixing bacterium, the so-called spheroid body, located within the diatom Rhopalodia gibba. Spheroid bodies are of cyanobacterial origin and exhibit features that suggest physiological adaptation to their intracellular life style. To investigate the genome modifications that have accompanied the process of endosymbiosis, here we compare gene structure, content and organisation in spheroid body and cyanobacterial genomes. Results Comparison of the spheroid body's genome sequence with corresponding regions of near free-living relatives indicates that multiple modifications have occurred in the endosymbiont's genome. These include localised changes that have led to elimination of some genes. This gene loss has been accompanied either by deletion of the respective DNA region or replacement with non-coding DNA that is AT rich in composition. In addition, genome modifications have led to the fusion and truncation of genes. We also report that in the spheroid body's genome there is an accumulation of deleterious mutations in genes for cell wall biosynthesis and processes controlled by transposases. Interestingly, the formation of pseudogenes in the spheroid body has occurred in the presence of intact, and presumably functional, recA and recF genes. This is in contrast to the situation in most investigated obligate intracellular bacterium-eukaryote symbioses, where at least either recA or recF has been eliminated. Conclusion Our analyses suggest highly specific targeting/loss of individual genes during the process of genome reduction and establishment of a cyanobacterial endosymbiont inside a eukaryotic cell. Our findings confirm, at the genome level, earlier speculation on the obligate intracellular status of the spheroid body in Rhopalodia gibba. This

  10. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METALS: NICKEL AND ZINC TO PARAMECIUM BURSARIA AND ITS ENDOSYMBIONTS

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    Patrycja Zagata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria is an unicellular organism, widely distributed in the freshwater environment, where heavy metals are common contaminants. The ciliates, also including Paramecium bursaria, are a very abundant group in aquatic ecosystems, what makes them effective biological indicators of water pollutants. Paramecium bursaria is the only Paramecium which has evolved a mutualistic relationship with algae and it harbors these endosymbionts in its own cytoplasm. The algae are also very effective bioindicators of some pollutants because of their ability to biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two metals’ compounds: nickel chloride (NiCl2 and zinc chloride (ZnCl2 to Paramecium bursaria and its endosymbionts. The ciliates were incubated in solutions with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of NiCl2 and with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of ZnCl2, at the temperature of 180C, in the light/dark conditions (12L/12D. Microscopic observations of cell divisions rate, cell shape changes as well as the swimming behavior, were conducted after 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of incubation in the tested solutions and were compared to the control sample. Microscopic observations revealed the lethal doses for both compounds, for nickel chloride 5x10-5g/dm3 and for zinc chloride 5x10-3. These observations also revealed that in lesser concentrations than the lethal one, the slowdown and characteristic movements occur after metal addition. The PEA measurements of Fv/Fm parameter were carried out within 4 days, the first one after 24 hours of incubations. The results of this investigation has given us a view of a fluorescence efficiency by revealing that both compounds solutions can have the stimulating effect on Photosystem II, because the lowest fluorescence efficiency was measured in control samples.

  11. Local environmental conditions shape generalist but not specialist components of microbial metacommunities in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Markus V.; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Casini, Michele

    2016-01-01

    to determine phylogenetic relatedness and assembly processes coupled with niche breadth. Communities were phylogenetically more related over time than expected by chance, albeit with considerable temporal variation. Hence, habitat filtering, i.e., local environmental conditions, rather than competition...... by environmental factors for generalist taxa but not specialists. Our results suggest that generalists such as NS3a, SAR86, and SAR11 are reorganized to a greater extent by changes in the environment compared to specialists and contribute more strongly to determining overall biogeographical patterns of marine...

  12. The influence of generalist predators in spatially extended predator-prey systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu

    2015-01-01

    The presence of generalist predators is known to have important ecological impacts in several fields. They have wide applicability in the field of biological control. However, their role in the spatial distribution of predator and prey populations is still not clear. In this paper, the spatial...... the cases. In the presence of generalist predators, the system shows different pattern formations and spatiotemporal chaos which has important implications for ecosystem functioning not only in terms of their predictability, but also in influencing species persistence and ecosystem stability in response...

  13.  Marine derived dinoflagellates in Antarctic saline lakes: Community composition and annual dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rengefors, K.; Layborn-Parry, L.; Logares, R.

    2008-01-01

    leaving a small number of well-adapted species. Our objective was to investigate the species composition and annual dynamics of dinoflagellate communities in three saline Antarctic lakes. We observed that dinoflagellates occur year-round despite extremely low PAR during the southern winter, which suggests...... polar dinoflagellate community, and not freshwater species. Polarella glacialis Montresor, Procaccini et Stoecker, a bipolar marine species, was for the first time described in a lake habitat and was an important phototrophic component in the higher salinity lakes. In the brackish lakes, we found a new......The saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills in Antarctica offer a remarkable natural laboratory where the adaptation of planktonic protists to a range of evolving physiochemical conditions can be investigated. This study illustrates how an ancestral marine community has undergone radical simplification...

  14. The Prevalence of Benthic Dinoflagellates Associated with Ciguatera in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    This study confirms the presence of Gambierdiscus sp., Ostreopsis sp. as well as other epiphytic benthic dinoflagellates associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Central Red Sea, highlighting the potential occurrence of CFP in this region. These species are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. A total of 80 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast. Sample analyses indicated low average cell abundances (< 40 cells g-1 wet weight algae) of Gambierdiscus sp. and Ostreopsis sp. Subsequent statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the cell abundances of both genera between sampling sites, between species and between inshore and offshore reefs. The presence of several potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species in the Red Sea and the statistical differences in abundances between different sampling sites merits future study on possible impacts of these dinoflagellates on marine food webs and human health.

  15. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages across estuaries of the NW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Andrea M; Coffin, Michael R S; Pospelova, Vera; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2017-08-15

    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates correlates with modeled nitrogen loading, but there were also regional signals. On PEI cysts of Gymnodinium microreticulatum characterized estuaries with high nitrogen loading while the sediments of eutrophic Boston Harbor were characterized by high abundances of Spiniferites spp. In Delaware Bay and the Delaware Inland Bays Polysphaeridium zoharyi correlated with higher temperatures and nutrient loading. This is the first study to document the dinoflagellate cyst eutrophication signal at such a large geographic scale in estuaries, thus confirming their value as indicators of water quality change and anthropogenic impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944 cyst g(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bayer

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B. With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  18. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A F; Fernandes, Tainá; Santos, Luciano Neves Dos; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  19. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A F Neves

    Full Text Available Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  20. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  1. Decadal variations in diatoms and dinoflagellates on the inner shelf of the East China Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Rediat; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Mu, Wenhua; Kifile, Demeke; Chen, Yanghang

    2017-11-01

    Diatoms and dinoflagellates are two major groups of phytoplankton that flourish in the oceans, particularly in coastal zone and upwelling systems, and their contrasting production have been reported in several world seas. However, this information is not available in the coastal East China Sea (ECS). Thus, to investigate and compare the decadal trends in diatoms and dinoflagellates, a sediment core, 47 cm long, was collected from the coastal zone of the ECS. Sediment chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), phytoplankton-group specific pigment signatures of diatoms and dinoflagellates, and diatom valve concentrations were determined. The sediment core covered the period from 1961 to 2011 AD. The chlorophyll- a contents ranged from 2.32 to 73 µg/g dry sediment (dw) and averaged 9.81 µg/g dw. Diatom absolute abundance ranged from 29152 to 177501 valve/gram (v/g) dw and averaged 72137 v/g dw. Diatom valve and diatom specific pigment marker concentrations were not significantly correlated. Peridinin increased after the 1980s in line with intensified use of fertilizer and related increases in nutrient inputs into the marine environment. The increased occurrence of dinoflagellate dominance after the 1980s can be mostly explained by the increase in nutrients. However, the contribution of dinoflagellates to total phytoplankton production (Chl- a) decreased during the final decade of this study, probably because of the overwhelming increase in diatom production that corresponded with the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and related light availability. Similarly, the mean ratio of fucoxanthin/peridinin for the period from 1982 to 2001 was 6% less than for 1961 to 1982, while the ratio for 2001 to 2011 was 45.3% greater than for 1982 to 2001. The decadal variation in the fucoxanthin/peridinin ratio implies that dinoflagellate production had been gradually increasing until 2001. We suggest that the observed changes can be explained by anthropogenic impacts, such as nutrient

  2. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Till

    2012-04-18

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  3. GroEL from the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola betrays the aphid by triggering plant defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S.; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2014-01-01

    Aphids are sap-feeding plant pests and harbor the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which is essential for their fecundity and survival. During plant penetration and feeding, aphids secrete saliva that contains proteins predicted to alter plant defenses and metabolism. Plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). No aphid-associated molecular pattern has yet been identified. By mass spectrometry, we identified in saliva from potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) 105 proteins, some of which originated from Buchnera, including the chaperonin GroEL. Because GroEL is a widely conserved bacterial protein with an essential function, we tested its role in PTI. Applying or infiltrating GroEL onto Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves induced oxidative burst and expression of PTI early marker genes. These GroEL-induced defense responses required the known coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1. In addition, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, inducible expression of groEL activated PTI marker gene expression. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants expressing groEL displayed reduced fecundity of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating enhanced resistance against aphids. Furthermore, delivery of GroEL into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) or Arabidopsis through Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express the type III secretion system, also reduced potato aphid and green peach aphid fecundity, respectively. Collectively our data indicate that GroEL is a molecular pattern that triggers PTI. PMID:24927572

  4. Plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Rickettsia endosymbiont between different whitefly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Han; Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Li, Shao-Jian; Lv, Ning; Shi, Pei-Qiong; Chen, Xiao-Sheng; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2017-12-01

    A growing number of studies have revealed the presence of closely related endosymbionts in phylogenetically distant arthropods, indicating horizontal transmission of these bacteria. Here we investigated the interspecific horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between two globally invasive whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and B. tabaci MED, via cotton plants. We found both scattered and confined distribution patterns of Rickettsia in these whiteflies. After entering cotton leaves, Rickettsia was restricted to the leaf phloem vessels and could be taken up by both species of the Rickettsia-free whitefly adults, but only the scattered pattern was observed in the recipient whiteflies. Both the relative quantity of Rickettsia and the efficiency of transmitting Rickettsia into cotton leaves were significantly higher in MEAM1 females than in MED females. The retention time of Rickettsia transmitted from MEAM1 into cotton leaves was at least 5 days longer than that of MED. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gltA genes confirmed that the Rickettsia extracted from the donor MEAM1, the cotton leaves, the recipient MEAM1 and the recipient MED were all identical. We conclude that cotton plants can mediate horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between different insect species, and that the transmission dynamics of Rickettsia vary with different host whitefly species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya; Miura, Kazuki; Stouthamer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia, modify host reproduction in several ways to facilitate their own spread. One such modification results in parthenogenesis induction, where males, which are unable to transmit the bacteria, are not produced. In Hymenoptera, the mechanism of diploidization due to Wolbachia infection, known as gamete duplication, is a post-meiotic modification. During gamete duplication, the meiotic mechanism is normal, but in the first mitosis the anaphase is aborted. The two haploid sets of chromosomes do not separate and thus result in a single nucleus containing two identical sets of haploid chromosomes. Here, we outline an alternative cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. During female gamete formation in Rickettsia-infected Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitoids, meiotic cells undergo only a single equational division followed by the expulsion of a single polar body. This absence of meiotic recombination and reduction corresponds well with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females. We conclude that diploidy in N. formosa is maintained through a functionally apomictic cloning mechanism that differs entirely from the mechanism induced by Wolbachia. PMID:18713719

  6. Wolbachia endosymbionts in haplodiploid and diploid scolytine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yuuki; Schuler, Hannes; Stauffer, Christian; Lakatos, Ferenc; Kajimura, Hisashi

    2016-05-19

    Haplodiploidy is a sex determination system in which fertilized diploid eggs develop into females and unfertilized haploid eggs develop into males. The evolutionary explanations for this phenomenon include the possibility that haplodiploidy can be reinforced by infection with endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia. The subfamily Scolytinae contains species with haplodiploid and diploid sex determination systems. Thus, we studied the association with Wolbachia in 12 diploid and 11 haplodiploid scolytine beetles by analyzing wsp and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of five loci in this endosymbiont. Wolbachia genotypes were compared with mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (EF) genotypes in the scolytines. Eight of the 23 scolytine species were infected with Wolbachia, with haplodiploids at significantly higher rates than diploid species. Cloning and sequencing detected multiple infections with up to six Wolbachia strains in individual species. Phylogenetic analyses of wsp and five MLST genes revealed different Wolbachia strains in scolytines. Comparisons between the beetle and Wolbachia phylogenies revealed that closely related beetles were infected with genetically different Wolbachia strains. These results suggest the horizontal transmission of multiple Wolbachia strains between scolytines. We discuss these results in terms of the evolution of different sex determination systems in scolytine beetles. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Induction of Maltose Release by Light in the Endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis of Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aika; Takahashi, Fumio; Kasahara, Masahiro; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2016-11-01

    The endosymbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria are known to release a photosynthate to the host cells. The endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis F36-ZK isolated in Japan releases maltose under acidic conditions, and such release requires both light and low pH. However, whether photosynthate release is due to light sensing by photoreceptors or is merely a consequence of active photosynthesis is unclear. Herein, we studied the effect of light on maltose release from C. variabilis F36-ZK; we measured maltose release using a combination of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivative and 14 C-tracer methods. Blue (450nm) or red (around 600nm) light was most effective to stimulate maltose release. This suggests that the photosynthetic pathway probably participates in maltose release, because the effective wavelength corresponds to the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll. Furthermore, maltose release was slightly affected by addition of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, but was abolished by another inhibitor of photosynthesis, 2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, suggesting that electron flow through photosystem I may be more involved in maltose release. Interestingly, starving F36-ZK cells cultured under prolonged dark conditions did not release maltose but retained their photosynthetic capacity. Our results thus show that maltose release is regulated by light and cellular conditions in endosymbiotic Chlorella. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. From endosymbionts to host communities: factors determining the reproductive success of arthropod vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messika, Irit; Garrido, Mario; Kedem, Hadar; China, Victor; Gavish, Yoni; Dong, Qunfeng; Fuqua, Clay; Clay, Keith; Hawlena, Hadas

    2017-08-01

    Elucidating the factors determining reproductive success has challenged scientists since Darwin, but the exact pathways that shape the evolution of life history traits by connecting extrinsic (e.g., landscape structure) and intrinsic (e.g., female's age and endosymbionts) factors and reproductive success have rarely been studied. Here we collected female fleas from wild rodents in plots differing in their densities and proportions of the most dominant rodent species. We then combined path analysis and model selection approaches to explore the network of effects, ranging from micro to macroscales, determining the reproductive success of these fleas. Our results suggest that female reproductive success is directly and positively associated with their infection by Mycoplasma bacteria and their own body mass, and with the rodent species size and total density. In addition, we found evidence for indirect effects of rodent sex and rodent community diversity on female reproductive success. These results highlight the importance of exploring interrelated factors across organization scales while studying the reproductive success of wild organisms, and they have implications for the control of vector-borne diseases.

  9. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  10. Elongation factor-P at the crossroads of the host-endosymbiont interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andrei; Witzky, Anne; Navarre, William; Darwin, Andrew J; Ibba, Michael

    2015-09-23

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is an ancient bacterial translational factor that aids the ribosome in polymerizing oligo-prolines. EF-P structurally resembles tRNA and binds in-between the exit and peptidyl sites of the ribosome to accelerate the intrinsically slow reaction of peptidyl-prolyl bond formation. Recent studies have identified in separate organisms, two evolutionarily convergent EF-P post-translational modification systems (EPMS), split predominantly between gammaproteobacteria, and betaproteobacteria. In both cases EF-P receives a post-translational modification, critical for its function, on a highly conserved residue that protrudes into the peptidyl-transfer center of the ribosome. EPMSs are comprised of a gene(s) that synthesizes the precursor molecule used in modifying EF-P, and a gene(s) encoding an enzyme that reacts with the precursor molecule to catalyze covalent attachment to EF-P. However, not all organisms genetically encode a complete EPMS. For instance, some symbiotic bacteria harbor efp and the corresponding gene that enzymatically attaches the modification, but lack the ability to synthesize the substrate used in the modification reaction. Here we highlight the recent discoveries made regarding EPMSs, with a focus on how these incomplete modification pathways shape or have been shaped by the endosymbiont-host relationship.

  11. Physico-chemical and biological factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Thunell, Robert C.; Pospelova, Vera; Pinckney, James L.; Romero, Oscar E.; Tappa, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a 2.5-year-long sediment trap record of dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin, off Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). The site lies under the influence of wind-driven, seasonal upwelling which promotes high levels of primary productivity during boreal winter and spring. Changes in dinoflagellate cyst production is documented between November 1996 and May 1999 at ˜ 14-day intervals and interpreted in the context of in situ observations of physico-chemical and biological parameters measured at the mooring site. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are diverse (57 taxa) and dominated by cyst taxa of heterotrophic affinity, primarily Brigantedinium spp. (51 % of the total trap assemblage). Average cyst fluxes to the trap are high (17.1 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1) and show great seasonal and interannual variability. On seasonal timescales, dinoflagellate cyst production responds closely to variations in upwelling strength, with increases in cyst fluxes of several protoperidinioid taxa observed during active upwelling intervals, predominantly Brigantedinium spp. Cyst taxa produced by autotrophic dinoflagellates, in particular Bitectatodinium spongium, also respond positively to upwelling. Several spiny brown cysts contribute substantially to the assemblages, including Echinidinium delicatum (9.7 %) and Echinidinium granulatum (7.3 %), and show a closer affinity to weaker upwelling conditions. The strong El Niño event of 1997/98 appears to have negatively impacted cyst production in the basin with a 1-year lag, and may have contributed to the unusually high fluxes of cysts type Cp (possibly the cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides sensu Li et al., 2015), with cyst type Cp fluxes up to 11.8 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1 observed during the weak upwelling event of February-May 1999. Possible trophic interactions between dinoflagellates and other major planktonic groups are also investigated by comparing the timing and magnitude of cyst

  12. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  13. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane; Rick. Dunne

    2014-01-01

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae) typify the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. Bees are thought to diminish its seed siring potential, but we found that foraging female generalist bees (Apis, Anthophora) deposited substantial amounts of conspecific pollen on P. eatonii stigmas. In the absence of hummingbirds, bee pollination of...

  14. Differences in effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids on five generalist insect herbivore species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Dijkstra, S.M.; Ooijendijk, T.; Niemeyer, T.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the diversity in plant secondary compounds is often thought to be driven by insect herbivores, although there is little empirical evidence for this assumption. To investigate whether generalist insect herbivores could play a role in the evolution of the diversity of related

  15. Selection mosaic exerted by specialist and generalist herbivores on chemical and physical defense of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Guillermo; Cruz, Laura L; Tapia-López, Rosalinda; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Olmedo-Vicente, Eika; Carmona, Diego; Anaya-Lang, Ana Luisa; Fornoni, Juan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Valverde, Pedro L; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species) to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants). We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine) and a physical defense (trichome density) can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine) confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine), and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine) was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies.

  16. Comparative recruitment, morphology and reproduction of a generalist trematode, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in three species of host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa A; Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological rate parameters of host generalist parasites are difficult to estimate, especially in cases where variation in parasite performance can be attributed to host species. Such cases are likely common for generalist parasites of sympatric grazing mammals. In this study, we combined data from experimental exposures in cattle and sheep and natural infections in elk to compare the recruitment, morphology and reproduction of adult Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a generalist trematode that has emerged in sympatric grazing hosts in Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta. Overall, there were no significant differences in the recruitment of metacercariae and in the pre-patency period of adults in experimentally exposed cattle and sheep. All flukes reached reproductive maturity and the degree of reproductive inequality between individual flukes within each infrapopulation was moderate and approximately equal among the three host species. Neither fluke size nor per capita fecundity was constrained by density dependence. Thus, fitness parameters associated with growth and reproduction were approximately equivalent among at least three species of definitive host, two of which are sympatric on pastures in this Park. The generalist life-history strategy of this trematode, which is known to extend to other stages of its life cycle, has likely contributed to its invasion history outside its native range in Europe.

  17. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  18. Heuristic versus Systematic Processing of Specialist versus Generalist Sources in Online Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yoon Jeon; Sundar, S. Shyam

    2010-01-01

    In exploring why specialist sources (e.g., CNN.com) are more persuasive than generalist sources (e.g., CBS.com), this study examines theoretical mechanisms related to information-processing differences caused by these sources. When we have a chain of sources (Websites and agents) in online media, does specialization of one of them bias the…

  19. Self-Assessment in Generalist Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Education: Insights on Training, Ability, Environments, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoupidou, Theano

    2010-01-01

    Self-assessment can play an important role in teachers' personal and professional development and is encouraged by educational programs worldwide. This article reports on a Greek study that aimed to investigate generalist preservice kindergarten teachers' self-assessment of their music teaching ability. One hundred participants were asked to…

  20. Selection mosaic exerted by specialist and generalist herbivores on chemical and physical defense of Datura stramonium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Castillo

    Full Text Available Selection exerted by herbivores is a major force driving the evolution of plant defensive characters such as leaf trichomes or secondary metabolites. However, plant defense expression is highly variable among populations and identifying the sources of this variation remains a major challenge. Plant populations are often distributed across broad geographic ranges and are exposed to different herbivore communities, ranging from generalists (that feed on diverse plant species to specialists (that feed on a restricted group of plants. We studied eight populations of the plant Datura stramonium usually eaten by specialist or generalist herbivores, in order to examine whether the pattern of phenotypic selection on secondary compounds (atropine and scopolamine and a physical defense (trichome density can explain geographic variation in these traits. Following co-evolutionary theory, we evaluated whether a more derived alkaloid (scopolamine confers higher fitness benefits than its precursor (atropine, and whether this effect differs between specialist and generalist herbivores. Our results showed consistent directional selection in almost all populations and herbivores to reduce the concentration of atropine. The most derived alkaloid (scopolamine was favored in only one of the populations, which is dominated by a generalist herbivore. In general, the patterns of selection support the existence of a selection mosaic and accounts for the positive correlation observed between atropine concentration and plant damage by herbivores recorded in previous studies.

  1. Complex evolutionary dynamics of massively expanded chemosensory receptor families in an extreme generalist chelicerate herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngoc, P.C.T.; Greenhalgh, R.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Bajda, S.; Zhurov, V.; Grbić, M.; Van de Peer, Y.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Rouzé, P.; Clark, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    While mechanisms to detoxify plant produced, anti-herbivore compounds have been associated with plant host use by herbivores, less is known about the role of chemosensory perception in their life histories. This is especially true for generalists, including chelicerate herbivores that evolved

  2. Migration strategy of a flight generalist, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klassen, R.H.G.; Ens, B.J.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Exo, K.M.; Bairlein, F.

    2012-01-01

    Migrating birds are believed to minimize the time spent on migration rather than energy. Birds seem to maximize migration speed in different ways as a noteworthy variation in migration strategies exists. We studied migration strategies of a flight mode and feeding generalist, the Lesser Black-backed

  3. Higher plasticity in feeding preference of a generalist than a specialist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ying; Zhou, Dong Sheng; Gao, Su Xia; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Tang, Qing Bo; Wang, Chen Zhu; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Herbivorous insects have been categorized as generalists or specialists depending on the taxonomic relatedness of the plants they use as food or oviposition substrates. The plasticity in host plant selection behavior of species belonging to the two categories received little attention. In the

  4. Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.T.; Classen, A.; Inglis, O.; Blanco, C.A.; López Jr., J.; Vargas, A.T.; Schal, C.; Heckel, D.G.; Schöfl, G.

    2011-01-01

    The two moth species Heliothis virescens (Hv) and H. subflexa (Hs) are closely related, but have vastly different feeding habits. Hv is a generalist and an important pest in many crops in the USA, while Hs is a specialist feeding only on plants in the genus Physalis. In this study, we conducted a

  5. Beginning Generalist Teacher Self-Efficacy for Music Compared with Maths and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, 201 beginning generalist teachers throughout Queensland, Australia, responded to a questionnaire intended to create a snapshot of current self-efficacy beliefs towards teaching music. Beginning teachers were asked to rank their perceived level of teacher self-efficacy for music, English and maths. Results were analysed through a series of…

  6. Recruiting and selecting generalist-oriented students at New York Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, F; Levine, J K

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the strategies developed for student recruitment and selection at New York Medical College (NYMC), a private medical school with a consortium of 22 teaching hospitals, to meet its goal of 50% of graduating medical students entering generalist careers. With funding from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Generalist Physician Initiative, NYMC developed strategies to attract applicants interested in primary care and to select primary care applicants for matriculation. These strategies included use of recruiting newsletters to describe the primary care curriculum, on-campus open houses for undergraduates, visits to regional undergraduate schools by generalist faculty, changes in the admission committee to include more generalists, and changes in the interview format to stress nonacademic qualities in applicants. The authors present data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Pre-Medical Student Questionnaire and from the AAMC Medical School Matriculation Questionnaire that indicate NYMC achieved its objectives. They warn, however, that it is unclear whether these changes occurred solely as a result of NYMC's strategies, as a result of market forces driving career choices, or as a result of some combination of these factors.

  7. Generalist predator Stratiolaelaps scimitus hampers establishment of the bulb scale mite predator Neoseiulus barkeri in Hippeastrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Holstein, van R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the hypothesis that presence of the generalist
    soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley)
    results in lower densities of the phytoseiid soil-dwelling predator
    Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes in Hippeastrum (amaryllis). If true, this
    may

  8. Evolution of pollination niches and floral divergence in the generalist plant Erysimum mediohispanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J M; Muñoz-Pajares, A J; Abdelaziz, M; Lorite, J; Perfectti, F

    2014-01-01

    How generalist plants diverge in response to pollinator selection without becoming specialized is still unknown. This study explores this question, focusing on the evolution of the pollination system in the pollination generalist Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). Pollinator assemblages were surveyed from 2001 to 2010 in 48 geo-referenced populations covering the entire geographic distribution of E. mediohispanicum. Bipartite modularity, a complex network tool, was used to find the pollination niche of each population. Evolution of the pollination niches and the correlated evolution of floral traits and pollination niches were explored using within-species comparative analyses. Despite being generalists, the E. mediohispanicum populations studied can be classified into five pollination niches. The boundaries between niches were not sharp, the niches differing among them in the relative frequencies of the floral visitor functional groups. The absence of spatial autocorrelation and phylogenetic signal indicates that the niches were distributed in a phylogeographic mosaic. The ancestral E. mediohispanicum populations presumably belonged to the niche defined by a high number of beetle and ant visits. A correlated evolution was found between pollination niches and some floral traits, suggesting the existence of generalist pollination ecotypes. It is conjectured that the geographic variation in pollination niches has contributed to the observed floral divergence in E. mediohispanicum. The process mediating this floral divergence presumably has been adaptive wandering, but the adaptation to the local pollinator faunas has been not universal. The outcome is a landscape where a few populations locally adapted to their pollination environment (generalist pollination ecotypes) coexist with many populations where this local adaptation has failed and where the plant phenotype is not primarily shaped by pollinators.

  9. Parasite specialization in a unique habitat: hummingbirds as reservoirs of generalist blood parasites of Andean birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Michaël A J; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Paca, Anahi; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Aguirre, Nikolay; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how parasites fill their ecological niches requires information on the processes involved in the colonization and exploitation of unique host species. Switching to hosts with atypical attributes may favour generalists broadening their niches or may promote specialization and parasite diversification as the consequence. We analysed which blood parasites have successfully colonized hummingbirds, and how they have evolved to exploit such a unique habitat. We specifically asked (i) whether the assemblage of Haemoproteus parasites of hummingbirds is the result of single or multiple colonization events, (ii) to what extent these parasites are specialized in hummingbirds or shared with other birds and (iii) how hummingbirds contribute to sustain the populations of these parasites, in terms of both prevalence and infection intensity. We sampled 169 hummingbirds of 19 species along an elevation gradient in Southern Ecuador to analyse the host specificity, diversity and infection intensity of Haemoproteus by molecular and microscopy techniques. In addition, 736 birds of 112 species were analysed to explore whether hummingbird parasites are shared with other birds. Hummingbirds hosted a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of generalist Haemoproteus lineages shared with other host orders. Among these parasites, Haemoproteus witti stood out as the most generalized. Interestingly, we found that infection intensities of this parasite were extremely low in passerines (with no detectable gametocytes), but very high in hummingbirds, with many gametocytes seen. Moreover, infection intensities of H. witti were positively correlated with the prevalence across host species. Our results show that hummingbirds have been colonized by generalist Haemoproteus lineages on multiple occasions. However, one of these generalist parasites (H. witti) seems to be highly dependent on hummingbirds, which arise as the most relevant reservoirs in terms of both prevalence and

  10. The impact of workforce redesign policies on role boundaries in 'generalist' podiatry practice: expert views within the professional body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressing, Samantha J; Borthwick, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes and a predicted rise in the prevalence of chronic illness have led to a range of health policies in the UK (and elsewhere) focused on workforce flexibility and extended roles for the allied health professions. Whilst much academic attention has been paid to extended specialised roles for allied health professionals such as podiatrists, little work has addressed the likely impact of these policy changes on non-specialist, 'generalist' podiatry practice. This study aimed to explore expert professional views on the impact of role flexibility on generalist podiatry practice. Expert podiatry practitioners drawn from within the professional body, the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists/College of Podiatry were recruited to 3 focus groups and 4 individual semi structured interviews and the data subject to a thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged, reflecting concerns about the future of generalist podiatry practice in the NHS, a perceived likelihood that generalist care will move inexorably towards private sector provision, and a growth in support worker grades undermining the position of generalist practice in the mainstream health division of labour. Up skilling generalist practitioners was viewed as the strongest defence against marginalisation. An emphasis on enhanced and specialised roles in podiatry by NHS commissioners and profession alike may threaten the sustainability of generalist podiatry provision in the state funded NHS. Non-specialist general podiatry may increasingly become the province of the private sector.

  11. Differential effects of ocean acidification on carbon acquisition in two bloom-forming dinoflagellate species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberlein, T.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Rost, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates represent a cosmopolitan group of phytoplankton with the ability to form harmful algal blooms. Featuring a Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) with very low CO2-affinities, photosynthesis of this group may be particularly prone to carbon limitation and thus

  12. A revised northern European Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy: Integrating palynology and carbon isotope events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olde, K.; Jarvis, I.; Pearce, M.; Uličný, David; Tocher, B.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 213, February (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 0034-6667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1991 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : palynology * dinoflagellate cyst * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2015

  13. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Resting cysts attributed to the freshwater dinoflagellate genus Peridinium were found in surface sediments from Severn Sound, southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Two distinct cyst morphotypes were present and they were assigned to Peridinium wisconsine...

  14. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  15. Sea surface conditions in the southern Nordic Seas during the Holocene based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas; Baumann, Astrid; Matthiessen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records from the southern Nordic Seas were compiled in order to evaluate the evolution of upper ocean conditions, on a millennial timescale and supported by a highly resolved record from the Vøring Plateau. After the transitional phase from the last deglaciation...

  16. A new clade, based on partial LSU rDNA sequences, of unarmoured dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñé, Albert; de Salas, Miguel; Camp, Jordi; Balagué, Vanessa; Garcés, Esther

    2013-09-01

    The order Gymnodiniales comprises unarmoured dinoflagellates. However, the lack of sequences hindered determining the phylogenetic positions and systematic relationships of several gymnodinioid taxa. In this study, a monophyletic clade was defined for the species Ceratoperidinium margalefii Loeblich III, Gyrodinium falcatum Kofoid & Swezy, three Cochlodinium species, and two Gymnodinium-like dinoflagellates. Despite their substantial morphotypic differentiation, Cochlodinium cf. helix, G. falcatum and 'Gymnodinium' sp. 1 share a common shape of the acrobase. The phylogenetic data led to the following conclusions: (1) C. margalefii is closely related to several unarmoured dinoflagellates. Its sulcus shape has been observed for the first time. (2) G. falcatum was erroneously assigned to the genus Gyrodinium and is transferred to Ceratoperidinium (C. falcatum (Kofoid & Swezy) Reñé & de Salas comb. nov.). (3) The genus Cochlodinium is polyphyletic and thus artificial; our data support its separation into three different genera. (4) The two Gymnodinium-like species could not be morphologically or phylogenetically related to any other gymnodinioid species sequenced to date. While not all studied species have been definitively transferred to the correct genus, our study is a step forward in the classification of inconspicuous unarmoured dinoflagellates. The family Ceratoperidiniaeceae and the genus Ceratoperidinium are emended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of membrane lipids in psychrophilic and mesophilic freshwater dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAnesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the lipid profiles of ten dinoflagellate species originating from different freshwater habitats and grown at 4, 13 or 20°C akin to their natural occurrence. Lipids were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes. Besides the well-studied monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG lipids, our study revealed the presence of intact molecular lipid species of trigalactosyldiacylglycerols (TGDG, betaine diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC, sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG and phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylglycerol (PG.In multivariate ordination, the freshwater dinoflagellates studied could be distinguished into two groups based on their lipid profiles. Peridinium aciculiferum, Borghiella dodgei, B. tenuissima and Tovellia coronata belonged to group 1 while Ceratium cornutum, Gymnodinium palustre, Jadwigia applanata, P. cinctum, P. willei and P. gatunense belonged to group 2. Indicator species analysis evidenced that group 1 was characterized by 36:9 MGDG and 36:9 DGDG and group 2 by 38:9 and 38:10 MGDG, 38:9 and 38:10 DGDG and 34:1 SQDG. We suggest that the grouping of dinoflagellates indicated their range of temperature tolerance. Furthermore, non-thylakoid lipids were linked to dinoflagellate phylogeny based on the large ribosomal sub-unit (28S LSU rather than their temperature tolerance. Thus certain lipids better reflected habitat adaptation while other lipids better reflected genetic diversity.

  18. Growth and grazing responses of two chloroplast-retaining dinoflagellates: effect of irradiance and prey species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hansen, P.J.; Larsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of irradiance on growth and grazing responses of 2 phagotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium gracilentum Campbell 1973 and Amphidinium poecilochroum Larsen 1985, was studied. While G. gracilentum belongs to the plankton, A. poecilochroum is a benthic species that primarily feeds on prey...

  19. Long-term survival of dinoflagellate cysts in anoxic marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Lundholm, Nina; Ribeiro, Sofia

    Germination results of individually isolated dinoflagellate cysts from dated sediment cores obtained in Koljö Fjord on the west coast of Sweden will be presented. More than 500 cysts were isolated, mainly of the species Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pentapharsodinium dalei and Scrippsiella trochoidea....

  20. THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM, SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF MIXED NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrium monilatum is a large, chain-forming, autotrophic dinoflagellate associated with red-tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast. When cultured inocula of A. monilatum were added to nutrient-amended seawater samples, growth rates and biomass yields of the na...

  1. Temporal and spatial distribution of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium aureolum Hulburt in the St Lawrence, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasco, D; Berard-therriault, L; Levasseur, M; Vrieling, E.G

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of the potentially ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium aureolum Hulburt is reported for the first time in the Lower Estuary and Gulf of St Lawrence. Taxonomic identification using an immunochemical tagging method suggests a close taxonomic proximity between the species found in the

  2. Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in recent sediments along the south-east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    The spatial variation in the dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from the south-east coast of India is presented along with a comparison of the cyst abundance from other regions of the world Samples from 8 stations revealed the presence of 24 species...

  3. Karmitoxin: An amine containing polyhydroxy-polyene toxin from the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Binzer, Sofie Bjørnholt; Hoeck, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Marine algae from the genus Karlodinium are known to be involved in fish-killing events worldwide. Here we report for the first time the chemistry and bioactivity of a natural product from the newly described mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger. Our work describes the isolation...

  4. Bacterial Endosymbiont Localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the Insect Vector of Bois Noir in Vitis vinifera▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani” and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the “Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum” group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name “Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae.” Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and “Candidatus Cardinium hertigii.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As “Ca. Sulcia” is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between “Ca. Sulcia” and “Ca. Purcelliella,” “Ca. Vidania,” or both. PMID:21183640

  5. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the "Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum" group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae." Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii." Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As "Ca. Sulcia" is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between "Ca. Sulcia" and "Ca. Purcelliella," "Ca. Vidania," or both.

  6. Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Motta

    Full Text Available Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis, respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine

  7. Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant’Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H.; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism

  8. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae, a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5′ oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes. The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual

  9. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Hameed Bloh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup’s Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06 were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity. Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  10. More and more generalists: two decades of changes in the European avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Brotons, Lluis; Herrando, Sergi; Lindström, Ake; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Reif, Jirí; Van Turnhout, Chris; Devictor, Vincent

    2012-10-23

    Biotic homogenization (BH) is a process whereby some species (losers) are systematically replaced by others (winners). While this process has been related to the effects of anthropogenic activities, whether and how BH is occurring across regions and the role of native species as a driver of BH has hardly been investigated. Here, we examine the trend in the community specialization index (CSI) for 234 native species of breeding birds at 10,111 sites in six European countries from 1990 to 2008. Unlike many BH studies, CSI uses abundance information to estimate the balance between generalist and specialist species in local assemblages. We show that bird communities are more and more composed of native generalist species across regions, revealing a strong, ongoing BH process. Our result suggests a rapid and non-random change in community composition at a continental scale is occurring, most likely driven by anthropogenic activities.

  11. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Matthias Schöller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case.

  12. CHEMOSENSORY ATTRACTION OF ZOOSPORES OF THE ESTUARINE DINOFLAGELLATES, PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA AND P. SHUMWAYAE, TO FINFISH MUCUS AND EXCRETA. (R825551)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic strains of the estuarine dinoflagellates, Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae, can cause fish death and disease, whereas other estuarine `lookalike' species such as cryptoperidiniopsoids have not been ichthyotoxic under ecologically rel...

  13. Immuno-flow cytometric detection of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium aureolum and Gymnodinium nagasakiense : Independence of physiological state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, EG; vandePoll, WH; Vriezekolk, G; Gieskes, WWC

    The ichthyotoxic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium aureolum and Gymnodinium nagasakiense were cultured under different environmental conditions to test possible variability in immunochemical labelling intensity of cell-surface antigens using species-specific monoclonal antibodies. Variation of antigen

  14. Environmentally-related seasonal variation in symbiotic associations of heterotrophic dinoflagellates with cyanobacteria in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Devi, C.R.A.; Balasubramanian, T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    In the western Bay of Bengal, some species of heterotrophic dinoflagellates recurrently show symbiotic associations with cyanobacteria (Synechococcus/Synechocystis). The occurrence of these associations is markedly higher during the spring...

  15. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    The distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments from Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India was investigated and compared with sediment characteristics and physico-chemical variables of the overlying water column...

  16. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi.

  17. Antibiotic treatment leads to the elimination of Wolbachia endosymbionts and sterility in the diplodiploid collembolan Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingcombe Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised that this phenomenon may be functionally restricted to organisms that employ haplodiploid sex determination. Using two antibiotics, tetracycline and rifampicin, we attempted to eliminate Wolbachia from the diplodiploid host Folsomia candida, a species of springtail which is a widely used study organism. Results Molecular assays confirmed that elimination of Wolbachia was successfully achieved through continuous exposure of populations (over two generations and several weeks to rifampicin administered as 2.7% dry weight of their yeast food source. The consequence of this elimination was total sterility of all individuals, despite the continuation of normal egg production. Conclusion Microbial endosymbionts play an obligatory role in the reproduction of their diplodiploid host, most likely one in which the parthenogenetic process is facilitated by Wolbachia. A hitherto unknown level of host-parasite interdependence is thus recorded.

  18. Kestrel-prey dynamic in a Mediterranean region: the effect of generalist predation and climatic factors.

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    Juan A Fargallo

    Full Text Available Most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. In such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems are more complex. Determining food limitation in generalist predators is difficult due to their capacity to switch to alternative prey when the basic prey becomes scarce.We monitored the population density of a generalist raptor, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus over 15 years in a mountainous Mediterranean area. In addition, we have recorded over 11 years the inter-annual variation in the abundance of two main prey species of kestrels, the common vole Microtus arvalis and the eyed lizard Lacerta lepida and a third species scarcely represented in kestrel diet, the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. We estimated the per capita growth rate (PCGR to analyse population dynamics of kestrel and predator species.Multimodel inference determined that the PCGR of kestrels was better explained by a model containing the population density of only one prey species (the common vole than a model using a combination of the densities of the three prey species. The PCGR of voles was explained by kestrel abundance in combination with annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. In the case of shrews, growth rate was also affected by kestrel abundance and temperature. Finally, we did not find any correlation between kestrel and lizard abundances.Our study showed for the first time vertebrate predator-prey relationships at southern latitudes and determined that only one prey species has the capacity to modulate population dynamics of generalist predators and reveals the importance of climatic factors in the dynamics of micromammal species and lizards in the Mediterranean region.

  19. Generalist care managers for the treatment of depressed medicaid patients in North Carolina: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Landis, Suzanne E; Gaynes, Bradley N; Morrissey, Joseph P; Vinson, Nina; Ellis, Alan R; Domino, Marisa E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In most states, mental illness costs are an increasing share of Medicaid expenditures. Specialized depression care managers (CM) have consistently demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes relative to usual primary care (UC), but are costly and may not be fully utilized in smaller practices. A generalist care manager (GCM) could manage multiple chronic conditions and be more accepted and cost-effective than the specialist depression CM. We designed a pilot program to d...

  20. No evidence for larger leaf trait plasticity in ecological generalists compared to specialists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Petr; Fischer, M.; Chytrý, M.; Prati, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2017), s. 511-521 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09119S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ecological generalists and specialists * phenotypic plasticity * multispecies experiments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  1. Ethanol confers differential protection against generalist and specialist parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Zachary R; Schlenke, Todd A; Morran, Levi T; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2017-01-01

    As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D. melanogaster larvae. Given that ethanol tolerance is high in D. melanogaster and stronger in the specialist wasp than the generalist, we tested whether fly larvae could use ethanol as an anti-parasite defense and whether its effectiveness would differ against the two wasp species. We found that fly larvae benefited from eating ethanol-containing food during exposure to L. heterotoma; we observed a two-fold decrease in parasitization intensity and a 24-fold increase in fly survival to adulthood. Although host ethanol consumption did not affect L. boulardi parasitization rates or intensities, it led to a modest increase in fly survival. Thus, ethanol conferred stronger protection against the generalist wasp than the specialist. We tested whether fly larvae can self-medicate by seeking ethanol-containing food after being attacked by wasps, but found no support for this hypothesis. We also allowed female flies to choose between control and ethanol-containing oviposition sites in the presence vs. absence of wasps and generally found significant preferences for ethanol regardless of wasp presence. Overall, our results suggest that D. melanogaster larvae obtain protection from certain parasitoid wasp species through their mothers' innate oviposition preferences for ethanol-containing food sources.

  2. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local-scale plant diversity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Disentangling the effects of plant diversity on the control of herbivores is important for understanding agricultural sustainability. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities at the landscape scale, but few have done so at the local scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 papers containing 175 independent measures of the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod communities. We found that generalist predators had a strong positive response to plant diversity, that is, their abundance increased as plant diversity increased. Herbivores, in contrast, had an overall weak and negative response to plant diversity. However, specialist and generalist herbivores differed in their response to plant diversity, that is, the response was negative for specialists and not significant for generalists. While the effects of scale remain unclear, the response to plant diversity tended to increase for specialist herbivores, but decrease for generalist herbivores as the scale increased. There was no clear effect of scale on the response of generalist predators to plant diversity. Our results suggest that the response of herbivores to plant diversity at the local scale is a balance between habitat and trophic effects that vary according to arthropod specialization and habitat type. Synthesis and applications. Positive effects of plant diversity on generalist predators confirm that, at the local scale, plant diversification of agroecosystems is a credible and promising option for increasing pest regulation. Results from our meta-analysis suggest that natural control in plant-diversified systems is more likely to occur for specialist than for generalist herbivores. In terms of pest management, our results indicate that small-scale plant diversification (via the planting of cover crops or intercrops and reduced weed management) is likely to increase the control of specialist herbivores by generalist predators.

  3. Seed treatments with thiamine reduce the performance of generalist and specialist aphids on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, A M; Fatehi, J; Jonsson, L M V

    2018-02-01

    Thiamine is a vitamin that has been shown to act as a trigger to activate plant defence and reduce pathogen and nematode infection as well as aphid settling and reproduction. We have here investigated whether thiamine treatments of seeds (i.e. seed dressing) would increase plant resistance against aphids and whether this would have different effects on a generalist than on specialist aphids. Seeds of wheat, barley, oat and pea were treated with thiamine alone or in combination with the biocontrol bacteria Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 (MA 342). Plants were grown in climate chambers. The effects of seed treatment on fecundity, host acceptance and life span were studied on specialist aphids bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) and on the generalist green peach aphid (Myzus persicae, Sulzer). Thiamine seed treatments reduced reproduction and host acceptance of all three aphid species. The number of days to reproduction, the length of the reproductive life, the fecundity and the intrinsic rate of increase were found reduced for bird cherry-oat aphid after thiamine treatment of the cereal seeds. MA 342 did not have any effect in any of the plant-aphid combinations, except a weak decrease of pea aphid reproduction on pea. The results show that there are no differential effects of either thiamine or MA 342 seed treatments on specialist and generalist aphids and suggest that seed treatments with thiamine has a potential in aphid pest management.

  4. Generalist genes and the Internet generation: etiology of learning abilities by web testing at age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Harlaar, N; Busfield, P; McMillan, A; Frances, J; Petrill, S A; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2008-06-01

    A key translational issue for neuroscience is to understand how genes affect individual differences in brain function. Although it is reasonable to suppose that genetic effects on specific learning abilities, such as reading and mathematics, as well as general cognitive ability (g), will overlap very little, the counterintuitive finding emerging from multivariate genetic studies is that the same genes affect these diverse learning abilities: a Generalist Genes hypothesis. To conclusively test this hypothesis, we exploited the widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the UK to assess 2541 pairs of 10-year-old twins for reading, mathematics and g, using a web-based test battery. Heritabilities were 0.38 for reading, 0.49 for mathematics and 0.44 for g. Multivariate genetic analysis showed substantial genetic correlations between learning abilities: 0.57 between reading and mathematics, 0.61 between reading and g, and 0.75 between mathematics and g, providing strong support for the Generalist Genes hypothesis. If genetic effects on cognition are so general, the effects of these genes on the brain are also likely to be general. In this way, generalist genes may prove invaluable in integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to the systems biology of the brain.

  5. Generalist solutions to overprescribing: a joint challenge for clinical and academic primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne; Bancroft, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Polypharmacy is a phenomenon of modern health care that can offer benefits in terms of patient outcomes. Known risks associated with so-called inappropriate polypharmacy can be reduced through good medicine management and appropriate use of clinical guidelines. However, we now see a growing literature highlighting additional risks to individual well-being and social functioning not recognised within these existing frameworks - the burden of polypharmacy and a problem of overprescribing. We need a new approach to defining and understanding inappropriate polypharmacy from a person-centred perspective. This paper discusses practice-based work exploring the impact of introducing generalist needs assessment for elderly patients with multiple chronic morbidities. The work suggests that generalist care offers something 'different' to current chronic disease management models, but highlights the need for formal evaluation to determine whether it is 'better'. We call for new collaborative research between clinical and academic partners to address the question as to whether generalist care offers solutions to the problems of the burden of polypharmacy.

  6. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Plant Chemistry and the Development and Behavior of a Generalist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Viktoria V; Schweiger, Rabea; Müller, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed between plants and AM fungi (AMF) can alter host plant quality and thus influence plant-herbivore interactions. While AM is known to affect the development of generalist chewing-biting herbivores, AM-mediated impacts on insect behavior have been neglected until now. In this study, the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis, a generalist AMF, on phenotypic and leaf metabolic traits of Plantago major plants were investigated. Further, the influence of AM-mediated host plant modifications on the development and on seven behavioral traits of larvae of the generalist Mamestra brassicae were recorded. Tests were carried out in the third (L3) and fourth (L4) larval instar, respectively. While shoot water content, specific leaf area, and foliar concentrations of the secondary metabolite aucubin were higher in AM-treated compared to non-mycorrhized (NM) plants, lower concentrations of the primary metabolites citric acid and isocitric acid were found in leaves of AM plants. Larvae reared on AM plants gained a higher body mass and tended to develop faster than individuals reared on NM plants. However, plant treatment had no significant effect on any of the behavioral traits. Instead, differences between larvae of different ages were detected in several behavioral features, with L4 being less active and less bold than L3 larvae. The results demonstrate that AM-induced modifications of host plant quality influence larval development, whereas the behavioral phenotype seems to be more fixed at least under the tested conditions.

  7. Specialist-generalist model of body temperature regulation can be applied at the intraspecific level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska, Anna S; Boratyński, Jan S; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2017-07-01

    According to theoretical predictions, endothermic homeotherms can be classified as either thermal specialists or thermal generalists. In high cost environments, thermal specialists are supposed to be more prone to using facultative heterothermy than generalists. We tested this hypothesis at the intraspecific level using male laboratory mice (C57BL/cmdb) fasted under different thermal conditions (20 and 10°C) and for different time periods (12-48 h). We predicted that variability of body temperature ( T b ) and time spent with T b below normothermy would increase with the increase of environmental demands (duration of fasting and cold). To verify the above prediction, we measured T b and energy expenditure of fasted mice. We did not record torpor bouts but we found that variations in T b and time spent in hypothermia increased with environmental demands. In response to fasting, mice also decreased their energy expenditure. Moreover, animals that showed more precise thermoregulation when fed had more variable T b when fasted. We postulate that the prediction of the thermoregulatory generalist-specialist trade-off can be applied at the intraspecific level, offering a valid tool for identifying mechanistic explanations of the differences in animal responses to variations in energy supply. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of dinoflagellate cysts from Upper Oligocene freshwater sediments of Lake Enspel, Westerwald area, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler; Clausing

    2000-10-01

    Freshwater dinoflagellates play an important role as primary producers in the lacustrine environment. A new species of dinoflagellates, Cleistosphaeridium lacustre, is described from Upper Oligocene sediments of palaeo-lake Enspel. They are associated with other phytoplankton, such as diatoms, chrysophytes, green algae and benthic cyanobacteria. Mass occurrences of this species are interpreted as algal blooms and may partly reflect seasonal successions. This phenomenon was controlled by volcanic activities in the depositional area, which led to an increase in nutrient supply.

  9. Blochmannia endosymbionts improve colony growth and immune defence in the ant Camponotus fellah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depoix Delphine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are a large and diverse form of life. Many of them live in association with large multicellular organisms, developing symbiotic relations with the host and some have even evolved to form obligate endosymbiosis 1. All Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus studied hitherto harbour primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the Blochmannia genus. The role of these bacteria in ant nutrition has been demonstrated 2 but the omnivorous diet of these ants lead us to hypothesize that the bacteria might provide additional advantages to their host. In this study, we establish links between Blochmannia, growth of starting new colonies and the host immune response. Results We manipulated the number of bacterial endosymbionts in incipient laboratory-reared colonies of Camponotus fellah by administrating doses of an antibiotic (Rifampin mixed in honey-solution. Efficiency of the treatment was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, using Blochmannia specific primers (qPCR and two fluorescent probes (one for all Eubacterial and other specific for Blochmannia. Very few or no bacteria could be detected in treated ants. Incipient Rifampin treated colonies had significantly lower numbers of brood and adult workers than control colonies. The immune response of ants from control and treated colonies was estimated by inserting nylon filaments in the gaster and removing it after 24 h. In the control colonies, the encapsulation response was positively correlated to the bacterial amount, while no correlation was observed in treated colonies. Indeed, antibiotic treatment increased the encapsulation response of the workers, probably due to stress conditions. Conclusion The increased growth rate observed in non-treated colonies confirms the importance of Blochmannia in this phase of colony development. This would provide an important selective advantage during colony founding, where the colonies

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 and their bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Baker; M N, Nagendra Prasad; B L, Dhananjaya; K, Mohan Kumar; S, Yallappa; S, Satish

    2016-12-01

    The present study emphasizes on biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human and phytopathogens. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 inhabiting Coffea arabica L. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy which revealed maximum absorption 425nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the possible functional groups mediating and stabilizing silver nanoparticles with predominant peaks occurring at 3346 corresponding to hydroxyl group, 1635 corresponding carbonyl group and 680 to aromatic group. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the Bragg's diffraction pattern with distinct peaks at 38° 44°, 64° and 78° revealing the face-centered cubic (fcc) metallic crystal corresponding to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets of the crystal planes at 2θ angle. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed presence of high intense absorption peak at 3keV is a typical characteristic of nano-crystalline silver which confirmed the presence of elemental silver. TEM analysis revealed the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 5-50nm with polydisperse nature of synthesized nanoparticles bearing myriad shapes. The particle size determined by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) method revealed average size to be 20.66nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited significant antibacterial activity against panel of test pathogens. The results showed Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407) and Xanthomonas campestris to be more sensitive among the test human pathogen and phyto-pathogen respectively. The study also reports synergistic effect of silver nanoparticles in combination with kanamycin which displayed increased fold activity up to 58.3% against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407). The results of the present investigation are promising enough and attribute towards

  11. The roles of positive and negative selection in the molecular evolution of insect endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Adam J; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2005-08-01

    The evolutionary rate acceleration observed in most endosymbiotic bacteria may be explained by higher mutation rates, changes in selective pressure, and increased fixation of deleterious mutations by genetic drift. Here, we explore the forces influencing molecular evolution in Blochmannia, an obligate endosymbiont of Camponotus and related ant genera. Our goals were to compare rates of sequence evolution in Blochmannia with related bacteria, to explore variation in the strength and efficacy of negative (purifying) selection, and to evaluate the effect of positive selection. For six Blochmannia pairs, plus Buchnera and related enterobacteria, estimates of sequence divergence at four genes confirm faster rates of synonymous evolution in the ant mutualist. This conclusion is based on higher dS between Blochmannia lineages despite their more recent divergence. Likewise, generally higher dN in Blochmannia indicates faster rates of nonsynonymous substitution in this group. One exception is the groEL gene, for which lower dN and dN/dS compared to Buchnera indicate exceptionally strong negative selection in Blochmannia. In addition, we explored evidence for positive selection in Blochmannia using both site-and lineage-based maximum likelihood models. These approaches confirmed heterogeneity of dN/dS among codon sites and revealed significant variation in dN/dS across Blochmannia lineages for three genes. Lineage variation affected genes independently, with no evidence of parallel changes in dN/dS across genes along a given branch. Our data also reveal instances of dN/dS greater than one; however, we do not interpret these large dN/dS ratios as evidence for positive selection. In sum, while drift may contribute to an overall rate acceleration at nonsynonymous sites in Blochmannia, variable selective pressures best explain the apparent gene-specific changes in dN/dS across lineages of this ant mutualist. In the course of this study, we reanalyzed variation at Buchnera gro

  12. Screening for bacterial DNA in the hard tick Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae from Socotra Island (Yemen: detection of Francisella-like endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montagna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four adult ticks collected from livestock on Socotra Island (Yemen were identified as Hyalomma marginatum using traditional morphological characteristics. Morphological identification was confirmed for all the collected specimens using a molecular approach targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA. All the specimens were examined for the presence of tick-borne pathogens and the tick endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii using polymerase chain reaction. Three specimens out of the 34 analyzed tested positive to the presence of Francisella spp. leading to the first detection of these bacteria in H. marginatum on Socotra Island. The phylogenetic analyses conducted on a 660 bp fragment of the ribosomal gene 16S rRNA of Francisella spp. (including F. philomiragia as outgroup, the four subspecies of F. tularensis and the Francisella-like endosymbiont of ticks confirm that the newly detected Francisella strains cluster into the Francisella-like endosymbionts of ticks. Interestingly, the detected Francisella-like endosymbiont, shows a different genotype to that previously isolated from H. marginatum collected in Bulgaria. No specimen was positive for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi or M. mitochondrii.

  13. Nuclearia pattersoni sp. n. (Filosea), a new species of amphizoic amoeba isolated from gills of roach (Rutilus rutilus), and its rickettsial endosymbiont

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Veverková, Marie; Fiala, Ivan; Macháčková, Blanka; Pecková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2003), s. 161-170 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : Filosea * Nuclearia pattersoni * rickettsial endosymbiont Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  14. Cryptic seedling herbivory by nocturnal introduced generalists impacts survival, performance of native and exotic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Sharon Y; Stanton, Maureen L; Emery, Nancy C; Bradley, Carrie A; Carleton, Alexandra; Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Ervin, Olivia A; Gray, Levi N; Hamilton, Andrew M; Rogge, Jennifer Harrington; Harper, Skye D; Law, Kimberley Cook; Pham, Vinh Q; Putnam, Matthew E; Roth, Tara M; Theil, Jacob H; Wells, Lara M; Yoshizuka, Eric M

    2009-02-01

    Although much of the theory on the success of invasive species has been geared at escape from specialist enemies, the impact of introduced generalist invertebrate herbivores on both native and introduced plant species has been underappreciated. The role of nocturnal invertebrate herbivores in structuring plant communities has been examined extensively in Europe, but less so in North America. Many nocturnal generalists (slugs, snails, and earwigs) have been introduced to North America, and 96% of herbivores found during a night census at our California Central Valley site were introduced generalists. We explored the role of these herbivores in the distribution, survivorship, and growth of 12 native and introduced plant species from six families. We predicted that introduced species sharing an evolutionary history with these generalists might be less vulnerable than native plant species. We quantified plant and herbivore abundances within our heterogeneous site and also established herbivore removal experiments in 160 plots spanning the gamut of microhabitats. As 18 collaborators, we checked 2000 seedling sites every day for three weeks to assess nocturnal seedling predation. Laboratory feeding trials allowed us to quantify the palatability of plant species to the two dominant nocturnal herbivores at the site (slugs and earwigs) and allowed us to account for herbivore microhabitat preferences when analyzing attack rates on seedlings. The relationship between local slug abundance and percent cover of five common plant taxa at the field site was significantly negatively associated with the mean palatability of these taxa to slugs in laboratory trials. Moreover, seedling mortality of 12 species in open-field plots was positively correlated with mean palatability of these taxa to both slugs and earwigs in laboratory trials. Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of

  15. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertola, Sari [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Department of Biological Research, P.O. Box 2, FI-00561 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A. [Department of Botany, US National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, 4210 Silver Hill Road, Suitland, Maryland 20746 (United States); Kuosa, Harri [Tvaerminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, FI-10900 Hanko (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies.

  16. Survey on germination and species composition of dinoflagellates from ballast tanks and recent sediments in ports on the South Coast of Finland, North-Eastern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertola, Sari . E-mail sari.pertola@fimr.fi; Faust, Maria A.; Kuosa, Harri

    2006-01-01

    Cyst beds in ships and ports in Finland have previously been unstudied. Therefore, sediments from ships' ballast water tanks and four Finnish ports were sampled for dinoflagellate cysts and other phytoplankton. Untreated sediments were incubated at 10 o C and 20 o C in the local 6 psu salinity for 1, 4 and 7 days, and vegetative cells were examined with light and scanning electron microscope. Sediments were inhabited by various dinoflagellates, diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanophytes and small flagellates. Germinated dinoflagellates were found in 90% of ballast tanks and in all ports. Gymnodiniales spp. and Heterocapsa rotundata formed a major proportion of the proliferating dinoflagellate cells. One species, Peridinium quinquecorne, not previously reported from the Baltic Sea, was identified with SEM. The study emphasises that ships are potential transport vehicles for dinoflagellate cysts even in the low salinity Finnish waters, and small-sized dinoflagellates should be focused upon in ballast water studies

  17. Improving the Analysis of Dinoflagellate Phylogeny based on rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Shauna; Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Ho, Simon Y.W.

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies of dinoflagellates are often conducted using rDNA sequences. In analyses to date, the monophyly of some of the major lineages of dinoflagellates remain to be demonstrated. There are several reasons for this uncertainty, one of which may be the use of models of evolution...... that may not closely fit the data. We constructed and examined alignments of SSU and partial LSU rRNA along with a concatenated alignment of the two molecules. The alignments showed several characteristics that may confound phylogeny reconstruction: paired helix (stem) regions that contain non...... on LSU; however, the support was low. The concatenated alignment did not provide a better phylogenetic resolution than the single gene alignments....

  18. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Juel

    2011-01-01

    phototrophic species, and food uptake marginally increased their growth rates at low irradiances. In the remaining species, food uptake increases to a large degree their growth rate when light is limiting and in some cases even when irradiance is not limiting growth. Some of these species grow relatively fast......Mixotrophy (i.e. combined use of photosynthesis and food uptake for growth) is widespread among marine dinoflagellates. Species with permanent chloroplasts generally display a growth response towards irradiance like an ordinary autotrophic alga. However, some species cannot grow in the light...... at high irradiances without food, while other species only grow slowly or cannot even maintain themselves at high irradiances without food. Dinoflagellates, which form symbioses with endo- and ectosymbionts are a very heterogeneous group, which have been studied only sporadically. Some species are clearly...

  19. Evaluating the Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) as a Candidate Dinoflagellate Barcode Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Rowena F.; Andersen, Robert A.; Jameson, Ian; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Vaulot, Daniel; Le Gall, Florence; Véron, Benoît; Brand, Jerry J.; Skelton, Hayley; Kasai, Fumai; Lilly, Emily L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding offers an efficient way to determine species identification and to measure biodiversity. For dinoflagellates, an ancient alveolate group of about 2000 described extant species, DNA barcoding studies have revealed large amounts of unrecognized species diversity, most of which is not represented in culture collections. To date, two mitochondrial gene markers, Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome b oxidase (COB), have been used to assess DNA barcoding in dinoflagellates, and both failed to amplify all taxa and suffered from low resolution. Nevertheless, both genes yielded many examples of morphospecies showing cryptic speciation and morphologically distinct named species being genetically similar, highlighting the need for a common marker. For example, a large number of cultured Symbiodinium strains have neither taxonomic identification, nor a common measure of diversity that can be used to compare this genus to other dinoflagellates. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Internal Transcribed Spacer units 1 and 2 (ITS) of the rDNA operon, as a high resolution marker for distinguishing species dinoflagellates in culture. In our study, from 78 different species, the ITS barcode clearly differentiated species from genera and could identify 96% of strains to a known species or sub-genus grouping. 8.3% showed evidence of being cryptic species. A quarter of strains identified had no previous species identification. The greatest levels of hidden biodiversity came from Scrippsiella and the Pfiesteriaceae family, whilst Heterocapsa strains showed a high level of mismatch to their given species name. Conclusions/Significance The ITS marker was successful in confirming species, revealing hidden diversity in culture collections. This marker, however, may have limited use for environmental barcoding due to paralogues, the potential for unidentifiable chimaeras and priming across taxa. In these cases ITS would

  20. Cell-specific extracellular phosphatase activity of dinoflagellate populations in acidified mountain lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, J.; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopáček, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2010), s. 635-644 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600170602; GA ČR GA206/07/1200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : extracellular phosphatases * acidified lakes * dinoflagellates Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  1. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Harland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC, and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP, and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka, given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  2. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Prego-Faraldo, Mar?a Ver?nica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Mendez, Josefina; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early...

  3. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates IV: the genus Biecheleria gen. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Lindberg, Karin; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    in the dinoflagellates. Biecheleria also comprises the brackish water species Biecheleria baltica sp. nov. (presently identified as Woloszynskia halophila) and the marine species Biecheleria natalensis (syn. Gymnodinium natalense). Gymnodinium halophilum described in 1952 by B. Biecheler but apparently not subsequently...... refound, is transferred to Biecheleria. The Suessiaceae further includes the marine species Protodinium simplex, described by Lohmann in 1908 but shortly afterwards (1921) transferred to Gymnodinium by Kofoid and Swezy and subsequently known as Gymnodinium simplex. It only distantly related to Gymnodinium...

  4. The sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts: looking back into the future of phytoplankton blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrie Dale

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine systems are not as well understood as terrestrial systems, and there is still a great need for more primary observations, in the tradition of the old-time naturalists, before newer methods such as molecular genetics and modeling can be fully utilized. The scientific process whereby the smaller, detailed building blocks of observation are ultimately linked towards better understanding natural systems is illustrated from my own career experience, especially with regard to the dinoflagellates and plankton blooms. Some dinoflagellates produce a fossilizable resting stage (cyst in their life cycle, and dinoflagellate cysts have become one of the most important groups of microfossils used in geological exploration (e.g. oil and gas. This has stimulated both paleontological and biological research producing detailed building blocks of information, currently scattered throughout the respective literature. Here, I attempt to bring together the present day perspective, from biology, with the past, from paleontology, as the most comprehensive basis for future work on the group. This shows the cysts to be the critical link needed for focusing future molecular genetics studies towards a more verifiable view of evolutionary pathways, and it also suggests new integrated methods for studying past, present, and future blooms. The large, rapidly growing field of harmful algal bloom studies is producing many different building blocks, but plankton blooms as episodic phenomena are still poorly understood. This is largely due to the general lack of long-term datasets allowing identification of the changing environmental factors that permit certain species to bloom at unpredictable intervals of time. Cysts in sediments are useful environmental indicators today, e.g. reflecting aspects of climate and pollution, and provide information directly relevant to some dinoflagellate blooms. They therefore may be used for obtaining retrospective information from the

  5. Correlation between Membrane Potential Responses and Tentacle Movement in the Dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris

    OpenAIRE

    Oami, Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Membrane potential responses and tentacle movement of the marine dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris were recorded simultaneously and their time relationships were examined. The food-gathering tentacle of Noctiluca exhibited slow extension-flexion movements in association with the spontaneously recurring membrane potential responses termed the tentacle regulating potentials (TRPs). The flexion of the tentacle began during the slow depolarization of the TRPs. The rate of the flexion increased af...

  6. Correlation between Membrane Potential Responses and Tentacle Movement in the Dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris(Behavior Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazunori, Oami; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba

    2004-01-01

    Membrane potential responses and tentacle movement of the marine dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris were recorded simultaneously and their time relationships were examined. The food-gathering tentacle of Noctiluca exhibited slow extension-flexion movements in association with the spontaneously recurring membrane potential responses termed the tentacle regulating potentials (TRPs). The flexion of the tentacle began during the slow depolarization of the TRPs. The rate of the flexion increased af...

  7. The Hidden Sexuality of Alexandrium Minutum: An Example of Overlooked Sex in Dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa I Figueroa

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are haploid eukaryotic microalgae in which rapid proliferation causes dense blooms, with harmful health and economic effects to humans. The proliferation mode is mainly asexual, as the sexual cycle is believed to be rare and restricted to stressful environmental conditions. However, sexuality is key to explaining the recurrence of many dinoflagellate blooms because in many species the fate of the planktonic zygotes (planozygotes is the formation of resistant cysts in the seabed (encystment. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that individually isolated planozygotes in the lab can enter other routes besides encystment, a behavior of which the relevance has not been explored at the population level. In this study, using imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH, we followed DNA content and nuclear changes in a population of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that was induced to encystment. Our results first show that planozygotes behave like a population with an "encystment-independent" division cycle, which is light-controlled and follows the same Light:Dark (L:D pattern as the cycle governing the haploid mitosis. Resting cyst formation was the fate of just a small fraction of the planozygotes formed and was restricted to a period of strongly limited nutrient conditions. The diploid-haploid turnover between L:D cycles was consistent with two-step meiosis. However, the diel and morphological division pattern of the planozygote division also suggests mitosis, which would imply that this species is not haplontic, as previously considered, but biphasic, because individuals could undergo mitotic divisions in both the sexual (diploid and the asexual (haploid phases. We also report incomplete genome duplication processes. Our work calls for a reconsideration of the dogma of rare sex in dinoflagellates.

  8. The synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by cultured, symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Banaszak1 A; LaJeunesse; Trench

    2000-06-28

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a relation between phylotypes (phylogenetic types, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and partial sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSUrDNA)) and the synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by symbiotic dinoflagellates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B/A) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We exposed 27 isolates of symbiotic dinoflagellates simultaneously to UV-B/A and PAR, and subsequently determined the MAAs present in cell extracts and in the media. The algae used included 24 isolates of Symbiodinium spp. originating from jellyfishes, sea anemones, zoanthids, scleractinians, octocorals, and bivalves, and three others in the genera Gymnodinium, Gloeodinium and Amphidinium from a jellyfish, an hydrocoral and a flatworm, respectively. In this study, all of the phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. synthesized up to three identified MAAs. None of the 11 cultured phylotypes B and C Symbiodinium spp. synthesized MAAs. The three non-Symbiodinium symbionts also synthesized up to three MAAs. The results support a conclusion that phylotype A Symbiodinium spp. have a high predilection for the synthesis of MAAs, while phylotypes B and C do not. Synthesis of MAAs by symbiotic dinoflagellates in culture does not appear to relate directly to depths or to the UV exposure regimes from which the consortia were collected.

  9. Dinoflagellates Habs Potential Responsible For Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Psp In Inner Ambon Bay - Maluku - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Batmomolin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to clarify whether plankton as the primary food source and fish in Inner Ambon Bay TAD could accumulate saxitoxin in PSP Paralylic Shellfish Poisoning so the information acquired from this research could be used as a basic reference on oceanography studies especially in Ambon Bay environmental toxicology environmental bioremediation and a reference on Ambon Bay sustainable water management concept formulation. The research was conducted in East season June-August 2015 and West season December 2015 February 2016. The method used was descriptive method in situ sampling and enumeration. Hydro-oceanography parameters measured were temperature salinity DO Dissolved Oxygen pH phosphate nitrate and transparency. Dinoflagellate abundance in east season is higher than in west season. It is followed with abundance of dinoflagellates in anchovy fish Stolephorus heterolobus gizzard so saxitoxin level in the fish is also higher. Dinoflagellates species found Alexandrium Protoperidinium Genyoulax and Dynophysis. ELISA test result on saxitoxin level in anchovy fish was 12.415 amp956g east season and 5.13amp956g west season the concentration was still below saxitoxin toleration level 80 amp956g.

  10. Polyuridylylation and processing of transcripts from multiple gene minicircles in chloroplasts of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2012-05-05

    Although transcription and transcript processing in the chloroplasts of plants have been extensively characterised, the RNA metabolism of other chloroplast lineages across the eukaryotes remains poorly understood. In this paper, we use RT-PCR to study transcription and transcript processing in the chloroplasts of Amphidinium carterae, a model peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. These organisms have a highly unusual chloroplast genome, with genes located on multiple small \\'minicircle\\' elements, and a number of idiosyncratic features of RNA metabolism including transcription via a rolling circle mechanism, and 3′ terminal polyuridylylation of transcripts. We demonstrate that transcription occurs in A. carterae via a rolling circle mechanism, as previously shown in the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa, and present evidence for the production of both polycistronic and monocistronic transcripts from A. carterae minicircles, including several regions containing ORFs previously not known to be expressed. We demonstrate the presence of both polyuridylylated and non-polyuridylylated transcripts in A. carterae, and show that polycistronic transcripts can be terminally polyuridylylated. We present a model for RNA metabolism in dinoflagellate chloroplasts where long polycistronic precursors are processed to form mature transcripts. Terminal polyuridylylation may mark transcripts with the correct 3′ end. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Oil Spills and Dispersants Can Cause the Initiation of Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms ("Red Tides").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Cosgrove, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2018-04-25

    After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In coastal waters, large tintinnids and oligotrich ciliates, major grazers of phytoplankton, were negatively affected by the exposure to oil and dispersant, whereas bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum texanum, P. triestinum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea) notably increased their concentration. The removal of key grazers due to oil and dispersant disrupts the predator-prey controls ("top-down controls") that normally function in plankton food webs. This disruption of grazing pressure opens a "loophole" that allows certain dinoflagellates with higher tolerance to oil and dispersants than their grazers to grow and form blooms when there are no growth limiting factors (e.g., nutrients). Therefore, oil spills and dispersants can act as disrupters of predator-prey controls in plankton food webs and as indirect inducers of potentially harmful dinoflagellate blooms.

  12. Effects of predator lipids on dinoflagellate defence mechanisms - increased bioluminescence capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Jenny; Grebner, Wiebke; Rigby, Kristie; Selander, Erik

    2017-10-12

    Short flashes of blue light (bioluminescence) from dinoflagellates can reduce copepod grazing of light-emitting cells. Other protective strategies against grazing are toxicity, reduced cell chain length and altered swimming patterns in different phytoplankton. Both toxicity and bioluminescence capacity in dinoflagellates decrease in copepod-free cultures, but toxin production can be restored in response to chemical alarm signals from copepods, copepodamides. Here we show that strains of the dinoflagellates Lingulodinium polyedra and Alexandrium tamarense, kept in culture for 14 and 9 years respectively, are capable of increasing their total bioluminescence capacity in response to copepodamides. The luminescence response to mechanical stimulation with air bubbles also increases significantly in L. polyedra after exposure to copepodamides. Effects on size, swimming speed and rate of change of direction in L. polyedra and A. tamarense were not detected, suggesting that post-encounter mechanisms such as bioluminescence and toxin production may constitute the dominating line of defence in these taxa. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of changes in bioluminescence physiology as a response to chemical cues from natural enemies and emphasizes the importance of bioluminescence as an anti-grazing strategy.

  13. A genomic approach to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: Studies of Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuya eShinzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Far more intimate knowledge of scleractinian coral biology is essential in order to understand how diverse coral-symbiont endosymbioses have been established. In particular, molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the establishment and maintenance of obligate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates require further clarification. By extension, such understanding may also shed light upon environmental conditions that promote the collapse of this mutualism. Genomic data undergird studies of all symbiotic processes. Here we review recent genomic data derived from the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, and the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum. We discuss Acropora genes involved in calcification, embryonic development, innate immunity, apoptosis, autophagy, UV resistance, fluorescence, photoreceptors, circadian clocks, etc. We also detail gene loss in amino acid metabolism that may explain at least part of the Acropora stress-response. Characteristic features of the Symbiodinium genome are also reviewed, focusing on the expansion of certain gene families, the molecular basis for permanently condensed chromatin, unique spliceosomal splicing, and unusual gene arrangement. Salient features of the Symbiodinium plastid and mitochondrial genomes are also illuminated. Although many questions regarding these interdependent genomes remain, we summarize information necessary for future studies of coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

  14. Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in recent sediments along the south-east coast of India

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    Dhiraj Dhondiram Narale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation in the dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from the south-eastcoast of India is presented along with a comparison of the cyst abundance from other regions of the world. Samples from 8 stations revealed the presence of 24 species from the genera Protoperidinium, Zygabikodinium, Gonyaulax, Lingulodinium and Gyrodinium. Cyst abundance was comparatively high at northern stations and was well correlated with the fine-grained (silt-clay dominated sediments. In contrast, low cyst abundance was recorded in sandy sediments at southern stations. Fourteen cyst-forming dinoflagellate species previously unrecorded in planktonic samples were detected in the sediments. Thecyst abundance recorded here is low (29-331 cysts g-1 dry sediment as compared to sub-tropical and temperate regions, but it is on a par with tropical regions, including the west coast of India. Comparison of the cyst assemblage along the Indian coast revealed a smaller number of potentially harmful and red-tide-forming dinoflagellate species on the south-east coast (6 species than on the west coast (10 species. Furthermore, calcareous cysts of the genus Scrippsiella reported from the west coast were not observed in this study although their planktonic cells have been reported

  15. Evolutionary Acquisition and Loss of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates: the Second “Core” Gene, sxtG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.

    2013-01-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species. PMID:23335767

  16. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  17. Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karut, Kamil; Mete Karaca, M; Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction-random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relationship between water soluble carbohydrate content, aphid endosymbionts and clonal performance of Sitobion avenae on cocksfoot cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Alkhedir

    Full Text Available Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative endosymbionts (sfS, some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs. We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals.

  19. Diet dependent metabolic responses in three generalist insect herbivores Spodoptera spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-04-01

    Adaption to dietary changes is critical in the evolution of host plant ranges in polyphagous insects. We compared three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores from the predominantly generalist genus Spodoptera showing different degrees of polyphagy: Spodoptera littoralis, with a broad host range including both mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and two Spodoptera frugiperda strains [Corn (i.e. maize) (C) and Rice (R)] adapted primarily to different grass species. When feeding on maize we show a lower performance in the broad generalist taxon compared to the grass adapted taxa. Among these taxa, the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain generally performed better than the R-strain on maize leaves. On artificial pinto diet, all taxa performed well. Our RNA-Seq analysis of midgut transcriptomes from 3rd instar larvae feeding on maize showed broader transcriptional readjustments in the generalist S. littoralis compared to grass adapted S. frugiperda strains. Substantial alteration in the expression levels of midgut physiological function related transcripts, such as digestive and detoxifying enzymes, transporters, immunity, and peritrophic membrane associated transcripts, existed in all taxa. We found high background expression of UDP-glucosyl transferases, which are known to neutralize maize leaf toxins, in the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain, contributing to its fitness on maize compared to the R-strain. Our findings provide evidence for divergent diet specific response of digestive physiology within these Spodoptera taxa. Unexpectedly, the C- and R-strains of S. frugiperda fed on the same diet showed large differences in expression patterns between these two closely related taxa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Host phenology and geography as drivers of differentiation in generalist fungal mycoparasites.

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    Alexandra Pintye

    Full Text Available The question as to why parasites remain generalist or become specialist is a key unresolved question in evolutionary biology. Ampelomyces spp., intracellular mycoparasites of powdery mildew fungi, which are themselves plant pathogens, are a useful model for studies of this issue. Ampelomyces is used for the biological control of mildew. Differences in mycohost phenology promote temporal isolation between sympatric Ampelomyces mycoparasites. Apple powdery mildew (APM causes spring epidemics, whereas other powdery mildew species on plants other than apple cause epidemics later in the season. This has resulted in genetic differentiation between APM and non-APM strains. It is unclear whether there is genetic differentiation between non-APM Ampelomyces lineages due to their specialization on different mycohosts. We used microsatellites to address this question and found no significant differentiation between non-APM Ampelomyces strains from different mycohosts or host plants, but strong differentiation between APM and non-APM strains. A geographical structure was revealed in both groups, with differences between European countries, demonstrating restricted dispersal at the continent scale and a high resolution for our markers. We found footprints of recombination in both groups, possibly more frequent in the APM cluster. Overall, Ampelomyces thus appears to be one of the rare genuine generalist pathogenic fungi able to parasitize multiple hosts in natural populations. It is therefore an excellent model for studying the evolution of pathogens towards a generalist rather than host-specific strategy, particularly in light of the tritrophic interaction between Ampelomyces mycoparasites, their powdery mildew fungal hosts and the mildew host plants.

  1. Pollen limitation and reproductive assurance in Antillean Gesnerieae: a specialists vs. generalist comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Fenster, Charles B

    2010-01-01

    Pollen limitation of female fecundity is widespread among angiosperms, a signal that pollinators frequently fail to transfer pollen to fertilize all ovules. Recent surveys have suggested that pollen limitation is associated with floral specialization. This study uses a group of Antillean Gesneriaceae with contrasting pollination systems (bat, hummingbird, and generalist) to assess the premise that plants with specialized pollination systems and infrequent pollinator visitation experience greater pollen limitation of fruit and seed set than their generalist congeners. Alternatively, specialists may possess mechanisms that reduce pollen limitation, such as autonomous self-pollination. A survey of autonomous self-pollination conducted on 13 Gesneria and Rhytidophyllum species during 2006-2008 revealed no significant association between reproductive assurance mechanisms and pollination system specialization. However, high levels of potential autonomous self-pollination were only found among specialized hummingbird-pollinated species. A comparison of fruit and seed set between emasculated and unmanipulated flowers provided evidence for autonomous selfing acting as a reproductive assurance mechanism in three out of four ornithophilous species. Furthermore, the Puerto Rican population of G. reticulata relies almost exclusively on self-pollination for reproduction. Two-year pollen supplementation experiments conducted on nine Gesnerieae species from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico provided evidence for significant pollen limitation associated with pollination specialization including both bat- and hummingbird-pollinated Gesnerieae; no pollen limitation was detected in any of the four generalist species. No pollen limitation was detected either in two ornithophilous Gesneria species with low hummingbird visitation and high levels of autonomous self-pollination. This study provides support for the idea that generalized pollination systems may, in some cases, buffer

  2. Influence of intraguild predation among generalist insect predators on the suppression of an herbivore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Wilhoit, Lawrence R; Armer, Christine A

    1993-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of intraguild predation among generalist insect predators on the suppression of an herbivore, the aphid Aphis gossypii, to test the appropriateness of the simple three trophic level model proposed by Hairston, Smith, and Slobodkin (1960). We manipulated components of the predator community, including three hemipteran predators and larvae of the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea, in field enclosure/exclosure experiments to address four questions: (1) Do generalist hemipteran predators feed on C. carnea? (2) Does intraguild predation (IGP) represent a substantial source of mortality for C. carnea? (3) Do predator species act in an independent, additive manner, or do significant interactions occur? (4) Can the experimental addition of some predators result in increased densities of aphids through a trophic cascade effect? Direct observations of predation in the field demonstrated that several generalist predators consume C. carnea and other carnivorous arthropods. Severely reduced survivorship of lacewing larvae in the presence of other predators showed that IGP was a major source of mortality. Decreased survival of lacewing larvae was primarily a result of predation rather than competition. IGP created significant interactions between the influences of lacewings and either Zelus renardii or Nabis predators on aphid population suppression. Despite the fact that the trophic web was too complex to delineate distinct trophic levels within the predatory arthropod community, some trophic links were sufficiently strong to produce cascades from higher-order carnivores to the level of herbivore population dynamics: experimental addition of either Z. renardii or Nabis predators generated sufficient lacewing larval mortality in one experiment to release aphid populations from regulation by lacewing predators. We conclude that intraguild predation in this system is wide-spread and has potentially important influences on the population

  3. Oncology Nurse Generalist Competencies: Oncology Nursing Society's Initiative to Establish Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaguski, Michele E; George, Kim; Bruce, Susan D; Brucker, Edie; Leija, Carol; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mackey, Heather

    2017-12-01

    A project team was formulated to create evidence-based oncology nurse generalist competencies (ONGCs) to establish best practices in competency development, including high-risk tasks, critical thinking criteria, and measurement of key areas for oncology nurses.
. This article aims to describe the process and the development of ONGCs. 
. This article explains how the ONGCs were accomplished, and includes outcomes and suggestions for use in clinical practice. 
. Institutions can use the ONGCs to assess and develop competency programs, offer educational strategies to measure proficiency, and establish processes to foster a workplace committed to mentoring and teaching future oncology nurses.

  4. Stimulated Respiration and Net Photosynthesis in Cassiopeia sp. during Glucose Enrichment Suggests in hospite CO2 Limitation of Algal Endosymbionts

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2017-08-15

    The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is key to the high productivity of tropical coral reefs. In this endosymbiosis, Symbiodinium translocate most of their photosynthates to their animal host in exchange for inorganic nutrients. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO ) derived fromhost respiration helps to meet the carbon requirements to sustain photosynthesis of the dinoflagellates. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest that productivity in symbiotic cnidarians such as corals is CO -limited. Here we show that glucose enrichment stimulates respiration and gross photosynthesis rates by 80 and 140%, respectively, in the symbiotic upside-down jellyfish Cassiopeia sp. from the Central Red Sea. Our findings show that glucose was rapidly consumed and respired within the Cassiopeia sp. holobiont. The resulting increase of CO availability in hospite in turn likely stimulated photosynthesis in Symbiodinium. Hence, the increase of photosynthesis under these conditions suggests that CO limitation of Symbiodinium is a common feature of stable cnidarian holobionts and that the stimulation of holobiont metabolism may attenuate this CO limitation.

  5. Decadal-scale variations of sedimentary dinoflagellate cyst records from the Yellow Sea over the last 400 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Roh, Youn Ho; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Huh, Sik; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lim, Dhongil

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the Yellow Sea has experienced severe environmental deterioration due to increasing input of anthropogenic pollutants and consequently accelerated eutrophication. Whilst there have been significant advances in documenting historical records of metal pollution in the Yellow Sea region, changes in phytoplankton community structures affected by eutrophication remain understudied. Here, we present a new record of dinoflagellate cyst-based signals in age-dated sediment cores from the Yellow Sea mud deposits to provide better insight into eutrophication history and identification of associated responses of the regional phytoplankton community. It is worthy of note that there were significant variations in abundances and community structures of dinoflagellate cysts in three historical stages in association with increasing anthropogenic activity over the last 400 years. Pervasive effects of human interference altering the Yellow Sea environments are recognized by: 1) an abrupt increase of organic matter, including the diatom-produced biogenic opal concentrations (∼1850); 2) a distinct shift in phytoplankton composition towards dinoflagellate dominance (∼1940), and 3) recent acceleration of dinoflagellate cyst accumulation (∼1990). Particularly in the central Yellow Sea shelf, the anomalously high deposition of dinoflagellate cysts (especially Alexandrium species) is suggested to be a potentially important source of inoculum cells serving as a seed population for localized and recurrent blooms in coastal areas around the Yellow Sea.

  6. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-12-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L-1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino-1 d-1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  7. The Jurassic of North-East Greenland: Jurassic dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three sections in Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland, referred to the Jurassic Payer Dal and Bernbjerg Formations, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts. The dinoflagellate cysts,new finds of ammonites and previously recorded marine faunas form the basis for improved dating of the succession. The basal strata of the Payer Dal Formation at Kulhus is here dated as Late Callovian, Peltoceras athleta Chronozone, based on the presence of relatively abundant Limbicysta bjaerkei, Mendicodinium groenlandicum, Rhychoniopsis cladophora and Tubotuberella dangeardii in an otherwise poor Upper Callovian dinoflagellate assemblage. Ammoniteshave not been recorded from these strata. The upper Payer Dal Formation at Agnetesøelven is dated as Late Oxfordian, Amoeboceras glosense – Amoeboceras serratum Chronozones, based onthe presence of Sciniodinium crystallinum, together with Cribroperidinium granuligera and Stephanelytron sp. The age is in accordance with ammonites present in the uppermost part ofthe formation at Søndre Muslingebjerg. New ammonites in the Bernbjerg Formation at Agnetesøelven together with dinoflagellate cysts indicate an earliest Kimmeridgian age, Raseniacymodoce and Aulacostephanoides mutabilis Chronozones.The Upper Callovian dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland belong to a local brackish to marginal marine assemblage, which only allows a fairly broad correlation to coeval assemblagesin central East Greenland. In contrast, the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian assemblages are fully marine and can be correlated from Milne Land in central East Greenland via Hochstetter Forland to Peary Land in eastern North Greenland.

  8. Ship traffic and the introduction of diatoms and dinoflagellates via ballast water in the port of Annaba, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheniti, Radhia; Rochon, André; Frihi, Hocine

    2018-03-01

    We present here the first study on the role of ship traffic in the introduction of potentially harmful and/or non-indigenous species in the port of Annaba (Algeria). A total of 25 ships of two different types (general cargo and bulk carriers) were sampled and separated into two categories: oceanic and Mediterranean ships. We estimated propagule pressure of high-risk coastal phytoplankton delivered in ballast water to the port of Annaba. We identified 40 diatom and 38 dinoflagellate taxa, among which, 11 harmful/toxic taxa: Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Alexandrium tamarense, Alexandrium sp., Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis rotundata, Dinophysis sp., Gonyaulax spinifera, Gymnodinium catenatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Protoceratium reticulatum and cyst of Alexandrium sp. In addition, 8 taxa (5 diatoms, 1 dinoflagellate and 2 dinoflagellate cysts) never observed in the Annaba region were considered as potentially non-indigenous: Actinoptychus splendens, Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Odentella granulata, Thalassiosira cf. decipiens, Prorocentrum scutellum, cyst of Polykrikos kofoidii and Islandinium minutum. Several factors were examined, including ship routes, ballast water age and the volume of ballast water discharged. Our analyses revealed that diatom and dinoflagellate abundances decreased with ballast water age, possibly as a result of mortality of species due to voyage length and lack of light in ballast tanks. Estimates of actual propagule pressure, diatoms and dinoflagellates abundances varied from 1 to 4 × 108 cells/ship. The results of this study could serve as the baseline for the development and implementation of monitoring and ballast water management programs in ports of Algeria.

  9. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  10. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kefi-daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomerat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Triki, Habiba Zmerli; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identificati...

  11. Generalist predator, cyclic voles and cavity nests: testing the alternative prey hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöysä, Hannu; Jalava, Kaisa; Paasivaara, Antti

    2016-12-01

    The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests. Specifically, we studied whether annual predation rate of real common goldeneye nests and experimental nests is negatively associated with fluctuation in the density of voles in four study areas in southern Finland in 2000-2011. Both vole density and nest predation rate varied considerably between years in all study areas. However, we did not find support for the hypothesis that vole dynamics indirectly affects predation rate of cavity nests in the way predicted by the APH. On the contrary, the probability of predation increased with vole spring abundance for both real and experimental nests. Furthermore, a crash in vole abundance from previous autumn to spring did not increase the probability of predation of real nests, although it increased that of experimental nests. We suggest that learned predation by pine marten individuals, coupled with efficient search image for cavities, overrides possible indirect positive effects of high vole density on the alternative prey in our study system.

  12. Landscape fragmentation generates spatial variation of diet composition and quality in a generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Frial; Morellet, Nicolas; Hewison, A J Mark; Merlet, Joël; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Lourtet, Bruno; Angibault, Jean-Marc; Daufresne, Tanguy; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Verheyden, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Forest fragmentation may benefit generalist herbivores by increasing access to various substitutable food resources, with potential consequences for their population dynamics. We studied a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in an agricultural mosaic of forest, woodlots, meadows and cultivated crops. We tested whether diet composition and quality varied spatially across the landscape using botanical analyses of rumen contents and chemical analyses of the plants consumed in relation to landscape metrics. In summer and non-mast winters, roe deer ate more cultivated seeds and less native forest browse with increasing availability of crops in the local landscape. This spatial variation resulted in contrasting diet quality, with more cell content and lower lignin and hemicellulose content (high quality) for individuals living in more open habitats. The pattern was less marked in the other seasons when diet composition, but not diet quality, was only weakly related to landscape structure. In mast autumns and winters, the consumption of acorns across the entire landscape resulted in a low level of differentiation in diet composition and quality. Our results reflect the ability of generalist species, such as roe deer, to adapt to the fragmentation of their forest habitat by exhibiting a plastic feeding behavior, enabling them to use supplementary resources available in the agricultural matrix. This flexibility confers nutritional advantages to individuals with access to cultivated fields when their native food resources are depleted or decline in quality (e.g. during non-mast years) and may explain local heterogeneities in individual phenotypic quality.

  13. A specific mix of generalists: bacterial symbionts in Mediterranean Ircinia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; González-Pech, Raúl; Turon, Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Microbial symbionts form abundant and diverse components of marine sponge holobionts, yet the ecological and evolutionary factors that dictate their community structure are unresolved. Here, we characterized the bacterial symbiont communities of three sympatric host species in the genus Ircinia from the NW Mediterranean Sea, using electron microscopy and replicated 16S rRNA gene sequence clone libraries. All Ircinia host species harbored abundant and phylogenetically diverse symbiont consortia, comprised primarily of sequences related to other sponge-derived microorganisms. Community-level analyses of bacterial symbionts revealed host species-specific genetic differentiation and structuring of Ircinia-associated microbiota. Phylogenetic analyses of host sponges showed a close evolutionary relationship between Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia variabilis, the two host species exhibiting more similar symbiont communities. In addition, several bacterial operational taxonomic units were shared between I. variabilis and Ircinia oros, the two host species inhabiting semi-sciophilous communities in more cryptic benthic habitats, and absent in I. fasciculata, which occurs in exposed, high-irradiance habitats. The generalist nature of individual symbionts and host-specific structure of entire communities suggest that: (1) a 'specific mix of generalists' framework applies to bacterial symbionts in Ircinia hosts and (2) factors specific to each host species contribute to the distinct symbiont mix observed in Ircinia hosts. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Diversity as a New Framework for Understanding the Ecology of an Emerging Generalist Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron; Guégan, Jean-François; Benbow, M Eric; Williamson, Heather; Small, Pamela L C; Quaye, Charles; Boakye, Daniel; Merritt, Richard W; Gozlan, Rodolphe E

    2016-09-01

    Emerging infectious disease outbreaks are increasingly suspected to be a consequence of human pressures exerted on natural ecosystems. Previously, host taxonomic communities have been used as indicators of infectious disease emergence, and the loss of their diversity has been implicated as a driver of increased presence. The mechanistic details in how such pathogen-host systems function, however, may not always be explained by taxonomic variation or loss. Here we used machine learning and methods based on Gower's dissimilarity to quantify metrics of invertebrate functional diversity, in addition to functional groups and their taxonomic diversity at sites endemic and non-endemic for the model generalist pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. Changes in these metrics allowed the rapid categorisation of the ecological niche of the mycobacterium's hosts and the ability to relate specific host traits to its presence in aquatic ecosystems. We found that taxonomic diversity of hosts and overall functional diversity loss and evenness had no bearing on the mycobacterium's presence, or whether the site was in an endemic area. These findings, however, provide strong evidence that generalist environmentally persistent bacteria such as M. ulcerans can be associated with specific functional traits rather than taxonomic groups of organisms, increasing our understanding of emerging disease ecology and origin.

  15. A generalist herbivore in a specialist mode Metabolic, sequestrative, and defensive consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M S; Severson, R F; Arrendale, R F; Whitman, D W; Escoubas, P; Adeyeye, O; Jones, C G

    1990-01-01

    Adults of a generalist herbivore, the lubber grasshopper,Romalea guttata, can be converted to functional specialists by feeding them exclusively on catnip,Nepeta cataria. No obvious adverse effects on adult development resulted from this enforced monophagy. Notwithstanding the fact thatR. guttata has had no coevolutionary relationship with this Eurasian mint, it readily sequesters compounds that are identical to or derived from the terpenoid lactones that are characteristic ofN. cataria. R. guttata appears to both biomagnify minor allelochemicals and to sequester metabolites of theNepeta terpenes in its paired defensive glands. The levels of autogenously produced phenolics are not affected by feeding onN. cataria and the defensive secretions of catnip-fed grasshoppers are more repellent to ants than those of wild-fed acridids. Metabolites of theN. cataria monoterpenes are sequestered in the defensive glands when catnip is added to the natural diet ofR. guttata. The ability of a generalist,R. guttata, to facilely bioaccumulate a potpourri of foreign allelochemicals when feeding in a specialist mode is analyzed in terms of its biochemical, physiological, and functional significance. Sequestration is examined as a response to the enteric effronteries represented by the phytochemicals that can be characteristic of the "overload" in a monophagous diet.

  16. Are mountain habitats becoming more suitable for generalist than cold-adapted lizards thermoregulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain lizards are highly vulnerable to climate change, and the continuous warming of their habitats could be seriously threatening their survival. We aim to compare the thermal ecology and microhabitat selection of a mountain lizard, Iberolacerta galani, and a widely distributed lizard, Podarcis bocagei, in a montane area. Both species are currently in close syntopy in the study area, at 1,400 m above the sea level. We determined the precision, accuracy and effectiveness of thermoregulation, and the thermal quality of habitat for both species. We also compared the selection of thermal microhabitats between both species. Results show that I. galani is a cold-adapted thermal specialist with a preferred temperature range of 27.9–29.7 °C, while P. bocagei would be a thermal generalist, with a broader and higher preferred temperature range (30.1–34.5 °C. In addition, I. galani selects rocky substrates while P. bocagei selects warmer soil and leaf litter substrates. The thermal quality of the habitat is higher for P. bocagei than for I. galani. Finally, P. bocagei achieves a significantly higher effectiveness of thermoregulation (0.87 than I. galani (0.80. Therefore, these mountain habitat conditions seem currently more suitable for performance of thermophilic generalist lizards than for cold-specialist lizards.

  17. Final report of the FOPE II Pediatric Generalists of the Future Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, L; Rappo, P; Abelson, H; Jenkins, R R; Sewall, S R; Chesney, R W; Mulvey, H J; Simon, J L; Alden, E R

    2000-11-01

    The Future of Pediatric Education II (FOPE II) Project was a 3-year, grant-funded initiative, which continued the work begun by the 1978 Task Force on the Future of Pediatric Education. Its primary goal was to proactively provide direction for pediatric education for the 21st century. To achieve this goal, 5 topic-specific workgroups were formed: 1) the Pediatric Generalists of the Future Workgroup, 2) the Pediatric Specialists of the Future Workgroup, 3) the Pediatric Workforce Workgroup, 4) the Financing of Pediatric Education Workgroup, and 5) the Education of the Pediatrician Workgroup. The FOPE II Final Report was recently published as a supplement to Pediatrics (The Future of Pediatric Education II: organizing pediatric education to meet the needs of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults in the 21st century. Pediatrics. 2000;105(suppl):161-212). It is also available on the project web site at: This report reflects the deliberations and recommendations of the Pediatric Generalists of the Future Workgroup of the Task Force on FOPE II. The report looks at 5 factors that have led to changes in child health needs and pediatric practice over the last 2 decades. The report then presents a vision for the role and scope of the pediatrician of the future and the core attributes, skills, and competencies pediatricians caring for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults will need in the 21st century. Pediatrics 2000;106(suppl):1199-1223; pediatrics, medical education, children, adolescents, health care delivery.

  18. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  19. Impact of Quaternary climatic changes and interspecific competition on the demographic history of a highly mobile generalist carnivore, the coyote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2012-08-23

    Recurrent cycles of climatic change during the Quaternary period have dramatically affected the population genetic structure of many species. We reconstruct the recent demographic history of the coyote (Canis latrans) through the use of Bayesian techniques to examine the effects of Late Quaternary climatic perturbations on the genetic structure of a highly mobile generalist species. Our analysis reveals a lack of phylogeographic structure throughout the range but past population size changes correlated with climatic changes. We conclude that even generalist carnivorous species are very susceptible to environmental changes associated with climatic perturbations. This effect may be enhanced in coyotes by interspecific competition with larger carnivores.

  20. A winter dinoflagellate bloom drives high rates of primary production in a Patagonian fjord ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, P.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Daneri, G.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Igor, G.; Seguel, R.; Purdie, D.; Crawford, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    A dense winter bloom of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra was observed at a fixed station (44°35.3‧S; 72°43.6‧W) in the Puyuhuapi Fjord in Chilean Patagonia during July 2015. H. triquetra dominated the phytoplankton community in the surface waters between 2 and 15 m (13-58 × 109 cell m-2), with abundances some 3 to 15 times higher than the total abundance of the diatom assemblage, which was dominated by Skeletonema spp. The high abundance of dinoflagellates was reflected in high rates of gross primary production (GPP; 0.6-1.6 g C m-2 d-1) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a; 70-199.2 mg m-2) that are comparable to levels reported in spring diatom blooms in similar Patagonian fjords. We identify the main forcing factors behind a pulse of organic matter production during the non-productive winter season, and test the hypothesis that low irradiance levels are a key factor limiting phytoplankton blooms and subsequent productivity during winter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that GPP rates were significantly correlated (r = -0.8, p < 0.05) with a decrease in salinity/temperature and the presence of the Heterocapsa bloom. The bloom occurred under low surface irradiance levels characteristic of austral winter and was accompanied by strong northern winds, associated with the passage of a low-pressure system, and a water column dominated by double diffusive layering. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dense dinoflagellate bloom during deep austral winter in a Patagonian fjord, and our data challenge the paradigm of light limitation as a factor controlling phytoplankton blooms in this region in winter.

  1. The prevalence of benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2017-09-09

    This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world. Both Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis spp. were observed at low densities (<200 cells g−1 wet weight algae). Cell densities of Ostreopsis spp. were significantly higher than Gambierdiscus spp. at most of the sampling sites, and abundances of both genera were negatively correlated with seawater salinity. To assess the potential for ciguatoxicity in this region, several Gambierdiscus isolates were established in culture and examined for species identity and toxicity. All isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Gambierdiscus belizeanus. Toxicity analysis of two isolates using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay for ciguatoxins (CTX) confirmed G. belizeanus as a CTX producer, with a maximum toxin content of 6.50±1.14×10−5pg P-CTX-1 eq. cell−1. Compared to Gambierdiscus isolates from other locations, these were low toxicity strains. The low Gambierdiscus densities observed along with their comparatively low toxin contents may explain why CFP is unidentified and unreported in this region. Nevertheless, the presence of these potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species at multiple sites in the central Red Sea warrants future study on their possible effects on marine food webs and human health in this region.

  2. Bacteria of the Genus Roseobacter Associated with the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokic, I; Brümmer, F; Brigge, T; Görtz, H D; Gerdts, G; Schütt, C; Elbrächter, M; Müller, W E

    1998-12-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima is known to produce diarrhetic shellfish poisons. However, it is yet unclear if the dinoflagellates themselves or the bacteria associated with them produce the toxins. Here we analyze the toxicity as well as the spectrum of bacteria in two cultures of P. lima, namely P. lima-SY and P. lima-ST, which initially derived from the same P. lima strain PL2V. Toxicity tests, applying the Artemia bioassay revealed in both cultures high levels of toxins. The bacteria, associated with the two cultures, were identified by PCR/nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. From cultures of P. lima-SY the dominant sequence was found to share a 93.7% similarity with the sequence of Roseobacter algocolus [R. algicola]; the relative abundance was determined to be 83%. In addition three further sequences of bacteria, grouped to the α-Protobacteria have been identified: Paracoccus denitrificans [90.8%], R. algocolus [94.4%] and Rhizobium huakuii [92.6%]. The identification of bacteria in P. lima-ST revealed that most share highest similarity with Bartonella taylorii but with a relatively low score of 87%. In addition to this sequence, two sequences with high similarity to the genus Roseobacter were obtained. The other sequences identified have not been detected in P. lima-SY. Studies with pure bacterial strains, previously isolated from a culture of P. lima-ST and subsequently cultured on agar plates, revealed that none of them was identical to those identified in the dinoflagellate culture itself. An explanation for the change of the spectrum of bacteria in the different cultures can only be expected when axenic cultures from P. lima are available. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification Of Some Strains Of Dinoflagellates Based On Morphology And Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmah Thoha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are the important primary producers in aquatic environments. In oceans, they play interesting role in ecological functions such as red tide forming organisms, symbiont of coral reef or sea anemone and DSP (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning or PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning producing organisms. Morphology and molecular analysis of dinoflagellates were conducted on November 2002 to March 2003. The phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA analyses, sequence have begun to appear more frequently in the literature, as attention has turned to relationships within the major eukaryotic lineages, particular importance for the taxonomy of the armored and unarmored genera of dinoflagellates (Gyrodinium sp., Cachonina sp., Gymnodinium sp., Amphidinium sp., because many of the genera cause extensive plankton blooms, fish kills and other harmful events, were studied used to amplify 18S rDNA, present in the total DNA extracted from algal pellet. The amplify approximately 1400 bp of the nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA gene using terminal primeirs DIR, products were cheked by 1.0 % agarose gel electrophoresis, then cloning with TA cloning KIT. Sequencing were analyzed by the GENETIX Mac Software, Homology search by Blast and Phylogenetic analysis. Results of hylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA are: Strain no. 10893 (un identified from the genera, it is belonging Gymnodinium or Polarella. Strain no. 10795 is closely related other species Cachonina hallii. We tentatively named strain no 11151 and 11160 similar to Gyrodinium or Gymnodinium based on morphology, but these strain indepently position in this tree and is not a real of Gymnodinium sensu stricto. It is possible, we can establish the new genera for strain no. 11151; 11160 because this not cluster any other unarmored species.

  4. Perceived Social-Ecological Barriers of Generalist Pre-Service Teachers towards Teaching Physical Education: Findings from the GET-PE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and understanding the perceptions of pre-service teachers (PSTs) is vital to informing teaching practices. The purpose of the "Generalist Entry into Teaching Physical Education" (GET-PE) study was to investigate Australian generalist PSTs' perceptions of the barriers to teaching physical education (PE) classes. A…

  5. Spatial distribution of symbiont-bearing dinoflagellates in the Indian Ocean in relation to oceanographic regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarangkoon, Woraporn; Hansen, Gert; Hansen, Per Juel

    2010-01-01

    . Under light microscopy, some of the food vacuoles of Ornithocercus spp. resembled ectosymbionts in size, shape and colour. Transmission electron microscopy of O. magnificus and O. quadratus revealed the presence of a peduncle and many rhabdosomes; both may serve in prey capture. Also, numerous food...... vacuoles were present, but their content was generally too degraded for a proper identification of prey type. However, occasionally remnants of eukaryotes were observed, indicating that Ornithocercus spp. may feed on ciliates. Thus, our data suggest that the ectosymbiont-bearing dinoflagellates use a multi...

  6. An improved method for the molecular identification of single dinoflagellate cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchun Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Dinoflagellate cysts (i.e., dinocysts are biologically and ecologically important as they can help dinoflagellate species survive harsh environments, facilitate their dispersal and serve as seeds for harmful algal blooms. In addition, dinocysts derived from some species can produce more toxins than vegetative forms, largely affecting species through their food webs and even human health. Consequently, accurate identification of dinocysts represents the first crucial step in many ecological studies. As dinocysts have limited or even no available taxonomic keys, molecular methods have become the first priority for dinocyst identification. However, molecular identification of dinocysts, particularly when using single cells, poses technical challenges. The most serious is the low success rate of PCR, especially for heterotrophic species. Methods In this study, we aim to improve the success rate of single dinocyst identification for the chosen dinocyst species (Gonyaulax spinifera, Polykrikos kofoidii, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pyrophacus steinii, Protoperidinium leonis and Protoperidinium oblongum distributed in the South China Sea. We worked on two major technical issues: cleaning possible PCR inhibitors attached on the cyst surface and designing new dinoflagellate-specific PCR primers to improve the success of PCR amplification. Results For the cleaning of single dinocysts separated from marine sediments, we used ultrasonic wave-based cleaning and optimized cleaning parameters. Our results showed that the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method largely improved the identification success rate and accuracy of both molecular and morphological identifications. For the molecular identification with the newly designed dinoflagellate-specific primers (18S634F-18S634R, the success ratio was as high as 86.7% for single dinocysts across multiple taxa when using the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method, and much higher than that

  7. Additional new organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two onshore UK Chalk boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Martin A.

    2018-01-01

    Beautifully preserved dinoflagellate cysts continue to be discovered in UK Cretaceous chalks and provide important new biostratigraphic information. Five new species - Conosphaeridium norfolkense sp. nov., Glaphyrocysta coniacia sp. nov., Impletosphaeridium banterwickense sp. nov., Sentusidinium devonense sp. nov., Sentusidinium spinosum sp. nov. and the new subspecies Spiniferites ramosus subsp. ginakrogiae subsp. nov. - are described from Upper Cretaceous strata of the British Geological Survey (BGS) Banterwick Barn and Trunch boreholes (onshore UK). An emended diagnosis for Odontochitina diducta Pearce is also provided to broaden the morphological variability in the type material.

  8. Grazing of heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Mcartney) Kofoid on Gymnodinium catenatum Graham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Rosalba; Ochoa, José Luis; Uribe Alcocer, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    A dinoflagellate bloom ("red tide" event) dominated by the toxic Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae; 99.7%) and the noxious Noctiluca scintillans (Mcartney) Kofoid (Noctilucaceae, Dinophyceae; 0.3%) was observed in Bahia de Mazatlán Bay, México, on 24-26 January 2000. Photographic and microscopic analysis of samples during such an event, allowed us to collect evidence of a marked The particularity of grazing of G. catrenatum by by N. scintillans cells, suggesting a mechanism of "biocontrol" between these species that may contribute to attenuate a potentially toxic phenomenon under natural conditions.

  9. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  10. First record of potentially toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960, from Peruvian coastal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Baylón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the first record of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960 from the Peruvian littoral. Alexandrium minutum produced the algae bloom in March 2006 and February 2009, in the Callao bay. Its identification was carried out by a morpho-taxonomic examination, detailing their plates with light and epifluorescence microscopy, moreover its quantification was realized in sedimentation chambers. This is the first report of A. minutum for Southeast Pacific. The characteristics in size, shape and thecal morphology were similarly to original descriptions of this species.

  11. Intra-specific differentiation of fungal endosymbiont Alternaria longissima CLB44 using RNA secondary structure analysis and their anti-infective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H C Yashavantha; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-08-01

    New antimicrobial agents derived from endosymbio-tic fungi with unique and targeted mode of action are crucially rudimentary to combat multidrug-resistant infections. Most of the fungi isolated as endosymbionts show close morphological feature resemblance to plant pathogenic or free-living forms, and it is difficult to differentiate these different lifestyles. A fungal endosymbiont strain CLB44 was isolated from Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae). CLB44 was then identified as Alternaria longissima based on morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) intervening 5.8S rRNA gene sequence analysis. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis was carried out using mfold server with temperature 37 °C, and anti-infective potential was determined by MIC and disk diffusion methods. ITS2 RNA secondary structure analysis clearly distinguished endosymbiotic A. longissima CLB44 from free-living and pathogenic A. longissima members in the same monophyletic clade. Secondary metabolites produced effectively inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (25 μg/ml), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50 μg/ml), Candida albicans (100 μg/ml), and other human pathogens. This study emerges as an innovative finding that explores newly revealed ITS2 RNAs that may be an insight as new markers for refining phylogenetic relations and to distinguish fungal endosymbionts with other free-living or pathogenic forms. A. longissima CLB44, in the emerging field of endosymbionts, will pave the way to a novel avenue in drug discovery to combat multidrug-resistant infections. The sequence data of this fungus is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KU310611.

  12. Stability of coral-endosymbiont associations during and after a thermal stress event in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, M.; Loh, W. K. W.; Lajeunesse, T. C.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Carter, D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Shifts in the community of symbiotic dinoflagellates to those that are better suited to the prevailing environmental condition may provide reef-building corals with a rapid mechanism by which to adapt to changes in the environment. In this study, the dominant Symbiodinium in 10 coral species in the southern Great Barrier Reef was monitored over a 1-year period in 2002 that coincided with a thermal stress event. Molecular genetic profiling of Symbiodinium communities using single strand conformational polymorphism of the large subunit rDNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region did not detect any changes in the communities during and after this thermal-stress event. Coral colonies of seven species bleached but recovered with their original symbionts. This study suggests that the shuffling or switching of symbionts in response to thermal stress may be restricted to certain coral species and is probably not a universal feature of the coral-symbiont relationship.

  13. An efficacy trial of brief lifestyle intervention delivered by generalist community nurses (CN SNAP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanaian Mahnaz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk factors, in particular smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity (SNAP are the main behavioural risk factors for chronic disease. Primary health care (PHC has been shown to be an effective setting to address lifestyle risk factors at the individual level. However much of the focus of research to date has been in general practice. Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nurses working in the PHC setting. Community health nurses are well placed to provide lifestyle intervention as they often see clients in their own homes over an extended period of time, providing the opportunity to offer intervention and enhance motivation through repeated contacts. The overall aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a brief lifestyle intervention delivered by community nurses in routine practice on changes in clients' SNAP risk factors. Methods/Design The trial uses a quasi-experimental design involving four generalist community nursing services in NSW Australia. Services have been randomly allocated to an 'early intervention' group or 'late intervention' (comparison group. 'Early intervention' sites are provided with training and support for nurses in identifying and offering brief lifestyle intervention for clients during routine consultations. 'Late intervention site' provide usual care and will be offered the study intervention following the final data collection point. A total of 720 generalist community nursing clients will be recruited at the time of referral from participating sites. Data collection consists of 1 telephone surveys with clients at baseline, three months and six months to examine change in SNAP risk factors and readiness to change 2 nurse survey at baseline, six and 12 months to examine changes in nurse confidence, attitudes and practices in the assessment and management of SNAP risk factors 3 semi-structured interviews/focus with nurses, managers and clients

  14. An efficacy trial of brief lifestyle intervention delivered by generalist community nurses (CN SNAP trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Chan, Bibiana C; Williams, Anna M; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Harris, Mark F

    2010-02-23

    Lifestyle risk factors, in particular smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity (SNAP) are the main behavioural risk factors for chronic disease. Primary health care (PHC) has been shown to be an effective setting to address lifestyle risk factors at the individual level. However much of the focus of research to date has been in general practice. Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nurses working in the PHC setting. Community health nurses are well placed to provide lifestyle intervention as they often see clients in their own homes over an extended period of time, providing the opportunity to offer intervention and enhance motivation through repeated contacts. The overall aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a brief lifestyle intervention delivered by community nurses in routine practice on changes in clients' SNAP risk factors. The trial uses a quasi-experimental design involving four generalist community nursing services in NSW Australia. Services have been randomly allocated to an 'early intervention' group or 'late intervention' (comparison) group. 'Early intervention' sites are provided with training and support for nurses in identifying and offering brief lifestyle intervention for clients during routine consultations. 'Late intervention site' provide usual care and will be offered the study intervention following the final data collection point. A total of 720 generalist community nursing clients will be recruited at the time of referral from participating sites. Data collection consists of 1) telephone surveys with clients at baseline, three months and six months to examine change in SNAP risk factors and readiness to change 2) nurse survey at baseline, six and 12 months to examine changes in nurse confidence, attitudes and practices in the assessment and management of SNAP risk factors 3) semi-structured interviews/focus with nurses, managers and clients in 'early intervention' sites to explore the

  15. Characterisation of a Novel Retrovirus and a dsDNA Virus Infecting the Coral Algal Endosymbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynberg, K. D.; Neave, M. J.; Clode, P. L.; Voolstra, C. R.; Brownlee, C.; Laffy, P.; Webster, N.; Levin, R.; Wood-Charlson, E.; van Oppen, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Research into viruses associated with coral reefs is a newly emerging field. Corals form an important symbiotic relationship with the dinoflagellate species Symbiodinium, which the coral relies heavily upon for nutrients and calcification. Coral bleaching is the result of disruption of this symbiosis when the algae and/or its photosynthetic pigments are lost from the coral tissues. Environmental stressors, including elevated sea surface temperatures and increased UV light exposure, have been implicated in coral bleaching. We set out to test the hypothesis that Symbiodinium in culture plays host to a latent virus that switches to a lytic infection under stress, such as UV exposure or elevated temperature. Analysis of Symbiodinium cultures (isolated from corals on the Great Barrier Reef) using flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed an active viral infection was ongoing, regardless of experimental conditions. Morphological analysis using TEM revealed filamentous and icosahedral virus-like particles associated with Symbiodinium cultures. We present genomic data of the virus assemblages isolated from cultured Symbiodinium cells that indicate this dinoflagellate is targeted by both a dsDNA virus, related to members of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large dsDNA Virus family (NCLDV), and a novel ssRNA virus related to the Orthoretrovirinae. Further investigations are underway to detect viruses in freshly isolated Symbiodinium from reef corals and to compare these with viruses observed in laboratory cultures of this symbiotic alga. We aim to develop molecular diagnostic probes to detect viruses in field samples to help monitor and assess the impact of viruses in coral bleaching and other climate change-related events, which have huge implications for the health of coral reefs to future global climate scenarios.

  16. A Generalist Protist Predator Enables Coexistence in Multitrophic Predator-Prey Systems Containing a Phage and the Bacterial Predator Bdellovibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Johnke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex ecosystems harbor multiple predators and prey species whose direct and indirect interactions are under study. In particular, the combined effects of predator diversity and resource preference on prey removal are not known. To understand the effect of interspecies interactions, combinations of micro-predators—i.e., protists (generalists, predatory bacteria (semi-specialists, and phages (specialists—and bacterial prey were tracked over a 72-h period in miniature membrane bioreactors. While specialist predators alone drove their preferred prey to extinction, the inclusion of a generalist resulted in uniform losses among prey species. Most importantly, presence of a generalist predator enabled coexistence of all predators and prey. As the generalist predator also negatively affected the other predators, we suggest that resource partitioning between predators and the constant availability of resources for bacterial growth due to protist predation stabilizes the system and keeps its diversity high. The appearance of resistant prey strains and subsequent evolution of specialist predators unable to infect the ancestral prey implies that multitrophic communities are able to persist and stabilize themselves. Interestingly, the appearance of BALOs and phages unable to infect their prey was only observed for the BALO or phage in the absence of additional predators or prey species indicating that competition between predators might influence coevolutionary dynamics.

  17. The effect of generalist and specialist care on quality of life in asthma patients with and without allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Nolte, Hendrik; Backer, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of asthma and rhinitis patients is often provided by both generalists (GPs) and specialists (SPs). Studies have shown differences in clinical outcomes of treatment between these settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GP and SP care on health-related quality of life...

  18. A Ten Year Follow-Up Investigation of Preservice Generalist Primary Teachers' Background and Confidence in Teaching Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study involving 138 NSW preservice generalist teachers and compares them with similar findings from a similar group of students from a previous study. Students' perceptions of their background in formal music education and their confidence in teaching music lessons are analysed. The paper also examines the data…

  19. Host generalists and specialists emerging side by side: an analysis of evolutionary patterns in the cosmopolitan chewing louse genus Menacanthus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinů, Jana; Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Gustafsson, D. L.; Štefka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 63-73 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Host specificity * Specialist * Generalist * Population structure * Geographic distribution * Menacanthus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  20. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  1. Genetic architecture of pollination syndrome transition between hummingbird-specialist and generalist species in the genus Rhytidophyllum (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermine Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to pollinators is a key factor of diversification in angiosperms. The Caribbean sister genera Rhytidophyllum and Gesneria present an important diversification of floral characters. Most of their species can be divided in two major pollination syndromes. Large-open flowers with pale colours and great amount of nectar represent the generalist syndrome, while the hummingbird-specialist syndrome corresponds to red tubular flowers with a less important nectar volume. Repeated convergent evolution toward the generalist syndrome in this group suggests that such transitions rely on few genes of moderate to large effect. To test this hypothesis, we built a linkage map and performed a QTL detection for divergent pollination syndrome traits by crossing one specimen of the generalist species Rhytidophyllum auriculatum with one specimen of the hummingbird pollinated R. rupincola. Using geometric morphometrics and univariate traits measurements, we found that floral shape among the second-generation hybrids is correlated with morphological variation observed between generalist and hummingbird-specialist species at the genus level. The QTL analysis showed that colour and nectar volume variation between syndromes involve each one major QTL while floral shape has a more complex genetic basis and rely on few genes of moderate effect. Finally, we did not detect any genetic linkage between the QTLs underlying those traits. This genetic independence of traits could have facilitated evolution toward optimal syndromes.

  2. Technology and Early Science Education: Examining Generalist Primary School Teachers' Views on Tacit Knowledge Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For some time a central issue has occupied early science education discussions--primary student classroom experiences and the resulting attitudes towards science. This has in part been linked to generalist teachers' own knowledge of science topics and pedagogical confidence. Recent research in cognitive development has examined the role of…

  3. Cumulative effects of transgenerational induction on plant palatability to generalist and specialist herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Neylan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbivore damage can induce anti-herbivore traits in plants. However, there is little data regarding how these induced traits affect a plant's palatability (an important factor in determining the likelihood and magnitude of herbivore damage across multiple generations post-induction, or whether the effect of transgenerational induction differs between generalist and specialist herbivores. Here we used palatability as a measure of the effects of transgenerational defensive induction in wild radish plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether generalist (slugs and specialist (caterpillars of the white cabbage butterfly herbivores' preference for wild radish differed depending on the number of previous generations that experienced herbivory. We found lowered palatability in plants with two or three inductions in their past in the case of generalist slugs, while palatability to a specialist herbivore was not affected by transgenerational induction. We conclude that the history of herbivory experienced by a plant's ancestors over multiple generations may play an important role in its ability to defend itself against generalist herbivores, but not against the specialists with whom they have co-evolved. Our findings suggest that the effects that multiple past inductions may have on palatability down the family line can be expected to have ecological and evolutionary implications.

  4. Task dynamics in self-organising task groups : expertise, motivational, and performance differences of specialists and generalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Kees; Jager, Wander; Molleman, Eric

    Multi-agent simulation is applied to explore how different types of task variety cause workgroups to change their task allocation accordingly. We studied two groups, generalists and specialists. We hypothesised that the performance of the specialists would decrease when task variety increases. The

  5. Litter chemistry, community shift, and non-additive effects drive litter decomposition changes following invasion by a generalist pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest pathogens have strong potential to shape ecosystem function by altering litterfall, microclimate, and changing community structure. We quantified changes in litter decomposition from a set of distinct diseases caused by Phytophthora ramorum, an exotic generalist pathogen. Phytophthora ramorum causes leaf blight and...

  6. "Good Enough" Psychiatric Residency Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: Challenges, Choice Points, and a Model Generalist Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Brandon T; Gunderson, John G

    2016-01-01

    While the public health burden posed by borderline personality disorder (BPD) rivals that associated with other major mental illnesses, the prevailing disposition of psychiatrists toward the disorder remains characterized by misinformation, stigma, aversive attitudes, and insufficient familiarity with effective generalist treatments that can be delivered in nonspecialized health care settings. Residency training programs are well positioned to better equip the next generation of psychiatrists to address these issues, but no consensus or guidelines currently exist for what and how residents should be taught about managing BPD. Instead, disproportionately limited curricular time, teaching of non-evidence-based approaches, and modeling of conceptually confused combinations of techniques drawn from specialty BPD treatments are offered. In this article, we (1) explain why training in a generalist model is sensible and why alternative approaches are not appropriate for residents, (2) propose a plan for giving residents adequate training via a generalist model, highlighting minimal didactic and clinical-training objectives (dubbed "core competencies" and "milestones") and a model curriculum developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Hospital residency program, and (3) describe obstacles to implementation of effective generalist training posed by infrastructural, faculty-centered, and resident-centered variables.

  7. Aiptasia as a model to study metabolic diversity and specificity in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses

    KAUST Repository

    Raedecker, Nils

    2017-11-23

    The symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium provides the foundation of coral reefs in oligotrophic waters. Understanding the nutrient-exchange between these partners is key to identifying the fundamental mechanisms behind this symbiosis. However, deciphering the individual role of host and algal partners in the uptake and cycling of nutrients has proven difficult, given the endosymbiotic nature of this relationship. In this study, we highlight the advantages of the emerging model system Aiptasia to investigate the metabolic diversity and specificity of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. For this, we combined traditional measurements with nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling to investigate carbon and nitrogen cycling both at the organismal scale and the cellular scale. Our results suggest that the individual nutrient assimilation by hosts and symbionts depends on the identity of their respective symbiotic partner. Further, δ13C enrichment patterns revealed that alterations in carbon fixation rates only affected carbon assimilation in the cnidarian host but not the algal symbiont, suggesting a \\'selfish\\' character of this symbiotic association. Based on our findings, we identify new venues for future research regarding the role and regulation of nutrient exchange in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In this context, the model system approach outlined in this study constitutes a powerful tool set to address these questions.

  8. dinoref: A curated dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) reference database for the 18S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Solenn; Piredda, Roberta; Vaulot, Daniel; Montresor, Marina; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Sarno, Diana

    2018-03-30

    Dinoflagellates are a heterogeneous group of protists present in all aquatic ecosystems where they occupy various ecological niches. They play a major role as primary producers, but many species are mixotrophic or heterotrophic. Environmental metabarcoding based on high-throughput sequencing is increasingly applied to assess diversity and abundance of planktonic organisms, and reference databases are definitely needed to taxonomically assign the huge number of sequences. We provide an updated 18S rRNA reference database of dinoflagellates: dinoref. Sequences were downloaded from genbank and filtered based on stringent quality criteria. All sequences were taxonomically curated, classified taking into account classical morphotaxonomic studies and molecular phylogenies, and linked to a series of metadata. dinoref includes 1,671 sequences representing 149 genera and 422 species. The taxonomic assignation of 468 sequences was revised. The largest number of sequences belongs to Gonyaulacales and Suessiales that include toxic and symbiotic species. dinoref provides an opportunity to test the level of taxonomic resolution of different 18S barcode markers based on a large number of sequences and species. As an example, when only the V4 region is considered, 374 of the 422 species included in dinoref can still be unambiguously identified. Clustering the V4 sequences at 98% similarity, a threshold that is commonly applied in metabarcoding studies, resulted in a considerable underestimation of species diversity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cyclic imine toxins from dinoflagellates: a growing family of potent antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, Jordi; Marchot, Pascale; Aráoz, Rómulo; Benoit, Evelyne; Iorga, Bogdan I; Zakarian, Armen; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Servent, Denis

    2017-08-01

    We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model. The dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii / A. peruvianum have been implicated in the biosynthesis of gymnodimines and spirolides, while Vulcanodinium rugosum is the producer of pinnatoxins and portimine. The cyclic imine toxins are characterized by a macrocyclic skeleton comprising 14-27 carbon atoms, flanked by two conserved moieties, the cyclic imine and the spiroketal ring system. These phycotoxins generally display high affinity and broad specificity for the muscle type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a feature consistent with their binding site at the receptor subunit interfaces, composed of residues highly conserved among all nAChRs, and explaining the diverse toxicity among animal species. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. A nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry study of dinoflagellate functional diversity in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R; Tonk, Linda; Dove, Sophie; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoppe, Peter; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Meibom, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional interactions between corals and symbiotic dinoflagellate algae lie at the heart of the structural foundation of coral reefs. Whilst the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium has attracted particular interest because of its contribution to the sensitivity of corals to environmental changes and bleaching (i.e. disruption of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis), very little is known about the in hospite metabolic capabilities of different Symbiodinium types. Using a combination of stable isotopic labelling and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated the ability of the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, and Symbiodinium C or D types, to assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (via photosynthesis) and nitrogen (as ammonium). Our results indicate that Symbiodinium types from two clades naturally associated with I. palifera possess different metabolic capabilities. The Symbiodinium C type fixed and passed significantly more carbon and nitrogen to its coral host than the D type. This study provides further insights into the metabolic plasticity among different Symbiodinium types in hospite and strengthens the evidence that the more temperature-tolerant Symbiodinium D type may be less metabolically beneficial for its coral host under non-stressful conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The MicroRNA Repertoire of Symbiodinium, the Dinoflagellate Symbiont of Reef-Building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous microRNAs and potential gene targets, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over nine experimental treatments of cultures from the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. A1, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals. We identified a total of 75 novel smRNAs in Symbiodinum sp. A1 that share stringent key features with functional microRNAs from other model organisms. A subset of 38 smRNAs was predicted independently over all nine treatments and their putative gene targets were identified. We found 3,187 animal-like target sites in the 3’UTRs of 12,858 mRNAs and 53 plantlike target sites in 51,917 genes. Furthermore, we identified the core RNAi protein machinery in Symbiodinium. Integration of smRNA and mRNA expression profiling identified a variety of processes that could be under microRNA control, e.g. regulation of translation, DNA modification, and chromatin silencing. Given that Symbiodinium seems to have a paucity of transcription factors and differentially expressed genes, identification and characterization of its smRNA repertoire establishes the possibility of a range of gene regulatory mechanisms in dinoflagellates acting post-transcriptionally.

  12. Effects of macronutrient additions on nickel uptake and distribution in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Huasheng; Wang Minghua; Huang Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Dazhi, E-mail: dzwang@xmu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University/Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, No. 192, Daxue Road, Siming Zone, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The influences of macronutrient additions on nickel (Ni) uptake and distribution in the subcellular structures and macromolecular components of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were examined using a radioisotope tracer method. The results showed that nitrate addition enhanced the uptake of Ni by P. donghaiense, whereas phosphate addition inhibited Ni uptake at high-Ni concentration. Nitrate or phosphate addition significantly affected Ni distribution in the subcellular structures and components. The majority of Ni was found in the soluble substances (>70%) and in the proteins (55.0-79.6%) of the algal cells. Urea reduced the Ni content in the amino acid-carbohydrate but elevated its content in proteins, and shown significantly correlated with the protein content of the algal cells. Thus, nutrient enrichment could influence both metal uptake and its distribution in the subcellular structures and components of the phytoplankton, as well as its subsequent transfer in marine food chains. - Macronutrient additions significantly affected nickel uptake and distribution in the subcellular substructures and components of the dinoflagellate.

  13. Morphological variation and phylogenetic analysis of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aureolum from a tributary of Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Egerton, Todd A; Kong, Lesheng; Marshall, Harold G

    2008-01-01

    Cultures of four strains of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aureolum (Hulburt) G. Hansen were established from the Elizabeth River, a tidal tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded large sub-unit rDNA sequencing, and culturing observations were conducted to further characterize this species. Observations of morphology included: a multiple structured apical groove; a peduncle located between the emerging points of the two flagella; pentagonal and hexagonal vesicles on the amphiesma; production and germination of resting cysts; variation in the location of the nucleus within the center of the cell; a longitudinal ventral concavity; and considerable variation in cell width/length and overall cell size. A fish bioassay using juvenile sheepshead minnows detected no ichthyotoxicity from any of the strains over a 48-h period. Molecular analysis confirmed the dinoflagellate was conspecific with G. aureolum strains from around the world, and formed a cluster along with several other Gymnodinium species. Morphological evidence suggests that further research is necessary to examine the relationship between G. aureolum and a possibly closely related species Gymnodinium maguelonnense.

  14. Morphological transition in kleptochloroplasts after ingestion in the dinoflagellates Amphidinium poecilochroum and Gymnodinium aeruginosum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Ryo; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2013-09-01

    The unarmoured marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium poecilochroum and the unarmoured freshwater dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aeruginosum both belonging to the same clade, are known to possess cryptomonad-derived kleptochloroplasts. Previous studies revealed that G. aeruginosum can synchronise the division of the chloroplast with its own cell division while no simultaneous division takes place in A. poecilochroum, which is interpreted to mean that state of kleptochloroplastidy in G. aeruginosum is closer to that of the initial acquisition of the 'true chloroplast' within the lineage. Although the general ultrastructure of these two species has been reported, the changes in the kleptochloroplast with time have never been followed. We observed morphological changes in kleptochloroplasts of A. poecilochroum and G. aeruginosum following the ingestion of cryptomonad cells, using light and transmission electron microscopes. In A. poecilochroum, the cryptomonad ejectosomes, mitochondria and cytoplasm were all actively transferred into digestive vacuoles within 1h of ingestion. The chloroplasts were deformed and the cryptomonad nucleus was digested after 3h. By contrast, in G. aeruginosum, the cryptomonad cytoplasm and nucleus were retained for 24h following ingestion, and the chloroplast was substantially enlarged. These differences imply that the retention of the cryptomonad nucleus is important for the maintenance of the chloroplast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial Genes of Dinoflagellates Are Transcribed by a Nuclear-Encoded Single-Subunit RNA Polymerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ying Teng

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are a large group of algae that contribute significantly to marine productivity and are essential photosynthetic symbionts of corals. Although these algae have fully-functioning mitochondria and chloroplasts, both their organelle genomes have been highly reduced and the genes fragmented and rearranged, with many aberrant transcripts. However, nothing is known about their RNA polymerases. We cloned and sequenced the gene for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial polymerase (RpoTm of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra and showed that the protein presequence targeted a GFP construct into yeast mitochondria. The gene belongs to a small gene family, which includes a variety of 3'-truncated copies that may have originated by retroposition. The catalytic C-terminal domain of the protein shares nine conserved sequence blocks with other single-subunit polymerases and is predicted to have the same fold as the human enzyme. However, the N-terminal (promoter binding/transcription initiation domain is not well-conserved. In conjunction with the degenerate nature of the mitochondrial genome, this suggests a requirement for novel accessory factors to ensure the accurate production of functional mRNAs.

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cell cycle of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms in the coastal zone, which has resulted in adverse effects on the marine ecosystem and public health, and has become a global concern. Knowledge of cell cycle regulation in proliferating cells is essential for understanding bloom dynamics, and so this study compared the protein profiles of Prorocentrum donghaiense at different cell cycle phases and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that the synchronized cells of P. donghaiense completed a cell cycle within 24 hours and cell division was phased with the diurnal cycle. Comparison of the protein profiles at four cell cycle phases (G1, S, early and late G2/M showed that 53 protein spots altered significantly in abundance. Among them, 41 were identified to be involved in a variety of biological processes, e.g. cell cycle and division, RNA metabolism, protein and amino acid metabolism, energy and carbon metabolism, oxidation-reduction processes, and ABC transport. The periodic expression of these proteins was critical to maintain the proper order and function of the cell cycle. This study, to our knowledge, for the first time revealed the major biological processes occurring at different cell cycle phases which provided new insights into the mechanisms regulating the cell cycle and growth of dinoflagellates.

  17. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  18. Effects of diet breadth on autogenous chemical defense of a generalist grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C G; Hess, T A; Whitman, D W; Silk, P J; Blum, M S

    1987-02-01

    The lubber grasshopper,Romalea guttata, produces a metathoracic defensive secretion containing primarily phenolics and quinones. This insect feeds on a wide range of plant species. Insects reared on an artificial diet and a diet of onion,Allium canadense, had secretions that contained fewer compounds, lower concentrations of compounds, and markedly altered relative composition of components compared to insects reared on a varied diet of 26 plant species that included onion. The study demonstrates that diet breadth has a major effect on the quality and quantity of the autogenous defensive secretion of this generalist herbivore. The results are compared to diet effects known in chemically defended specialists. Two possible mechanisms explaining the effects of diet breadth are proposed: one involves changes in precursor availability with changing diet breadth; the other suggests that physiological stress due to diet restriction changes allocation of resources to chemical defense.

  19. [How many generalists and how many specialists does orthopedics and traumatology need?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, G; Perl, M; Stange, R; Mutschler, M; Jarvers, J S; Münzberg, M

    2013-01-01

    The training in orthopedic and trauma surgery has changed significantly with the introduction of the new residency program. The contents taught have already been reduced in breadth and the current developments in the outpatient and particularly in the clinical landscape also contribute to increasing specialization. This trend favors structures in which comprehensive medical care for the population in Germany in orthopedic and trauma surgery appears to be endangered and in which the future efforts for e.g. polytraumatised patients need to be questioned. The Young Forum of the German Society for Orthopedics and Traumatology actively accompanies a discussion about the necessity and value of generalists to ensure the level of care in Germany in addition to the specialists.

  20. Oncology Nurse Generalist Competencies: Oncology Nursing Society’s Initiative to Establish Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaguski, Michele; George, Kim; Bruce, Susan; Brucker, Edie; Leija, Carol; LeFebvre, Kristine; Thompson Mackey, Heather

    2017-09-25

    A project team was formulated by the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) to create evidence-based oncology nurse generalist (ONG) competencies to establish best practices in competency development, including high-risk tasks, critical thinking criteria, and measurement of key areas for oncology nurses. This article aims to describe the process and the development of ONG competencies. This article describes how the ONG competencies were accomplished, and includes outcomes and suggestions for use in clinical practice. Institutions can use the ONG competencies to assess and develop competency programs, offer unique educational strategies to measure and appraise proficiency, and establish processes to foster a workplace environment committed to mentoring and teaching future oncology nurses. 2017 Oncology Nursing Society

  1. Bird communities of the arctic shrub tundra of Yamal: habitat specialists and generalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Sokolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km(2. Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone.

  2. Bird Communities of the Arctic Shrub Tundra of Yamal: Habitat Specialists and Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vasiliy; Ehrich, Dorothée; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Sokolov, Alexander; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km2). Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. Conclusion/Significance If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone. PMID:23239978

  3. Sensitivity to assumptions in models of generalist predation on a cyclic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiopoulos, Jason; Graham, Kate; Smout, Sophie; Asseburg, Christian; Redpath, Stephen; Thirgood, Simon; Hudson, Peter; Harwood, John

    2007-10-01

    Ecological theory predicts that generalist predators should damp or suppress long-term periodic fluctuations (cycles) in their prey populations and depress their average densities. However, the magnitude of these impacts is likely to vary depending on the availability of alternative prey species and the nature of ecological mechanisms driving the prey cycles. These multispecies effects can be modeled explicitly if parameterized functions relating prey consumption to prey abundance, and realistic population dynamical models for the prey, are available. These requirements are met by the interaction between the Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) and three of its prey species in the United Kingdom, the Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis), the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and the Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). We used this system to investigate how the availability of alternative prey and the way in which prey dynamics are modeled might affect the behavior of simple trophic networks. We generated cycles in one of the prey species (Red Grouse) in three different ways: through (1) the interaction between grouse density and macroparasites, (2) the interaction between grouse density and male grouse aggressiveness, and (3) a generic, delayed density-dependent mechanism. Our results confirm that generalist predation can damp or suppress grouse cycles, but only when the densities of alternative prey are low. They also demonstrate that diametrically opposite indirect effects between pairs of prey species can occur together in simple systems. In this case, pipits and grouse are apparent competitors, whereas voles and grouse are apparent facilitators. Finally, we found that the quantitative impacts of the predator on prey density differed among the three models of prey dynamics, and these differences were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimation and environmental stochasticity.

  4. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities.

  5. Tree diversity promotes generalist herbivore community patterns in a young subtropical forest experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Bruelheide, Helge; Chen, Xufei; Eichenberg, David; Kröber, Wenzel; Xu, Xuwen; Xu, Liting; Schuldt, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Stand diversification is considered a promising management approach to increasing the multifunctionality and ecological stability of forests. However, how tree diversity affects higher trophic levels and their role in regulating forest functioning is not well explored particularly for (sub)tropical regions. We analyzed the effects of tree species richness, community composition, and functional diversity on the abundance, species richness, and beta diversity of important functional groups of herbivores and predators in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in south-east China. Tree species richness promoted the abundance, but not the species richness, of the dominant, generalist herbivores (especially, adult leaf chewers), probably through diet mixing effects. In contrast, tree richness did not affect the abundance of more specialized herbivores (larval leaf chewers, sap suckers) or predators (web and hunting spiders), and only increased the species richness of larval chewers. Leaf chemical diversity was unrelated to the arthropod data, and leaf morphological diversity only positively affected oligophagous herbivore and hunting spider abundance. However, richness and abundance of all arthropods showed relationships with community-weighted leaf trait means (CWM). The effects of trait diversity and CWMs probably reflect specific nutritional or habitat requirements. This is supported by the strong effects of tree species composition and CWMs on herbivore and spider beta diversity. Although specialized herbivores are generally assumed to determine herbivore effects in species-rich forests, our study suggests that generalist herbivores can be crucial for trophic interactions. Our results indicate that promoting pest control through stand diversification might require a stronger focus on identifying the best-performing tree species mixtures.

  6. Unbiased transcriptional comparisons of generalist and specialist herbivores feeding on progressively defenseless Nicotiana attenuata plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Govind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivore feeding elicits dramatic increases in defenses, most of which require jasmonate (JA signaling, and against which specialist herbivores are thought to be better adapted than generalist herbivores. Unbiased transcriptional analyses of how neonate larvae cope with these induced plant defenses are lacking.We created cDNA microarrays for Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens separately, by spotting normalized midgut-specific cDNA libraries created from larvae that fed for 24 hours on MeJA-elicited wild-type (WT Nicotiana attenuata plants. These microarrays were hybridized with labeled probes from neonates that fed for 24 hours on WT and isogenic plants progressively silenced in JA-mediated defenses (N: nicotine; N/PI: N and trypsin protease inhibitors; JA: all JA-mediated defenses. H. virescens neonates regulated 16 times more genes than did M. sexta neonates when they fed on plants silenced in JA-mediated defenses, and for both species, the greater the number of defenses silenced in the host plant (JA > N/PI > N, the greater were the number of transcripts regulated in the larvae. M. sexta larvae tended to down-regulate while H. virescens larvae up- and down-regulated transcripts from the same functional categories of genes. M. sexta larvae regulated transcripts in a diet-specific manner, while H. virescens larvae regulated a similar suite of transcripts across all diet types.The observations are consistent with the expectation that specialists are better adapted than generalist herbivores to the defense responses elicited in their host plants by their feeding. While M. sexta larvae appear to be better adapted to N. attenuata's defenses, some of the elicited responses remain effective defenses against both herbivore species. The regulated genes provide novel insights into larval adaptations to N. attenuata's induced defenses, and represent potential targets for plant-mediated RNAi to falsify hypotheses about the process of adaptation.

  7. Geographic variation in feeding preference of a generalist herbivore: the importance of seaweed chemical defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Amanda T; Sotka, Erik E

    2013-08-01

    The ecological impacts of generalist herbivores depend on feeding preferences, which can vary across and within herbivore species. Among mesoherbivores, geographic variation in host use can occur because host plants have a more restricted geographic distribution than does the herbivore, or there is local evolution in host preference, or both. We tested the role of local evolution using the marine amphipod Ampithoe longimana by rearing multiple amphipod populations from three regions (subtropical Florida, warm-temperate North Carolina and cold-temperate New England) and assaying their feeding preferences toward ten seaweeds that occur in some but not all regions. Six of the ten seaweeds produce anti-herbivore secondary metabolites, and we detected geographic variation in feeding preference toward five (Dictyota menstrualis, Dictyota ciliolata, Fucus distichus, Chondrus crispus and Padina gymnospora, but not Caulerpa sertularioides). Amphipod populations that co-occur with a chemically-rich seaweed tended to have stronger feeding preferences for that seaweed, relative to populations that do not co-occur with the seaweed. A direct test indicated that geographic variation in feeding preference toward one seaweed (D. ciliolata) is mediated by feeding tolerance for lipophilic secondary metabolites. Among the four seaweeds that produce no known secondary metabolites (Acanthophora, Ectocarpus, Gracilaria and Hincksia/Feldmannia spp.), we detected no geographic variation in feeding preference. Thus, populations are more likely to evolve greater feeding preferences for local hosts when those hosts produce secondary metabolites. Microevolution of feeding behaviors of generalist marine consumers likely depends on the availability and identity of local hosts and the strength of their chemical defenses.

  8. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A.; Long, James N.

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine’s absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  9. Purification and partial genome characterization of the bacterial endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti from the fat bodies of cockroaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Akinori

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic relationships between intracellular bacteria and eukaryotes are widespread in nature. Genome sequencing of the bacterial partner has provided a number of key insights into the basis of these symbioses. A challenging aspect of sequencing symbiont genomes is separating the bacteria from the host tissues. In the present study, we describe a simple method of endosymbiont purification from complex environment, using Blattabacterium cuenoti inhabiting in cockroaches as a model system. Findings B. cuenoti cells were successfully purified from the fat bodies of the cockroach Panesthia angustipennis by a combination of slow- and fast-speed centrifugal fractionations, nylon-membrane filtration, and centrifugation with Percoll solutions. We performed pulse-field electrophoresis, diagnostic PCR and random sequencing of the shoutgun library. These experiments confirmed minimal contamination of host and mitochondrial DNA. The genome size and the G+C content of B. cuenoti were inferred to be 650 kb and 32.1 ± 7.6%, respectively. Conclusion The present study showed successful purification and characterization of the genome of B. cuenoti. Our methodology should be applicable for future symbiont genome sequencing projects. An advantage of the present purification method is that each step is easily performed with ordinary microtubes and a microcentrifuge, and without DNase treatment.

  10. The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis induces the expression of host antioxidant proteins in an Aedes albopictus cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J Brennan

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria which commonly infect arthropods. They are maternally inherited and capable of altering host development, sex determination, and reproduction. Reproductive manipulations include feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The mechanism by which Wolbachia avoid destruction by the host immune response is unknown. Generation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS by the host are among the first lines of traditional antimicrobial defense. Previous work shows no link between a Wolbachia infection and the induction of AMPs. Here we compare the expression of protein in a cell line naturally infected with Wolbachia and an identical cell line cured of the infection through the use of antibiotics. Protein extracts of each cell line were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC/MS/MS. Our results show the upregulation of host antioxidant proteins, which are active against ROS generated by aerobic cell metabolism and during an immune response. Furthermore, flow cytometric and microscopic analysis demonstrates that ROS production is significantly greater in Wolbachia-infected mosquito cells and is associated with endosymbiont-containing vacuoles located in the host cell cytoplasm. This is the first empirical data supporting an association between Wolbachia and the insect antioxidant system.

  11. Integration of molecular, ecological, morphological and endosymbiont data for species delimitation within the Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, M; Gómez-Zurita, J; Monti, M M; Navone, P; Bernardo, U

    2012-03-01

    Integrative taxonomy is a recently developed approach that uses multiple lines of evidence such as molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data to test species limits, and it stands as one of the most promising approaches to species delimitation in taxonomically difficult groups. The Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) represents an interesting taxonomical and ecological study case, as it is characterized by a lack of informative morphological characters, deep mitochondrial divergence, and is susceptible to infection by parthenogenesis-inducing Rickettsia. We tested the effectiveness of an integrative taxonomy approach in delimiting species within the P. soemius complex. We analysed two molecular markers (COI and ITS2) using different methods, performed multivariate analysis on morphometric data and exploited ecological data such as host-plant system associations, geographical separation, and the prevalence, type and effects of endosymbiont infection. The challenge of resolving different levels of resolution in the data was met by setting up a formal procedure of data integration within and between conflicting independent lines of evidence. An iterative corroboration process of multiple sources of data eventually indicated the existence of several cryptic species that can be treated as stable taxonomic hypotheses. Furthermore, the integrative approach confirmed a trend towards host specificity within the presumed polyphagous P. soemius and suggested that Rickettsia could have played a major role in the reproductive isolation and genetic diversification of at least two species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Vector transmission of a plant-pathogenic bacterium in the Arsenophonus clade sharing ecological traits with facultative insect endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Sémétey, Olivier; Arneodo, Joel; Lherminier, Jeannine; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The planthopper Pentastiridius leporinus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is the major vector of a nonculturable plant-pathogenic gamma-3 proteobacterium associated with a disease of sugar beet called syndrome "basses richesses" (SBR). The bacterium, here called SBR bacterium, belongs to the Arsenophonous clade, which includes mostly insect-associated facultative symbionts. Assays using field-collected planthopper nymphs and adults were carried out to investigate the interaction of SBR bacterium with the insect vector and its transmission to sugar beet. Field-collected planthoppers showed a percentage of infection that averaged from 57% for early instar nymphs to near 100% for late instar nymphs and emerging adults. SBR bacterium was persistently transmitted by emerging adults. Root-feeding nymphs were able to inoculate SBR bacterium to sugar beet. The bacterium was transmitted vertically from infected parental females to their respective offspring with an average frequency of 30%. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays on dissected planthopper internal organs revealed a high concentration of the bacterium within male and female reproductive organs and within female salivary glands. SBR-like bacteria were observed through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of different insect organs including ovaries, salivary glands, and guts with no evidence for cytological disorders. SBR bacterium seems to share common ecological traits of insect-transmitted plant pathogens and facultative insect endosymbionts suggesting it may have evolved primarily as an insect-associated bacterium.

  13. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  14. BIO-OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE AND THE DIATOM THALASSIOSIRA WEISSFLOGII IN OUTDOOR TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio-optical signatures of harmful algal blooms can be used to define ocean color satellite algorithms. We characterized the bio-optical properties of nutrient-replete cultures of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We cultur...

  15. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE RED TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GENERA GYMNODINIUM AND GYRODINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylogenetic relationships between the red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and other members of the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium have not been studied at the molecular level. G. breve is most noted for its production of brevetoxin, which has been linked to extensive f...

  16. UVR-induced photosynthetic inhibition dominates over DNA damage in marine dinoflagellates exposed to fluctuating solar radiation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, E. Walter; Buma, Anita G. J.; van de Poll, Willem; Fernandez Zenoff, M. Veronica; Villafane, Virginia E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined effect of solar radiation (UV-B (280-315 nm), UWA (315-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm)) and vertical mixing (i.e., fluctuating radiation regimes) on the marine dinoflagellates Gymnodinium chlorophorum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum micans was investigated during the austral spring

  17. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids in two antenna complexes from dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíčalová, Z.; Alster, J.; Hofmann, E.; Khoroshyy, P.; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Polívka, Tomáš; Pšenčík, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1857, č. 4 (2016), s. 341-349 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dinoflagellate * Chlorophyll * Carotenoid * Triplet state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2016

  18. Effects of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A F; Contins, Mariana; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2018-02-02

    Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore. Lytechinus variegatus eggs and sperm were experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (4, 40, 400, and 4000 cells ml -1 ) to test the hypothesis that fertilization success, embryonic and larval development of the sea urchin are negatively affected by the toxic dinoflagellate even at low abundances. Reduced fertilization, developmental failures, embryo and larval mortality, and occurrence of abnormal offspring were evident after exposure to O. cf. ovata. Fertilization decreased when gametes were exposed to high O. cf. ovata abundances (400 and 4000 cells ml -1 ), but just the exposure to the highest abundance significantly reduced fertilization success. Sea urchin early development was affected by O. cf. ovata in a dose-dependent way, high dinoflagellate abundances fully inhibited the early development of L. variegatus. Ostreopsis cf. ovata significantly increased the mortality of sea urchin eggs and embryos in the first hours of exposure (∼1-3 h), regardless of dinoflagellate abundance. Abundances of 400 and 4000 O. cf. ovata cells ml -1 induced significantly higher mortality on sea urchin initial stages in the first hours, and no egg or embryo was found in these treatments after 18 h of incubation. The early echinopluteus larva was only reached in the control and in treatments with low Ostreopsis cf. ovata abundances (4 and 40 cells ml -1 ). The

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T, and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates.

  20. Molybdate:sulfate ratio affects redox metabolism and viability of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, M.P., E-mail: marcelo.barros@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Postgraduate Program in Health Science (Environmental Chemistry), CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hollnagel, H.C. [Pós-Graduação, Faculdade Mario Schenberg, 06710500 Cotia, SP (Brazil); Glavina, A.B. [Postgraduate Program in Health Science (Environmental Chemistry), CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, C.O. [Postgraduate Program in Health Science (Environmental Chemistry), CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo (IQ-USP), São Paulo (Brazil); Ganini, D. [Postgraduate Program in Health Science (Environmental Chemistry), CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 08060070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Dagenais-Bellefeuille, S.; Morse, D. [Departement de Sciences Biologiques, Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H1X 2B2 (Canada); Colepicolo, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo (IQ-USP), São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Molybdenum (Mo) is a key micronutrient for nitrogen and redox metabolism in many microalgae. •Molybdate and (more abundant) sulfate anions compete for uptake, although proper mechanism is still obscure. •Higher concentrations of molybdate in culture medium diminish sulfur content in L. polyedrum. •Mo toxicity was monitored as a function of [Mo]:[sulfate] ratios in L. polyedrum and was linked to oxidative stress. •Induction of xanthine oxidase activity and/or depletion of thiol-dependent antioxidants are suggested as plausible mechanisms to explain Mo toxicity in dinoflagellates. -- Abstract: Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−}), although MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, approximately 25 mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations (from 0 to 200 μM) and three different SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations (3.5 mM, 9.6 mM and 25 mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of

  1. Transcriptomic response of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jillian G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of coastal nutrient sources in the persistence of Karenia brevis red tides in coastal waters of Florida is a contentious issue that warrants investigation into the regulation of nutrient responses in this dinoflagellate. In other phytoplankton studied, nutrient status is reflected by the expression levels of N- and P-responsive gene transcripts. In dinoflagellates, however, many processes are regulated post-transcriptionally. All nuclear encoded gene transcripts studied to date possess a 5' trans-spliced leader (SL sequence suggestive, based on the trypanosome model, of post-transcriptional regulation. The current study therefore sought to determine if the transcriptome of K. brevis is responsive to nitrogen and phosphorus and is informative of nutrient status. Results Microarray analysis of N-depleted K. brevis cultures revealed an increase in the expression of transcripts involved in N-assimilation (nitrate and ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetases relative to nutrient replete cells. In contrast, a transcriptional signal of P-starvation was not apparent despite evidence of P-starvation based on their rapid growth response to P-addition. To study transcriptome responses to nutrient addition, the limiting nutrient was added to depleted cells and changes in global gene expression were assessed over the first 48 hours following nutrient addition. Both N- and P-addition resulted in significant changes in approximately 4% of genes on the microarray, using a significance cutoff of 1.7-fold and p ≤ 10-4. By far, the earliest responding genes were dominated in both nutrient treatments by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, which increased in expression up to 3-fold by 1 h following nutrient addition. PPR proteins are nuclear encoded proteins involved in chloroplast and mitochondria RNA processing. Correspondingly, other functions enriched in response to both nutrients were photosystem and ribosomal genes

  2. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Elise B.; Carter, Susan J.; Pearson, Ann

    2017-09-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of marine sedimentary organic matter is used to resolve long-term histories of pCO2 based on studies indicating a CO2-dependence of photosynthetic carbon isotope fractionation (εP). It recently was proposed that the δ13C values of dinoflagellates, as recorded in fossil dinocysts, might be used as a proxy for pCO2. However, significant questions remain regarding carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates and how such fractionation may impact sedimentary records throughout the Phanerozoic. Here we investigate εP as a function of CO2 concentration and growth rate in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Experiments were conducted in nitrate-limited chemostat cultures. Values of εP were measured on cells having growth rates (μ) of 0.14-0.35 d-1 and aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations of 10.2-63 μmol kg-1 and were found to correlate linearly with μ/[CO2(aq)] (r2 = 0.94) in accord with prior, analogous chemostat investigations with eukaryotic phytoplankton. A maximum fractionation (εf) value of 27‰ was characterized from the intercept of the experiments, representing the first value of εf determined for an algal species employing Form II RubisCO-a structurally and catalytically distinct form of the carbon-fixing enzyme. This value is larger than theoretical predictions for Form II RubisCO and not significantly different from the ∼25‰ εf values observed for taxa employing Form ID RubisCO. We also measured the carbon isotope contents of dinosterol, hexadecanoic acid, and phytol from each experiment, finding that each class of biomarker exhibits different isotopic behavior. The apparent CO2-dependence of εP values in our experiments strengthens the proposal to use dinocyst δ13C values as a pCO2 proxy. Moreover, the similarity between the εf value for A. tamarense and the consensus value of ∼25‰ indicates that the CO2-sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation saturates at similar CO2 levels across all three

  3. Constraints on the vital effect in coccolithophore and dinoflagellate calcite by oxygen isotopic modification of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Michaël; Horner, Tristan J.; Minoletti, Fabrice; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we show that there are independent controls of 18O/16O and 13C/12C fractionation in coccolithophore and dinoflagellate calcite due to the contrasting kinetics of each isotope system. We demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the oxygen isotope fractionation with respect to equilibrium is related to the balance between calcification rate and the replenishment of the internal pool of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). As such, in fast growing cells, such as those of Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica (forming the so-called ;heavy group;), calcification of the internal carbon pool occurs faster than complete isotopic re-adjustment of the internal DIC pool with H2O molecules. Hence, coccoliths reflect the heavy oxygen isotope signature of the CO2 overprinting the whole DIC pool. Conversely, in large and slow growing cells, such as Coccolithus pelagicus ssp. braarudii, complete re-equilibration is achieved due to limited influx of CO2 leading to coccoliths that are precipitated in conditions close to isotopic equilibrium (;equilibrium group;). Species exhibiting the most negative oxygen isotope composition, such as Calcidiscus leptoporus (;light group;), precipitate coccolith under increased pH in the coccolith vesicle, as previously documented by the ;carbonate ion effect;. We suggest that, for the carbon isotope system, any observed deviation from isotopic equilibrium is only ;apparent;, as the carbon isotopic composition in coccolith calcite is controlled by a Rayleigh fractionation originating from preferential incorporation of 12C into organic matter. Therefore, species with low PIC/POC ratios as E. huxleyi and G. oceanica are shifted towards positive carbon isotope values as a result of predominant carbon fixation into the organic matter. By contrast, cells with higher PIC/POC as C. braarudii and C. leptoporus maintain, to some extent, the original negative isotopic composition of the CO2. The calcareous dinoflagellate

  4. The effect of starvation on plastid number and photosynthetic performance in the kleptoplastidic dinoflagellate Amylax triacantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miran; Kim, Kwang Young; Nam, Seung Won; Shin, Woongghi; Yih, Wonho; Park, Myung Gil

    2014-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Amylax triacantha is known to retain plastids of cryptophyte origin by engulfing the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, itself a consumer of cryptophytes. However, there is no information on the fate of the prey's organelles and the photosynthetic performance of the newly retained plastids in A. triacantha. In this study, we conducted a starvation experiment to observe the intracellular organization of the prey's organelles and temporal changes in the photosynthetic efficiency of acquired plastids in A. triacantha. The ultrastructural observations revealed that while the chloroplast-mitochondria complexes and nucleus of cryptophyte were retained by A. triacantha, other ciliate organelles were digested in food vacuoles. Acquired plastids were retained in A. triacantha for about 1 mo and showed photosynthetic activities for about 18 d when measured by a pulse-amplitude modulation fluorometer. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Modeling shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalgae growth in bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Lorenzo; García-Camacho, Francisco; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Contreras-Gómez, Antonio; Molina-Grima, Emilio

    2017-12-01

    The shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalga Karlodinium veneficum was grown in a sparged bubble column photobioreactor. The influence of mass transfer and shear stress on cell growth and physiology (concentration of reactive oxygen species, membrane fluidity and photosynthetic efficiency) was studied, and a model describing cell growth in term of mass transfer and culture parameters (nozzle sparger diameter, air flow rate, and culture height) was developed. The results show that mass transfer limits cell growth at low air-flow rates, whereas the shear stress produced by the presence of bubbles is critically detrimental for air flow rates above 0.1vvm. The model developed in this paper adequately represents the growth of K. veneficum. Moreover, the parameters of the model indicate that bubble rupture is much more harmful for cells than bubble formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    Dinophysis acuminata is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate frequently causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D. acuminata was isolated from Danish coastal waters and cultivated using the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as prey. The roles of food uptake and photosynthesis for the growth...... a minimum food uptake, D. acuminata was not able to maintain photosynthetic growth. At high prey concentrations, 70 to 90% of the gross C uptake can be explained by food uptake. However, at low prey concentrations, only 0 to 55% of the gross C uptake is likely to be derived from food uptake. The data...... indicate that in natural environments, D. acuminata may often be food limited, and, in this situation, photosynthesis may not only be a supplement to the basic nutrition, but rather the primary C source....

  7. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo

    2015-01-01

    formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral.We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying......Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified...... Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro) transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst...

  8. Proteomic profile in Perna viridis after exposed to Prorocentrum lima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Zou, Ying; Weng, Hui-wen; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we compared protein profiles in gills of Perna viridis after exposure to Prorocentrumlima, a dinoflagellate producing DSP toxins, and identified the differential abundances of protein spots using 2D-electrophoresis. After exposure to P. lima, the level of okadaic acid (a main component of DSP toxins) in gills of P. viridis significantly increased at 6 h, but mussels were all apparently healthy without death. Among the 28 identified protein spots by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS, 12 proteins were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the P. lima-exposed mussels. These identified proteins were involved in various biological activities, such as metabolism, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, response to oxidative stress and detoxification. Taken together, our results indicated that the presence of P. lima caused DSP toxins accumulation in mussel gill, and might consequently induce cytoskeletonal disorganization,oxidative stress, a dysfunction in metabolism and ubiquitination/proteasome activity.

  9. Flagellar apparatus and nuclear chambers of the green dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2005-01-01

    The green dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum (BAH ME 100, the type culture) was reexamined with emphasis on the structure of the flagellar apparatus and nuclear envelope. Like other Gymnodinium species, G. chlorophorum possessed a nuclear fibrous connective linking the flagellar apparatus...... present in G. chlorophorum similar to those reported in Gymnodinium aureolum and Gymnodinium nolleri. In contrast to the type species of Gymnodinium, Gymnodinium fuscum, only one nuclear pore was present per chamber. The presence of a feeding tube (peduncle) suggests that G. chlorophorum is mixotrophic....... Although the fine structure of G. chlorophorum revealed its affiliation to the Gymnodinium group the above discrepancies set it apart, indicating that it might belong in a different genus....

  10. Molecular Phylogeny of the Parasitic Dinoflagellate Chytriodinium within the Gymnodinium Clade (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    The dinoflagellate genus Chytriodinium, an ectoparasite of copepod eggs, is reported for the first time in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. We provide the first large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) and Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences, which were identical in both hemispheres for the Atlantic Chytriodinium sp. The first complete small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the Atlantic Chytriodinium sp. suggests that the specimens belong to an undescribed species. This is the first evidence of the split of the Gymnodinium clade: one for the parasitic forms of Chytriodiniaceae (Chytriodinium, Dissodinium), and other clade for the free-living species. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  11. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Aerobic degradation of organic carbon inferred from dinoflagellate cyst decomposition in Southern Ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupinska, Monika; Sachs, Oliver; Sauter, Eberhard J.; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.

    2012-07-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial is an important process influencing atmospheric CO2 concentration and global climate change; therefore it is essential to obtain information on the factors determining its preservation. The Southern Ocean (SO) is believed to play an important role in sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere via burial of OC. Here we investigate the degradation of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) in two short cores from the SO to obtain information on the factors influencing OC preservation. On the basis of the calculated degradation index kt, we conclude that both cores are affected by species-selective aerobic degradation of dinocysts. Further, we calculate a degradation constant k using oxygen exposure time derived from the ages of our cores. The constant k displays a strong relationship with pore-water O2, suggesting that decomposition of OC is dependent on both the bottom- and pore-water O2 concentrations.

  13. Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alkawri, A.A.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    of Cardium edule L. and its possible relation to the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehr. Notas Est. Inst. Biol. Mar., 12, 1-20 (1956). Ramaiah, N., V. Catul, S. Kurian, V. Rodrigues, J.T. Paul, V. Fernandes and C.A. Imtiaz: Analysis of phytoplankton... Nov Dec Jan 2008 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ce lls L 1 10 100 Oct 2007 Nov Dec Jan 2008 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Chapora Dona Pauls Anjuna Siridao Months Months 0.2 1.7 0.3 8.4 0.2 1.2 0.1 0.4 1.7 1 2.7 0.4 0.3 4.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.2 Fig...

  14. Importance of a winter dinoflagellate-microflagellate bloom in the Patuxent River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellner, K. G.; Lacouture, R. V.; Cibik, S. J.; Brindley, A.; Brownlee, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    A dense bloom of Katodinium rotundatum was observed in the Patuxent River estuary from December to February 1989. The dinoflagellate dominated phytoplankton densities reaching 10 8 cells l -1 and contributed up to 1900 μgC l -1 in near-surface depths. The bloom maintained a distinct patch extending over 10-25 km of the estuary or approximately one-third to one-half of the total estuary (salinities from 5-13 ppt) and was restricted to regions immediately upriver of the transition between the shallow upriver (3-4 m) and deeper lower estuary (10 m). Daily measurements collected in the primary bloom area at the same time each day in the study area indicated 80- and 120-fold variations in chlorophyll and cell densities from day to day. Densities of potential grazers in the region were high with rotifers, primarily Synchaeta baltica, reaching densities of 1000 l -1 in early winter, and the copepod Eurytemora affinis reaching levels exceeding 1·15 × 10 5 m -3 in February. Estimates of grazing pressure by these planktonic herbivores indicated substantial grazing losses for the bloom, with up to 67% of bloom biomass consumed day -1 in February. Nutrient concentrations and ratios of N/P during the bloom suggested potentially N-limited conditions; bloom demise was coincident with a shift to high N/P ratios and high river flows. These data as well as other historical data suggest that dinoflagellate blooms in the lower Patuxent River estuary could be the primary source of carbon to the system during the winter and supply a large reservoir of labile organic matter to planktonic secondary producers prior to annual spring diatom blooms in the region.

  15. Gymnoxanthella radiolariae gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate symbiont from solitary polycystine radiolarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Tomoko; Horiguchi, Takeo; Mayama, Shigeki; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellate Gymnoxanthella radiolariae T. Yuasa et T. Horiguchi gen. et sp. nov. isolated from polycystine radiolarians is described herein based on light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Motile cells of G. radiolariae were obtained in culture, and appeared to be unarmored. The cells were 9.1-11.4 μm long and 5.7-9.4 μm wide, and oval to elongate oval in the ventral view. They possessed an counterclockwise horseshoe-shaped apical groove, a nuclear envelope with vesicular chambers, cingulum displacement with one cingulum width, and the nuclear fibrous connective; all of these are characteristics of Gymnodinium sensu stricto (Gymnodinium s.s.). Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicated that G. radiolariae belongs to the clade of Gymnodinium s.s. However, in our molecular phylogenetic trees, G. radiolariae was distantly related to Gymnodinium fuscum, the type species of Gymnodinium. Based on the consistent morphological, genetic, and ecological divergence of our species with the other genera and species of Gymnodinium s.s., we considered it justified to erect a new, separate genus and species G. radiolariae gen. et sp. nov. As for the peridinioid symbiont of radiolarians, Brandtodinium has been erected as a new genus instead of Zooxanthella, but the name Zooxanthella is still valid. Brandtodinium is a junior synonym of Zooxanthella. Our results suggest that at least two dinoflagellate symbiont species, peridinioid Zooxanthella nutricula and gymnodinioid G. radiolariae, exist in radiolarians, and that they may have been mixed and reported as "Z. nutricula" since the 19th century. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Philippe; Moya, Aurélie; Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the

  17. Adaptations to endosymbiosis in a cnidarian-dinoflagellate association: differential gene expression and specific gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ganot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both

  18. Novel insights into the algicidal bacterium DH77-1 killing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoru; Li, Xinyi; Zhou, Yanyan; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Changping; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-06-01

    Algicidal bacteria may play a major role in controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs) dynamics. Bacterium DH77-1 was isolated with high algicidal activity against the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense and identified as Joostella sp. DH77-1. The results showed that DH77-1 exhibited algicidal activity through indirect attack, which excreted active substance into the filtrate. It had a relatively wide host range and the active substance of DH77-1 was relatively stable since temperature, pH and storage condition had no obvious effect on the algicidal activity. The algicidal compound from bacterium DH77-1 was isolated based on activity-guided bioassay and the molecular weight was determined to be 125.88 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, however further identification via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra is ongoing. The physiological responses of algal cells after exposure to the DH77-1 algicidal substances were as follows: the antioxidant system of A. tamarense responded positively in self-defense; total protein content decreased significantly as did the photosynthetic pigment content; superoxide dismutase, peroxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde content increased extraordinarily and algal cell nucleic acid leaked seriously ultimately inducing cell death. Furthermore, DH77-1 is the first record of a Joostella sp. bacterium being algicidal to the harmful dinoflagellate A. tamarense, and the bacterial culture and the active compounds might be potentially used as a bio-agent for controlling harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2017-07-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  20. Late Paleogene-early Neogene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the eastern Equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.

    2018-04-01

    Six dinoflagellate cyst biozones (zone 1-zone 5, subzones 1a and 1b) are recognized in the late Paleogene-early Neogene interval of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959 A), Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin in the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. The biozones are based on palynological analysis of 30 samples covering a 273.2-m interval with generally fair preservation and good to poor recovery. We propose a new age of Late Eocene (Priabonian) for subunit IIB as opposed to the previously published mid-Early Oligocene age (middle Rupelian). This age assignment is mainly based on the presence of Late Eocene marker taxa, such as Hemiplacophora semilunifera and Schematophora speciosa in the lower part of the studied interval. We also document for the first time a hiatus event within dinoflagellate cyst zone 3, based on the last occurrences of several taxa. This interval is assigned to an Early Miocene age and is barren of other microfossils. Furthermore, we propose new last occurrences for two species. The last occurrence of Cerebrocysta bartonensis is observed in the late Aquitanian-early Burdigalian in this study vs. Priabonian-early Rupelian in mid and high latitude regions. Also, the last occurrence of Chiropteridium galea extends to the latest Early Miocene (Burdigalian) in ODP Hole 959 A; this event was previously identified in other studies as Chattian in equatorial regions, and Aquitanian in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. We suspect that these differences are due to physical (offshore vs. nearshore) and latitudinal locations of the areas studied.

  1. The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierangelini, M.; Raven, J.A.; Giordano, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2017), s. 298-307 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell composition * CO 2 * dinoflagellate Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. THE EFFECT OF LABELING INTENSITY, ESTIMATED BY REAL-TIME CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY, ON FLOW CYTOMETRIC APPEARANCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOCHEMICALLY LABELED MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VRIELING, EG; DRAAIJER, A; VANZEIJL, WJM; PEPERZAK, L; GIESKES, WWC; VEENHUIS, M; Zeijl, Wilhelmus J.M. van

    Two different fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugates were used to analyze the effect of labeling intensity on the flow cytometric appearance of marine dinoflagellates labeled with antibodies that specifically recognized the outer cell wall. Location of the labeling was revealed by

  3. DETECTION OF THE ICHTHYOTOXIC DINOFLAGELLATE GYRODINIUM (CF) AUREOLUM AND MORPHOLOGICALLY RELATED GYMNODINIUM SPECIES USING MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES - A SPECIFIC IMMUNOLOGICAL TOOL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VRIELING, EG; PEPERZAK, L; GIESKES, WWC; VEENHUIS, M

    Sixteen monoclonal antibodies which recognize different cell surface antigens of the ichthyotoxic marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cf. aureolum were prepared and characterized for use in identification by both immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Based on the labeling results obtained

  4. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  5. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  6. Improving the skills of rural and remote generalists to manage mental health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Isabelle K; Philip, Tina

    2010-01-01

    People living in rural and remote areas have been found to suffer higher rates of mental illness and psychological distress than their urban counterparts. However, rural and remote Australians also suffer from a lack of specialist mental health services. Mental health consumers are concerned about the lack of access to specialist mental health care and report poor service quality and stigmatizing staff attitudes when presenting with mental health emergencies at acute care facilities. Standards for the Mental Health Workforce released in 2002 promote respect for the individual, their family and carers; best practice in the assessment, early detection and management of acute illness; promotion of mental health and safety; and the prevention of relapse. These standards are for generalists providing care to mentally ill patients; their family and carers in the acute care setting; as well as specialist mental health professionals. Up-skilling generalists in rural and remote areas to respectfully and effectively manage mental health emergency care is a priority. A short course, 'Managing Mental Health Emergencies' was developed by the Australian Rural Nurses and Midwives in 2002. Almost 750 participants had completed the course at the time of the evaluation. The objectives of the course were to: develop an increased knowledge of mental health presentations and gain confidence in managing and assessing mental health clients; gain an understanding of the referral processes in the local environment; gain an insight into the impact of mental health emergencies on individuals, their family and carers; and identify strategies to minimise the impact of managing mental health emergencies on the healthcare team. The model of training matched what is known to be best practice in rural and remote health practitioner development in emergency care, being local, interdisciplinary, and engaging local expert service providers while being overseen by a national steering committee. The

  7. The first transcriptomes from field-collected individual whiteflies ( Bemisia tabaci, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae):  a case study of the endosymbiont composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Tumuhimbise, Robooni; Tairo, Fred; Guo, Jian-Yang; Vrielink, Alice; Blythe, Amanda; Kinene, Tonny; De Marchi, Bruno; Kehoe, Monica A.; Tanz, Sandra; Boykin, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Bemisia tabaci species ( B. tabaci), or whiteflies, are the world’s most devastating insect pests. They cause billions of dollars (US) of damage each year, and are leaving farmers in the developing world food insecure. Currently, all publically available transcriptome data for B. tabaci are generated from pooled samples, which can lead to high heterozygosity and skewed representation of the genetic diversity. The ability to extract enough RNA from a single whitefly has remained elusive due to their small size and technological limitations. Methods: In this study, we optimised a single whitefly RNA extraction procedure, and sequenced the transcriptome of four individual adult Sub-Saharan Africa 1 (SSA1) B. tabaci. Transcriptome sequencing resulted in 39-42 million raw reads. De novo assembly of trimmed reads yielded between 65,000-162,000 Contigs across B. tabaci transcriptomes. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrion cytochrome I oxidase (mtCOI) grouped the four whiteflies within the SSA1 clade. BLASTn searches on the four transcriptomes identified five endosymbionts; the primary endosymbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and four secondary endosymbionts: Arsenophonus, Wolbachia, Rickettsia, and Cardinium spp. that were predominant across all four SSA1 B. tabaci samples with prevalence levels of between 54.1 to 75%. Amino acid alignments of the NusG gene of P. aleyrodidarum for the SSA1 B. tabaci transcriptomes of samples WF2 and WF2b revealed an eleven amino acid residue deletion that was absent in samples WF1 and WF2a. Comparison of the protein structure of the NusG protein from P. aleyrodidarum in SSA1 with known NusG structures showed the deletion resulted in a shorter D loop. Conclusions: The use of field-collected specimens means time and money will be saved in future studies using single whitefly transcriptomes in monitoring vector and viral interactions. Our method is applicable to any small organism where RNA quantity has limited

  8. Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae) as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenrath, Mona; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Handy, Sara M; Delwiche, Charles F; Leander, Brian S

    2009-05-25

    Dinoflagellates represent a major lineage of unicellular eukaryotes with unparalleled diversity and complexity in morphological features. The monophyly of dinoflagellates has been convincingly demonstrated, but the interrelationships among dinoflagellate lineages still remain largely unresolved. Warnowiid dinoflagellates are among the most remarkable eukaryotes known because of their possession of highly elaborate ultrastructural systems: pistons, nematocysts, and ocelloids. Complex organelles like these are evolutionary innovations found only in a few athecate dinoflagellates. Moreover, the taxonomy of warnowiids is extremely confusing and inferences about the evolutionary history of this lineage are mired by the absence of molecular phylogenetic data from any member of the group. In this study, we provide the first molecular phylogenetic data for warnowiids and couple them with a review of warnowiid morphological features in order to formulate a hypothetical framework for understanding character evolution within the group. These data also enabled us to evaluate the evolutionary relationship(s) between warnowiids and the other group of dinoflagellates with complex organelles: polykrikoids. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences demonstrated that warnowiids form a well-supported clade that falls within the more inclusive Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade. These data also confirmed that polykrikoids are members of the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade as well; however, a specific sister relationship between the warnowiid clade and the polykrikoid clade was unresolved in all of our analyses. Nonetheless, the new DNA sequences from different isolates of warnowiids provided organismal anchors for several previously unidentified sequences derived from environmental DNA surveys of marine biodiversity. Comparative morphological data and molecular phylogenetic data demonstrate that the polykrikoid and the warnowiid clade are closely related to each other

  9. Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Sara M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates represent a major lineage of unicellular eukaryotes with unparalleled diversity and complexity in morphological features. The monophyly of dinoflagellates has been convincingly demonstrated, but the interrelationships among dinoflagellate lineages still remain largely unresolved. Warnowiid dinoflagellates are among the most remarkable eukaryotes known because of their possession of highly elaborate ultrastructural systems: pistons, nematocysts, and ocelloids. Complex organelles like these are evolutionary innovations found only in a few athecate dinoflagellates. Moreover, the taxonomy of warnowiids is extremely confusing and inferences about the evolutionary history of this lineage are mired by the absence of molecular phylogenetic data from any member of the group. In this study, we provide the first molecular phylogenetic data for warnowiids and couple them with a review of warnowiid morphological features in order to formulate a hypothetical framework for understanding character evolution within the group. These data also enabled us to evaluate the evolutionary relationship(s between warnowiids and the other group of dinoflagellates with complex organelles: polykrikoids. Results Molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences demonstrated that warnowiids form a well-supported clade that falls within the more inclusive Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade. These data also confirmed that polykrikoids are members of the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade as well; however, a specific sister relationship between the warnowiid clade and the polykrikoid clade was unresolved in all of our analyses. Nonetheless, the new DNA sequences from different isolates of warnowiids provided organismal anchors for several previously unidentified sequences derived from environmental DNA surveys of marine biodiversity. Conclusion Comparative morphological data and molecular phylogenetic data demonstrate that the polykrikoid

  10. The Maastrichtiense Daniense and Middle Eocene age transgression in the Punta del Este basin and it regional correlation established by dinoflagellate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daners, G.; Veroslavsky, G.; Guerstein, G.; Guler, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Punta del Este Basin (Uruguay), two transgressions were recognized through the study of dinoflagellate associations of Gaviotin Formation. The transgression cycles were assigned to Maastrichtian-Danian and Middle Eocene ages, separated by a paracomformity established through biostratigraphic criteria. A regional correlation for these transgressive cycles was stablished by the comparisson of these dinoflagellate associations with those of other Atlantic and Austral basins (Colorado, Neuquina and Austral) [es

  11. The role of floridoside in osmoadaptation of coral-associated algal endosymbionts to high-salinity conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ochsenkuhn, Michael A.

    2017-08-17

    The endosymbiosis between Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The survival of these ecosystems is under threat at a global scale, and better knowledge is needed to conceive strategies for mitigating future reef loss. Environmental disturbance imposing temperature, salinity, and nutrient stress can lead to the loss of the Symbiodinium partner, causing so-called coral bleaching. Some of the most thermotolerant coral-Symbiodinium associations occur in the Persian/Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, which also represent the most saline coral habitats. We studied whether Symbiodinium alter their metabolite content in response to high-salinity environments. We found that Symbiodinium cells exposed to high salinity produced high levels of the osmolyte 2-O-glycerol-α-d-galactopyranoside (floridoside), both in vitro and in their coral host animals, thereby increasing their capacity and, putatively, the capacity of the holobiont to cope with the effects of osmotic stress in extreme environments. Given that floridoside has been previously shown to also act as an antioxidant, this osmolyte may serve a dual function: first, to serve as a compatible organic osmolyte accumulated by Symbiodinium in response to elevated salinities and, second, to counter reactive oxygen species produced as a consequence of potential salinity and heat stress.

  12. A review of generalist and specialist community health workers for delivering adolescent health services in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Goudge, Jane; Norris, Shane A

    2013-10-26

    The health of adolescents is increasingly seen as an important international priority because the world's one point eight billion young people (aged 10 to 24 years) accounts for 15.5% of the global burden of disease and are disproportionately located in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, an estimated 70% of premature adult deaths are attributable to unhealthy behaviors often initiated in adolescence (such as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity). In order for health services to reach adolescents in LMICs, innovative service delivery models need to be explored and tested. This paper reviews the literature on generalist and specialist community health workers (CHWs) to assess their potential for strengthening the delivery of adolescent health services. We reviewed the literature on CHWs using Medline (PubMed), EBSCO Global Health, and Global Health Archive. Search terms (n = 19) were sourced from various review articles and combined with subject heading 'sub-Saharan Africa' to identify English language abstracts of original research articles on generalist and specialist CHWs. A total of 106 articles, from 1985 to 2012, and representing 24 African countries, matched our search criteria. A single study in sub-Saharan Africa used CHWs to deliver adolescent health services with promising results. Though few comprehensive evaluations of large-scale CHW programs exist, we found mixed evidence to support the use of either generalist or specialist CHW models for delivering adolescent health services. This review found that innovative service delivery approaches, such as those potentially offered by CHWs, for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking, CHW programs have proliferated despite the absence of high quality evaluations, rigorous studies to establish the comparative effectiveness of generalist versus specialist CHW programs are needed, and further investigation of the role of CHWs in providing adolescent health services in sub

  13. Antagonistic Pleiotropy and Fitness Trade-Offs Reveal Specialist and Generalist Traits in Strains of Canine Distemper Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolin, Veljko M.; Osterrieder, Klaus; von Messling, Veronika; Hofer, Heribert; Anderson, Danielle; Dubovi, Edward; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150). Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H) to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F). We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H) in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by antagonistic

  14. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko M Nikolin

    Full Text Available Theoretically, homogeneous environments favor the evolution of specialists whereas heterogeneous environments favor generalists. Canine distemper is a multi-host carnivore disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV. The described cell receptor of CDV is SLAM (CD150. Attachment of CDV hemagglutinin protein (CDV-H to this receptor facilitates fusion and virus entry in cooperation with the fusion protein (CDV-F. We investigated whether CDV strains co-evolved in the large, homogeneous domestic dog population exhibited specialist traits, and strains adapted to the heterogeneous environment of smaller populations of different carnivores exhibited generalist traits. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the SLAM binding region revealed higher similarity between sequences from Canidae species than to sequences from other carnivore families. Using an in vitro assay, we quantified syncytia formation mediated by CDV-H proteins from dog and non-dog CDV strains in cells expressing dog, lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from dog strains produced significantly higher values with cells expressing dog SLAM than with cells expressing lion or cat SLAM. CDV-H proteins from strains of non-dog species produced similar values in all three cell types, but lower values in cells expressing dog SLAM than the values obtained for CDV-H proteins from dog strains. By experimentally changing one amino acid (Y549H in the CDV-H protein of one dog strain we decreased expression of specialist traits and increased expression of generalist traits, thereby confirming its functional importance. A virus titer assay demonstrated that dog strains produced higher titers in cells expressing dog SLAM than cells expressing SLAM of non-dog hosts, which suggested possible fitness benefits of specialization post-cell entry. We provide in vitro evidence for the expression of specialist and generalist traits by CDV strains, and fitness trade-offs across carnivore host environments caused by

  15. Evidence for a common toolbox based on necrotrophy in a fungal lineage spanning necrotrophs, biotrophs, endophytes, host generalists and specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Andrew

    Full Text Available The Sclerotiniaceae (Ascomycotina, Leotiomycetes is a relatively recently evolved lineage of necrotrophic host generalists, and necrotrophic or biotrophic host specialists, some latent or symptomless. We hypothesized that they inherited a basic toolbox of genes for plant symbiosis from their common ancestor. Maintenance and evolutionary diversification of symbiosis could require selection on toolbox genes or on timing and magnitude of gene expression. The genes studied were chosen because their products have been previously investigated as pathogenicity factors in the Sclerotiniaceae. They encode proteins associated with cell wall degradation: acid protease 1 (acp1, aspartyl protease (asps, and polygalacturonases (pg1, pg3, pg5, pg6, and the oxalic acid (OA pathway: a zinc finger transcription factor (pac1, and oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (oah, catalyst in OA production, essential for full symptom production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Site-specific likelihood analyses provided evidence for purifying selection in all 8 pathogenicity-related genes. Consistent with an evolutionary arms race model, positive selection was detected in 5 of 8 genes. Only generalists produced large, proliferating disease lesions on excised Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and oxalic acid by 72 hours in vitro. In planta expression of oah was 10-300 times greater among the necrotrophic host generalists than necrotrophic and biotrophic host specialists; pac1 was not differentially expressed. Ability to amplify 6/8 pathogenicity related genes and produce oxalic acid in all genera are consistent with the common toolbox hypothesis for this gene sample. That our data did not distinguish biotrophs from necrotrophs is consistent with 1 a common toolbox based on necrotrophy and 2 the most conservative interpretation of the 3-locus housekeeping gene phylogeny--a baseline of necrotrophy from which forms of biotrophy emerged at least twice. Early oah overexpression likely expands the

  16. Generalist genes analysis of DNA markers associated with mathematical ability and disability reveals shared influence across ages and abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sophia J; Kovas, Yulia; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2010-07-05

    The Generalist Genes Hypothesis is based upon quantitative genetic findings which indicate that many of the same genes influence diverse cognitive abilities and disabilities across age. In a recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 43 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA, 10 of which were validated in an individually genotyped sample. The 4927 children in this genotyped sample have also been studied at 7, 9 and 12 years of age on measures of mathematical ability, as well as on other cognitive and learning abilities. Using these data we have explored the Generalist Genes Hypothesis by assessing the association of the available measures of ability at age 10 and other ages with two composite 'SNP-set' scores, formed from the full set of 43 nominated SNPs and the sub-set of 10 SNPs that were previously found to be associated with mathematical ability at age 10. Both SNP sets yielded significant associations with mathematical ability at ages 7, 9 and 12, as well as with reading and general cognitive ability at age 10. Although effect sizes are small, our results correspond with those of quantitative genetic research in supporting the Generalist Genes Hypothesis. SNP sets identified on the basis of their associations with mathematical ability at age 10 show associations with mathematical ability at earlier and later ages and show associations of similar magnitude with reading and general cognitive ability. With small effect sizes expected in such complex traits, future studies may be able to capitalise on power by searching for 'generalist genes' using longitudinal and multivariate approaches.

  17. Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J L Peers

    Full Text Available The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re

  18. Specialist and generalist symbionts show counterintuitive levels of genetic diversity and discordant demographic histories along the Florida Reef Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Benjamin M.; Daly, Marymegan

    2017-03-01

    Specialist and generalist life histories are expected to result in contrasting levels of genetic diversity at the population level, and symbioses are expected to lead to patterns that reflect a shared biogeographic history and co-diversification. We test these assumptions using mtDNA sequencing and a comparative phylogeographic approach for six co-occurring crustacean species that are symbiotic with sea anemones on western Atlantic coral reefs, yet vary in their host specificities: four are host specialists and two are host generalists. We first conducted species discovery analyses to delimit cryptic lineages, followed by classic population genetic diversity analyses for each delimited taxon, and then reconstructed the demographic history for each taxon using traditional summary statistics, Bayesian skyline plots, and approximate Bayesian computation to test for signatures of recent and concerted population expansion. The genetic diversity values recovered here contravene the expectations of the specialist-generalist variation hypothesis and classic population genetics theory; all specialist lineages had greater genetic diversity than generalists. Demography suggests recent population expansions in all taxa, although Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation suggest the timing and magnitude of these events were idiosyncratic. These results do not meet the a priori expectation of concordance among symbiotic taxa and suggest that intrinsic aspects of species biology may contribute more to phylogeographic history than extrinsic forces that shape whole communities. The recovery of two cryptic specialist lineages adds an additional layer of biodiversity to this symbiosis and contributes to an emerging pattern of cryptic speciation in the specialist taxa. Our results underscore the differences in the evolutionary processes acting on marine systems from the terrestrial processes that often drive theory. Finally, we continue to highlight the Florida Reef

  19. Tropical specialist vs. climate generalist: Diversification and demographic history of sister species of Carlia skinks from northwestern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso Silva, Ana C; Bragg, Jason G; Potter, Sally; Fernandes, Carlos; Coelho, Maria Manuela; Moritz, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Species endemic to the tropical regions are expected to be vulnerable to future climate change due in part to their relatively narrow climatic niches. In addition, these species are more likely to have responded strongly to past climatic change, and this can be explored through phylogeographic analyses. To test the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to climate change than climate generalists, we generated and analyse sequence data from mtDNA and ~2500 exons to compare scales of historical persistence and population fluctuation in two sister species of Australian rainbow skinks: the tropical specialist Carlia johnstonei and the climate generalist C. triacantha. We expect the tropical specialist species to have deeper and finer-scale phylogeographic structure and stronger demographic fluctuations relative to the closely related climate generalist species, which should have had more stable populations through periods of harsh climate in the late Quaternary. Within C. johnstonei, we find that some populations from the northern Kimberley islands are highly divergent from mainland populations. In C. triacantha, one major clade occurs across the deserts and into the mesic Top End, and another occurs primarily in the Kimberley with scattered records eastwards. Where their ranges overlap in the Kimberley, both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA suggest stronger phylogeographic structure and range expansion within the tropical specialist, whereas the climate generalist has minimal structuring and no evidence of recent past range expansion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to past climatic change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Testing the diet-breadth trade-off hypothesis: differential regulation of novel plant secondary compounds by a specialist and a generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrossa, A-M; Azzara, A V; Dearing, M D

    2012-03-01

    Specialist herbivores are predicted to have evolved biotransformation pathways that can process large doses of secondary compounds from the plant species on which they specialize. It is hypothesized that this physiological specialization results in a trade-off such that specialists may be limited in ability to ingest novel plant secondary compounds (PSCs). In contrast, the generalist foraging strategy requires that herbivores alternate consumption of plant species and PSC types to reduce the possibility of over-ingestion of any particular PSC. The ability to behaviorally regulate is a key component of this strategy. These ideas underpin the prediction that in the face of novel PSCs, generalists should be better able to maintain body mass and avoid toxic consequences compared to specialists. We explored these predictions by comparing the feeding behavior of two herbivorous rodents: a juniper specialist, Neotoma stephensi, and a generalist, Neotoma albigula, fed diets with increasing concentrations of phenolic resin extracted from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), which produces a suite of PSCs novel to both species. The specialist lost more mass than the generalist during the 15-day trial. In addition, although the specialist and generalist both regulated phenolic resin intake by reducing meal size while on the highest resin concentration (4%), the generalist began to regulate intake on the 2% diet. The ability of the generalist to regulate intake at a lower PSC concentration may be the source of the generalist's performance advantage over the specialist. These data provide evidence for the hypothesis that the specialist's foraging strategy may result in behavioral as well as physiological trade-offs in the ability to consume novel PSCs.

  1. New parasitoid-predator associations: female parasitoids do not avoid competition with generalist predators when sharing invasive prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Wajnberg, Eric; Zhou, Yuxiang; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations.

  2. Flap or soar? How a flight generalist responds to its aerial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel; Meijer, Christiaan; Camphuysen, C J

    2016-09-26

    The aerial environment is heterogeneous in space and time and directly influences the costs of animal flight. Volant animals can reduce these costs by using different flight modes, each with their own benefits and constraints. However, the extent to which animals alter their flight modes in response to environmental conditions has rarely been studied in the wild. To provide insight into how a flight generalist can reduce the energetic cost of movement, we studied flight behaviour in relation to the aerial environmental and landscape using hundreds of hours of global positioning system and triaxial acceleration measurements of the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Individuals differed largely in the time spent in flight, which increased linearly with the time spent in flight at sea. In general, flapping was used more frequently than more energetically efficient soaring flight. The probability of soaring increased with increasing boundary layer height and time closer to midday, reflecting improved convective conditions supportive of thermal soaring. Other forms of soaring flight were also used, including fine-scale use of orographic lift. We explore the energetic consequences of behavioural adaptations to the aerial environment and underlying landscape and implications for individual energy budgets, foraging ecology and reproductive success.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Novel multitrophic interactions among an exotic, generalist herbivore, its host plants and resident enemies in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Julie V; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    What happens when an exotic herbivore invades and encounters novel host plants and enemies? Here, we investigate the impacts of host plant quality and plant architecture on an exotic generalist herbivore, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its interactions with resident parasitoids in California. Using artificial diet and five plant species, we found significant effects of diet on the fitness of E. postvittana under laboratory conditions. In the field, based on a common garden experiment with host plants of nine species, we found that larval parasitism varied among plant species by a factor of 2.1 with a higher risk of parasitism on shorter than taller plants. Parasitism of egg masses varied by a factor of 4.7 among plant species with a higher risk of parasitism on taller than shorter plants. In the laboratory, the foraging time of a resident egg parasitoid on excised leaves varied among plant species, but did not correspond to observed egg parasitism rates on these same plants in the field. On leaves of Plantago lanceolata, the probability of egg parasitism decreased with trichome density. Overall, there was a significant effect of host plant on the intrinsic rate of increase of E. postvittana and on the extent of parasitism by resident parasitoids, but no correlation existed between these two effects. The recent decline of E. postvittana in California may be due to the low quality of some host plants and to the many resident enemies that readily attack it, perhaps due to its phylogenetic relatedness to resident tortricids.

  4. Food selection of a generalist herbivore exposed to native and alien seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noè, Simona; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bonaviri, Chiara; Musco, Luigi; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Gianguzza, Paola

    2017-10-24

    Understanding which factors influence the invasion of alien seaweed has become a central concern in ecology. Increasing evidence suggests that the feeding preferences of native herbivores influence the success of alien seaweeds in the new community. We investigated food selection of a generalist native grazer Paracentrotus lividus, in the presence of two alien seaweeds (Caulerpa cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla) and two native seaweeds (Dictyopteris membranacea and Cystoseira compressa). Sea urchins were fed with six experimental food items: C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia var. distichophylla, a mixture of C. cylindracea and C. taxifolia var. distichophylla, D. membranacea, C. compressa and a mixture of D. membranacea and C. compressa. P. lividus ingested all the combinations of food offered, though it preferentially consumed the alien mixture, C. cylindracea and D. membranacea. The alien C. taxifolia var. distichophylla was consumed significantly less than the other food items and, interestingly, it was ingested in a greater amount when mixed with C. cylindracea than when on its own. This finding suggests that C. taxifolia var. distichophylla may become vulnerable to sea urchin grazing when it grows intermingled with C. cylindracea, which does not gain immediate protection from the presence of the very low palatable congeneric seaweed. The present study highlights the potential role of native grazers to indirectly affect the interspecific competition between the two alien seaweeds in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%), Spirochaetes (~7%) and Chloroflexi (~3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  6. Comparative Toxicities of Newer and Conventional Insecticides: Against Four Generalist Predator Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Naranjo, Steven; Perring, Thomas; Castle, Steven

    2017-12-05

    Generalist insect predators play an essential role in regulating the populations of Bemisia tabaci and other pests in agricultural systems, but may be affected negatively by insecticides applied for pest management. Evaluation of insecticide compatibility with specific predator species can provide a basis for making treatment decisions with the aim of conserving natural enemies. Eleven insecticides representing six modes of action groups were evaluated for toxicity against four predator species and at different developmental stages. Full-concentration series bioassays were conducted on laboratory-reared or insectary-supplied predators using Petri dish and systemic uptake bioassay techniques. Highest toxicities were observed with imidacloprid and clothianidin against first and second instar nymphs of Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Geocoridae). Later instar nymphs were less susceptible to neonicotinoid treatments based on higher LC50s observed with imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran against third or fourth instar nymphs. The pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was highly toxic against adults of G. punctipes and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Standard concentration/mortality evaluation of nonacute toxicity insecticides, including buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, and spiromesifen, was inconclusive in terms of generating probit statistics. However, low mortality levels of insects exposed for up to 120 h suggested minimal lethality with the exception of pyriproxyfen that was mildly toxic to Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Development of a generalist predator, Podisus maculiventris, on glucosinolate sequestering and nonsequestering prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Gols, Rieta

    2014-09-01

    Insect herbivores exhibit various strategies to counter the toxic effects of plant chemical defenses. These strategies include the detoxification, excretion, and sequestration of plant secondary metabolites. The latter strategy is often considered to provide an additional benefit in that it provides herbivores with protection against natural enemies such as predators. Profiles of sequestered chemicals are influenced by the food plants from which these chemicals are derived. We compared the effects of sequestration and nonsequestration of plant secondary metabolites in two specialist herbivores on the development of a generalist predator, Podisus maculiventris. Profiles of glucosinolates, secondary metabolites characteristic for the Brassicaceae, are known to differ considerably both inter- and intraspecifically. Throughout their immature (=nymphal) development, the predator was fed on larval stages of either sequestering (turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae) or nonsequestering (small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae) prey that in turn had been feeding on plants originating from three wild cabbage ( Brassica oleracea) populations that have previously been shown to differ in their glucosinolate profiles. We compared survival, development time, and adult body mass as parameters for bug performance. Our results show that sequestration of glucosinolates by A. rosae only marginally affected the development of P. maculiventris. The effects of plant population on predator performance were variable. We suggest that sequestration of glucosinolates by A. rosae functions not only as a defensive mechanism against some predators, but may also be an alternative way of harmlessly dealing with plant allelochemicals.

  8. Dietary plasticity of generalist and specialist ungulates in the Namibian Desert: a stable isotopes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, David; Mfune, John Kazgeba Elijah; Gewers, Erick; Cloete, Johann; Brain, Conrad; Voigt, Christian Claus

    2013-01-01

    Desert ungulates live in adverse ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to degradation and global climate change. Here, we asked how two ungulate species with contrasting feeding habits, grazing gemsbok (Oryx g. gazella) and browsing springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), respond to an increase in food availability during a pronounced rain period. We used a stable isotope approach to delineate the feeding habits of these two ungulates in the arid Kunene Region of Namibia. Our nineteen months field investigation included two time periods of drought when food availability for ungulates was lowest and an intermediate period with extreme, unusual rainfalls. We documented thirteen isotopically distinct food sources in the isotopic space of the study area. Our results indicated a relatively high dietary plasticity of gemsbok, which fed on a mixture of plants, including more than 30% of C3 plants during drought periods, but almost exclusively on C4 and CAM plant types when food was plentiful. During drought periods, the inferred gemsbok diets also consisted of up to 25% of Euphorbia damarana; an endemic CAM plant that is rich in toxic secondary plant compounds. In contrast, springbok were generalists, feeding on a higher proportion of C3 than C4/CAM plants, irrespective of environmental conditions. Our results illustrate two dietary strategies in gemsbok and springbok which enable them to survive and coexist in the hostile Kunene arid ecosystem.

  9. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  10. The impact of domestication on resistance to two generalist herbivores across 29 independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-11-01

    The domestication of crops is among the most important innovations in human history. Here, we test the hypothesis that cultivation and artificial selection for increased productivity of crops reduced plant defenses against herbivores. We compared the performance of two economically important generalist herbivores - the leaf-chewing beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) and the phloem-feeding green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - across 29 crop species and their closely related wild relatives. We also measured putative morphological and chemical defensive traits and correlated them with herbivore performance. We show that, on average, domestication significantly reduced resistance to S. exigua, but not M. persicae, and that most independent domestication events did not cause differences in resistance to either herbivore. In addition, we found that multiple plant traits predicted resistance to S. exigua and M. persicae, and that domestication frequently altered the strength and direction of correlations between these traits and herbivore performance. Our results show that domestication can alter plant defenses, but does not cause strong allocation tradeoffs as predicted by plant defense theory. These results have important implications for understanding the evolutionary ecology of species interactions and for the search for potential resistance traits to be targeted in crop breeding. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Generalists or Specialists: Stable Isotope Analysis of Humpback Whales (Megapteranoveangliae) to Infer Variation in Feeding Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, A.; Boswell, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Though humpback whales (Megapteranovaeangliae) are commonly observed in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska, their massive size, behavior, and weather conditionsmake it difficult to make accurate observations regarding their feeding habits. These whales can be highly abundant during feeding aggregations, and given their large energetic needs, they have the potential to impact populations of ecologically important forage such as krill and herring. Previous studies in other areas, such as the Gulf of Maine and the North Pacific Ocean, classify humpback whales as generalists that can efficiently feed on both schooling fish and large zooplankton. In Prince William Sound, scientists have observed the humpbacks feedingprimarily on herring. It is unclear if these whalesfeed exclusively on fish prior to returning to the Sound, and can therefore be considered specialists. Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen were used to determine the preferred diet of humpback whales (N=22) in 6 sampling regions along the Gulf of Alaska. Isotope analyses were conducted on humpback whale skin, as well as local forage species and basal resources to be used in Bayesian isotope mixing models to elucidate the trophic relationships between whales and their prey, and provide insight to whether location is an important driver in prey selection. This information will not only lead to a better understanding of the potential to use tissue isotopes to elucidate foraging behaviors of humpback whales, but also offer insight into individual feeding preferences and how increasing whale populations may affect the populations of local forage in the future.

  12. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E D; Damschen, Ellen I; Harrison, Susan P; Grace, James B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural habitats become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. We asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, USA, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure, defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index), had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  13. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E.D.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan P.; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural landscapes become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. In this study, we asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure-defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index)-had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities, and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  14. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  15. Foraging mode affects the evolution of egg size in generalist predators embedded in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeny-Vilalta, O; Fox, C W; Wise, D H; Moya-Laraño, J

    2015-06-01

    Ecological networks incorporate myriad biotic interactions that determine the selection pressures experienced by the embedded populations. We argue that within food webs, the negative scaling of abundance with body mass and foraging theory predict that the selective advantages of larger egg size should be smaller for sit-and-wait than active-hunting generalist predators, leading to the evolution of a difference in egg size between them. Because body mass usually scales negatively with predator abundance and constrains predation rate, slightly increasing egg mass should simultaneously allow offspring to feed on more prey and escape from more predators. However, the benefits of larger offspring would be relatively smaller for sit-and-wait predators because (i) due to their lower mobility, encounters with other predators are less common, and (ii) they usually employ a set of alternative hunting strategies that help to subdue relatively larger prey. On the other hand, for active predators, which need to confront prey as they find them, body-size differences may be more important in subduing prey. This difference in benefits should lead to the evolution of larger egg sizes in active-hunting relative to sit-and-wait predators. This prediction was confirmed by a phylogenetically controlled analysis of 268 spider species, supporting the view that the structure of ecological networks may serve to predict relevant selective pressures acting on key life history traits. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Predation of Five Generalist Predators on Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Karindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two generalist predators of brown planthopper,Metioche vittaticollis and Anaxipha longipennis (Gryllidae have not been much studied in Indonesia. This research was conducted to study and compare the predatory ability of M. vittaticollis, A. longipennis (Gryllidae and three coleopterans, Paederus fuscipes (Staphylinidae, Ophionea sp. (Carabidae,and Micraspis sp. (Coccinellidae against brown planthopper (fourth and fifth instars under laboratory condition. In total, 20 nymphs of N. lugens were exposed for 2 hour to each predator for 5 consecutive days. Prey consumptions by the predatory crickets, M. vittaticollis and A. longipennis were greater than the other predators and followed by A. longipennis, Micraspis sp., P. fuscipes, and Ophionea sp. respectively. Consumption rates of M. vittaticolis and A. longipenis were also higher than other predators. Micraspis sp was more active on predation in the morning,while M. vittaticollis, A. longipennis, P. fuscipes, and Ophionea sp. were more active both in the morning and the night but not in the afternoon. However, all five species of predators were not so active in preying during the afternoon. In conclusion, a major effort should be extended to conserve these predatory crickets especially M. vittaticollis and A. longipennis.

  17. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years...... into the interglacial). This sea-level rise might therefore have a basinwide extent, and has been attributed to an opening of the Danish Belts. Whereas dinoflagellate cysts reflect sustained high salinites within the upper water column, a concomitant increase in abundance of the chlorococcalean alga Pediastrum within......A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...

  18. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Raymond V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was

  19. Spatial distribution of dinoflagellates from the tropical coastal waters of the South Andaman, India: Implications for coastal pollution monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Anil, A.C.

    Version: Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol.115(1-2); 2017; 498-506 Spatial distribution of dinoflagellates from the tropical coastal waters of the South Andaman, India: implications for coastal pollution monitoring Dhiraj Dhondiram Narale, Arga Chandrashekar Anil... as it affords livelihood resources, economic transportations, and trade routes. In recent years, the industrial revolution and urbanization have exerted anthropogenic pressure on the coastal ecosystem. Human activities like domestic and industrial discharge...

  20. Evolution of productivity and monsoonal dynamics in the eastern Arabian Sea during the past 68 ka using dinoflagellate cyst records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Naidu, P.D.; Anil, A.C.; Godad, S.P.

    of the Arabian Sea. The present-day climatic and oceanographic conditions predominating in the Eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) are influenced by both the South West (SW or summer) and North East (NE or winter) monsoon systems. The EAS experiences moderate upwelling... based on published morphological descriptions (Fensome et al., 1993; Zonneveld, 1997b; Lewis et al., 1999; Matsuoka and Fukuyo, 2000; Rochon et al., 2009; Radi et al., 2013) and modern dinoflagellate cyst determination key by Zonneveld and Pospelova...

  1. Cell death and degeneration in the symbiotic\\ud dinoflagellates of the coral Stylophora pistillata\\ud during bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Daniel J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Jones, R.J.; Berges , John A.

    2004-01-01

    Rising sea temperatures are increasing the incidences of mass coral bleaching (the dissociation\\ud of the coral–algal symbiosis) and coral mortality. In this study, the effects of bleaching\\ud (induced by elevated light and temperature) on the condition of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium\\ud sp.) within the tissue of the hard coral Stylophora pistillata (Esper) were assessed using a suite\\ud of techniques. Bleaching of S. pistillata was accompanied by declines in the maximum potential\\...

  2. “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis”, a novel endosymbiont of Paramecium multimicronucleatum and a revision of the biogeographical distribution of Holospora-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Serra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Holospora spp. and Candidatus Gortzia infectiva, known as Holospora-like bacteria (HLB, are commonly found as nuclear endosymbionts of ciliates, especially the Paramecium genus. HLB are related by phylogenetic relationships, morphological features, and life cycles, which involve two alternating morphotypes: reproductive and infectious forms (RF, IF. In this paper we describe a novel species belonging to the Ca. Gortzia genus, detected in P. multimicronucleatum, a ciliate for which infection by an HLB has not been reported, discovered in India. This novel endosymbiont shows unusual and surprising features with respect to other HLB, such as large variations in IF morphology and the occasional ability to reproduce in the host cytoplasm. We propose the name of Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis for this novel HLB . Moreover, we report two additional species of HLB from Indian Paramecium populations: Ca. Gortzia infectiva (from P. jenningsi, and H. obtusa (from P. caudatum; the latter is the first record of Holospora from a tropical country. Although tropical, we retrieved H. obtusa at an elevation of 706 m. corresponding to a moderate climate not unlike conditions where Holospora are normally found, suggesting the genus Holospora does exist in tropical countries, but restricted to higher elevations.

  3. “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis”, a Novel Endosymbiont of Paramecium multimicronucleatum and a Revision of the Biogeographical Distribution of Holospora-Like Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Valentina; Fokin, Sergei I.; Castelli, Michele; Basuri, Charan K.; Nitla, Venkatamahesh; Verni, Franco; Sandeep, Bhagavatula V.; Kalavati, Chaganti; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Holospora spp. and “Candidatus Gortzia infectiva”, known as Holospora-like bacteria (HLB), are commonly found as nuclear endosymbionts of ciliates, especially the Paramecium genus. HLB are related by phylogenetic relationships, morphological features, and life-cycles, which involve two alternating morphotypes: reproductive and infectious forms (RF, IF). In this paper we describe a novel species belonging to the “Ca. Gortzia” genus, detected in P. multimicronucleatum, a ciliate for which infection by an HLB has not been reported, discovered in India. This novel endosymbiont shows unusual and surprising features with respect to other HLB, such as large variations in IF morphology and the occasional ability to reproduce in the host cytoplasm. We propose the name of “Candidatus Gortzia shahrazadis” for this novel HLB. Moreover, we report two additional species of HLB from Indian Paramecium populations: “Ca. Gortzia infectiva” (from P. jenningsi), and H. obtusa (from P. caudatum); the latter is the first record of Holospora from a tropical country. Although tropical, we retrieved H. obtusa at an elevation of 706 m corresponding to a moderate climate not unlike conditions where Holospora are normally found, suggesting the genus Holospora does exist in tropical countries, but restricted to higher elevations. PMID:27867371

  4. Fatty acid composition of bacteria associated with the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis and with Caribbean Palythoa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, N M; Emiliano, A; Sostre, A; Restituyo, J A; González, I M; Colón, G M; Tosteson, C G; Tosteson, T R

    1998-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of a Pseudomonas sp. (Alteromonas) and its host, the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis, vectors in ciguatera fish poisoning, has been studied. The major fatty acids in O. lenticularis were 16:0, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, but 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 18:n-3 were also identified. In contrast to other dinoflagellates, 1 8:5n-3 was not detected in O. lenticularis. Even-chain fatty acids such as 9-16:1, 11-18:1, and 13-20:1 predominated in the Pseudomonas sp. from O. lenticularis, but 1 6-20% of (E)-11-methyl-12-octadecenoic acid was also identified. The chirality of the latter was confirmed by total synthesis (28% overall yield) starting from oxacyclotridecan-2-one. The fatty acid compositions of two other Pseudomonas species, from the palytoxin-producing zoanthids Palythoa mamillosa and P. caribdea, were also studied and were similar to that of the Pseudomonas sp. from O. lenticularis. The possibility of using some of these fatty acids as chemotaxonomic lipids in identifying marine animals that consume toxic dinoflagellates or zoanthids is discussed.

  5. Cell cycle arrest and biochemical changes accompanying cell death in harmful dinoflagellates following exposure to bacterial algicide IRI-160AA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L.; Tilney, Charles L.; Warner, Mark E.; Coyne, Kathryn J.

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria may play a role in regulating harmful algal blooms, but little is known about the biochemical and physiological changes associated with cell death induced by algicidal bacteria. Previous work characterized an algicidal exudate (IRI-160AA) produced by Shewanella sp. IRI-160 that is effective against dinoflagellates, while having little to no effect on other phytoplankton species in laboratory culture experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical changes associated with cell death and impacts on the cell cycle in three dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum minimum, Karlodinium veneficum and Gyrodinium instriatum) after exposure to IRI-160AA. In this study, IRI-160AA induced cell cycle arrest in all dinoflagellates examined. Several indicators for programmed cell death (PCD) that are often observed in phytoplankton in response to a variety of stressors were also evaluated. Cell death was accompanied by significant increases in DNA degradation, intra- and extracellular ROS concentrations and DEVDase (caspase-3 like) protease activity, which have been associated with PCD in other phytoplankton species. Overall, results of this investigation provide strong evidence that treatment with the bacterial algicide, IRI-160AA results in cell cycle arrest and induces biochemical changes consistent with stress-related cell death responses observed in other phytoplankton.

  6. Differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in a cyclonic eddy confined in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Monter, Erik; Monreal-Gómez, María. Adela; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Aldeco-Ramírez, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín.

    2014-09-01

    The differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, was analyzed in summer of 2009, when a cyclonic eddy confined in the bay dominated the circulation. An uplift of the nutricline in the eddy drove high concentrations of nutrients to the euphotic layer. A differential phytoplankton distribution was observed to be associated with the eddy: there was an abundance of dinoflagellates close to the center of the cyclonic eddy, whereas diatoms were more abundant at the periphery. A significant inverse correlation (R = -0.62, p < 0.002) was found between the temperature at 25 m depth and the dinoflagellates abundance. Based on the temporal evolution of chlorophyll measured by MODIS satellite images, and a conceptual model proposed for the lifecycle of eddies, the cyclonic eddy may have been an old decaying structure. The effect of the cyclonic eddy on the phytoplankton distribution in this small semienclosed region was apparently similar to that found in larger eddies in the open ocean, but this is the first time such a differential distribution has been found associated to a confined eddy.

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on the oxygen flux of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eloy; Vélez, Sylvia M; Mayo, Marietta; Sastre, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in aquatic systems, assessments evaluating the toxicity of DEET on phytoplankton species are summed to a single study on a unicellular green alga. In particular, the toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates are unknown. In this study, we employed the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum as a study system to evaluate acute effects of DEET on the oxygen flux of laboratory cultures. This study reports an inhibitory reaction model of DEET described by the equation y = 4.99x(0.54), where y represents the percent inhibition of oxygen flux and x represents DEET concentration in mg L(−1) (r(2) = 0.98). Based on this model, the effective concentration of DEET needed to reduce O2 flux by 50% (EC50) for this species was found to be at 72.9 mg L(−1). The reported EC50 is more than five times lower than the EC50 reported previously for the unicellular green algae Chlorella protothecoides. This study raises the question of the potential toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates, in particular those populations inhabiting systems characterized by low water circulation such as enclosed bays and lagoons.

  8. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

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    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  9. From pipelines to pathways: the Memorial experience in educating doctors for rural generalist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Graham, Wendy; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka

    2018-03-01

    This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners. Programs/interventions/initiatives: The 'pathways to rural practice' include initiatives in four stages: (1) before admission to medical school; (2) during undergraduate medical training (medical degree (MD) program); (3) during postgraduate vocational residency training; and (4) after postgraduate vocational residency training. Memorial's Learners & Locations (L&L) database tracks students through these stages. The Aboriginal initiative - the MedQuest program and the admissions process that considers geographic or minority representation in terms of those selecting candidates and the candidates themselves - occurs before the student is admitted. Once a student starts Memorial's MD program, the student has ample opportunities to have rural-based experiences through pre-clerkship and clerkship, of which some take place exclusively outside of St. John's tertiary hospitals. Memorial's postgraduate (PG) Family Medicine (FM) residency (vocational) training program allows for deeper community integration and longer periods of training within the same community, which increases the likelihood of a physician choosing rural family medicine. After postgraduate training, rural physicians were given many opportunities for professional development as well as faculty development opportunities. Each of the programs and initiatives were assessed through geospatial rurality analysis of administrative data collected upon entry into and during the MD program and PG training (L

  10. Acquiring nutrients from tree leaves: effects of leaf maturity and development type on a generalist caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Kapila, Madhav; Kileen, Sara; Nusbaum, Caleb P

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth and prolific reproduction of many insect herbivores depend on the efficiencies and rates with which they acquire nutrients from their host plants. However, little is known about how nutrient assimilation efficiencies are affected by leaf maturation or how they vary between plant species. Recent work showed that leaf maturation can greatly decrease the protein assimilation efficiency (PAE) of Lymantria dispar caterpillars on some tree species, but not on species in the willow family (Salicaceae). One trait of many species in the Salicaceae that potentially affects PAE is the continuous (or "indeterminate") development of leaves throughout the growing season. To improve our understanding of the temporal and developmental patterns of nutrient availability for tree-feeding insects, this study tested two hypotheses: nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) are more efficiently assimilated from immature than mature leaves, and, following leaf maturation, nutrients are more efficiently assimilated from indeterminate than determinate tree species. The nutritional physiology and growth of a generalist caterpillar (L. dispar) were measured on five determinate and five indeterminate tree species while their leaves were immature and again after they were mature. In support of the first hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on immature leaves had significantly higher PAE and carbohydrate assimilation efficiency (CAE), as well as higher protein assimilation rates and growth rates, than larvae that fed on mature leaves. Contrary to the second hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on mature indeterminate tree leaves did not have higher PAE than those that fed on mature determinate leaves, while CAE differed by only 3% between tree development types. Instead, "high-PAE" and "low-PAE" tree species were found across taxonomic and development categories. The results of this study emphasize the importance of physiological mechanisms, such as nutrient assimilation efficiency, to

  11. Spurious and functional correlates of the isotopic composition of a generalist across a tropical rainforest landscape

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    Poirson Evan K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isotopic composition of generalist consumers may be expected to vary in space as a consequence of spatial heterogeneity in isotope ratios, the abundance of resources, and competition. We aim to account for the spatial variation in the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of a generalized predatory species across a 500 ha. tropical rain forest landscape. We test competing models to account for relative influence of resources and competitors to the carbon and nitrogen isotopic enrichment of gypsy ants (Aphaenogaster araneoides, taking into account site-specific differences in baseline isotope ratios. Results We found that 75% of the variance in the fraction of 15N in the tissue of A. araneoides was accounted by one environmental parameter, the concentration of soil phosphorus. After taking into account landscape-scale variation in baseline resources, the most parsimonious model indicated that colony growth and leaf litter biomass accounted for nearly all of the variance in the δ15N discrimination factor, whereas the δ13C discrimination factor was most parsimoniously associated with colony size and the rate of leaf litter decomposition. There was no indication that competitor density or diversity accounted for spatial differences in the isotopic composition of gypsy ants. Conclusion Across a 500 ha. landscape, soil phosphorus accounted for spatial variation in baseline nitrogen isotope ratios. The δ15N discrimination factor of a higher order consumer in this food web was structured by bottom-up influences - the quantity and decomposition rate of leaf litter. Stable isotope studies on the trophic biology of consumers may benefit from explicit spatial design to account for edaphic properties that alter the baseline at fine spatial grains.

  12. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

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    Josephine G. Walker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog and 76% (for mouflon of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse and 77% (for llamas/alpacas of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide

  13. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Morgan, Eric R

    2014-12-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host-parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer this

  14. Habitat age increases reproduction and nutritional condition in a generalist arthropod predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Mario; Frank, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    We studied the nutritional and reproductive response of Poecilus cupreus (synonymous with Pterostichus cupreus), one of the most abundant carabid beetles in arable land, to the succession in sixteen 1- to 4-year-old wildflower areas. A total of 390 male and 373 female beetles was examined. Each female was dissected and the number of ripe eggs counted. The nutritional state was expressed by a condition factor, which was calculated for each individual based on the observed weight and elytra length of male and female P. cupreus. Carabids in the 1-year-old wildflower areas contained significantly less ripe eggs than those from the 4-year-old areas. The condition factor of female and male beetles was significantly lower in 1- than 2- to 4-year-old areas. We examined the influence of habitat parameters (vegetation cover, soil water content, coarse and fine sand, pore volume, habitat size and age, surrounding landscape structure) on the reproductive success and nutritional state of P. cupreus in the 16 wildflower areas. The number of eggs was best explained by habitat age, accounting for 53.4% of the variability. The variation in the condition factor of female and male beetles was best explained by habitat age, which accounted for 73% and 71% of the variation, respectively. Moreover, the beetles' reproductive potential and nutritional condition were significantly associated with vegetation cover, and occasionally also with soil water content. The potential of wildflower areas as a reservoir for the generalist predator P. cupreus was shown to increase with successional age.

  15. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  16. The education and training needs of health librarians - the generalist versus specialist dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinic, Tatjana; Urquhart, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The aims of the study were to examine whether and how librarians with a generalist background can transfer to roles demanding more expert knowledge in the health sector. The objectives were (i) to compare the education and training needs of health librarians with science degrees with the education and training needs of health librarians with arts and humanities degrees; (ii) to compare the education and training needs of librarians working in the National Health Service (NHS) sector with the education and training needs of librarians working for the health sector but within higher education. Face-to-face interviews with 16 librarians, a convenience sample of librarians working in the Thames Valley NHS region. The main findings confirmed that structured continuing professional development (CPD) is required to meet the rapidly changing needs in the health sector. The emphasis ought to be on teaching skills, outreach work, marketing and promotion, research skills and methods, subject knowledge and terminology, and management skills. Library school curricula do not appear to meet the demands of medical library posts. A first degree in scientific subjects is advantageous in the early stages of a career but diminishes with continuing training and experience. There is no evidence of a significant difference in training needs and provision between the librarians in NHS posts as opposed to those in higher education (HE) posts. The conclusions suggest that library schools need to update their programmes to include teaching skills, advanced search skills, project management skills, research methods, with more practical exercises. Particular attention should be given to librarians with a first degree in non-scientific subjects in terms of time allocated for CPD, quality of training and access to reliable mentorship.

  17. Mercury contamination and stable isotopes reveal variability in foraging ecology of generalist California gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contaminants are a concern for animal health, but contaminant exposure can also be used as a tracer of foraging ecology. In particular, mercury (Hg) concentrations are highly variable among aquatic and terrestrial food webs as a result of habitat- and site-specific biogeochemical processes that produce the bioaccumulative form, methylmercury (MeHg). We used stable isotopes and total Hg (THg) concentrations of a generalist consumer, the California gull (Larus californicus), to examine foraging ecology and illustrate the utility of using Hg contamination as an ecological tracer under certain conditions. We identified four main foraging clusters of gulls during pre-breeding and breeding, using a traditional approach based on light stable isotopes. The foraging cluster with the highest δ15N and δ34S values in gulls (cluster 4) had mean blood THg concentrations 614% (pre-breeding) and 250% (breeding) higher than gulls with the lowest isotope values (cluster 1). Using a traditional approach of stable-isotope mixing models, we showed that breeding birds with a higher proportion of garbage in their diet (cluster 2: 63–82% garbage) corresponded to lower THg concentrations and lower δ15N and δ34S values. In contrast, gull clusters with higher THg concentrations, which were more enriched in 15N and 34S isotopes, consumed a higher proportion of more natural, estuarine prey. δ34S values, which change markedly across the terrestrial to marine habitat gradient, were positively correlated with blood THg concentrations in gulls. The linkage we observed between stable isotopes and THg concentrations suggests that Hg contamination can be used as an additional tool for understanding animal foraging across coastal habitat gradients.

  18. Macroalgal-associated dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean reefs.

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    Isabel Porto

    Full Text Available Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA. Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp.

  19. Effect of accessory pigment composition on the absorption characteristics of dinoflagellate bloom in a coastal embayment

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    Anil Kumar Vijayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light absorption properties of a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans Macartney bloom in Manila Bay were analysed during the onset of a whole-bay-scale bloom in March 2004. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied over a very wide range from 1.4 μg l−1 to extremely high values of 521 μg l−1. The chlorophyll specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a*ph(λ varied significantly in shape and magnitude. The spectrally averaged values of a*ph(λ varied by two orders of magnitude within and outside the bloom patch. The total suspended solid concentration was high in the middle of the bay (≥4 mg l−1. The non-photosynthetic pigment (NPP index was∼0.6 at most of the stations, mainly due to the presence of photoprotective pigments like zeaxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin, which led to variations in the blue absorption maxima of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients. The absorption properties of the accessory pigments were masked owing to the presence of overlapping pigment absorption bands. The fourth derivative of the absorption spectra was able to resolve these overlapping features and enhance the absorption characteristics of prominent accessory pigments.

  20. Balechina and the new genus Cucumeridinium gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), unarmored dinoflagellates with thick cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2015-12-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachyderm-atum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Influence of Starvation on Respiratory Metabolism and Pyridine Nucleotide Levels in the Marine Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Natalia; Aristizabal, Manuela; Fernández-Urruzola, Igor; Packard, Theodore T; Gómez, May

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory oxygen consumption rate (RO2) and potential respiration (Φ) has been monitored during a food deprivation period in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Φ was determined by measuring the activity of the enzymes from the electron transport system (ETS), the major contributor to the oxygen consumption in the cells. Additionally, we have quantified for the first time the concentration of pyridine nucleotides in this organism, both in their oxidized (NAD(P)(+)) and reduced forms (NAD(P)H). These molecules are the main electron donors at the beginning of the ETS. We observed a dramatic decrease in RO2 within the first days, whereas Φ steadily, but more gradually declined during the entire experiment. This led to a decrease of the RO2 /Φ with time. The intracellular total pool of NAD and NADP concentration, in turn, dropped exponentially in a manner parallel to the RO2. This strong decrease was mainly driven by a reduction in the concentration of the oxidized forms. The present work constitutes a first step in clarifying the role of intracellular NAD and NADP concentrations and the redox status in the control of in vivo RO2 in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquisition of symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) by juveniles of the coral Acropora longicyathus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del C. Gómez-Cabrera, M.; Ortiz, J. C.; Loh, W. K. W.; Ward, S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2008-03-01

    Scleractinian corals may acquire Symbiodinium from their parents (vertically) or from the environment (horizontally). In the present study, adult colonies of the coral Acropora longicyathus from One Tree Island (OTI) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (Australia) acquired two distinct varieties of symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) from the environment. Adult colonies had either Symbiodinium from clade C (86.7%) or clade A (5.3%), or a mixture of both clades A and C (8.0% of all colonies). In contrast, all 10-day-old juveniles were associated with Symbiodinium from clade A, while 83-day-old colonies contained clades A, C and D even though they were growing at the same location. Symbiodinium from clade A were dominant in both 10- and 83-day-old juveniles (99 and 97% of all recruits, respectively), while clade D was also found in 31% of 83-day-old juveniles. Experimental manipulation also revealed that parental association (with clade A or C), or the location within the OTI reef, did not influence which clade of symbiont was acquired by juvenile corals. The differences between the genetic identity of populations of Symbiodinium resident in juveniles and adult A. longicyathus suggest that ontogenetic changes in the symbiosis may occur during the development of scleractinian corals. Whether or not these changes are due to host selective processes or differences in the physical environment associated with juvenile versus adult colonies remains to be determined.

  3. An ephemeral dinoflagellate bloom during summer season in nearshore water of Puri, east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, Sanjiba Kumar; Dwivedi, Rashmin; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Jayashankar, Reeta; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Srichandan, Suchismita; Samanta, Alakes; Parida, Chandanlal; Srinivasakumar, Tummala; Sahu, Kali Charan

    2017-12-01

    The present paper reports on the phenomenon of pinkish-red discoloration of the nearshore water of Puri, Odisha on 12th May 2016. Many local newspapers covered this event, as Puri city is a major tourist and pilgrimage place on the east coast of India. Field observations were carried out in order to provide a scientific basis to the event and to elicit possible causes of this discoloration. Taxonomic analysis of the phytoplankton samples revealed the dominance of red colored dinoflagellate species Gonyaulax polygramma, contributing 90% to total phytoplankton population. The localized concentration of G. polygramma was responsible for the pinkish-red discoloration of nearshore water. The exact factor that lay behind the genesis of this bloom could not be delineated due to the short period of its persistence. But two factors - upwelling and anthropogenic nutrient influx - can be viewed as the main cause for this ephemeral bloom. Non-hypoxic conditions in the coastal water following the ephemeral bloom event indicated no significant risk of ecological deterioration to the ambient medium.

  4. Biomass and lipid production of dinoflagellates and raphidophytes in indoor and outdoor photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Garcés, E; Alacid, E; Rossi, S; Camp, J

    2013-02-01

    The principal fatty acids from the lipid profiles of two autochthonous dinoflagellates (Alexandrium minutum and Karlodinium veneficum) and one raphidophyte (Heterosigma akashiwo) maintained in bubble column photobioreactors under outdoor culture conditions are described for the first time. The biomass production, lipid content and lipid productivity of these three species were determined and the results compared to those obtained when the strains were cultured indoors. Under the latter condition, the biotic values did not significantly differ among species, whereas under outdoor conditions, differences in both duplication time and fatty acids content were observed. Specifically, A. minutum had higher biomass productivity (0.35 g·L⁻¹ day⁻¹), lipid productivity (80.7 mg lipid·L⁻¹ day⁻¹) and lipid concentration (252 mg lipid·L⁻¹) at harvest time (stationary phase) in outdoor conditions. In all three strains, the growth rate and physiological response to the light and temperature fluctuations of outdoor conditions greatly impacted the production parameters. Nonetheless, the species could be successfully grown in an outdoor photobioreactor and were of sufficient robustness to enable the establishment of long-term cultures yielding consistent biomass and lipid production.

  5. The actin cytoskeleton organization and disorganization properties of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marco A; Arzápalo-Castañeda, Georgina; Castillo-Medina, Raúl Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton organization in symbiotic marine dinoflagellates is largely undescribed; most likely, due to their intense pigment autofluorescence and cell walls that block fluorescent probe access. Using a freeze-fracture and fixation procedure, we observed the actin cytoskeleton of Symbiodinium kawagutii cultured in vitro with fluorescently labeled phalloidin and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies specific for actin. The cytoskeleton appeared as an organized network with interconnected cortical and cytoplasmic thick filaments, along with some intertwined fine filaments. It showed a grid-type, reticular pattern organized in a lattice-like structure within the cell and throughout the cytoplasm. This organization was similar when the observations were done with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin or anti-actin, although the latter showed a more evenly distributed fluorescence characteristic of nonpolymerized actin. The network organization collapsed upon treatment with latrunculin, resulting in bright foci and diffuse fluorescence. A similar effect was obtained upon butanedione monoxime treatment, except that no bright foci were observed. We have been able to successfully visualize the actin cytoskeleton of S. kawagutii cells using fluorescence-based procedures. This is the first report on the visualization of the organization of the actin cytoskeleton under various conditions in these walled, highly autofluorescent cells.

  6. An Ephemeral Dinoflagellate Bloom during Summer Season in Nearshore Water of Puri, East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, Sanjiba Kumar; Dwivedi, Rashmin; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Jayashankar, Reeta; Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Srichandan, Suchismita; Samanta, Alakes; Parida, Chandanlal; Srinivasakumar, Tummala; Sahu, Kali Charan

    2018-03-01

    The present paper reports on the phenomenon of pinkish-red discoloration of the nearshore water of Puri, Odisha on 12th May 2016. Many local newspapers covered this event, as Puri city is a major tourist and pilgrimage place on the east coast of India. Field observations were carried out in order to provide a scientific basis to the event and to elicit possible causes of this discoloration. Taxonomic analysis of the phytoplankton samples revealed the dominance of red colored dinoflagellate species Gonyaulax polygramma, contributing 90% to total phytoplankton population. The localized concentration of G. polygramma was responsible for the pinkish-red discoloration of nearshore water. The exact factor that lay behind the genesis of this bloom could not be delineated due to the short period of its persistence. But two factors - upwelling and anthropogenic nutrient influx - can be viewed as the main cause for this ephemeral bloom. Non-hypoxic conditions in the coastal water following the ephemeral bloom event indicated no significant risk of ecological deterioration to the ambient medium.

  7. Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, H.R.; Eglinton, G. (Univ. of Bristol (England)); O' Hara, S.C.M.; Corner, E.D.S. (Marine Biological Association, Plymouth (England))

    1987-11-01

    Stage V and adult females of the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus were fed in the laboratory on the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea at three concentrations calculated to represent pelagic ocean to bloom conditions. The identification and quantification of sterols, fatty acids and alcohols present in the algal diet, copepods and their faecal pellets were then carried out using computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (C-GC-MS). The results showed marked differences in the proportion of the three lipid classes removed, with highest values found for fatty acids and the lowest for sterols. Up to 97% of ingested algal fatty acids were removed by the copepod, with a preference towards the removal of polyunsaturated acids. Algal sterols were also removed by Calanus; the percentage composition and concentration of sterols in faecal pellets differing from the algal diet at all three food levels. Evidence that the removal of lipids from the diet represented assimilation by the copepods was provided by the further finding that during the feeding period (20 hr) all three lipid classes increased in animal tissues. Quantitative measurements of individual sterols revealed that significant amounts of 4-methyl and 4-desmethyl sterols having the 8(14) and 17(20) unsaturation were removed at all dietary levels. In contrast, ring-saturated stanols were not removed and appear to pass through the gut quantitatively.

  8. Characterization of a planctomycete associated with the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Her.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Olga Maria

    2013-10-01

    During attempts to obtain axenic the cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans, a microorganism with peculiar features was isolated. This contaminant resisted the physical and antibiotic treatments performed. Subsequent characterization showed that in agar plates this microorganism develops round granular pink colonies. It is a salt-dependent mesophilic and chemoheterotrophic Gram negative bacterium with a rod to ovoid shape, presenting cell motility in young cultures. Cell division occurs by cell budding. The bacterium forms aggregates with a variable number of cells that are stacked by fibrillar glycoproteic material, the holdfast. A tuft of numerous short glycoproteic fimbriae emerges from one pole of the cell. Preeminent granular inclusions, also of glycoproteic nature, are present in the cytoplasm. Several structural and compositional aspects of the cell envelope and cytoplasm are provided. The production of fibrillar material and the existence of the polar appendages suggest that this microorganism should occur in aquatic environments bound to substrates and could be associated with P. micans in natural marine habitats. Based on the characteristics displayed, this microorganism is a member of the Planctomycetes, order Planctomycetales.

  9. The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium sp.) of corals are parasites and mutualists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, M. P.; Stat, M.; Gates, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary success and continued survival of reef-building corals under increasing environmental change will, in part, be determined by the composition of their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities ( Symbiodinium sp.). Recent research suggests that differences in the phylotype composition of Symbiodinium in the same host can lead to different outcomes for the host when exposed to similar environmental conditions. One explanation for these observations is that symbioses between corals and Symbiodinium represent a continuum of interaction states that encompass mutualisms and parasitisms consistent with current evolutionary theory developed for other symbiotic systems. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a parasitic to mutualistic continuum in Symbiodinium interactions and propose that a consideration of the evolutionary ecology of these associations will advance our understanding of how environmental change will influence the ecological outcomes in these important symbioses. We advocate that a robust taxonomic structure for Symbiodinium sp. and empirical studies on sexual reproduction in Symbiodinium, the stability of interaction states among Symbiodinium symbioses spatially and temporally and how interaction states change as the environment changes will generate data for models that accurately forecast how climate change will influence the persistence of corals and the reefs they structure.

  10. Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate

    KAUST Repository

    Gornik, Sebastian G.

    2015-04-20

    Organelle gain through endosymbiosis has been integral to the origin and diversification of eukaryotes, and, once gained, plastids and mitochondria seem seldom lost. Indeed, discovery of nonphotosynthetic plastids in many eukaryotes - notably, the apicoplast in apicomplexan parasites such as the malaria pathogen Plasmodium - highlights the essential metabolic functions performed by plastids beyond photosynthesis. Once a cell becomes reliant on these ancillary functions, organelle dependence is apparently difficult to overcome. Previous examples of endosymbiotic organelle loss (either mitochondria or plastids), which have been invoked to explain the origin of eukaryotic diversity, have subsequently been recognized as organelle reduction to cryptic forms, such as mitosomes and apicoplasts. Integration of these ancient symbionts with their hosts has been too well developed to reverse. Here, we provide evidence that the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp., a marine parasite of crustaceans, represents a rare case of endosymbiotic organelle loss by the elimination of the plastid. Extensive RNA and genomic sequencing data provide no evidence for a plastid organelle, but, rather, reveal a metabolic decoupling from known plastid functions that typically impede organelle loss. This independence has been achieved through retention of ancestral anabolic pathways, enzyme relocation from the plastid to the cytosol, and metabolic scavenging from the parasite\\'s host. Hematodinium sp. thus represents a further dimension of endosymbiosis-life after the organelle. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  11. Two unusual new dinoflagellate cyst genera from the Bunde Borehole, Maastrichtian type area, southern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis; Klinkenberg; Williams; Fensome

    2000-06-01

    Maastrichtian and Danian deposits from the Bunde Borehole in the Maastrichtian type area contain the morphologically unusual dinoflagellate species Spumadinium felderorum gen. et sp. nov. and Lasagniella herngreenii gen. et sp. nov., both of which have archeopyles formed by the loss of several paraplates. In S. felderorum the paraplates forming the operculum or opercular pieces appear to be the third and fourth precingulars (3"-4") plus the first and second anterior intercalaries (1a-2a). This suggests that Spumadinium, although having a wall resembling some cribroperidinioids, is a cladopyxiinean. L. herngreenii is unique in having up to eight wall layers, separated and supported by buttresses. The archeopyle is also a combination type but formed by loss of one apical (3'), three anterior intercalary (1a-3a) and three precingular (3"-5") paraplates. Thus, Lasagniella is assignable to the Peridiniales. The distinctive morphology and restricted ranges of the two genera make them useful stratigraphic markers for the Upper Maastrichtian-Danian.

  12. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Prego-Faraldo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and dinophysistoxins (DTXs are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs. Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1 comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates.

  13. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Mendez, Josefina; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2016-05-24

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1) comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates.

  14. Selection of cytotoxic responses to maitotoxin and okadaic acid and evaluation of toxicity of dinoflagellate extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessard, V; Diogène, G; Dubreuil, A; Quod, J P; Durand-Clément, M; Legay, C; Puiseux-Dao, S

    1994-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of maitotoxin (MTX) and okadaic acid (OA) was studied on three mammalian fibroblast cell lines. Neutral red uptake (NRU), which measures cell viability, and morphological alterations were selected as rapid suitable responses. NRU allowed a precise toxicity quantification while the observations of morphological damage revealed differences specific to MTX (cell blebbing) and OA (cell rounding). BHK21 C13 fibroblasts, although less sensitive to MTX than the other cell lines, were chosen since they gave stable information and a two-stage morphological response with OA ("square"-shaped cells, then round cells). When NRU and morphology alterations were studied with crude extracts of Gambierdiscus toxicus and Prorocentrum lima, responses were typical of the dominant toxins, MTX and OA or related toxins respectively. Applied to several dinoflagellate extracts, the two tests revealed no toxicity for Amphidinium carterae, Ostreopsis siamensis, O. ovata and Coolia monotis (from La Réunion) and toxicity for A. carterae and A. operculatum (from Saint Barthélémy). When toxic, A. carterae extracts showed blebbing similar to that caused by MTX. Morphology alterations caused by A. operculatum crude extracts, different from those corresponding to MTX or OA, were also observed.

  15. Genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. ST3, a quorum sensing bacterium associated with marine dinoflagellate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phycosphere environment is a typical marine niche, harbor diverse populations of microorganisms, which are thought to play a critical role in algae host and influence mutualistic and competitive interactions. Understanding quorum sensing-based acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL language may shed light on the interaction between algal-associated microbial communities in the native environment. In this work, we isolated an epidermal bacterium (was tentatively named Enterobacter sp. ST3, and deposited in SOA China, the number is MCCC1K02277-ST3 from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea, and found it has the ability to produce short-chain AHL signal. In order to better understand its communication information at molecular level, the genomic map was investigated. The genome size was determined to be 4.81 Mb with a G + C content of 55.59%, comprising 6 scaffolds of 75 contigs containing 4647 protein-coding genes. The functional proteins were predicted, and 3534 proteins were assigned to COG functional categories. An AHL-relating gene, LuxR, was found in upstream position at contig 1. This genome data may provide clues to increase understanding of the chemical characterization and ecological behavior of strain ST3 in the phycosphere microenvironment.

  16. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  17. Balechina and the New Genus Cucumeridinium Gen. Nov. (Dinophyceae), Unarmored Dinoflagellates with Thick Cell Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2016-01-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  18. Arctic Dinoflagellate Migration Marks the Oligocene Glacial Maximum: Implications for the Rupelian-Chattian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Simaeys, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Pross, J.; Williams, G. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Various geochemical and biotic climate proxies, and notably deep-sea benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records indicate that the Eocene 'greenhouse' state of the Earth gradually evolved towards an earliest Oligocene 'icehouse' state, eventually triggering the abrupt appearance of large continental ice-sheets on Antarctic at ˜33.3 Ma (Oi-1 event). This, however, was only the first of two major glacial events in the Oligocene. Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O records show a second positive excursion in the mid Oligocene, consistent with a significant ice-sheet expansion and/or cooling at 27.1 Ma (Oi-2b) coincident with magnetosubchron C9n. Here, we report on a mid Oligocene, globally synchronous, Arctic dinoflagellate migration event, calibrated against the upper half of C9n. A sudden appearance, and abundance increases of the Arctic taxon Svalbardella at lower-middle latitudes coincides with the so-called Oi-2b benthic δ 18O event, dated at ˜27.1 Ma. This phenomenon is taken to indicate significant high-latitude surface water cooling, concomitant Antarctic ice-sheet growth, and sea level lowering. The duration of the Svalbardella migrations, and the episode of profound cooling is estimated as ˜500 ka, and is here termed the Oligocene Glacial Maximum (OGM). Our records suggest a close link between the OGM, sea-level fall, and the classic Rupelian-Chattian boundary, magnetostratigraphically dating this boundary as ˜27.1 Ma.

  19. Species-selective Aerobic Degradation of Dinoflagellate Cysts - Results of a Natural Exposure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodrans-Nsiah, M.; de Lange, G. J.; Zonneveld, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts undergo species-selective decomposition in oxic environments but are preserved under anoxic conditions. The relative degradation rate of individual species has been assessed during exposure experiments under oxic and anoxic conditions at two sites in the Eastern Mediterranean, namely the Urania and Bannock Basins areas. These areas contain anoxic brine waters and are overlain by oxic intermediate and surface waters. The exposed material consisted of sediments collected from (a) the Namibian shelf, (b) the S1 sapropel and (c) modern eastern Mediterranean. After 15 months of exposure to oxic conditions, sub-samples from the Namibian shelf and the sapropel showed a considerable reduction in cysts concentration compared to their original abundance. Exposure to anoxic conditions did not lead to detectable differences in relation to the initial composition. Our experimental results indicate that Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium granulatum are very sensitive to oxygen exposure, whereas Spiniferites spp., Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Echinidinium spp. appear to be moderately sensitive. Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus, Echinidinium aculeatum, Operculodinium israelianum, and Impagidinium aculeatum are extremely resistant against aerobic decay. The observed changes in the dinocysts assemblages provide clear and straightforward argument that species- selective degradation of dinocysts takes place rapidly under oxic conditions independently from dinocyst production and transport processes. Our results imply that diagenetically induced composition changes have to be taken into account not only during interpretations of fossil records but also (sub) recent dinocyst assemblages.

  20. Minor element and Ca isotope composition of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts of cultured Thoracosphaera heimii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Zonneveld, Karin; Kuhnert, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influences of temperature, salinity and pH on the calcium isotope as well as trace and minor element (uranium, strontium, magnesium) to Ca ratios on calcium carbonate cysts of the calcareous dinoflagellate species Thoracosphaera heimii grown in laboratory cultures. The natural habitat of this species is the photic zone (preferentially at the chlorophyll maximum depth) of temperate to tropical oceans, and it is abundant in deep-sea sediments over the entire Cenozoic. In our experiments, temperatures ranged from 12 to 30 °C, salinity from 36.5 to 38.8 and pH from 7.9 to 8.4. The δ44/40Ca of T. heimii cysts resembles that of other marine calcifiers, including coccolithophores, foraminifers and corals. However, its temperature sensitivity is considerably smaller and statistically insignificant, and T. heimii might serve as a recorder of changes in seawater δ44/40Ca over geologic time. The Sr/Ca ratios of T. heimii cysts show a pronounced temperature sensitivity (0.016 mmol/mol °C - 1 ) and have the potential to serve as a palaeo-sea surface temperature proxy. No clear temperature- and pH-dependences were observed for Mg/Ca. U/Ca seems to be influenced by temperature and pH, but the correlations change sign at 23 °C and pH 8.2, respectively.

  1. Role of heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium sp. in the fate of an iron induced diatom bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ota, Takashi; Suzuki, Koji; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2006-05-01

    Iron enrichment to high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions is being considered as a possible way of atmospheric CO2 sequestration to the deep sea. Mesoscale iron-enrichment to the HNLC subarctic Pacific induced a massive diatom bloom and led to a large decrease in pCO2. In response to the diatom bloom, the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium sp. increased and phagotrophically fed on the diatoms up to 12 times their length. Mathematical simulations show the carbon fixed by diatoms is mostly respired by Gyrodinium sp. in the sea surface. The emergence of initially rare species and their key biogeochemical roles were unexpected due to our limited understanding of food-web components. This indicates that the prediction of ecosystem responses to natural or anthropogenic perturbation remains a challenging issue. Effective carbon sequestration as a geoengineering technique may not be accomplished by purposeful iron-enrichment, at least in the western subarctic Pacific where rapid-growth diatom grazers stand by.

  2. Diversity and dynamics of a widespread bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana L Erdner

    Full Text Available Historically, cosmopolitan phytoplankton species were presumed to represent largely unstructured populations. However, the recent development of molecular tools to examine genetic diversity have revealed differences in phytoplankton taxa across geographic scales and provided insight into the physiology and ecology of blooms. Here we describe the genetic analysis of an extensive bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense that occurred in the Gulf of Maine in 2005. This bloom was notable for its intensity and duration, covering hundreds of kilometers and persisting for almost two months. Genotypic analyses based on microsatellite marker data indicate that the open waters of the northeastern U.S. harbor a single regional population of A. fundyense comprising two genetically distinct sub-populations. These subpopulations were characteristic of early- and late-bloom samples and were derived from the northern and southern areas of the bloom, respectively. The temporal changes observed during this study provide clear evidence of succession during a continuous bloom and show that selection can act on the timescale of weeks to significantly alter the representation of genotypes within a population. The effects of selection on population composition and turnover would be magnified if sexual reproduction were likewise influenced by environmental conditions. We hypothesize that the combined effects of differential growth and reproduction rates serves to reduce gene flow between the sub-populations, reinforcing population structure while maintaining the diversity of the overall regional population.

  3. Correlation between membrane potential responses and tentacle movement in the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oami, Kazunori

    2004-02-01

    Membrane potential responses and tentacle movement of the marine dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris were recorded simultaneously and their time relationships were examined. The food-gathering tentacle of Noctiluca exhibited slow extension-flexion movements in association with the spontaneously recurring membrane potential responses termed the tentacle regulating potentials (TRPs). The flexion of the tentacle began during the slow depolarization of the TRPs. The rate of the flexion increased after the hyperpolarizing (negative) spike following the slow depolarization. The tentacle then extended slowly during the hyperpolarized level of the TRPs. A TRPs-associated flexion did not occur when the external Ca(2+) ions were removed. On the contrary, the tentacle showed conspicuous flexion (coiling) when the external Ca(2+) concentration was raised. In association with the stimulus-evoked action potential, which triggers bioluminescent flash (flash-triggering action potential; FTP), the tentacle coiled quickly. The FTP-associated coiling took place even in the Ca(2+)-deprived condition. The coupling mechanisms of the TRPs-associated and FTP-associated tentacle movements were compared, and their biological significance was discussed.

  4. Evaluation of the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis: loss of defense against generalist but not specialist herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Clare, Robert; Johnson, Robert H; Meyer, Gretchen A

    2007-04-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that invasive plant species may escape their specialized natural enemies in their introduced range and subsequently evolve with a decrease in investment in anti-herbivore chemical defenses relative to native conspecifics. We compared the chemical profile of 10 populations of US native and 20 populations of European invasive Solidago gigantea. To test for differences in inducibility between native and invasive populations, we measured secondary chemistry in both damaged and undamaged plants. We also performed bioassays with three specialist and two generalist insect herbivores from four different feeding guilds. There was no evidence that invasive populations had reduced concentrations of sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, or short-chain hydrocarbons (SCH), although significant variation among populations was detected. Sesquiterpene and diterpene concentrations were not influenced by damage to the host plant, whereas SCH concentrations were decreased by damage for both native and invasive plants. Performance of the three specialist insects was not affected by the continental origin of the host plant. However, larval mass of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua was 37% lower on native plants compared to invasive plants. The other generalist insect, a xylem-tapping spittlebug that occurs on both continents, performed equally well on native and invasive plants. These results offer partial support for the defense predictions of the EICA hypothesis: the better growth of Spodoptera caterpillars on European plants shows that some defenses have been lost in the introduced range, even though our measures of secondary chemistry did not detect differences between continents. Our results show significant variation in chemical defenses and herbivore performance across populations on both continents and emphasize the need for analysis across a broad spatial scale and the use of multiple herbivores.

  5. Inhibition of the endosymbiont "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens i