WorldWideScience

Sample records for generalised derived limits

  1. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.; Harrison, N.T.; Linsley, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  2. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  3. Dosimetric quantities and basic data for the evaluation of generalised derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The procedures, dosimetric quantities and basic data to be used for the evaluation of Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) in environmental materials and of Generalised Derived Limits for discharges to atmosphere are described. The dosimetric considerations and the appropriate intake rates for both children and adults are discussed. In most situations in the nuclear industry and in those institutions, hospitals and laboratories which use relatively small quantities of radioactive material, the Generalised Derived Limits provide convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared, and atmospheric discharges can be assessed. They are intended for application when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the Generalised Derived Limit; above this level, it will usually be necessary to undertake a more detailed site-specific assessment. (author)

  4. Generalised boundary terms for higher derivative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teimouri, Ali; Talaganis, Spyridon; Edholm, James [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Lancaster University,North West Drive, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Lancaster University,North West Drive, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-24

    In this paper we wish to find the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking-York term for the most general quadratic in curvature gravity by using Coframe slicing within the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of spacetime in four dimensions. In order to make sure that the higher derivative gravity is ghost and tachyon free at a perturbative level, one requires infinite covariant derivatives, which yields a generalised covariant infinite derivative theory of gravity. We will be exploring the boundary term for such a covariant infinite derivative theory of gravity.

  5. Limits of the generalised Tomimatsu-Sato gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper (Cosgrove. J. Phys. A.; 10:1481 (1977)), the author presented a new three-parameter family of exact asymptotically flat stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations which contains the solutions of Kerr and Tomimatsu-Sato (TS) as special cases. In this paper, two interesting special cases of the previous family which must be constructed by a limiting process are considered. These are interpreted as a 'rotating Curzon metric' and a 'generalised extreme Kerr metric'. In addition, approximate forms for the original metrics are given for the cases of slow rotation and small deformation. (author)

  6. Transmutability, generalised Darwinism and the limits to conceptual integration

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Brown

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the limits to conceptual integration between evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience and economics. The new learning in the natural sciences supplies material to update and enrich the microfoundations of institutional economics—specifically, the instinct–habit psychology. The framing of social reality with evolutionary concepts is, however, misguided in important respects. Metaphorical modelling is the transfer of concepts developed for the understanding of one doma...

  7. Generalised boundary terms for higher derivative theories of gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teimouri, Ali; Talaganis, Spyridon; Edholm, James; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we wish to find the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking-York term for the most general quadratic in curvature gravity by using Coframe slicing within the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) decomposition of spacetime in four dimensions. In order to make sure that the higher derivative gravity is

  8. Limited acquisition and generalisation of rhotics with ultrasound visual feedback in childhood apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Maas, Edwin; Whittle, Jessica; Leece, Megan C; McCabe, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound visual feedback of the tongue is one treatment option for individuals with persisting speech sound errors. This study evaluated children's performance during acquisition and generalisation of American English rhotics using ultrasound feedback. Three children aged 10-13 with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were treated for 14 one-hour sessions. Two of the participants increased the accuracy of their rhotic production during practise trials within treatment sessions, but none demonstrated generalisation to untreated words. Lack of generalisation may be due to a failure to acquire the target with sufficient accuracy during treatment, or to co-existing linguistic weaknesses that are not addressed in a motor-based treatment. Results suggest a need to refine the intervention procedures for CAS and/or a need to identify appropriate candidates for intervention to optimise learning.

  9. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  10. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  11. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  12. The Generalised Phase Contrast Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    An analytic framework and a complete description for the design and optimisation of on-axis centred spatially filtering common path systems are presented. The Generalised Phase Contrast method is derived and introduced as the common denominator for these systems basically extending Zernike......’s original phase contrast scheme into a much wider range of operation and application. It is demonstrated that the Generalised Phase Contrast method can be successfully applied to the interpretation and subsequent optimisation of a number of different, commonly applied spatially filtering architectures...... designs and parameter settings. Finally, a number of original applications facilitated by the parallel light-beam encoding of the Generalised Phase Contrast method are briefly outlined. These include among others, wavefront sensing and generation, advanced usercontrolled optical micro...

  13. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  14. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  15. A generalised groundwater flow equation using the concept of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    head. This generalised law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Numerical solutions of this equation for various fractional orders of the derivatives are compared with experimental data and the Barker generalised radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for ...

  16. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  17. Generalised anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Christopher K; Millichamp, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, ...

  18. Hyperscaling violating solutions in generalised EMD theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This short note is devoted to deriving scaling but hyperscaling violating solutions in a generalised Einstein–Maxwell-Dilaton theory with an arbitrary number of scalars and vectors. We obtain analytic solutions in some special case and discuss the physical constraints on the allowed parameter range in order to have a well-defined holographic ground-state solution.

  19. Hyperscaling violating solutions in generalised EMD theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li, E-mail: lil416@lehigh.edu [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 18018 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    This short note is devoted to deriving scaling but hyperscaling violating solutions in a generalised Einstein–Maxwell-Dilaton theory with an arbitrary number of scalars and vectors. We obtain analytic solutions in some special case and discuss the physical constraints on the allowed parameter range in order to have a well-defined holographic ground-state solution.

  20. Coherence generalises duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Lindley, Sam; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Wadler introduced Classical Processes (CP), a calculus based on a propositions-as-types correspondence between propositions of classical linear logic and session types. Carbone et al. introduced Multiparty Classical Processes, a calculus that generalises CP to multiparty session types, by replacing...... the duality of classical linear logic (relating two types) with a more general notion of coherence (relating an arbitrary number of types). This paper introduces variants of CP and MCP, plus a new intermediate calculus of Globally-governed Classical Processes (GCP). We show a tight relation between...

  1. On quantization, the generalised Schroedinger equation and classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.R.W.

    1991-01-01

    A ψ-dependent linear functional operator, was defined, which solves the problem of quantization in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Weyl ordering is implemented automatically and permits derivation of many of the quantum to classical correspondences. The parameter λ presents a natural C ∞ deformation of the dynamical structure of quantum mechanics via a non-linear integro-differential 'Generalised Schroedinger Equation', admitting an infinite family of soliton solutions. All these solutions are presented and it is shown that this equation gives an exact dynamic and energetic reproduction of classical mechanics with the correct measurement theoretic limit. 23 refs

  2. Generalised shot noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We introduce a new class of Cox cluster processes called generalised shot-noise processes (GSNCPs), which extends the definition of shot noise Cox processes (SNCPs) in two directions: the point process which drives the shot noise is not necessarily Poisson, and the kernel of the shot noise can...... be random. Thereby a very large class of models for aggregated or clustered point patterns is obtained. Due to the structure of GSNCPs, a number of useful results can be established. We focus first on deriving summary statistics for GSNCPs and next on how to make simulation for GSNCPs. Particularly, results...... for first and second order moment measures, reduced Palm distributions, the -function, simulation with or without edge effects, and conditional simulation of the intensity function driving a GSNCP are given. Our results are exemplified for special important cases of GSNCPs, and we discuss the relation...

  3. Generalised shot noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a class of cox cluster processes called generalised shot noise Cox processes (GSNCPs), which extends the definition of shot noise Cox processes (SNCPs) in two directions: the point process that drives the shot noise is not necessarily Poisson, and the kernel of the shot noise can...... be random. Thereby, a very large class of models for aggregated or clustered point patterns is obtained. Due to the structure of GSNCPs, a number of useful results can be established. We focus first on deriving summary statistics for GSNCPs and, second, on how to simulate such processes. In particular......, results on first- and second-order moment measures, reduced Palm distributions, the J-function, simulation with or without edge effects, and conditional simulation of the intensity function driving a GSNCP are given. Our results are exemplified in important special cases of GSNCPs, and we discuss...

  4. Generalising the staircase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, P.; Ravanini, F.

    1993-01-01

    Systems of integral equations are proposed which generalise those previously encountered in connection with the so-called staircase models. Under the assumption that these equations describe the finite-size effects of relativistic field theories via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, analytical and numerical evidence is given for the existence of a variety of new roaming renormalisation group trajectories. For each positive integer k and s=0, .., k-1, these is a one-parameter family of trajectories, passing close by the coset conformal field theories G (k) xG (nk+s) /G ((n+1)k+s) before finally flowing to a massive theory for s=0, or to another coset model for s.=|0. (orig.)

  5. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)

  6. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  7. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed

  8. Open quantum generalisation of Hopfield neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, P.; Marcuzzi, M.; Garrahan, J. P.; Lesanovsky, I.; Müller, M.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new framework to understand how quantum effects may impact on the dynamics of neural networks. We implement the dynamics of neural networks in terms of Markovian open quantum systems, which allows us to treat thermal and quantum coherent effects on the same footing. In particular, we propose an open quantum generalisation of the Hopfield neural network, the simplest toy model of associative memory. We determine its phase diagram and show that quantum fluctuations give rise to a qualitatively new non-equilibrium phase. This novel phase is characterised by limit cycles corresponding to high-dimensional stationary manifolds that may be regarded as a generalisation of storage patterns to the quantum domain.

  9. Supersymmetric backgrounds, the Killing superalgebra, and generalised special holonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-10

    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving N supersymmetries in dimensions D≥4 correspond precisely to integrable generalised G{sub N} structures, where G{sub N} is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann’s Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the N-extended super-Poincaré algebra.

  10. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassani, Davide; Felice, Oscar de; Petrini, Michela [LPTHE, Sorbonne Universités UPMC Paris 06, CNRS,4 place Jussieu, F-75005, Paris (France); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-10

    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S{sup 6}, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO(p,7−p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S{sup d}, d=4,3,2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO(d+1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  11. Generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions from gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    A procedure is described to construct generalised Scherk-Schwarz uplifts of gauged supergravities. The internal manifold, fluxes, and consistent truncation Ansatz are all derived from the embedding tensor of the lower-dimensional theory. We first describe the procedure to construct generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces where the vector components of the frame are embedded in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, as specified by the embedding tensor. This allows us to recover the generalised Scherk-Schwarz reductions known in the literature and to prove a no-go result for the uplift of ω-deformed SO( p, q) gauged maximal supergravities. We then extend the construction to arbitrary generalised Leibniz parallelisable spaces, which turn out to be torus fibrations over manifolds in the class above.

  12. Derived release limits for airborne effluents at TRIGA - INR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Hirica, O.; Mihai, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning from fulfilling the purposes of dose limitation system recommended by ICRP, and now accepted in radiation protection, this paper presents an environmental transfer model to calculate derived release limits for airborne and gaseous radioactive effluents at TRIGA-INR, 14 MW Steady State Reactor, in function on INR-Pitesti site. The methodology consists in determination of the principal exposure pathways for different groups of population and dose calculations for each radionuclide. The characterization of radionuclides transfer to environment was made using the compartmental model. The parameter transfer concept was used to describe the distribution of radionuclides between the different compartments. Atmospheric dispersion was very carefully treated, because it is the primary mechanism of the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and it determines all exposure pathways. Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion was made using ORION-II computer code based on the Gaussian plume model which takes account of site's specific climate and relief conditions. Default values recommended by literature were used to calculate some of the parameters when specific site values were not available. After identification of all transfer parameters which characterize the most important exposure pathways, the release rate corresponding to the individual dose rate limit was calculated. This maximum release rate is the derived release limit for each radionuclide and source. In the paper, the derived release limits are calculated for noble gases, radioiodine and other airborne particulate radionuclides, which can be released on the TRIGA-INR reactor stack, and are important to radiation protection. (authors)

  13. Generalisations of Fisher Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Heavens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.

  14. Generalised compositionality in graph transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamarian, A.H.; Rensink, Arend; Ehrig, H; Engels, G.; Kreowski, H.J.; Rozenberg, G.

    We present a notion of composition applying both to graphs and to rules, based on graph and rule interfaces along which they are glued. The current paper generalises a previous result in two different ways. Firstly, rules do not have to form pullbacks with their interfaces; this enables graph

  15. Dyads, a generalisation of monads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    The concept of dyad is defined as the least common generalisation of monads and co-monads. So, taking some of the ingredients to be the identity, the concept specialises to the concept of monad, and taking other ingredients to be the identity it specialises to co-monads. Except for one axiom, all

  16. Threshold corrections, generalised prepotentials and Eichler integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Pioline, Boris

    2015-06-12

    We continue our study of one-loop integrals associated to BPS-saturated amplitudes in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ heterotic vacua. We compute their large-volume behaviour, and express them as Fourier series in the complexified volume, with Fourier coefficients given in terms of Niebur-Poincar\\'e series in the complex structure modulus. The closure of Niebur-Poincar\\'e series under modular derivatives implies that such integrals derive from holomorphic prepotentials $f_n$, generalising the familiar prepotential of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity. These holomorphic prepotentials transform anomalously under T-duality, in a way characteristic of Eichler integrals. We use this observation to compute their quantum monodromies under the duality group. We extend the analysis to modular integrals with respect to Hecke congruence subgroups, which naturally arise in compactifications on non-factorisable tori and freely-acting orbifolds. In this case, we derive new explicit results including closed-form expressions for integrals involv...

  17. Generalising the coupling between spacetime and matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni, Sante, E-mail: sante.carloni@gmail.com

    2017-03-10

    We explore the idea that the coupling between matter and spacetime is more complex than the one originally envisioned by Einstein. We propose that such coupling takes the form of a new fundamental tensor in the Einstein field equations. We then show that the introduction of this tensor can account for dark phenomenology in General Relativity, maintaining a weak field limit compatible with standard Newtonian gravitation. The same paradigm can be applied any other theory of gravitation. We show, as an example, that in the context of conformal gravity a generalised coupling is able to solve compatibility issues between the matter and the gravitational sector.

  18. Generalising the coupling between spacetime and matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Carloni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea that the coupling between matter and spacetime is more complex than the one originally envisioned by Einstein. We propose that such coupling takes the form of a new fundamental tensor in the Einstein field equations. We then show that the introduction of this tensor can account for dark phenomenology in General Relativity, maintaining a weak field limit compatible with standard Newtonian gravitation. The same paradigm can be applied any other theory of gravitation. We show, as an example, that in the context of conformal gravity a generalised coupling is able to solve compatibility issues between the matter and the gravitational sector.

  19. An estimation on the derived limits of effluent water concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Katuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The values of Derived Limits of Effluent Water Concentration, (DLEC)sub(w), have been estimated in accordance with the principles of the recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The (DLEC)sub(w)'s were derived from the Annual Limits on Intake for individual members of the public (ALIsub(p)), considering realistic models of exposure pathways and annual intake rates of foods. The ALIsub(p)'s were decided after consideration of body organ mass and other age dependent parameters. We assumed that the materials which brought exposure to the public were drinking water, fish, seaweed, invertebrate and seashore. The age dependence of annual intake rate of food might be proportional to a person's energy expenditure rate. The following results were obtained. Infants were the critical group of the public at the time of derivation of (DLEC)sub(w). The ALIsub(p)'s for the infants were about one-hundredth of those for workers and their (DLEC)sub(w)'s were about one-third of those for the adult members of the public. (author)

  20. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis

  1. Generalised time functions and finiteness of the Lorentzian distance

    OpenAIRE

    Rennie, Adam; Whale, Ben E.

    2014-01-01

    We show that finiteness of the Lorentzian distance is equivalent to the existence of generalised time functions with gradient uniformly bounded away from light cones. To derive this result we introduce new techniques to construct and manipulate achronal sets. As a consequence of these techniques we obtain a functional description of the Lorentzian distance extending the work of Franco and Moretti.

  2. Generalised hypercementosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Rachel; Nixon, Paul P

    2004-10-01

    The following case report describes the clinical and radiographical presentation of a female who attended a general dental practice as a new patient. The patient was diagnosed with generalised hypercementosis, possibly attributable to oral neglect. Hypercementosis is associated with a number of aetiological factors, which may be local or systemic in nature. It is important that the general dental practitioner is aware of these factors and is able to distinguish presentation due to a local cause from that of a systemic disease process. The aims of this paper are to illustrate an unusual presentation of hypercementosis and to discuss the radiographic differentiation that led to diagnosis.

  3. Adapting Metacognitive Therapy to Children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Normann, Nicoline; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    -c) with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and create suggestions for an adapted manual. The adaptation was based on the structure and techniques used in MCT for adults with GAD. However, the developmental limitations of children were taken into account. For instance, therapy was aided with worksheets, practical...

  4. Threshold corrections, generalised prepotentials and Eichler integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Angelantonj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We continue our study of one-loop integrals associated to BPS-saturated amplitudes in N=2 heterotic vacua. We compute their large-volume behaviour, and express them as Fourier series in the complexified volume, with Fourier coefficients given in terms of Niebur–Poincaré series in the complex structure modulus. The closure of Niebur–Poincaré series under modular derivatives implies that such integrals derive from holomorphic prepotentials fn, generalising the familiar prepotential of N=2 supergravity. These holomorphic prepotentials transform anomalously under T-duality, in a way characteristic of Eichler integrals. We use this observation to compute their quantum monodromies under the duality group. We extend the analysis to modular integrals with respect to Hecke congruence subgroups, which naturally arise in compactifications on non-factorisable tori and freely-acting orbifolds. In this case, we derive new explicit results including closed-form expressions for integrals involving the Γ0(N Hauptmodul, a full characterisation of holomorphic prepotentials including their quantum monodromies, as well as concrete formulæ for holomorphic Yukawa couplings.

  5. Young Australian Indigenous Students' Growing Pattern Generalisations: The Role of Gesture When Generalising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how young Indigenous students' (Year 2 and 3) generalise growing patterns. Piagetian clinical interviews were conducted to determine how students articulated growing pattern generalisations. Two case studies are presented displaying how students used gesture to support and articulate their generalisations of growing patterns.…

  6. Wagner’s theory of generalised heaps

    CERN Document Server

    Hollings, Christopher D

    2017-01-01

    The theories of V. V. Wagner (1908-1981) on abstractions of systems of binary relations are presented here within their historical and mathematical contexts. This book contains the first translation from Russian into English of a selection of Wagner’s papers, the ideas of which are connected to present-day mathematical research. Along with a translation of Wagner’s main work in this area, his 1953 paper ‘Theory of generalised heaps and generalised groups,’ the book also includes translations of three short precursor articles that provide additional context for his major work. Researchers and students interested in both algebra (in particular, heaps, semiheaps, generalised heaps, semigroups, and groups) and differential geometry will benefit from the techniques offered by these translations, owing to the natural connections between generalised heaps and generalised groups, and the role played by these concepts in differential geometry. This book gives examples from present-day mathematics where ideas r...

  7. Classical r-matrices for the generalised Chern–Simons formulation of 3d gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Prince K.; Schroers, Bernd J.

    2018-04-01

    We study the conditions for classical r-matrices to be compatible with the generalised Chern–Simons action for 3d gravity. Compatibility means solving the classical Yang–Baxter equations with a prescribed symmetric part for each of the real Lie algebras and bilinear pairings arising in the generalised Chern–Simons action. We give a new construction of r-matrices via a generalised complexification and derive a non-linear set of matrix equations determining the most general compatible r-matrix. We exhibit new families of solutions and show that they contain some known r-matrices for special parameter values.

  8. GENERALISATION OF SUBMARINE FEATURES ON NAUTICAL CHARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guilbert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On most large scale and middle scale maps, relief is represented by contours and spot heights. In order to adapt the representation to the scale, the terrain is generalised either by smoothing or filtering the terrain model or by simplifying the contours. However this approach is not applicable to nautical chart construction where terrain features are selected according to their importance for navigation. This paper presents an approach for the consideration of feature attributes in the generalisation of a set of contours with respect to nautical chart constraints. Features are defined by sets of contours and a set of generalisation operators applied to features is presented. The definitions are introduced in a multi-agent system in order to perform automatic generalisation of a contour set. Results are discussed on a case study and directions for future work are presented.

  9. Cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Warren, P.S.; Fisher, C.C.

    1985-09-01

    A case of cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is reported. The authors believe that bone dysplasia associated with cloverleaf is neither identical with thanatophoric dysplasia nor achondroplasia. Until identity of thanatophoric dysplasia and cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is proved the diseases should be looked upon as separate entities and the wording ''thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull'' should be abolished.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Computer Programming in Understanding Limits and Derivatives in a Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the development of student's conceptual understandings of limit and derivative when utilizing specifically designed computational tools. Fourteen students from a secondary Advanced Placement Calculus AB course learned and explored the limit and derivative concepts from differential calculus using visualization tools in the…

  11. Generalisability of a composite student selection programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The reliability of individual non-cognitive admission criteria in medical education is controversial. Nonetheless, non-cognitive admission criteria appear to be widely used in selection to medicine to supplement the grades of qualifying examinations. However, very few studies have...... examined the overall test generalisability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in medical education. We examined the generalisability of a composite process for selection to medicine, consisting of four variables: qualifications (application form information); written motivation (in essay...... format); general knowledge (multiple-choice test), and a semi-structured admission interview. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalisability of a composite selection. METHODS: Data from 307 applicants who participated in the admission to medicine in 2007 were available for analysis. Each...

  12. A study of idiopathic generalised epilepsy in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) is subdivided into syndromes based on clinical and EEG features. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise all cases of IGE with supportive EEG abnormalities in terms of gender differences, seizure types reported, IGE syndromes, family history of epilepsy and EEG findings. We also calculated the limited duration prevalence of IGE in our cohort. METHODS: Data on abnormal EEGs were collected retrospectively from two EEG databases at two tertiary referral centres for neurology. Clinical information was obtained from EEG request forms, standardised EEG questionnaires and medical notes of patients. RESULTS: two hundred twenty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, 89 (39.9%) male and 134 (60.1%) females. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported, 162 (72.65%) having a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS) at some time. IGE with GTCS only (EGTCSA) was the most common syndrome in our cohort being present in 94 patients (34 male, 60 female), with 42 (15 male, 27 female) patients diagnosed with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 23 (9 male, 14 female) with Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) and 20 (9 male, 11 female) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG studies in all patients showed generalised epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: More women than men were diagnosed with generalised epilepsy. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported. EGTCSA was the most frequent syndrome seen. Gender differences were evident for JAE and JME as previously reported and for EGTCSA, which was not reported to date, and reached statistical significance for EGTCA and JME.

  13. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the concept of generalised computability of operators and functionals defined on the set of continuous functions, firstly introduced in [9]. By working in the reals, with equality and without equality, we study properties of generalised computable operators and functionals. Also we...... propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...... grant for young researchers, 2000)...

  14. Travelling wave solutions of (2++1)-dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youwei

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have developed new exact analytical solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation that appear in mathematical physics, a (2+1)-dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation, which describes the wave propagation in an erbium-doped nonlinear fibre with higher-order dispersion. By virtue of the tanh-expansion and complete discrimination system by means of fractional complex transform, travelling wave solutions are derived. Wave interaction for the wave propagation strength and angle of field quantity under the long wave limit are analysed: Bell-shape solitons are found and it is found that the complex transform coefficient in the system affects the direction of the wave propagation, patterns of the soliton interaction, distance and direction.

  15. Generalised solutions for fully nonlinear PDE systems and existence-uniqueness theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzourakis, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new theory of generalised solutions which applies to fully nonlinear PDE systems of any order and allows for merely measurable maps as solutions. This approach bypasses the standard problems arising by the application of Distributions to PDEs and is not based on either integration by parts or on the maximum principle. Instead, our starting point builds on the probabilistic representation of derivatives via limits of difference quotients in the Young measures over a toric compactification of the space of jets. After developing some basic theory, as a first application we consider the Dirichlet problem and we prove existence-uniqueness-partial regularity of solutions to fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic 2nd order systems and also existence of solutions to the ∞-Laplace system of vectorial Calculus of Variations in L∞.

  16. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  17. On Generalisation of Polynomials in Complex Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslina Darus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalised Bell and Laguerre polynomials of fractional-order in complex z-plane are defined. Some properties are studied. Moreover, we proved that these polynomials are univalent solutions for second order differential equations. Also, the Laguerre-type of some special functions are introduced.

  18. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis secondary to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Superficial dermal vessels were mildly dilated and contained marginated neutrophils. Special stains for fungi and acid- fast bacilli were negative and no granulomas, dysplastic or malignant cells were found. A histopathological diagnosis of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) was made.

  19. The oculocerebral syndrome in association with generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 14-year-old girl with generalised hypopigmentation, mental retardation, abnormal movements, and ocular anomalies is described. It is suggested that she represents a further case of oculocerebral albinism, a rare autosomal recessive condition. Reference is made to previous similar cases.

  20. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Gabella, Maxime; Graña, Mariana; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS 5 flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS 5 flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  1. Generalised phase contrast: microscopy, manipulation and more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Generalised phase contrast (GPC) not only leads to more accurate phase imaging beyond thin biological samples, but serves as an enabling framework in developing tools over a wide spectrum of contemporary applications in optics and photonics, including optical trapping and micromanipulation, optic...

  2. Generalized oscillator strength and its first derivative for helium in the optical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.U.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Radojevic, V.; Zivanovic, D.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths and their first derivatives for zero momentum transfer (i.e. in the optical limit) are calculated for the helium atom in the framework of the random phase approximation with exchange. (author)

  3. Derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, Byung Soo

    2000-01-01

    In Korea the dose limits are reduced and are set at the ICRP-60 limits. However, derived limits tabulated as MPC in air and water are sill specified in Notice Nol 98-12. There are some discrepancies between the primary dose limits and MPCs in air and water. Therefore, in order to accept ICRP-60 recommendations fully, derived limits such as ALI, DAC, ECL for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using modified methods of those of 10 CFR part 20, dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. The derived limits in this study were also compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as MPCs of Notice No.98-12 in order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities. ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. Especially, for uranium elements, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. (author)

  4. Support vector machines and generalisation in HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Adrian; Gamboa Goñi, Rodrigo; Hays, Jon; Stevenson, Tom

    2017-10-01

    We review the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and discuss examples of their use in a number of scenarios. Several SVM implementations have been used in HEP and we exemplify this algorithm using the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA) implementation. We discuss examples relevant to HEP including background suppression for H → τ + τ ‑ at the LHC with several different kernel functions. Performance benchmarking leads to the issue of generalisation of hyper-parameter selection. The avoidance of fine tuning (over training or over fitting) in MVA hyper-parameter optimisation, i.e. the ability to ensure generalised performance of an MVA that is independent of the training, validation and test samples, is of utmost importance. We discuss this issue and compare and contrast performance of hold-out and k-fold cross-validation. We have extended the SVM functionality and introduced tools to facilitate cross validation in TMVA and present results based on these improvements.

  5. Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D.; Mignemi, S.; Štrajn, R.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.

  6. Quantum field theory in generalised Snyder spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meljanac, S.; Meljanac, D. [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2017-05-10

    We discuss the generalisation of the Snyder model that includes all possible deformations of the Heisenberg algebra compatible with Lorentz invariance and investigate its properties. We calculate perturbatively the law of addition of momenta and the star product in the general case. We also undertake the construction of a scalar field theory on these noncommutative spaces showing that the free theory is equivalent to the commutative one, like in other models of noncommutative QFT.

  7. Development of derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. Y.; Lee, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Derived limits such as the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), Derived Air Concentration (DAC) and Effluent Concentration Limit (ECL) for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the basic Safety Standards of IAEA (i.e. safety series 115; BSS-96). Derived limits regarding occupational exposure were derived using methodologies of ICRP-61 and dose limit stated in ICRP -60. ECL in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment were derived using methodologies of 10 CFR part 20 and dose limit stated in ICRP-60. In order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities, the derived values in this study were compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of Notice No. 98-12 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). According to the comparison results, ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. These differences are due to the reduction of dose limit, adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, and application of new respiratory tract model and bio-kinetics model. Especially, for uranium elements (i.e., 235 U, 238 U, etc.), which are governing ones in the nuclear fuel industries, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. These are attributable to the adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, newly recommended dose coefficients for ingestion pathway, and reduction of dose limit. It was found out that the differences in ECLs in water for uranium elements originated mostly from ingestion dose coefficients recommended by BSS-96. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Generalised linear models for correlated pseudo-observations, with applications to multi-state models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Klein, John P.; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model......Generalised estimating equation; Generalised linear model; Jackknife pseudo-value; Logistic regression; Markov Model; Multi-state model...

  9. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  10. Generalised empirical method for predicting surface subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a simplified strata parameter, i.e. the ratio of total thickness of the strong rock beds in an overburden to the overall thickness of the overburden, a Generalised Empirical Method (GEM) is described for predicting the maximum subsidence and the shape of a complete transverse subsidence profile due to a single completely extracted longwall panel. In the method, a nomogram for predicting the maximum surface subsidence is first developed from the data collected from subsidence measurements worldwide. Then, a method is developed for predicting the shapes of complete transfer subsidence profiles for a horizontal seam and ground surface and is verified by case studies. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Mueller, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen

  12. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  13. A model for the derivation of new transport limits for non-fixed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Lorenz, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearservice, Essen (Germany); Hesse, J. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material contain requirements for contamination limits on packages and conveyances used for the transport of radioactive material. Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from a model proposed by Fairbairn more than 40 years ago. This model has proven effective if used with pragmatism, but is based on very conservative as well as extremely simple assumptions which is in no way appropriate any more and which is not compatible with ICRP recommendations regarding radiation protection standards. Therefore, a new model has now been developed which reflects all steps of the transport process. The derivation of this model has been fostered by the IAEA by initiating a Co-ordinated Research Project. The results of the calculations using this model could be directly applied as new nuclide specific transport limits for the non-fixed contamination.

  14. A model for the derivation of new transport limits for non-fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Lorenz, B.; Hesse, J.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material contain requirements for contamination limits on packages and conveyances used for the transport of radioactive material. Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from a model proposed by Fairbairn more than 40 years ago. This model has proven effective if used with pragmatism, but is based on very conservative as well as extremely simple assumptions which is in no way appropriate any more and which is not compatible with ICRP recommendations regarding radiation protection standards. Therefore, a new model has now been developed which reflects all steps of the transport process. The derivation of this model has been fostered by the IAEA by initiating a Co-ordinated Research Project. The results of the calculations using this model could be directly applied as new nuclide specific transport limits for the non-fixed contamination

  15. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  16. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels for 226 Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  17. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels and derived limits to guide decision making processes. Thus, for example, a registration level for 226 Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  18. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  19. Critical Limits for Hg(II) in soils, derived from chronic toxicity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hooper, H. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Frey, B. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Spurgeon, D.; Svendsen, C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Published chronic toxicity data for Hg(II) added to soils were assembled and evaluated to produce a data set comprising 52 chronic end-points, five each for plants and invertebrates and 42 for microbes. With end-points expressed in terms of added soil Hg(II) contents, Critical Limits were derived from the 5th percentiles of species sensitivity distributions, values of 0.13 {mu}g (g soil){sup -1} and 3.3 {mu}g (g soil organic matter){sup -1} being obtained. The latter value exceeds the currently recommended Critical Limit, used to determine Hg(II) Critical Loads in Europe, of 0.5 {mu}g (g soil organic matter){sup -1}. We also applied the WHAM/Model VI chemical speciation model to estimate concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} in soil solution, and derived an approximate Critical Limit Function (CLF) that includes pH; log [Hg{sup 2+}]{sub crit} = -2.15 pH -17.10. Because they take soil properties into account, the soil organic matter-based limit and the CLF provide the best assessment of toxic threat for different soils. For differing representative soils, each predicts a range of up to 100-fold in the dry weight-based content of mercury that corresponds to the Critical Limit. - Published laboratory toxicity data and chemical speciation modelling are used to derive Critical Limits expressed as either soil Hg(II) content or Hg{sup 2+} concentration.

  20. Asymptotic Behaviour of Total Generalised Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. The recently introduced second order total generalised variation functional TGV2 β,α has been a successful regulariser for image processing purposes. Its definition involves two positive parameters α and β whose values determine the amount and the quality of the regularisation. In this paper we report on the behaviour of TGV2 β,α in the cases where the parameters α, β as well as their ratio β/α becomes very large or very small. Among others, we prove that for sufficiently symmetric two dimensional data and large ratio β/α, TGV2 β,α regularisation coincides with total variation (TV) regularization

  1. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek De

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction and is attributed to drugs in more than 90% of cases. It is a rare disease, with an estimated incidence of 1–5 patients per million per year. The clinical manifestations characterised by the rapid development of sterile pustular lesions, fever and leucocytosis. Number of drugs has been reported to be associated with AGEP, most common being the antibiotics. Histopathologically there is intraepidermal pustules and papillary dermal oedema with neutrophilic and eosinophilic infiltrations. Systemic involvement can be present in more severe cases. Early diagnosis with withdrawal of the causative drug is the most important step in the management. Treatment includes supportive care, prevention of antibiotics and use of a potent topical steroid.

  2. The Economic Role and Limitations of Cooperatives: An Investment Cash Flow Derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, H. Christopher

    1992-01-01

    The economic role and limitations of cooperatives are derived using an approach based on investment cash flows and net present value. Cooperatives are viewed as an option for member investment as well as an option for member patronage. The investment approach yields results similar to the traditional paradigms that focus on patronage. In addition, the approach makes more explicit the impact of member investment on cooperative existence, valuation, performance measurement, and strategy options.

  3. Derived limits for occupational exposure to uranium mine and mill dusts in the air and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Limits are derived for the concentration of uranium mine and mill dusts in the air based on ICRP30 and assumptions regarding the isotopic make up of the dusts. From these limits using a resuspension factor, limits for surface contamination are derived. Calculations are presented of the dose to the basal layer of the skin from mine and mill dusts on the skin. From these calculations limits for skin contamination are derived. A calculation of a limit based on direct ingestion is also presented. Exposure limits for the public are not considered

  4. Location of collinear equilibrium points in the generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have discussed the location of collinear equilibrium points in the generalised photogravitational restricted three body problem. The problem is generalised in the sense that both primaries are oblate spheroid. They are source of radiation as well. We have found the solution for the location of collinear point L1. We found ...

  5. Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, I.; Brambila-Paz, L.; Newstead, P.E.

    2004-08-01

    Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n 0 , d 0 are integers such that n 0 ≥ 1 and nd 0 + n 0 d > nn 0 (2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n 0 and degree d 0 . The generalised Picard bundle W ξ (E) is by definition the vector bundle over M ξ defined by the direct image p M ξ *(U ξ x p X * E) where U ξ is a universal vector bundle over X x M ξ . We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from W ξ (E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of W ξ (E) is isomorphic to H 1 (X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over M ξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n 0 ,d 0 ) of stable bundles of rank n 0 and degree d 0 over X. If (n 0 ,d 0 ) = 1 and W ξ (E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n 0 ,d 0 ), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n 0 ,d 0 ) to a connected component M 0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over M ξ . This applies in particular when n 0 = 1, in which case M 0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)

  6. Methods for the calculation of derived working limits for surface contamination by low-toxicity radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    Surface contamination is often measured as an indication of the general spread of radioactive contamination in a particular place. Derived working limits, (DWLs) for surface contamination provide figures against which to assess the significance of measurements. Derived working limits for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry. They were designed to cope with a wide range of unspecified radionuclides and were therefore based on the assumption that the contamination was due to the presence of the most hazardous radionuclides, e.g. 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 239 Pu. While this assumption may still be appropriate when the radionuclide mixture is unknown, there are now many specialized uses of particular low-toxicity radionuclides in universities, hospitals and general industry. If it is known that only a particular radionuclide is present, the general DWL can be replaced by a more specific value. The methods for calculating DWLs for some of the more commonly employed low-toxicity radionuclides are described. The exposure pathways considered are (a) external radiation of the skin and inhalation of airborne material from contaminated surfaces in active areas; (b) external irradiation of the skin and ingestion from contaminated skin. Some consideration is given to the effect of the revised dose equivalent limits in the most recent recommendations of ICRP. (author)

  7. A Baecklund transformation and the inverse scattering transform method for the generalised Vakhnenko equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vakhnenko, V O; Morrison, A J

    2003-01-01

    A Baecklund transformation both in bilinear and in ordinary form for the transformed generalised Vakhnenko equation (GVE) is derived. It is shown that the equation has an infinite sequence of conservation laws. An inverse scattering problem is formulated; it has a third-order eigenvalue problem. A procedure for finding the exact N-soliton solution to the GVE via the inverse scattering method is described. The procedure is illustrated by considering the cases N=1 and 2.

  8. Generalised zeta-function regularization for scalar one-loop effective action

    OpenAIRE

    Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The one-loop effective action for a scalar field defined in the ultrastatic space-time where non standard logarithmic terms in the asymptotic heat-kernel expansion are present, is investigated by a generalisation of zeta-function regularisation. It is shown that additional divergences may appear at one-loop level. The one-loop renormalisability of the model is discussed and the one-loop renormalisation group equations are derived.

  9. Limitations in determining enantiomeric excess of alcohols by 31 P-NMR of the phosphonate derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverde Junior, Antonio; Conceicao, Jelson J.A. da; Pilli, Ronaldo A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Miranda, Domingos S. de; Schirmer, Heiko; Meijere, Armin de

    1999-01-01

    The use of diastereomeric alcohol dialkyl-phosphonate derivatives to determine the enantiomeric excesses via 31 P-NMR signal ratios of anisochronous meso and threo isomers was successfully applied to secondary alcohols (Feringa's method). Expansion of the methodology to primary alcohols processing the hydroxyl groups tethered to the stereogenic centers by two or more methylene groups proved the method to be inefficient. The comparison between the coupled and decoupled spectra is important in order to identify the signals corresponding to the dialkyl-phosphonates. Nevertheless the methodology should be applied whenever the amount of the alcohol and its structure are not the limiting factors. (author)

  10. Generalised joint hypermobility and neurodevelopmental traits in a non-clinical adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glans, Martin; Bejerot, Susanne; Humble, Mats B

    2017-09-01

    Generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) is reportedly overrepresented among clinical cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is unknown if these associations are dimensional and, therefore, also relevant among non-clinical populations. To investigate if GJH correlates with sub-syndromal neurodevelopmental symptoms in a normal population. Hakim-Grahame's 5-part questionnaire (5PQ) on GJH, neuropsychiatric screening scales measuring ADHD and ASD traits, and a DCD-related question concerning clumsiness were distributed to a non-clinical, adult, Swedish population ( n =1039). In total, 887 individuals met our entry criteria. We found no associations between GJH and sub-syndromal symptoms of ADHD, ASD or DCD. Although GJH is overrepresented in clinical cases with neurodevelopmental disorders, such an association seems absent in a normal population. Thus, if GJH serves as a biomarker cutting across diagnostic boundaries, this association is presumably limited to clinical populations. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  11. Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David M; El-Guebaly, Nady; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Schopflocher, Don P

    2017-11-01

    To derive low-risk gambling limits using the method developed by Currie et al. (2006) applied to longitudinal data. Secondary analysis of data from the Quinte Longitudinal Study (n = 3054) and Leisure, Lifestyle and Lifecycle Project (n = 809), two independently conducted cohort studies of the natural progression of gambling in Canadian adults. Community-dwelling adults in Southeastern Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 3863 adults (50% male; median age = 44) who reported gambling in the past year. Gambling behaviours (typical monthly frequency, total expenditure and percentage of income spent on gambling) and harm (experiencing two or more consequences of gambling in the past 12 months) were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. The dose-response relationship was comparable in both studies for frequency of gambling (days per month), total expenditure and percentage of household income spent on gambling (area under the curve values ranged from 0.66 to 0.74). Based on the optimal sensitivity and specificity values, the low-risk gambling cut-offs were eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling. Gamblers who exceeded any of these limits at time 1 were approximately four times more likely to report harm at time 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9-6.6]. Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling, all of which are higher than previously derived limits from cross-sectional data. Gamblers who exceed any of the three low-risk limits are four times more likely to experience future harm than those who do not. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Derivation of release limits for a typical uranium mining and milling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report develops guidelines for calculating derived release limits (DRLs) for releases of each radionuclide belonging to the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay chains to atmosphere, surface water and groundwater from uranium mining and milling operations in Canada. DRLs are defined as calculated limits on releases from the facility that result in radiation exposures through all environmental pathways equal to the annual effective dose equivalent limit of 0.005 Sv for stochastic effects or the annual dose equivalent limit of 0.05 Sv for non-stochastic effects in the critical group. By definition, DRLs apply to controllable radionuclide emissions which occur during the operational phase of mine/mill facilities. The report develops a steady-state environmental transfer model to determine environmental dilution and dispersion in atmosphere, surface water and groundwater between the sources at the mine and mill and the critical group receptor. Exposure pathways incorporated in the model include external exposure from immersion in the airborne plume, immersion in water, contaminated ground and contaminated shoreline sediments. Internal exposure pathways include inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of contaminated water and terrestrial and aquatic foods

  13. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  14. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...... hierarchies. The generalisation and corresponding feature generation is more principled, challenging the way Brown clustering is currently understood and applied....

  15. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    criteria for disposal of radioactive wastes to near surface facilities. These criteria are qualitative in nature and, for example, they do not address limitations on radionuclide content of waste, waste packages or the facility as a whole. This publication is to present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and to illustrate its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in near surface disposal facilities. The approach makes use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities both during the operational and post-closure periods. The scope of this publication covers the use of safety assessment methodology to calculate total and specific activities limits for radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities. It is used to evaluate the potential operational and post-closure radiological impact of solid and solidified radioactive waste in near surface facilities. The radioactive waste types used to illustrate the approach range from waste containing radionuclides used for medical, industrial and research purposes to waste arising from nuclear fuel cycle activities. They also include waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The focus of the publication is on using of safety assessment methodology in derivation of quantitative radioactivity limits. This report deals with the role of activity limits in disposal system safety (Section 2), the relevant radiation protection criteria (Section 3), the approach to derive activity limits (Section 4), illustrations of the application of this approach (Section 5), and guidance on the use of the approach (Section 6)

  16. Intermediate modeling between kinetic equations and hydrodynamic limits: derivation, analysis and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work is dedicated study of a problem resulting from plasma physics: the thermal transfer of electrons in a plasma close to equilibrium Maxwellian. Firstly, a dimensional study of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell system is performed, allowing one hand to identify a physically relevant parameter of scale and also to define mathematically the contours of validity domain. The asymptotic regime called Spitzer-Harm is studied for a relatively general class of collision operator. The following part of this work is devoted to the derivation and study of the hydrodynamic limit of the system of Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau outside the strictly asymptotic. A model proposed by Schurtz and Nicolais located in this context and analyzed. The particularity of this model lies in the application of a delocalization operation in the heat flux. The link with non-local models of Luciani and Mora is established as well as mathematics properties as the principle of maximum and entropy dissipation. Then a formal derivation from the Vlasov equations with a simplified collision operator, is proposed. The derivation, inspired by the recent work of D. Levermore, involves decomposition methods according to the spherical harmonics and methods of closing called diffusion methods. A hierarchy of intermediate models between the kinetic equations and the hydrodynamic limit is described. In particular a new hydrodynamic system integro-differential by nature, is proposed. The Schurtz and Nicolai model appears as a simplification of the system resulting from the derivation, assuming a steady flow of heat. The above results are then generalized to account for the internal energy dependence which appears naturally in the equation establishment. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonstationary system are established in a simplified framework. The last part is devoted was the implementation of a specific numerical scheme to solve these models. We propose a finite volume approach can be

  17. An environmental generalised Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator and an environmental generalised Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, A

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an environmental generalised productivity indicator and its ratio-based counterpart. The innovative environmental generalised total factor productivity measures inherit the basic structure of both Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator. This methodological contribution shows that these new environmental generalised total factor productivity measures yield the earlier standard Hicks-Moorsteen index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen indicator, as well as environmental performance index, as special cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)

  19. A Note on the Properties of Generalised Separable Spatial Autoregressive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendran Shitan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial modelling has its applications in many fields like geology, agriculture, meteorology, geography, and so forth. In time series a class of models known as Generalised Autoregressive (GAR has been introduced by Peiris (2003 that includes an index parameter δ. It has been shown that the inclusion of this additional parameter aids in modelling and forecasting many real data sets. This paper studies the properties of a new class of spatial autoregressive process of order 1 with an index. We will call this a Generalised Separable Spatial Autoregressive (GENSSAR Model. The spectral density function (SDF, the autocovariance function (ACVF, and the autocorrelation function (ACF are derived. The theoretical ACF and SDF plots are presented as three-dimensional figures.

  20. Towards a 'pointless' generalisation of Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1989-05-01

    We examine some generalisations in physical concepts of gauge theories, leading towards a scenario corresponding to non-commutative geometry, where the concept of locality loses its usual meaning of being associated with points on a base manifold and becomes intertwined with the concept of internal symmetry, suggesting thereby a gauge theory of extended objects. Examples are given where such generalised gauge structures can be realised, in particular that of string theory. (author)

  1. A new polyethyleneglycol-derivatized hemoglobin derivative with decreased oxygen affinity and limited toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolog, Oana; Mot, Augustin; Deac, Florina; Roman, Alina; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol is described for derivatization of hemoglobin with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via reaction of the unmodified native hemoglobin with an activated amine-reacting polyethylene glycol derivative which, unlike protocols previously described, leads to formation of a peptide bond between hemoglobin and PEG. Dioxygen binding and peroxide reactivities of the derivatized hemoglobin are examined, and found to be within reasonable limits, with the particular observation that, unlike with a few other derivatization protocols, the dioxygen affinity is slightly lower than that of native Hb. In cell culture tests (human umbilical vein epithelial cells, HUVEC), the derivatization protocol induces no toxic effect. These results show promise towards applicability for production of hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

  2. Generalisation benefits of output gating in a model of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, Trent; Noelle, David C.

    2011-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in flexible cognitive control, including the suppression of habitual responding in favour of situation-appropriate behaviours that can be quite novel. PFC provides a kind of working memory, maintaining the rules, goals, and/or actions that are to control behaviour in the current context. For flexible control, these PFC representations must be sufficiently componential to support systematic generalisation to novel situations. The anatomical structure of PFC can be seen as implementing a componential 'slot-filler' structure, with different components encoded over isolated pools of neurons. Previous PFC models have highlighted the importance of a dynamic gating mechanism to selectively update individual 'slot' contents. In this article, we present simulation results that suggest that systematic generalisation also requires an 'output gating' mechanism that limits the influence of PFC on more posterior brain areas to reflect a small number of representational components at any one time.

  3. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 266 - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues* Metals—TCLP Extract Concentration Limits...-66-3 6xE−02 Copper cyanide 544-92-3 2xE−01 Cresols (Cresylic acid) 1319-77-3 2xE+00 Cyanogen 460-19-5...

  5. Development of a generalised equivalent estimation approach for multi-axle vehicle handling dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinquan; Guo, Konghui

    2016-01-01

    This paper devotes analytical effort in developing the 2M equivalent approach to analyse both the effect of vehicle body roll and n-axle handling on vehicle dynamics. The 1M equivalent vehicle 2DOF equation including an equivalent roll effect was derived from the conventional two-axle 3DOF vehicle model. And the 1M equivalent dynamics concepts were calculated to evaluate the steady-state steering, frequency characteristics, and root locus of the two-axle vehicle with only the effect of body roll. This 1M equivalent approach is extended to a three-axle 3DOF model to derive similar 1M equivalent mathematical identities including an equivalent roll effect. The 1M equivalent wheelbases and stability factor with the effect of the third axle or body roll, and 2M equivalent wheelbase and stability factor including both the effect of body roll and the third-axle handling were derived to evaluate the steady-state steering, frequency characteristics, and root locus of the three-axle vehicle. By using the recursive method, the generalised 1M equivalent wheelbase and stability factor with the effect of n-axle handling and 2M equivalent generalised wheelbase and stability factor including both the effect of body roll and n-axle handling were derived to evaluate the steady-state steering, frequency characteristics, and root locus of the n-axle vehicle. The 2M equivalent approach and developed generalised mathematical handling concepts were validated to be useful and could serve as an important tool for estimating both the effect of vehicle body roll and n-axle handling on multi-axle vehicle dynamics.

  6. dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youwei Zhang

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... tanh-expansion and complete discrimination system by means of fractional complex transform, travelling wave solutions are derived. ... Time-fractional Hirota equation; fractional complex transform; complete discrimination system; tanh- expansion ... Other applications in finance, physics and engineering ...

  7. An approach to the derivation of radionuclide intake limits for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The modification of occupational exposure limits for application to general populations is discussed. First, the permitted radiation dose needs to be modified from that considered appropriate for occupational exposure, to that considered appropriate for the particular general population exposure of concern. This is a problem of optimization and is considered only briefly. The second modification allows for the different physical, biological, and societal parameters applicable to general populations as contrasted with occupational populations. These differences derive from the heterogeneity of the general population particularly in terms of age and state-of-health, as these affect radionuclide deposition, absorption, distribution, and retention, and as they affect basic sensitivity to the development of detrimental effects. Environmental factors will influence physical availability and may alter the chemical and physical form of the radionuclide, and hence biological availability to the general population. Societal factors may modify the potential for exposure of different segments of the general population. This complex modifying factor will be different for each radioelement. The suggested approach is illustrated using plutonium as an example. (H.K.)

  8. Reducing the generalised Sudoku problem to the Hamiltonian cycle problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haythorpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalised Sudoku problem with N symbols is known to be NP-complete, and hence is equivalent to any other NP-complete problem, even for the standard restricted version where N is a perfect square. In particular, generalised Sudoku is equivalent to the, classical, Hamiltonian cycle problem. A constructive algorithm is given that reduces generalised Sudoku to the Hamiltonian cycle problem, where the resultant instance of Hamiltonian cycle problem is sparse, and has O(N3 vertices. The Hamiltonian cycle problem instance so constructed is a directed graph, and so a (known conversion to undirected Hamiltonian cycle problem is also provided so that it can be submitted to the best heuristics. A simple algorithm for obtaining the valid Sudoku solution from the Hamiltonian cycle is provided. Techniques to reduce the size of the resultant graph are also discussed.

  9. Thoracic involvement in generalised lymphatic anomaly (or lymphangiomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Luisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalised lymphatic anomaly (GLA, also known as lymphangiomatosis, is a rare disease caused by congenital abnormalities of lymphatic development. It usually presents in childhood but can also be diagnosed in adults. GLA encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from single-organ involvement to generalised disease. Given the rarity of the disease, most of the information regarding it comes from case reports. To date, no clinical trials concerning treatment are available. This review focuses on thoracic GLA and summarises possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Generalised ballooning theory of two-dimensional tokamak modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, P. A.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Wilson, H. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, using solutions from a local gyrokinetic flux-tube code combined with higher order ballooning theory, a new analytical approach is developed to reconstruct the global linear mode structure with associated global mode frequency. In addition to the isolated mode (IM), which usually peaks on the outboard mid-plane, the higher order ballooning theory has also captured other types of less unstable global modes: (a) the weakly asymmetric ballooning theory (WABT) predicts a mixed mode (MM) that undergoes a small poloidal shift away from the outboard mid-plane, (b) a relatively more stable general mode (GM) balloons on the top (or bottom) of the tokamak plasma. In this paper, an analytic approach is developed to combine these disconnected analytical limits into a single generalised ballooning theory. This is used to investigate how an IM behaves under the effect of sheared toroidal flow. For small values of flow an IM initially converts into a MM where the results of WABT are recaptured, and eventually, as the flow increases, the mode asymptotically becomes a GM on the top (or bottom) of the plasma. This may be an ingredient in models for understanding why in some experimental scenarios, instead of large edge localised modes (ELMs), small ELMs are observed. Finally, our theory can have other important consequences, especially for calculations involving Reynolds stress driven intrinsic rotation through the radial asymmetry in the global mode structures. Understanding the intrinsic rotation is significant because external torque in a plasma the size of ITER is expected to be relatively low.

  11. A note on a generalisation of Weyl's theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T.; Tucker, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A scale-invariant gravitational theory due to Bach and Weyl is generalised by the inclusion of space-time torsion. The difference between the arbitrary and zero torsion constrained variations of the Weyl action is elucidated. Conformal rescaling properties of the gravitational fields are discussed. A new class of classical solutions with torsion is presented. (author)

  12. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to study the histopathology of generalised lymphadenopathy in India, as well as the demographics of the study population. Method: This study was conducted for a period of 10 years (August 1997-July 2007), of which eight years were retrospective, from August 1997-July 2005, and two years ...

  13. A ten-year histopathological study of generalised lymphadenopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-31

    Jul 31, 2010 ... non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 18 cases (7.37%) were metastatic malignancy. Conclusion: In this study, the most common cause of generalised lymphadenopathy was granulomatous lymphadenitis, followed by reactive lymphadenitis. Among the neoplastic lesions, metastatic malignancy accounted for ...

  14. Gait analysis of adults with generalised joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Tegner, Heidi; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility experience symptoms such as pain and joint instability, which is likely to influence their gait pattern. Accordingly, the purpose of the present project was to perform a biomechanical gait analysis on a group of patients...

  15. Generalisation of language and knowledge models for corpus analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Anton

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes new look on language and knowledge modelling for corpus linguistics. Using ideas of Chaitin, a line of argument is made against language/knowledge separation in Natural Language Processing. A simplistic model, that generalises approaches to language and knowledge, is proposed. One of hypothetical consequences of this model is Strong AI.

  16. Travelling wave solutions of (2 1)-dimensional generalised time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youwei Zhang

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Keywords. Time-fractional Hirota equation; fractional complex transform; complete discrimination system; tanh- expansion; travelling wave. PACS Nos 02.30.Jr; 05.45.Yv; 04.20.Jb. 1. Introduction. We consider the solution of the (2 + 1)-dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation. { i∂ α t u + uxy ...

  17. Equilibrium points in the generalised photogravitational non-planar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We generalised the photogravitational non-planar restricted three body problem by considering the smaller primary as an oblate spheroid. With both the primaries radiating, we located the equilibrium points which lie outside the orbital plane, contrary to the classical case. Besides finding the equations of motion of the ...

  18. Page 1 Compactification of generalised Jacobians 425 Next we ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compactification of generalised Jacobians 425. Next we study the infinitesimal deformation of torsion-free sheaves. Let X be a projective integral Gorenstein curve (A curve X as in Propositicin III.1.7, above, is easily seen to be Gorenstein). Let F be a torsion-free coherent. Ox-Module and F., an infinitesimal deformation of F ...

  19. Young Indigenous Students en Route to Generalising Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesised learning trajectory for a Year 3 Indigenous student en route to generalising growing patterns. The trajectory emerged from data collected across a teaching experiment (students n = 18; including a pre-test and three 45-minute mathematics lessons) and clinical interviews (n = 3). A case study of one student is…

  20. Generalisability of an online randomised controlled trial: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Mollan, Katie R; Hudgens, Michael G; Tucker, Joseph D; Zheng, Heping; Tang, Weiming; Ling, Li

    2018-02-01

    Investigators increasingly use online methods to recruit participants for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, the extent to which participants recruited online represent populations of interest is unknown. We evaluated how generalisable an online RCT sample is to men who have sex with men in China. Inverse probability of sampling weights (IPSW) and the G-formula were used to examine the generalisability of an online RCT using model-based approaches. Online RCT data and national cross-sectional study data from China were analysed to illustrate the process of quantitatively assessing generalisability. The RCT (identifier NCT02248558) randomly assigned participants to a crowdsourced or health marketing video for promotion of HIV testing. The primary outcome was self-reported HIV testing within 4 weeks, with a non-inferiority margin of -3%. In the original online RCT analysis, the estimated difference in proportions of HIV tested between the two arms (crowdsourcing and health marketing) was 2.1% (95% CI, -5.4% to 9.7%). The hypothesis that the crowdsourced video was not inferior to the health marketing video to promote HIV testing was not demonstrated. The IPSW and G-formula estimated differences were -2.6% (95% CI, -14.2 to 8.9) and 2.7% (95% CI, -10.7 to 16.2), with both approaches also not establishing non-inferiority. Conducting generalisability analysis of an online RCT is feasible. Examining the generalisability of online RCTs is an important step before an intervention is scaled up. NCT02248558. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Eigenvalues, embeddings and generalised trigonometric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The main theme of the book is the study, from the standpoint of s-numbers, of integral operators of Hardy type and related Sobolev embeddings. In the theory of s-numbers the idea is to attach to every bounded linear map between Banach spaces a monotone decreasing sequence of non-negative numbers with a view to the classification of operators according to the way in which these numbers approach a limit: approximation numbers provide an especially important example of such numbers. The asymptotic behavior of the s-numbers of Hardy operators acting between Lebesgue spaces is determined here in a wide variety of cases. The proof methods involve the geometry of Banach spaces and generalized trigonometric functions; there are connections with the theory of the p-Laplacian.

  2. New approaches to deriving limits of the release of radioactive material into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-01-01

    During the last few years, new principles have been developed for the limitation of the release of radioactive material into the environment. It is no longer considered appropriate to base the limitation on limits for the concentrations of the various radionuclides in air and water effluents. Such limits would not prevent large amounts of radioactive material from reaching the environment should effluent rates be high. A common practice has been to identify critical radionuclides and critical pathways and to base the limitation on authorized dose limits for local ''critical groups''. If this were the only limitation, however, larger releases could be permitted after installing either higher stacks or equipment to retain the more short-lived radionuclides for decay before release. Continued release at such limits would then lead to considerably higher exposure at a distance than if no such installation had been made. Accordingly there would be no immediate control of overlapping exposures from several sources, nor would the system guarantee control of the future situation. The new principles described in this paper take the future into account by limiting the annual dose commitments rather than the annual doses. They also offer means of controlling the global situation by limiting not only doses in critical groups but also global collective doses. Their objective is not only to ensure that individual dose limits will always be respected but also to meet the requirement that ''all doses be kept as low as reasonably achievable''. The new approach is based on the most recent recommendations by the ICRP and has been described in a report by an IAEA panel (Procedures for establishing limits for the release of radioactive material into the environment). It has been applied in the development of new Swedish release regulations, which illustrate some of the problems which arise in the practical application

  3. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity

  4. A novel approach to derive halo-independent limits on dark matter properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Francesc; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method that allows to place an upper limit on the dark matter elastic scattering cross section with nucleons which is independent of the velocity distribution. Our approach combines null results from direct detection experiments with indirect searches at neutrino telescopes, and goes beyond previous attempts to remove astrophysical uncertainties in that it directly constrains the particle physics properties of the dark matter. The resulting halo-independent upper limits on the sc...

  5. Generalising the logistic map through the q-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, R W S; Borges, E P

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a generalisation of the logistic map as x n+1 = 1 - ax n x qmap x n (-1 ≤ x n ≤ 1, 0 map → ∞. The generalisation of this (and others) algebraic operator has been widely used within nonextensive statistical mechanics context (see C. Tsallis, Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics, Springer, NY, 2009). We focus the analysis for q map > 1 at the edge of chaos, particularly at the first critical point a c , that depends on the value of q map . Bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, fractal dimension and rate of entropy growth are evaluated at a c (q map ), and connections with nonextensive statistical mechanics are explored.

  6. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  7. Learning and Generalisation in Neural Networks with Local Preprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsia, Merab

    2007-01-01

    We study learning and generalisation ability of a specific two-layer feed-forward neural network and compare its properties to that of a simple perceptron. The input patterns are mapped nonlinearly onto a hidden layer, much larger than the input layer, and this mapping is either fixed or may result from an unsupervised learning process. Such preprocessing of initially uncorrelated random patterns results in the correlated patterns in the hidden layer. The hidden-to-output mapping of the net...

  8. Rare case of generalised aggressive periodontitis in the primary dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerri, A; Signorelli, C; Erb, J; van Waes, H; Schmidlin, P R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Generalised aggressive periodontitis (AP) in the prepubescent age is an exceptionally rare disease in the primary dentition of otherwise healthy children. Characteristics of AP are gingival inflammation, deep periodontal pockets, bone loss, tooth mobility and even tooth loss. The most common way of treating this disease is the extraction of all the involved primary teeth. CASE REPORT A 4-year-old girl presented with signs of severe gingival inflammation. Clinical examination rev...

  9. Generalisation of geographic information cartographic modelling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackaness, William A; Sarjakoski, L Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale MappingUsers have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review

  10. The Langevin and generalised Langevin approach to the dynamics of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Snook, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The Langevin and Generalised Langevin Approach To The Dynamics Of Atomic, Polymeric And Colloidal Systems is concerned with the description of aspects of the theory and use of so-called random processes to describe the properties of atomic, polymeric and colloidal systems in terms of the dynamics of the particles in the system. It provides derivations of the basic equations, the development of numerical schemes to solve them on computers and gives illustrations of application to typical systems.Extensive appendices are given to enable the reader to carry out computations to illustrate many of the points made in the main body of the book.* Starts from fundamental equations* Gives up-to-date illustration of the application of these techniques to typical systems of interest* Contains extensive appendices including derivations, equations to be used in practice and elementary computer codes

  11. Derivation of Authorized Limits for Land Transfer at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perona, Ralph [Neptune and Company, Inc., Bellingham, WA (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-14

    This report documents the calculation of Authorized Limits for radionuclides in soil to be used in the transfer of property by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Authorized Limits support the evaluation process to clear land for release under different uses even though the soil contains small residual amounts of radioactivity. The Authorized Limits are developed for four exposure scenarios: residential, commercial/industrial, construction worker, and recreational. Exposure to radionuclides in soil under these scenarios is assessed for exposure routes that include incidental ingestion of soil; inhalation of soil particulates; ingestion of homegrown produce (residential only); and external irradiation from soil. Inhalation and dermal absorption of tritiated water vapor in air are also assessed.

  12. A Generalised Approach to Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    1998-02-01

    The present report represents a continuation of the work on Petri nets and algebraic specifications. The reported research has focused on generalising the approach introduced in HWR-454, with the aim of facilitating the translation of a wider class of Petri nets into algebraic specification. This includes autonomous Petri nets with increased descriptive power, as well as non-autonomous Petri nets allowing the modelling of systems (1) involving extensive data processing; (2) with transitions synchronized on external events; (3) whose evolutions are time dependent. The generalised approach has the important property of being modular in the sense that the translated specifications can be gradually extended to include data processing, synchronization, and timing. The report also discusses the relative merits of state-based and transition-based specifications, and includes a non-trivial case study involving automated proofs of a large number of interrelated theorems. The examples in the report illustrate the use of the new HRP Prover. Of particular importance in this context is the automatic transformation between state-based and transitionbased specifications. It is expected that the approach introduced in HWR-454 and generalised in the present report will prove useful in future work on combination of wide variety of specification techniques

  13. Inviscid incompressible limit under mild stratification: a rigorous derivation of the Euler-Boussinesq system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2014), s. 279-307 ISSN 0095-4616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Keywords : compressible fluids * Navier-Stokes equations * singular limits Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00245-014-9243-7

  14. Interministerial decree of 10 February 1988 fixing the derived limits of the air concentration and the annual intake limit and the values of the quality factor and the neutron fluence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This decree establishes the derived concentration limits in the air and annual inhalation limits for the radioisotopes and the values of the quality factors and the conversion factors fluence/dose equivalent for neutrons and protons

  15. Revealing infinite derivative gravity's true potential: The weak-field limit around de Sitter backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, James

    2018-03-01

    General Relativity is known to produce singularities in the potential generated by a point source. Our universe can be modeled as a de Sitter (dS) metric and we show that ghost-free infinite derivative gravity (IDG) produces a nonsingular potential around a dS background, while returning to the GR prediction at large distances. We also show that although there are an apparently infinite number of coefficients in the theory, only a finite number actually affect the predictions. By writing the linearized equations of motion in a simplified form, we find that at distances below the Hubble length scale, the difference between the IDG potential around a flat background and around a de Sitter background is negligible.

  16. Derived release limits (DRL's) for airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories during normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Derived release limits (DRL's), based on regulatory dose limits, have been calculated for routine discharges of radioactivity in airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three types of sources of airborne effluents were considered: the NRX/NRU stack, the 61 m stack connected to the 99 Mo production facility, and a roof vent typical of those installed on several buildings on the site. Sources of liquid effluents to the Ottawa River were treated as a single source from the site as a whole. Various exposure pathways to workers on the site and to members of the public outside the site boundary were considered in the calculations. The DRL's represent upper limits for routine emissions of radioactivity from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the surrounding environment. Actual releases are regulated by Administrative Levels, set lower than the DRL's, and are confirmed by monitoring. (author)

  17. Derivation of guideline values for gold (III) ion toxicity limits to protect aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; Shin, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on estimating the toxicity values of various aquatic organisms exposed to gold (III) ion (Au(3+)), and to propose maximum guideline values for Au(3+) toxicity that protect the aquatic ecosystem. A comparative assessment of methods developed in Australia and New Zealand versus the European Community (EC) was conducted. The test species used in this study included two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis), one alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), one euglena (Euglena gracilis), three cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Simocephalus mixtus), and two fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes). Au(3+) induced growth inhibition, mortality, immobilization, and/or developmental malformations in all test species, with responses being concentration-dependent. According to the moderate reliability method of Australia and New Zealand, 0.006 and 0.075 mg/L of guideline values for Au(3+) were obtained by dividing 0.33 and 4.46 mg/L of HC5 and HC50 species sensitivity distributions (SSD) with an FACR (Final Acute to Chronic Ratio) of 59.09. In contrast, the EC method uses an assessment factor (AF), with the 0.0006 mg/L guideline value for Au(3+) being divided with the 48-h EC50 value for 0.60 mg/L (the lowest toxicity value obtained from short term results) by an AF of 1000. The Au(3+) guideline value derived using an AF was more stringent than the SSD. We recommend that more toxicity data using various bioassays are required to develop more accurate ecological risk assessments. More chronic/long-term exposure studies on sensitive endpoints using additional fish species and invertebrates not included in the current dataset will be needed to use other derivation methods (e.g., US EPA and Canadian Type A) or the "High Reliability Method" from Australia/New Zealand. Such research would facilitate the establishment of guideline values for various pollutants that reflect the universal effects of various pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. To

  18. Unsteady MHD flow of visco-elastic Oldroydian fluid with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel: with a possible generalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, P.R.; Kundu, Shyamal Kumar

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we have determined the unsteady MHD flow of visco-elastic fluid with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel. Here we have calculated the velocity profile of a fluid element of the titled problem theoretically and numerically. Then an empirical model of generalisation has been made as proposed by the senior author Dr P.K. Sengupta to cover a wide range of visco-elastic fluids admitting new class of generalised visco-elastic fluids. The problem of unsteady MHD flow of such visco-elastic fluids with transient pressure gradient through a rectangular channel has been calculated. From this generalisation the corresponding flow of Oldroydian first order, second order and n-th order, Maxwell first order, second order and n-th order, Rivlen-Ericksen first order, second order and n-th order fluid and first order special type of Walters fluid as well as ordinary fluids have been derived. (author)

  19. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo

    2014-07-01

    From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil); Selvatici, Antonio Henrique [Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reali Costa, Anna Helena, E-mail: valdinei.freire@gmail.com, E-mail: antoniohps@uninove.br, E-mail: anna.reali@poli.usp.br [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  1. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei; Selvatici, Antonio Henrique; Reali Costa, Anna Helena

    2011-01-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  2. Generalised extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables

    OpenAIRE

    Bertin, Eric; Clusel, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    To appear in J.Phys.A; We show that generalised extreme value statistics -the statistics of the k-th largest value among a large set of random variables- can be mapped onto a problem of random sums. This allows us to identify classes of non-identical and (generally) correlated random variables with a sum distributed according to one of the three (k-dependent) asymptotic distributions of extreme value statistics, namely the Gumbel, Frechet and Weibull distributions. These classes, as well as t...

  3. Building Abelian Functions with Generalised Baker-Hirota Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new systematic method to construct Abelian functions on Jacobian varieties of plane, algebraic curves. The main tool used is a symmetric generalisation of the bilinear operator defined in the work of Baker and Hirota. We give explicit formulae for the multiple applications of the operators, use them to define infinite sequences of Abelian functions of a prescribed pole structure and deduce the key properties of these functions. We apply the theory on the two canonical curves of genus three, presenting new explicit examples of vector space bases of Abelian functions. These reveal previously unseen similarities between the theories of functions associated to curves of the same genus.

  4. Generalised Hermite–Gaussian beams and mode transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Generalised Hermite–Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite–Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function α, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre–Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function α. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation. (paper)

  5. Collaborative care for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with anxiety disorders represent a significant part of a general practitioner’s patient population. However, there are organisational obstacles for optimal treatment, such as a lack of coordination of illness management and limited access to evidence-based treatment...... such as cognitive behavioral therapy. A limited number of studies suggest that collaborative care has a positive effect on symptoms for people with anxiety disorders. However, most studies are carried out in the USA and none have reported results for social phobia or generalised anxiety disorder separately. Thus......, there is a need for studies carried out in different settings for specific anxiety populations. A Danish model for collaborative care (the Collabri model) has been developed for people diagnosed with depression or anxiety disorders. The model is evaluated through four trials, of which three will be outlined...

  6. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram derived from a large database of Brazilian primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Daniel M F; Marcolino, Milena S; Santos, Thales M M; da Silva, José L P; Gomes, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Leonardo B; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-13

    Knowledge of the normal limits of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is mandatory for establishing which patients have abnormal ECGs. No studies have assessed the reference standards for a Latin American population. Our aim was to establish the normal ranges of the ECG for pediatric and adult Brazilian primary care patients. This retrospective observational study assessed all the consecutive 12-lead digital electrocardiograms of primary care patients at least 1 year old in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, recorded between 2010 and 2015. ECGs were excluded if there were technical problems, selected abnormalities were present or patients with selected self-declared comorbidities or on drug therapy. Only the first ECG from patients with multiple ECGs was accepted. The University of Glasgow ECG analysis program was used to automatically interpret the ECGs. For each variable, the 1st, 2nd, 50th, 98th and 99th percentiles were determined and results were compared to selected studies. A total of 1,493,905 ECGs were recorded. 1,007,891 were excluded and 486.014 were analyzed. This large study provided normal values for heart rate, P, QRS and T frontal axis, P and QRS overall duration, PR and QT overall intervals and QTc corrected by Hodges, Bazett, Fridericia and Framingham formulae. Overall, the results were similar to those from other studies performed in different populations but there were differences in extreme ages and specific measurements. This study has provided reference values for Latinos of both sexes older than 1 year. Our results are comparable to studies performed in different populations.

  7. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Models for the Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Humans, in Support of Application to Occupational Exposure Limit...Derivation Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR THE DISPOSITION OF LEAD (PB) IN HUMANS, IN SUPPORT OF... pharmacokinetic models for the disposition of lead (Pb) in humans, in support of application to occupational exposure limit derivation 5a. Contract

  8. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  9. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  10. New calculation of derived limits for the 1960 radiation protection guides reflecting updated models for dosimetry and biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Watson, S.B.; Nelson, C.B.; Nelson, D.R.; Richardson, A.C.B.; Sullivan, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents revised values for the radioactivity concentration guides (RCGs), based on the 1960 primary radiation protection guides (RPGs) for occupational exposure (FRC 1960) and for underground uranium miners (EPA 1971a) using the updated dosimetric models developed to prepare ICRP Publication 30. Unlike the derived quantities presented in Publication 30, which are based on limitation of the weighted sum of doses to all irradiated tissues, these RCGs are based on the ''critical organ'' approach of the 1960 guidance, which was a single limit for the most critically irradiated organ or tissue. This report provides revised guides for the 1960 Federal guidance which are consistent with current dosimetric relationships. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Effect Displays in R for Generalised Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fox

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation in R of a method for tabular or graphical display of terms in a complex generalised linear model. By complex, I mean a model that contains terms related by marginality or hierarchy, such as polynomial terms, or main effects and interactions. I call these tables or graphs effect displays. Effect displays are constructed by identifying high-order terms in a generalised linear model. Fitted values under the model are computed for each such term. The lower-order "relatives" of a high-order term (e.g., main effects marginal to an interaction are absorbed into the term, allowing the predictors appearing in the high-order term to range over their values. The values of other predictors are fixed at typical values: for example, a covariate could be fixed at its mean or median, a factor at its proportional distribution in the data, or to equal proportions in its several levels. Variations of effect displays are also described, including representation of terms higher-order to any appearing in the model.

  12. Recombinant PrPSc shares structural features with brain-derived PrPSc: Insights from limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Alejandro M; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Younas, Neelam; Wang, Fei; R Elezgarai, Saioa; Bravo, Susana; Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Rosa, Isaac; Eraña, Hasier; Gil, David; Veiga, Sonia; Vidal, Enric; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Guitián, Esteban; Silva, Christopher J; Nonno, Romolo; Ma, Jiyan; Castilla, Joaquín; R Requena, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Very solid evidence suggests that the core of full length PrPSc is a 4-rung β-solenoid, and that individual PrPSc subunits stack to form amyloid fibers. We recently used limited proteolysis to map the β-strands and connecting loops that make up the PrPSc solenoid. Using high resolution SDS-PAGE followed by epitope analysis, and mass spectrometry, we identified positions ~116/118, 133-134, 141, 152-153, 162, 169 and 179 (murine numbering) as Proteinase K (PK) cleavage sites in PrPSc. Such sites likely define loops and/or borders of β-strands, helping us to predict the threading of the β-solenoid. We have now extended this approach to recombinant PrPSc (recPrPSc). The term recPrPSc refers to bona fide recombinant prions prepared by PMCA, exhibiting infectivity with attack rates of ~100%. Limited proteolysis of mouse and bank vole recPrPSc species yielded N-terminally truncated PK-resistant fragments similar to those seen in brain-derived PrPSc, albeit with varying relative yields. Along with these fragments, doubly N- and C-terminally truncated fragments, in particular ~89/97-152, were detected in some recPrPSc preparations; similar fragments are characteristic of atypical strains of brain-derived PrPSc. Our results suggest a shared architecture of recPrPSc and brain PrPSc prions. The observed differences, in particular the distinct yields of specific PK-resistant fragments, are likely due to differences in threading which result in the specific biochemical characteristics of recPrPSc. Furthermore, recombinant PrPSc offers exciting opportunities for structural studies unachievable with brain-derived PrPSc.

  13. Control configuration selection for bilinear systems via generalised Hankel interaction index array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2015-01-01

    way, an iterative method for solving the generalised Sylvester equation is proposed. The generalised cross-gramian is used to form the generalised Hankel interaction index array. The generalised Hankel interaction index array is used for control configuration selection of MIMO bilinear processes. Most...... importantly, since for each element of generalised Hankel interaction index array just one generalised Sylvester equation is needed to be solved, the proposed control configuration selection method is computationally more efficient than its gramian-based counterparts.......Decentralised and partially decentralised control strategies are very popular in practice. To come up with a suitable decentralised or partially decentralised control structure, it is important to select the appropriate input and output pairs for control design. This procedure is called control...

  14. Technology-limited and patient-derived versus audibility-derived fittings in bone-anchored hearing aid users: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, William E; Hagler, Paul; Hakansson, Bo E V; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2011-02-01

    Current approaches to fit bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) rely heavily on patient feedback of "loudness" and "sound quality." Audiologists are limited to this approach for two reasons: (1) the technology in current models of Baha does not allow for much fine-tuning of frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis and (2) there has not been a valid approach to verify the frequency response or maximum output on an individual basis. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe an alternative approach to fit Baha, an "audibility-derived (AD)" fitting, and (2) test whether outcomes improve with this new fitting compared with the current "patient-derived (PD)" fitting. This study used a repeated measures design where each subject experienced both the AD and PD fittings in random order. Subjects were tested on a variety of outcome measures including output levels of aided speech, hearing in noise test (quiet and in noise), consonant recognition in noise, aided loudness, and subjective percentage of words understood. Electromechanical testing revealed significantly higher aided output with the AD fitting, especially in the high frequencies. Subjects performed significantly better in all outcome measures with the AD fitting approach except when testing aided loudness and subjective perception for which the differences were nonsignificant. When the input levels to the Baha were soft, advantages for the AD fitting were emerging on these tests, but they did not reach significance. This study presents a more objective, fitting approach for Baha that leads to better outcomes in the laboratory. The next steps will be to test these fittings in the real world and to make the approach generally available to clinicians fitting Bahas.

  15. A Prior Knowledge-Based Method to Derivate High-Resolution Leaf Area Index Maps with Limited Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechan Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution leaf area index (LAI maps from remote sensing data largely depend on empirical models, which link field LAI measurements to the vegetation index. The existing empirical methods often require the field measurements to be sufficient for constructing a reliable model. However, in many regions of the world, there are limited field measurements available. This paper presents a prior knowledge-based (PKB method to derivate LAI with limited field measurements, in an effort to improve the accuracy of empirical model. Based on the assumption that the experimental sites with the same vegetation type can be represented by similar models, a priori knowledge for crops was extracted from the published models in various cropland sites. The knowledge, composed of an initial guess of each model parameter with the associated uncertainty, was then combined with the local field measurements to determine a semi-empirical model using the Bayesian inversion method. The proposed method was evaluated at a cropland site in the Huailai region of Hebei Province, China. Compared with the regression method, the proposed PKB method can effectively improve the accuracy of empirical model and LAI estimation, when the field measurements were limited. The results demonstrate that a priori knowledge extracted from the universal sites can provide important auxiliary information to improve the representativeness of the empirical model in a given study area.

  16. Generalisations of Hamilton's Rule Applied to Non-Additive Public Goods Games with Random Group Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A R Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive fitness theory has been described as being limited to certain special cases of social evolution. In particular some authors argue that the theory can only be applied to social interactions having additive fitness effects, and involving only pairs of individuals. This article takes an elegant formulation of non-additive public goods games from the literature, and shows how the two main generalisations of Hamilton's rule can be applied to such games when group sizes are random. In doing so inclusive fitness theory is thus applied to a very general class of social dilemmas, thereby providing further evidence for its generality. Interestingly, one of the two predominant versions of Hamilton's rule is found to be mathematically easier to apply to the scenario considered, despite both necessarily giving equivalent predictions.

  17. Optimising, generalising and integrating educational practice using neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Practical collaboration at the intersection of education and neuroscience research is difficult because the combined discipline encompasses both the activity of microscopic neurons and the complex social interactions of teachers and students in a classroom. Taking a pragmatic view, this paper discusses three education objectives to which neuroscience can be effectively applied: optimising, generalising and integrating instructional techniques. These objectives are characterised by: (1) being of practical importance; (2) building on existing education and cognitive research; and (3) being infeasible to address based on behavioural experiments alone. The focus of the neuroscientific aspect of collaborative research should be on the activity of the brain before, during and after learning a task, as opposed to performance of a task. The objectives are informed by literature that highlights possible pitfalls with educational neuroscience research, and are described with respect to the static and dynamic aspects of brain physiology that can be measured by current technology.

  18. Generalised pruritus as a presentation of Grave’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan CE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is a lesser known symptom of hyperthyroidism, particularly in autoimmune thyroid disorders. This is a case report of a 27-year-old woman who presented with generalised pruritus at a primary care clinic. Incidental findings of tachycardia and a goiter led to the investigations of her thyroid status. The thyroid function test revealed elevated serum free T4 and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels. The anti-thyroid antibodies were positive. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with carbimazole until her symptoms subsided. Graves’ disease should be considered as an underlying cause for patients presenting with pruritus. A thorough history and complete physical examination are crucial in making an accurate diagnosis. Underlying causes must be determined before treating the symptoms.

  19. Generalised two target localisation using passive monopulse radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2017-04-07

    The simultaneous lobing technique, also known as monopulse technique, has been widely used for fast target localisation and tracking purposes. Many works focused on accurately localising one or two targets lying within a narrow beam centred around the monopulse antenna boresight. In this study, a new approach is proposed, which uses the outputs of four antennas to rapidly localise two point targets present in the hemisphere. If both targets have the same elevation angle, the proposed scheme cannot detect them. To detect such targets, a second set of antennas is required. In this study, to detect two targets at generalised locations, the antenna array is divided into multiple overlapping sets each of four antennas. Two algorithms are proposed to combine the outputs from multiple sets and improve the detection performance. Simulation results show that the algorithm is able to localise both targets with <;2° mean square error in azimuth and elevation.

  20. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-07-01

    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  1. On the Generalisation of Kepler's 3rd Law for the Vacuum Field of the Point-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available I derive herein a general form of Kepler’s 3rd Law for the general solution to Einstein’s vacuum field. I also obtain stable orbits for photons in all the configurations of the point-mass. Contrary to the accepted theory, Kepler’s 3rd Law is modified by General Relativity and leads to a finite angular velocity as the proper radius of the orbit goes down to zero, without the formation of a black hole. Finally, I generalise the expression for the potential function of the general solution for the point-mass in the weak field.

  2. Dynamic analyses, FPGA implementation and engineering applications of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors generated from generalised Sprott C system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-Wen; Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Xu, Guanghui; Akgul, Akif; Guleryuz, Emre

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the generation of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors from a generalised Sprott C system with multiple non-hyperbolic equilibria. The system is constructed by introducing an additional variable whose derivative has a switching function to the Sprott C system. It is numerically found that the system creates two-, three-, four-, five-butterfly attractors and any other multi-butterfly attractors. First, the dynamic analyses of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors are presented. Secondly, the field programmable gate array implementation, electronic circuit realisation and random number generator are done with the multi-butterfly chaotic attractors.

  3. The second critical density and anisotropic generalised condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this letter we discuss the relevance of the 3D Perfect Bose gas (PBG condensation in extremely elongated vessels for the study of anisotropic condensate coherence and the "quasi-condensate". To this end we analyze the case of exponentially anisotropic (van den Berg boxes, when there are two critical densities ρc<ρm for a generalised Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC. Here ρc is the standard critical density for the PBG. We consider three examples of anisotropic geometry: slabs, squared beams and "cigars" to demonstrate that the "quasi-condensate" which exists in domain ρc<ρ<ρm is in fact the van den Berg-Lewis-Pulé generalised condensation (vdBLP-GC of the type III with no macroscopic occupation of any mode. We show that for the slab geometry the second critical density ρm is a threshold between quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D condensate and the three dimensional (3D regime when there is a coexistence of the "quasi-condensate" with the standard one-mode BEC. On the other hand, in the case of squared beams and "cigars" geometries, critical density ρm separates quasi-1D and 3D regimes. We calculate the value of the difference between ρc, ρm (and between corresponding critical temperatures Tm, Tc to show that the observed space anisotropy of the condensate coherence can be described by a critical exponent γ(T related to the anisotropic ODLRO. We compare our calculations with physical results for extremely elongated traps that manifest "quasi-condensate".

  4. An anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive formulation generalised for orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour that involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials using an anisotropic Hill's yield criterion by means of the evolving structural tensors. The yield surface of this hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is aligned uniquely within the principal stress space due to the combination of Mandel stress tensor and a new generalised orthotropic pressure. The formulation is developed in the isoclinic configuration and allows for a unique treatment for elastic and plastic orthotropy. An isotropic hardening is adopted to define the evolution of plastic orthotropy. The important feature of the proposed hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is the introduction of anisotropic effect in the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state (EOS). The formulation is further combined with Grady spall failure model to predict spall failure in the materials. The proposed constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The combination of the proposed stress tensor decomposition and the Mie-Gruneisen EOS requires some modifications in the code to reflect the formulation of the generalised orthotropic pressure. The validation approach is also presented in this paper for guidance purpose. The \\varvec{ψ} tensor used to define the alignment of the adopted yield surface is first validated. This is continued with an internal validation related to elastic isotropic, elastic orthotropic and elastic-plastic orthotropic of the proposed formulation before a comparison against range of plate impact test data at 234, 450 and {895 ms}^{-1} impact velocities is performed. A good agreement is obtained in each test.

  5. Statistical Extremes of Turbulence and a Cascade Generalisation of Euler's Gyroscope Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Scherzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence refers to a rather well defined hydrodynamical phenomenon uncovered by Reynolds. Nowadays, the word turbulence is used to designate the loss of order in many different geophysical fields and the related fundamental extreme variability of environmental data over a wide range of scales. Classical statistical techniques for estimating the extremes, being largely limited to statistical distributions, do not take into account the mechanisms generating such extreme variability. An alternative approaches to nonlinear variability are based on a fundamental property of the non-linear equations: scale invariance, which means that these equations are formally invariant under given scale transforms. Its specific framework is that of multifractals. In this framework extreme variability builds up scale by scale leading to non-classical statistics. Although multifractals are increasingly understood as a basic framework for handling such variability, there is still a gap between their potential and their actual use. In this presentation we discuss how to dealt with highly theoretical problems of mathematical physics together with a wide range of geophysical applications. We use Euler's gyroscope equation as a basic element in constructing a complex deterministic system that preserves not only the scale symmetry of the Navier-Stokes equations, but some more of their symmetries. Euler's equation has been not only the object of many theoretical investigations of the gyroscope device, but also generalised enough to become the basic equation of fluid mechanics. Therefore, there is no surprise that a cascade generalisation of this equation can be used to characterise the intermittency of turbulence, to better understand the links between the multifractal exponents and the structure of a simplified, but not simplistic, version of the Navier-Stokes equations. In a given way, this approach is similar to that of Lorenz, who studied how the flap of a butterfly wing could generate

  6. A limit cycle oscillator model for cycling mood variations of bipolar disorder patients derived from cellular biochemical reaction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.

    2013-08-01

    We derive a nonlinear limit cycle model for oscillatory mood variations as observed in patients with cycling bipolar disorder. To this end, we consider two signaling pathways leading to the activation of two enzymes that play a key role for cellular and neural processes. We model pathway cross-talk in terms of an inhibitory impact of the first pathway on the second and an excitatory impact of the second on the first. The model also involves a negative feedback loop (inhibitory self-regulation) for the first pathway and a positive feedback loop (excitatory self-regulation) for the second pathway. We demonstrate that due to the cross-talk the biochemical dynamics is described by an oscillator equation. Under disease-free conditions the oscillatory system exhibits a stable fixed point. The breakdown of the self-inhibition of the first pathway at higher concentration levels is studied by means of a scalar control parameter ξ, where ξ equal to zero refers to intact self-inhibition at all concentration levels. Under certain conditions, stable limit cycle solutions emerge at critical parameter values of ξ larger than zero. These oscillations mimic pathological cycling mood variations that emerge due to a disease-induced bifurcation. Consequently, our modeling analysis supports the notion of bipolar disorder as a dynamical disease. In addition, our study establishes a connection between mechanistic biochemical modeling of bipolar disorder and phenomenological nonlinear oscillator approaches to bipolar disorder suggested in the literature.

  7. A Generalisation, a Simplification and some Applications of Paillier's Probabilistic Public-Key System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jurik, Mads Johan

    2001-01-01

    We propose a generalisation of Paillier's probabilistic public key system, in which the expansion factor is reduced and which allows to adjust the block length of the scheme even after the public key has been fixed, without loosing the homomorphic property. We show that the generalisation is as s...

  8. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  9. A Lagrange-based generalised formulation for the equations of motion of simple walking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Michael; Howard, David; Baker, Richard

    2017-04-11

    Simple 2D models of walking often approximate the human body to multi-link dynamic systems, where body segments are represented by rigid links connected by frictionless hinge joints. Performing forward dynamics on the equations of motion (EOM) of these systems can be used to simulate their movement. However, deriving these equations can be time consuming. Using Lagrangian mechanics, a generalised formulation for the EOM of n-link open-loop chains is derived. This can be used for single support walking models. This has an advantage over Newton-Euler mechanics in that it is independent of coordinate system and prior knowledge of the ground reaction force (GRF) is not required. Alternative strategies, such as optimisation algorithms, can be used to estimate joint activation and simulate motion. The application of Lagrange multipliers, to enforce motion constraints, is used to adapt this general formulation for application to closed-loop chains. This can be used for double support walking models. Finally, inverse dynamics are used to calculate the GRF for these general n-link chains. The necessary constraint forces to maintain a closed-loop chain, calculated from the Lagrange multipliers, are one solution to the indeterminate problem of GRF distribution in double support models. An example of this method's application is given, whereby an optimiser estimates the joint moments by tracking kinematic data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of Very-high-energy Emission from RGB J2243+203 and Derivation of Its Redshift Upper Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tyler, J.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2017-11-01

    Very-high-energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the blazar RGB J2243+203 was discovered with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array, during the period between 2014 December 21 and 24. The VERITAS energy spectrum from this source can be fitted by a power law with a photon index of 4.6 ± 0.5, and a flux normalization at 0.15 TeV of (6.3+/- 1.1)× {10}-10 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{TeV}}-1. The integrated Fermi-LAT flux from 1 to 100 GeV during the VERITAS detection is (4.1+/- 0.8)× {10}-8 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than the four-year-averaged flux in the same energy range reported in the 3FGL catalog, (4.0+/- 0.1× {10}-9 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1). The detection with VERITAS triggered observations in the X-ray band with the Swift-XRT. However, due to scheduling constraints Swift-XRT observations were performed 67 hr after the VERITAS detection, rather than simultaneously with the VERITAS observations. The observed X-ray energy spectrum between 2 and 10 keV can be fitted with a power law with a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.2, and the integrated photon flux in the same energy band is (3.6+/- 0.6)× {10}-13 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1. EBL-model-dependent upper limits of the blazar redshift have been derived. Depending on the EBL model used, the upper limit varies in the range from z < 0.9 to z < 1.1.

  11. Guidance for the derivation of environmental risk limits within the framework of 'International and national environmental quality standards for substances in the Netherlands' (INS). Revision 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingen PLA van; Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2007-01-01

    This report forms the guidance document for the derivation of environmental risk limits used in environmental policy in the Netherlands. The report is a revision of the INS-guidance from 2001. The following four environmental risk limits are distinguished in the Netherlands: negligible

  12. Superstatistical generalised Langevin equation: non-Gaussian viscoelastic anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Jakub; Metzler, Ralf; Magdziarz, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  13. Interpretation of human pointing by African elephants: generalisation and rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    Factors influencing the abilities of different animals to use cooperative social cues from humans are still unclear, in spite of long-standing interest in the topic. One of the few species that have been found successful at using human pointing is the African elephant (Loxodonta africana); despite few opportunities for learning about pointing, elephants follow a pointing gesture in an object-choice task, even when the pointing signal and experimenter's body position are in conflict, and when the gesture itself is visually subtle. Here, we show that the success of captive African elephants at using human pointing is not restricted to situations where the pointing signal is sustained until the time of choice: elephants followed human pointing even when the pointing gesture was withdrawn before they had responded to it. Furthermore, elephants rapidly generalised their response to a type of social cue they were unlikely to have seen before: pointing with the foot. However, unlike young children, they showed no sign of evaluating the 'rationality' of this novel pointing gesture according to its visual context: that is, whether the experimenter's hands were occupied or not.

  14. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Akombo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs, such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14 in the State of Utah (USA participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4 p=.004. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait anxiety score pre-intervention and the total state anxiety score pre-test (df(4 p=.033. A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the reading trait anxiety score post-intervention and the total state anxiety score post-test (df(4 p=.030. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of community music such as drumming for reducing anxiety and also for improving academic performance in adolescents. CMPs are recommended as a non-invasive intervention modality for adolescents.

  15. Generalised block bootstrap and its use in meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Varga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, Rakonczai et al.(2014 emphasised the importance of investigating the effective sample size in case of autocorrelated data. The simulations were based on the block bootstrap methodology. However, the discreteness of the usual block size did not allow for exact calculations. In this paper we propose a new generalisation of the block bootstrap methodology, which allows for any positive real number as expected block size. We relate it to the existing optimisation procedures and apply it to a temperature data set. Our other focus is on statistical tests, where quite often the actual sample size plays an important role, even in the case of relatively large samples. This is especially the case for copulas. These are used for investigating the dependencies among data sets. As in quite a few real applications the time dependence cannot be neglected, we investigated the effect of this phenomenon on the used test statistic. The critical value can be computed by the proposed new block bootstrap simulation, where the block size is determined by fitting a VAR model to the observations. The results are illustrated for models of the used temperature data.

  16. Rare case of generalised aggressive periodontitis in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, A; Signorelli, C; Erb, J; van Waes, H; Schmidlin, P R

    2014-12-01

    Generalised aggressive periodontitis (AP) in the prepubescent age is an exceptionally rare disease in the primary dentition of otherwise healthy children. Characteristics of AP are gingival inflammation, deep periodontal pockets, bone loss, tooth mobility and even tooth loss. The most common way of treating this disease is the extraction of all the involved primary teeth. A 4-year-old girl presented with signs of severe gingival inflammation. Clinical examination revealed deep pockets, increased tooth mobility and bone loss. Microbiological testing revealed the presence of a typical periopathogenic flora consisting of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the typical members of the red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Treponema denticola). The patient underwent tooth extraction of all primary teeth except the primary canines, followed by thorough root debridement and treatment with systemic antibiotics (amoxicillin plus metronidazole). Regular clinical and microbiological examinations over 4 years showed no signs of recurrence of a periodontitis, even in the erupted permanent teeth. Early diagnosis and consequent early treatment of aggressive periodontitis can stop the disease and therefore avoid the development of a periodontal disease in the permanent dentition. A close collaboration between specialists of different disciplines is required for a favourable outcome.

  17. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mezrag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs, it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hπv(x,ξ,t. Our analysis focuses primarily on ξ=0, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting Hπv(x,ξ=±1,t with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hπv(x,0,t, expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hπv(x,0,t and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, qπv(x,|b→⊥|, which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at a hadronic scale. We evolve the distributions to a scale ζ=2 GeV, so as to facilitate comparisons in future with results from experiment or other nonperturbative methods.

  18. Fearing shades of grey: individual differences in fear responding towards generalisation stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-09-01

    Individual differences in fear generalisation have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders, but few data are available to directly support that claim. The research that is available has focused mostly on generalisation of peripheral and central physiological fear responses. Far less is known about the generalisation of avoidance, the behavioural component of fear. In two experiments, we evaluated how neuroticism, a known vulnerability factor for anxiety, modulates an array of fear responses, including avoidance tendencies, towards generalisation stimuli (GS). Participants underwent differential fear conditioning, in which one conditioned stimulus (CS+) was repeatedly paired with an aversive outcome (shock; unconditioned stimulus, US), whereas another was not (CS-). Fear generalisation was observed across measures in Experiment 1 (US expectancy and evaluative ratings) and Experiment 2 (US expectancy, evaluative ratings, skin conductance, startle responses, safety behaviours), with overall highest responding to the CS+, lowest to the CS- and intermediate responding to the GSs. Neuroticism had very little impact on fear generalisation (but did affect GS recognition rates in Experiment 1), in line with the idea that fear generalisation is largely an adaptive process.

  19. The Generalised Ecosystem Modelling Approach in Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard

    2008-03-15

    An independent modelling capability is required by SSI in order to evaluate dose assessments carried out in Sweden by, amongst others, SKB. The main focus is the evaluation of the long-term radiological safety of radioactive waste repositories for both spent fuel and low-level radioactive waste. To meet the requirement for an independent modelling tool for use in biosphere dose assessments, SSI through its modelling team CLIMB commissioned the development of a new model in 2004, a project to produce an integrated model of radionuclides in the landscape. The generalised ecosystem modelling approach (GEMA) is the result. GEMA is a modular system of compartments representing the surface environment. It can be configured, through water and solid material fluxes, to represent local details in the range of ecosystem types found in the past, present and future Swedish landscapes. The approach is generic but fine tuning can be carried out using local details of the surface drainage system. The modular nature of the modelling approach means that GEMA modules can be linked to represent large scale surface drainage features over an extended domain in the landscape. System change can also be managed in GEMA, allowing a flexible and comprehensive model of the evolving landscape to be constructed. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides can be calculated and the GEMA dose pathway model provides a means of evaluating the radiological impact of radionuclide release to the surface environment. This document sets out the philosophy and details of GEMA and illustrates the functioning of the model with a range of examples featuring the recent CLIMB review of SKB's SR-Can assessment

  20. Combination of generalised neurofibromatosis (Recklinghausen's disease) and agenesia of the corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toedt, C.; Hoetzinger, H.; Salbeck, R.; Beyer, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    Whereas generalised neufibromatosis is a relatively frequent disease its combined occurence in conjunction with agenesia of the corpus callosum is extremely rare and probably a casual coincidence. (orig.) [de

  1. Generalised brain edema and brain infarct in ergotamine abuse: Visualization by CT, MR and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toedt, C.; Hoetzinger, H.; Salbeck, R.; Beyer, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    Abuse of ergotamine can release a generalised brain edema and brain infarctions. This can be visualized by CT, MR and angiography. The reason, however, can only be found in the patients history. (orig.) [de

  2. Emotion recognition training using composite faces generalises across identities but not all emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, Michael N; Schofield-Toloza, Lawrence; Munafò, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2017-08-01

    Many cognitive bias modification (CBM) tasks use facial expressions of emotion as stimuli. Some tasks use unique facial stimuli, while others use composite stimuli, given evidence that emotion is encoded prototypically. However, CBM using composite stimuli may be identity- or emotion-specific, and may not generalise to other stimuli. We investigated the generalisability of effects using composite faces in two experiments. Healthy adults in each study were randomised to one of four training conditions: two stimulus-congruent conditions, where same faces were used during all phases of the task, and two stimulus-incongruent conditions, where faces of the opposite sex (Experiment 1) or faces depicting another emotion (Experiment 2) were used after the modification phase. Our results suggested that training effects generalised across identities. However, our results indicated only partial generalisation across emotions. These findings suggest effects obtained using composite stimuli may extend beyond the stimuli used in the task but remain emotion-specific.

  3. Application of natural generalised inverse technique in reconstruction of gravity anomalies due to a fault

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Vasudeva, R.Y.

    has been performed to build Generalised Inverse Operator (GIO) and it is operated on the observed anomaly with reference to the calculated anomaly to update model parameters. Data and model resolution matrices are computed to check the correctness...

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L. G.; Nielsen, M. K.F.; Simonsen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults....

  5. A Conceptual and Procedural Research on the Hierarchical Structure of Mathematics Emerging in the Minds of University Students: An Example of Limit-Continuity-Integral-Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Arif; Çetin, Ömer Faruk; Bas, Fatih; Sagirli, Meryem Özturan

    2016-01-01

    In this present study, it was aimed to investigate whether the hierarchical structure of mathematics emerged in university students' minds or not, considering the concepts of limit, continuity derivative and integral from the perspective of students in the department of secondary school mathematics teacher training and the department of…

  6. Extending the Generalised Pareto Distribution for Novelty Detection in High-Dimensional Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, David A; Clifton, Lei; Hugueny, Samuel; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Novelty detection involves the construction of a "model of normality", and then classifies test data as being either "normal" or "abnormal" with respect to that model. For this reason, it is often termed one-class classification. The approach is suitable for cases in which examples of "normal" behaviour are commonly available, but in which cases of "abnormal" data are comparatively rare. When performing novelty detection, we are typically most interested in the tails of the normal model, because it is in these tails that a decision boundary between "normal" and "abnormal" areas of data space usually lies. Extreme value statistics provides an appropriate theoretical framework for modelling the tails of univariate (or low-dimensional) distributions, using the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), which can be demonstrated to be the limiting distribution for data occurring within the tails of most practically-encountered probability distributions. This paper provides an extension of the GPD, allowing the modelling of probability distributions of arbitrarily high dimension, such as occurs when using complex, multimodel, multivariate distributions for performing novelty detection in most real-life cases. We demonstrate our extension to the GPD using examples from patient physiological monitoring, in which we have acquired data from hospital patients in large clinical studies of high-acuity wards, and in which we wish to determine "abnormal" patient data, such that early warning of patient physiological deterioration may be provided.

  7. Assigning Tie Points to a Generalised Building Model for Uas Image Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper addresses the integration of a building model into the pose estimation of image sequences. Images are captured by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) equipped with a camera flying in between buildings. Two approaches to assign tie points to a generalised building model in object space are presented. A direct approach is based on the distances between the object coordinates of tie points and planes of the building model. An indirect approach first finds planes within the tie point cloud that are subsequently matched to model planes; finally based on these matches, tie points are assigned to model planes. For both cases, the assignments are used in a hybrid bundle adjustment to refine the poses (image orientations). Experimental results for an image sequence demonstrate improvements in comparison to an adjustment without the building model. Differences and limitations of the two approaches for point-plane assignment are discussed - in the experiments they perform similar with respect to estimated standard deviations of tie points.

  8. A Generalised Porosity Formalism for Isotropic and Anisotropic Effective Opacity and Its Effects on X-ray Line Attenuation in Clumped O Star Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Townsend, Richard H. D.

    2002-01-01

    We present a generalised formalism for treating the porosity-associated reduction in continuum opacity that occurs when individual clumps in a stochastic medium become optically thick. As in previous work, we concentrate on developing bridging laws between the limits of optically thin and thick clumps. We consider geometries resulting in either isotropic or anisotropic effective opacity, and, in addition to an idealised model in which all clumps have the same local overdensity and scale, we also treat an ensemble of clumps with optical depths set by Markovian statistics. This formalism is then applied to the specific case of bound-free absorption of X- rays in hot star winds, a process not directly affected by clumping in the optically thin limit. We find that the Markov model gives surprisingly similar results to those found previously for the single clump model, suggesting that porous opacity is not very sensitive to details of the assumed clump distribution function. Further, an anisotropic effective opacity favours escape of X-rays emitted in the tangential direction (the venetian blind effect), resulting in a bump of higher flux close to line centre as compared to profiles computed from isotropic porosity models. We demonstrate how this characteristic line shape may be used to diagnose the clump geometry, and we confirm previous results that for optically thick clumping to significantly influence X-ray line profiles, very large porosity lengths, defined as the mean free path between clumps, are required. Moreover, we present the first X-ray line profiles computed directly from line-driven instability simulations using a 3-D patch method, and find that porosity effects from such models also are very small. This further supports the view that porosity has, at most, a marginal effect on X-ray line diagnostics in O stars, and therefore that these diagnostics do indeed provide a good clumping insensitive method for deriving O star mass-loss rates.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., where 2×104 ml is the volume of air breathed per minute at work by “Reference Man” under working conditions of “light work.” The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: either external submersion.... Derived air concentrations based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform...

  10. T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against p53-protein derived peptides in bulk and limiting dilution cultures of healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Regner, M; Claesson, M H

    1995-01-01

    -I restricted epitopes for T cell recognition and p53-derived peptides have been suggested as targets for tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Our primary aim was to estimate the frequencies of p53-peptide reactive CTL precursors (CTLp) in peripheral blood from healthy young individuals. We selected...

  11. Remediation of fluency: Word specific or generalised training effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, I.E.; Reitsma, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether reading fluency benefits more from repeated reading of a limited set of words or from practicing reading with many different words. A group of 37 reading delayed Dutch children repeatedly read the same 20 words with limited exposure duration, whereas another group

  12. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, 75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-29

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D=4 and D=5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such “exceptional Sasaki-Einstein” backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS{sub 5} M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a “generalised Reeb vector” that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D=4 M-theory and D=5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  13. The generalised anxiety stigma scale (GASS): psychometric properties in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is substantial concern about negative attitudes to mental illness, little is known about the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or its measurement. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-item measure of Generalised Anxiety Disorder stigma (the GASS). Methods Stigma items were developed from a thematic analysis of web-based text about the stigma associated with GAD. Six hundred and seventeen members of the public completed a survey comprising the resulting 20 stigma items and measures designed to evaluate construct validity. Follow-up data were collected for a subset of the participants (n = 212). Results The factor structure comprised two components: Personal Stigma (views about Generalised Anxiety Disorder); and Perceived Stigma (views about the beliefs of most others in the community). There was evidence of good construct validity and reliability for each of the Generalised Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) subscales. Conclusions The GASS is a promising brief measure of the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder. PMID:22108099

  14. The generalised anxiety stigma scale (GASS: psychometric properties in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is substantial concern about negative attitudes to mental illness, little is known about the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD or its measurement. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-item measure of Generalised Anxiety Disorder stigma (the GASS. Methods Stigma items were developed from a thematic analysis of web-based text about the stigma associated with GAD. Six hundred and seventeen members of the public completed a survey comprising the resulting 20 stigma items and measures designed to evaluate construct validity. Follow-up data were collected for a subset of the participants (n = 212. Results The factor structure comprised two components: Personal Stigma (views about Generalised Anxiety Disorder; and Perceived Stigma (views about the beliefs of most others in the community. There was evidence of good construct validity and reliability for each of the Generalised Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS subscales. Conclusions The GASS is a promising brief measure of the stigma associated with Generalised Anxiety Disorder.

  15. Successful short-term re-learning and generalisation of concepts in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Aida; Savage, Sharon A; Caine, Diana

    2016-09-28

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) can rapidly and successfully re-learn word labels during cognitive intervention. This new learning, however, usually remains rigid and context-dependent. Conceptual enrichment (COEN) training is a therapy approach aimed to produce more flexible and generalisable learning in SD. In this study we compare generalisation and maintenance of learning after COEN with performance achieved using a classical naming therapy (NT). The study recruited a 62-year-old woman with SD. An AB 1 ACAB 2 experimental design was implemented, with naming performance assessed at baseline, post- intervention, 3 and 6 weeks after the end of each treatment phase. Three generalisation tasks were also assessed pre- and post-intervention. Naming post-intervention improved significantly following both therapies, however, words trained using COEN therapy showed a significantly greater degree of generalisation than those trained under NT. In addition, only words trained with COEN continued to show significant improvements compared with baseline performance when assessed 6 weeks after practice ceased. It was concluded that therapies based on conceptual enrichment of the semantic network facilitate relearning of words and enhance generalisation in patients with SD.

  16. evaluating the effects of generalisation approaches and dem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jon

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are elemental in deriving primary topographic attributes which serve as input variables to a .... This regional study therefore builds on the scientific incentive to further assess the utility of applying DEMs from varying ... The mono-cultured Eucalyptus dominated plantation is owned and ...

  17. Evaluating the effects of generalisation approaches and DEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are elemental in deriving primary topographic attributes which serve as input variables to a variety of hydrologic and geomorphologic studies. There is however still varied consensus on the effect of DEM source and resolution on the application of these topographic attributes to landscape ...

  18. libmpdata++ 0.1: a library of parallel MPDATA solvers for systems of generalised transport equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, A.; Arabas, S.; Jarecka, D.; Pawlowska, H.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Waruszewski, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper accompanies first release of libmpdata++, a C++ library implementing the Multidimensional Positive-Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA). The library offers basic numerical solvers for systems of generalised transport equations. The solvers are forward-in-time, conservative and non-linearly stable. The libmpdata++ library covers the basic second-order-accurate formulation of MPDATA, its third-order variant, the infinite-gauge option for variable-sign fields and a flux-corrected transport extension to guarantee non-oscillatory solutions. The library is equipped with a non-symmetric variational elliptic solver for implicit evaluation of pressure gradient terms. All solvers offer parallelisation through domain decomposition using shared-memory parallelisation. The paper describes the library programming interface, and serves as a user guide. Supported options are illustrated with benchmarks discussed in the MPDATA literature. Benchmark descriptions include code snippets as well as quantitative representations of simulation results. Examples of applications include: homogeneous transport in one, two and three dimensions in Cartesian and spherical domains; shallow-water system compared with analytical solution (originally derived for a 2-D case); and a buoyant convection problem in an incompressible Boussinesq fluid with interfacial instability. All the examples are implemented out of the library tree. Regardless of the differences in the problem dimensionality, right-hand-side terms, boundary conditions and parallelisation approach, all the examples use the same unmodified library, which is a key goal of libmpdata++ design. The design, based on the principle of separation of concerns, prioritises the user and developer productivity. The libmpdata++ library is implemented in C++, making use of the Blitz++ multi-dimensional array containers, and is released as free/libre and open-source software.

  19. libmpdata++ 1.0: a library of parallel MPDATA solvers for systems of generalised transport equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, A.; Arabas, S.; Jarecka, D.; Pawlowska, H.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Waruszewski, M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper accompanies the first release of libmpdata++, a C++ library implementing the multi-dimensional positive-definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA) on regular structured grid. The library offers basic numerical solvers for systems of generalised transport equations. The solvers are forward-in-time, conservative and non-linearly stable. The libmpdata++ library covers the basic second-order-accurate formulation of MPDATA, its third-order variant, the infinite-gauge option for variable-sign fields and a flux-corrected transport extension to guarantee non-oscillatory solutions. The library is equipped with a non-symmetric variational elliptic solver for implicit evaluation of pressure gradient terms. All solvers offer parallelisation through domain decomposition using shared-memory parallelisation. The paper describes the library programming interface, and serves as a user guide. Supported options are illustrated with benchmarks discussed in the MPDATA literature. Benchmark descriptions include code snippets as well as quantitative representations of simulation results. Examples of applications include homogeneous transport in one, two and three dimensions in Cartesian and spherical domains; a shallow-water system compared with analytical solution (originally derived for a 2-D case); and a buoyant convection problem in an incompressible Boussinesq fluid with interfacial instability. All the examples are implemented out of the library tree. Regardless of the differences in the problem dimensionality, right-hand-side terms, boundary conditions and parallelisation approach, all the examples use the same unmodified library, which is a key goal of libmpdata++ design. The design, based on the principle of separation of concerns, prioritises the user and developer productivity. The libmpdata++ library is implemented in C++, making use of the Blitz++ multi-dimensional array containers, and is released as free/libre and open-source software.

  20. libmpdata++ 1.0: a library of parallel MPDATA solvers for systems of generalised transport equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jaruga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper accompanies the first release of libmpdata++, a C++ library implementing the multi-dimensional positive-definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA on regular structured grid. The library offers basic numerical solvers for systems of generalised transport equations. The solvers are forward-in-time, conservative and non-linearly stable. The libmpdata++ library covers the basic second-order-accurate formulation of MPDATA, its third-order variant, the infinite-gauge option for variable-sign fields and a flux-corrected transport extension to guarantee non-oscillatory solutions. The library is equipped with a non-symmetric variational elliptic solver for implicit evaluation of pressure gradient terms. All solvers offer parallelisation through domain decomposition using shared-memory parallelisation. The paper describes the library programming interface, and serves as a user guide. Supported options are illustrated with benchmarks discussed in the MPDATA literature. Benchmark descriptions include code snippets as well as quantitative representations of simulation results. Examples of applications include homogeneous transport in one, two and three dimensions in Cartesian and spherical domains; a shallow-water system compared with analytical solution (originally derived for a 2-D case; and a buoyant convection problem in an incompressible Boussinesq fluid with interfacial instability. All the examples are implemented out of the library tree. Regardless of the differences in the problem dimensionality, right-hand-side terms, boundary conditions and parallelisation approach, all the examples use the same unmodified library, which is a key goal of libmpdata++ design. The design, based on the principle of separation of concerns, prioritises the user and developer productivity. The libmpdata++ library is implemented in C++, making use of the Blitz++ multi-dimensional array containers, and is released as free/libre and open-source software.

  1. Generalisability in economic evaluation studies in healthcare: a review and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculpher, M J; Pang, F S; Manca, A; Drummond, M F; Golder, S; Urdahl, H; Davies, L M; Eastwood, A

    2004-12-01

    To review, and to develop further, the methods used to assess and to increase the generalisability of economic evaluation studies. Electronic databases. Methodological studies relating to economic evaluation in healthcare were searched. This included electronic searches of a range of databases, including PREMEDLINE, MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit, and manual searches of key journals. The case studies of a decision analytic model involved highlighting specific features of previously published economic studies related to generalisability and location-related variability. The case-study involving the secondary analysis of cost-effectiveness analyses was based on the secondary analysis of three economic studies using data from randomised trials. The factor most frequently cited as generating variability in economic results between locations was the unit costs associated with particular resources. In the context of studies based on the analysis of patient-level data, regression analysis has been advocated as a means of looking at variability in economic results across locations. These methods have generally accepted that some components of resource use and outcomes are exchangeable across locations. Recent studies have also explored, in cost-effectiveness analysis, the use of tests of heterogeneity similar to those used in clinical evaluation in trials. The decision analytic model has been the main means by which cost-effectiveness has been adapted from trial to non-trial locations. Most models have focused on changes to the cost side of the analysis, but it is clear that the effectiveness side may also need to be adapted between locations. There have been weaknesses in some aspects of the reporting in applied cost-effectiveness studies. These may limit decision-makers' ability to judge the relevance of a study to their specific situations. The case study demonstrated the potential value of multilevel modelling (MLM). Where clustering exists by location (e.g. centre or

  2. The one-dimensional normalised generalised equivalence theory (NGET) for generating equivalent diffusion theory group constants for PWR reflector regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.Z.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent diffusion theory PWR reflector model is presented, which has as its basis Smith's generalisation of Koebke's Equivalent Theory. This method is an adaptation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, of the Generalised Equivalence Theory (GET). Since the method involves the renormalisation of the GET discontinuity factors at nodal interfaces, it is called the Normalised Generalised Equivalence Theory (NGET) method. The advantages of the NGET method for modelling the ex-core nodes of a PWR are summarized. 23 refs

  3. Is Small, Small Enough? Students' Understanding the Need for the Definition of the Derivative as a Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    The research relates to undergraduate students' understanding of mathematical concepts that relate to the conceptualisation of the continuous such as the notion of limit. The cognitive difficulties that accompany the learning of these concepts at the different stages of the mathematics education are well reported in the literature. I analyse the…

  4. Annual limits on intake for members of the public and derived reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    A proposal is presented recommending the introduction in Australia of Annual Limits on Intake of radionuclides for members of the public and of corresponding reference levels of radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The proposal is related to recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and draft recommendations under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  5. A generalised groundwater flow equation using the concept of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... K the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the aquifer. Ф(x,t) the piezometric head f(x,t) the strength of any sources or sinks, with x and t the usual spatial and time coordinates. V the gradient operator. ∂t the time derivative. This model showed that the dominant flow field in these aquifers is vertical and linear and ...

  6. Circulation of a type 1 recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus strain in a limited area in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combiescu, M; Guillot, S; Persu, A; Baicus, A; Pitigoi, D; Balanant, J; Oprisan, G; Crainic, R; Delpeyroux, F; Aubert-Combiescu, A

    2007-01-01

    After intensive immunisation campaigns with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) as part of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, poliomyelitis due to wild viruses has disappeared from most parts of the world, including Europe. Here, we report the characterization of a serotype 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) isolated from one acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case with tetraplegia and eight healthy contacts belonging to the same small socio-cultural group having a low vaccine coverage living in a small town in Romania. The genomes of the isolated strains appeared to be tripartite type 1/type 2/type 1 vaccine intertypic recombinant genomes derived from a common ancestor strain. The presence of 1.2% nucleotide substitutions in the VP1 capsid protein coding region of most of the strains indicated a circulation time of about 14 months. These VDPVs were thermoresistant and, in transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor, appeared to have lost the attenuated phenotype. These results suggest that small populations with low vaccine coverage living in globally well-vaccinated countries can be the origin of VDPV emergence and circulation. These results reaffirm the importance of active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus in both polio-free and polio-endemic countries.

  7. Calculation of nuclear reactivity using the generalised Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor corrector method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel [Surcolombiana Univ., Neiva (Colombia). Groupo de Fisica Teorica; Narvaez-Paredes, Mauricio [Javeriana Univ., Cali (Colombia). Groupo de Matematica y Estadistica Aplicada Pontificia; Lozano-Parada, Jamie H. [Univ. del Valle, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the generalisation of the 4th-order Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor-corrector method is proposed to numerically solve the point kinetic equations of the nuclear reactivity calculations without using the nuclear power history. Due to the nature of the point kinetic equations, different predictor modifiers are used in order improve the precision of the approximations obtained. The results obtained with the prediction formulas and generalised corrections improve the precision when compared with previous methods and are valid for various forms of nuclear power and different time steps.

  8. Generalisation, decision making, and embodiment effects in mental rotation: A neurorobotic architecture tested with a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepanomwan, Kristsana; Caligiore, Daniele; Cangelosi, Angelo; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Mental rotation, a classic experimental paradigm of cognitive psychology, tests the capacity of humans to mentally rotate a seen object to decide if it matches a target object. In recent years, mental rotation has been investigated with brain imaging techniques to identify the brain areas involved. Mental rotation has also been investigated through the development of neural-network models, used to identify the specific mechanisms that underlie its process, and with neurorobotics models to investigate its embodied nature. Current models, however, have limited capacities to relate to neuro-scientific evidence, to generalise mental rotation to new objects, to suitably represent decision making mechanisms, and to allow the study of the effects of overt gestures on mental rotation. The work presented in this study overcomes these limitations by proposing a novel neurorobotic model that has a macro-architecture constrained by knowledge held on brain, encompasses a rather general mental rotation mechanism, and incorporates a biologically plausible decision making mechanism. The model was tested using the humanoid robot iCub in tasks requiring the robot to mentally rotate 2D geometrical images appearing on a computer screen. The results show that the robot gained an enhanced capacity to generalise mental rotation to new objects and to express the possible effects of overt movements of the wrist on mental rotation. The model also represents a further step in the identification of the embodied neural mechanisms that may underlie mental rotation in humans and might also give hints to enhance robots' planning capabilities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic radical scavenger treatment of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: merits and limitations of the vitamin E derivative Trolox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwa Alicja Janc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy, and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression. Along this line, we recently confirmed in vitro that acute treatment with the vitamin E-derivative Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, ameliorates cellular redox balance, and improves hypoxia tolerance in male MeCP2-deficient (Mecp2-/y mouse hippocampus. Pursuing these promising findings, we performed a preclinical study to define the merit of systemic Trolox administration. Blinded, placebo-controlled in vivo treatment of male mice started at postnatal day 10-11 and continued for ~40 days. Compounds (vehicle only, 10 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg Trolox were injected intraperitoneally every 48h. Detailed phenotyping revealed that in Mecp2-/y mice, blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation, synaptic short-term plasticity, hypoxia tolerance, and certain forms of environmental exploration were improved by Trolox. Yet, body weight and size, motor function, and the rate and regularity of breathing did not improve. In conclusion, in vivo Trolox treatment partially ameliorated a subset of symptoms of the complex Rett phenotype, thereby confirming a partial merit of the vitamin E-derivative based pharmacotherapy. Yet, it also became evident that frequent animal handling and the route of drug administration are critical issues to be optimized in future trials.

  10. Travelling wave solutions of (2+ 1)-dimensional generalised time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we have developed new exact analytical solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation that appear in mathematical physics, a (2 + 1)-dimensional ... Wave interaction for the wave propagation strength and angle of field quantity under the long wave limit are analysed: Bell-shape solitons are found and it is found ...

  11. Generalising better: Applying deep learning to integrate deleteriousness prediction scores for whole-exome SNV studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvigo, Ilia; Afanasyev, Andrey; Romashchenko, Nikolay; Skoblov, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Many automatic classifiers were introduced to aid inference of phenotypical effects of uncategorised nsSNVs (nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Variations) in theoretical and medical applications. Lately, several meta-estimators have been proposed that combine different predictors, such as PolyPhen and SIFT, to integrate more information in a single score. Although many advances have been made in feature design and machine learning algorithms used, the shortage of high-quality reference data along with the bias towards intensively studied in vitro models call for improved generalisation ability in order to further increase classification accuracy and handle records with insufficient data. Since a meta-estimator basically combines different scoring systems with highly complicated nonlinear relationships, we investigated how deep learning (supervised and unsupervised), which is particularly efficient at discovering hierarchies of features, can improve classification performance. While it is believed that one should only use deep learning for high-dimensional input spaces and other models (logistic regression, support vector machines, Bayesian classifiers, etc) for simpler inputs, we still believe that the ability of neural networks to discover intricate structure in highly heterogenous datasets can aid a meta-estimator. We compare the performance with various popular predictors, many of which are recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), as well as available deep learning-based predictors. Thanks to hardware acceleration we were able to use a computationally expensive genetic algorithm to stochastically optimise hyper-parameters over many generations. Overfitting was hindered by noise injection and dropout, limiting coadaptation of hidden units. Although we stress that this work was not conceived as a tool comparison, but rather an exploration of the possibilities of deep learning application in ensemble scores, our results show that

  12. Generalised model-independent characterisation of strong gravitational lenses. I. Theoretical foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.

    2017-05-01

    We extend our model-independent approach for characterising strong gravitational lenses to its most general form to leading order and use the orientation angles of a set of multiple images with respect to their connection line(s) in addition to the relative distances between the images, their ellipticities, and time-delays. For two symmetric images that straddle the critical curve, the orientation angle additionally allows us to determine the slope of the critical curve and a second (reduced) flexion coefficient at the critical point on the connection line between the images. It also allows us to drop the symmetry assumption that the axis of largest image extension is orthogonal to the critical curve. For three images almost forming a giant arc, the degree of assumed image symmetry is also reduced to the most general case, describing image configurations for which the source need not be placed on the symmetry axis of the two folds that unite at the cusp. For a given set of multiple images, we set limits on the applicability of our approach, show which information can be obtained in cases of merging images, and analyse the accuracy achievable due to the Taylor expansion of the lensing potential for the fold case on a galaxy cluster scale Navarro-Frenk-White-profile, a fold and cusp case on a galaxy cluster scale singular isothermal ellipse, and compare the generalised approach with our previously published one. The position of the critical points is reconstructed with less than 5'' deviation for multiple images closer to the critical points than 30% of the (effective) Einstein radius. The slope of the critical curve at a fold and its shape in the vicinity of a cusp deviate less than 20% from the true values for distances of the images to the critical points less than 15% of the (effective) Einstein radius.

  13. B cell-derived transforming growth factor-β1 expression limits the induction phase of autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadóttir, Kristbjörg; Benkhoucha, Mahdia; Merkler, Doron; Weber, Martin S; Payne, Natalie L; Bernard, Claude C A; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-10-06

    Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), have shown that regulatory B cells modulate the course of the disease via the production of suppressive cytokines. While data indicate a role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression in regulatory B cell functions, this mechanism has not yet been tested in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Transgenic mice deficient for TGF-β1 expression in B cells (B-TGF-β1 -/- ) were tested in EAE induced by recombinant mouse myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rmMOG). In this model, B-TGF-β1 -/- mice showed an earlier onset of neurologic impairment compared to their littermate controls. Exacerbated EAE susceptibility in B-TGF-β1 -/- mice was associated with augmented CNS T helper (Th)1/17 responses. Moreover, selective B cell TGF-β1-deficiency increased the frequencies and activation of myeloid dendritic cells, potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), suggesting that B cell-derived TGF-β1 can constrain Th1/17 responses through inhibition of APC activity. Collectively our data suggest that B cells can down-regulate the function of APCs, and in turn encephalitogenic Th1/17 responses, via TGF-β1, findings that may be relevant to B cell-targeted therapies.

  14. Generalised Wigner surmise for (2 X 2) random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Huu-Tai, P.; Van Isacker, P.; Smirnova, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    We present new analytical results concerning the spectral distributions for (2 x 2) random real symmetric matrices which generalize the Wigner surmise. The study of the statistical properties of spectra of realistic many-body Hamiltonians requires consideration of a random matrix ensemble whose elements are not independent or whose distribution is not invariant under orthogonal transformation of a chosen basis. In this letter we have concentrated on the properties of (2 x 2) real symmetric matrices whose elements are independent Gaussian variables with zero means but do not belong to the GOE. We have derived the distribution of eigenvalues for such a matrix, the nearest-neighbour spacing distribution which generalizes the Wigner surmise and we have calculated some important moments. (authors)

  15. Singular inextensible limit in the vibrations of post-buckled rods: Analytical derivation and role of boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    In-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations. Equilibrium configurations and vibrations around these configurations are computed analytically in the incipient post-buckling regime. Of particular interest is the variation of the first mode frequency as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. The loading type is found to have a crucial importance as the first mode frequency is shown to behave singularly in the zero thickness limit in the case of prescribed axial displacement, whereas a regular behavior is found in the case of prescribed axial load. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 210Pb-derived ages for the reconstruction of terrestrial contaminant history into the Mexican Pacific coast: Potential and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2009-01-01

    210 Pb is widely used for dating recent sediments in the aquatic environment; however, our experiences working in shallow coastal environments in the Pacific coast of Mexico have demonstrated that the potential of 210 Pb for reliable historical reconstructions might be limited by the low 210 Pb atmospheric fallout, sediment mixing, abundance of coarse sediments and the lack of 137 Cs signal for 210 Pb corroboration. This work discusses the difficulties in obtaining adequate sedimentary records for geochronological reconstruction in such active and complex settings, including examples of 210 Pb geochronologies based on sediment profiles collected in two contrasting areas coastal areas (mudflats associated to coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State and the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec), in which geochemical data was used to support the temporal frame established and the changes in sediment supply recorded in the sediment cores which were related to the development of land-based activities during the last century.

  17. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources

  18. Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate the Phenotype of Smooth Muscle Cells to Limit Intimal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Shen, Hong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Leiqing; Wei, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in the reduction of inflammation in multiple disease models. However, their role in vein graft (VG) remodeling is undefined. We aimed to investigate the effect of EVs from adipose MSCs (ADMSC-EVs) on VG intimal hyperplasia and to explore the possible mechanisms. After generation and characterization of control-EVs and ADMSC-EVs in vitro, we investigated their effect on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Next, we established a mouse model of VG transplantation. Mice underwent surgery and received control-EVs or ADMSC-EVs by intraperitoneal injection every other day for 20 days. VG remodeling was evaluated after 4 weeks. We also assessed the effect of ADMSC-EVs on macrophage migration and inflammatory cytokine expression. Significant inhibitory effects of ADMSC-EVs on in vitro VSMC proliferation (p < 0.05) and migration (p < 0.05) were observed compared with control-EVs. The extent of intimal hyperplasia was significantly decreased in ADMSC-EV-treated mice compared with control-EV-treated mice (26 ± 8.4 vs. 45 ± 9.0 μm, p < 0.05). A reduced presence of macrophages was observed in ADMSC-EV-treated mice (p < 0.05). Significantly decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was also found in the ADMSC-EV-treated group (both p < 0.05). In addition, phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 in VGs was decreased in the ADMSC-EV-treated group. We demonstrated that ADMSC-EVs exert an inhibitory effect on VG neointima formation by regulating VSMC proliferation and migration, macrophage migration, inflammatory cytokine expression, and the related signaling pathways.

  19. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.M.; Morren, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal

  20. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, S.M.; Snieder, N.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their

  1. [Epileptic seizures during childbirth in a patient with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, N.C.; Zwarts, M.J.; Renier, W.O.; Bloem, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    During her first pregnancy, a 37-year-old woman with idiopathic generalised epilepsy that was adequately controlled with lamotrigine experienced a series of epileptic seizures following an elective caesarean section. The attacks were terminated with diazepam. The following day, she developed

  2. Generalised Partially Linear Regression with Misclassified Data and an Application to Labour Market Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf

    We consider the semiparametric generalised linear regression model which has mainstream empirical models such as the (partially) linear mean regression, logistic and multinomial regression as special cases. As an extension to related literature we allow a misclassified covariate to be interacted...

  3. Modelling Problem-Solving Situations into Number Theory Tasks: The Route towards Generalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the way two 10th graders cope with a non-standard generalisation problem that involves elementary concepts of number theory (more specifically linear Diophantine equations) in the geometrical context of a rectangle's area. Emphasis is given on how the students' past experience of problem solving (expressed through interplay…

  4. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  5. Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Generalised Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Sagar, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Supriya; Narang, Sumit; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    To compare the total and differential leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood of generalised aggressive periodontitis patients with that of periodontally healthy subjects in a central Indian population. Seventy-five patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis and 63 periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled for the purpose of the study. All participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination in which probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded. The haematological variables analysed included total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, neutrophil percentage, lymphocyte percentage, monocyte percentage and platelet count. The patient group showed a significantly higher total leukocyte count (7.62 ± 1.70 x 109 cells/l, p = 0.008), neutrophil count (5.06 ± 1.47x109 cells/l, p aggressive periodontitis and elevated total leukocyte (p = 0.012) and neutrophil counts (p = 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis might also demonstrate a systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased leukocyte counts. This systemic inflammatory response observed in patients with generalised aggressive periodontitis may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis induced by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis with dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, A; Laws, P; Marsland, Am; McQuillan, O

    2013-09-01

    We describe the case of HIV-1 infected patient presenting to hospital with a severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction shortly after commencing dapsone therapy as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis. To the best of our knowledge, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis has not been reported as a reaction to dapsone in the setting of HIV.

  7. Issues in the Analysis of Focus Groups: Generalisability, Quantifiability, Treatment of Context and Quotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Lilla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some concerns related to the analysis of focus groups: (a) the issue of generalisation; (b) the problems of using numbers and quantifying in the analysis; (c) how the concrete situation of the focus groups could be included in the analysis, and (d) what formats can be used when quoting from focus groups. Problems with…

  8. Generalised Multi-sequence Shift-Register Synthesis using Module Minimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde

    2013-01-01

    We show how to solve a generalised version of the Multi-sequence Linear Feedback Shift-Register (MLFSR) problem using minimisation of free modules over F[x]. We show how two existing algorithms for minimising such modules run particularly fast on these instances. Furthermore, we show how one...

  9. A retrospective study of carbamazepine therapy in the treatment of idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G

    2011-05-01

    Objective: The exacerbation of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) by some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine (CBZ) has been well documented. However, it is unclear whether IGE is always worsened by the use of CBZ, or whether some patients with IGE benefit from its use. \\r\

  10. An Early Algebra Approach to Pattern Generalisation: Actualising the Virtual through Words, Gestures and Toilet Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Francesca; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on pattern generalisation as a way to introduce young students to early algebra. We build on research on patterning activities that feature, in their work with algebraic thinking, both looking for sameness recursively in a pattern (especially figural patterns, but also numerical ones) and conjecturing about function-based…

  11. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kouvaris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting 'quick fixes' (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability. Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical

  12. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Kostas; Clune, Jeff; Kounios, Loizos; Brede, Markus; Watson, Richard A

    2017-04-01

    One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting 'quick fixes' (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability). Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity) enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical framework from

  13. How evolution learns to generalise: Using the principles of learning theory to understand the evolution of developmental organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Kostas; Clune, Jeff; Brede, Markus; Watson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable phenotypic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour developmental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regularities, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting ‘quick fixes’ (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability). Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the subsequent failure to generalise. We support the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that existing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity) enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well-developed theoretical framework from

  14. A new concept to derive permissible limits for analytical imprecision and bias considering diagnostic requirements and technical state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner

    2011-04-01

    Permissible limits of analytical imprecision and bias are usually derived either from biological variability or from the state of the art. Both concepts require information from external sources which often lack transparency and are difficult to integrate in medical decision-making. Additionally, physicians may be interested in knowing the probability of decision errors due to analytical uncertainty. Therefore, an approach was developed which combines all three concepts. The empirical (observed) biological variation was derived from reference ranges used by the laboratory (CV(E)). CV(E) was corrected to get the biological variation in the theoretical absence of analytical imprecision (CV(C)). Relatively simple equations were derived from the relationship between biological variation and the analytical imprecision (CV(A)) to calculate permissible imprecision and bias. Five quality classes are proposed for the various analytes reflecting the false-positive error rates (FPR). These classes characterize analytical procedures according to their theoretical specificity (FPR). Thus, the new approach combines the theoretical base of biological variation with the technical state-of-the-art. As practical examples, the permissible imprecision and bias limits were estimated for a selection of quantities. The limits found were more realistic than present proposals based on Cotlove's rule (fixed fraction of biological variation), but slightly more stringent than national consensus values based on the state-of-the-art. Imprecision and bias do not affect FPR equally, and, therefore, should be assessed separately. It is proposed to insert monthly imprecision and bias results calculated after each control cycle in a table with five quality classes. This table provides a simple overview of the analytical quality performance of the entire laboratory with one glance and can be handled on the Excel platform.

  15. Bi-orthogonality relations for fluid-filled elastic cylindrical shells: Theory, generalisations and application to construct tailored Green's matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Lasse S.; Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper addresses the classical problem of time-harmonic forced vibrations of a fluid-filled cylindrical shell considered as a multi-modal waveguide carrying infinitely many waves. The forced vibration problem is solved using tailored Green's matrices formulated in terms of eigenfunction expansions. The formulation of Green's matrix is based on special (bi-)orthogonality relations between the eigenfunctions, which are derived here for the fluid-filled shell. Further, the relations are generalised to any multi-modal symmetric waveguide. Using the orthogonality relations the transcendental equation system is converted into algebraic modal equations that can be solved analytically. Upon formulation of Green's matrices the solution space is studied in terms of completeness and convergence (uniformity and rate). Special features and findings exposed only through this modal decomposition method are elaborated and the physical interpretation of the bi-orthogonality relation is discussed in relation to the total energy flow which leads to derivation of simplified equations for the energy flow components.

  16. A generalised random encounter model for estimating animal density with remote sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Tim C D; Moorcroft, Elizabeth A; Freeman, Robin; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Jones, Kate E

    2015-05-01

    Wildlife monitoring technology is advancing rapidly and the use of remote sensors such as camera traps and acoustic detectors is becoming common in both the terrestrial and marine environments. Current methods to estimate abundance or density require individual recognition of animals or knowing the distance of the animal from the sensor, which is often difficult. A method without these requirements, the random encounter model (REM), has been successfully applied to estimate animal densities from count data generated from camera traps. However, count data from acoustic detectors do not fit the assumptions of the REM due to the directionality of animal signals.We developed a generalised REM (gREM), to estimate absolute animal density from count data from both camera traps and acoustic detectors. We derived the gREM for different combinations of sensor detection widths and animal signal widths (a measure of directionality). We tested the accuracy and precision of this model using simulations of different combinations of sensor detection widths and animal signal widths, number of captures and models of animal movement.We find that the gREM produces accurate estimates of absolute animal density for all combinations of sensor detection widths and animal signal widths. However, larger sensor detection and animal signal widths were found to be more precise. While the model is accurate for all capture efforts tested, the precision of the estimate increases with the number of captures. We found no effect of different animal movement models on the accuracy and precision of the gREM.We conclude that the gREM provides an effective method to estimate absolute animal densities from remote sensor count data over a range of sensor and animal signal widths. The gREM is applicable for count data obtained in both marine and terrestrial environments, visually or acoustically (e.g. big cats, sharks, birds, echolocating bats and cetaceans). As sensors such as camera traps and acoustic

  17. Generalised form factor dark matter in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics,Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Serenelli, Aldo [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE-CSIC/IEEC), Campus UAB,Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Scott, Pat [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-19

    We study the effects of energy transport in the Sun by asymmetric dark matter with momentum and velocity-dependent interactions, with an eye to solving the decade-old Solar Abundance Problem. We study effective theories where the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section goes as v{sub rel}{sup 2n} and q{sup 2n} with n=−1,0,1 or 2, where v{sub rel} is the dark matter-nucleon relative velocity and q is the momentum exchanged in the collision. Such cross-sections can arise generically as leading terms from the most basic nonstandard DM-quark operators. We employ a high-precision solar simulation code to study the impact on solar neutrino rates, the sound speed profile, convective zone depth, surface helium abundance and small frequency separations. We find that the majority of models that improve agreement with the observed sound speed profile and depth of the convection zone also reduce neutrino fluxes beyond the level that can be reasonably accommodated by measurement and theory errors. However, a few specific points in parameter space yield a significant overall improvement. A 3–5 GeV DM particle with σ{sub SI}∝q{sup 2} is particularly appealing, yielding more than a 6σ improvement with respect to standard solar models, while being allowed by direct detection and collider limits. We provide full analytical capture expressions for q- and v{sub rel}-dependent scattering, as well as complete likelihood tables for all models.

  18. Generalised form factor dark matter in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Serenelli, Aldo [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (ICE-CSIC/IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès Spain (Spain); Scott, Pat, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: aldos@ice.csic.es, E-mail: p.scott@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    We study the effects of energy transport in the Sun by asymmetric dark matter with momentum and velocity-dependent interactions, with an eye to solving the decade-old Solar Abundance Problem. We study effective theories where the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section goes as v{sub rel}{sup 2n} and q{sup 2n} with n = −1, 0, 1  or 2, where v{sub rel} is the dark matter-nucleon relative velocity and q is the momentum exchanged in the collision. Such cross-sections can arise generically as leading terms from the most basic nonstandard DM-quark operators. We employ a high-precision solar simulation code to study the impact on solar neutrino rates, the sound speed profile, convective zone depth, surface helium abundance and small frequency separations. We find that the majority of models that improve agreement with the observed sound speed profile and depth of the convection zone also reduce neutrino fluxes beyond the level that can be reasonably accommodated by measurement and theory errors. However, a few specific points in parameter space yield a significant overall improvement. A 3–5 GeV DM particle with σ{sub SI} ∝ q{sup 2} is particularly appealing, yielding more than a 6σ improvement with respect to standard solar models, while being allowed by direct detection and collider limits. We provide full analytical capture expressions for q- and v{sub rel}-dependent scattering, as well as complete likelihood tables for all models.

  19. An attempt to introduce dynamics into generalised exergy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbstroem, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In previous research, the author developed a general abstract framework for the exergy content of a system of finite objects [Grubbstroem RW. Towards a generalized exergy concept. In: van Gool W, Bruggink JJC, editors. Energy and time in the economic and physical sciences. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1985. p. 41-56]. Each such object is characterised by its initial extensive properties and has an inner energy written as a function of these properties. It was shown that if these objects were allowed to interact, there is a maximum amount of work that can be extracted from the system as a whole, and a general formula for this potential was provided. It was also shown that if one of the objects was allowed to be of infinite magnitude initially, taking on the role as an environment having constant intensive properties, then the formula provided took on the same form as the classical expression for exergy. As a side result, the theoretical considerations demonstrated that the second law of thermodynamics could be interpreted as the inner energy function being a (weakly) convex function of its arguments, when these are chosen as the extensive properties. Since exergy considerations are based on the principle that total entropy is conserved when extracting work, these processes would take an infinite time to complete. In the current paper, instead, a differential-equation approach is introduced to describe the interaction in finite time between given finite objects of a system. Differences in intensive properties between the objects provide a force enabling an exchange of energy and matter. An example of such an interaction is heat conduction. The resulting considerations explain how the power extracted from the system will be limited by the processes being required to perform within finite-time constraints. Applying finite-time processes, in which entropy necessarily is generated, leads to formulating a theory for a maximal power output from the system. It is shown that

  20. Collaborative care for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia in general practice: study protocol for three cluster-randomised, superiority trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curth, Nadja Kehler; Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Lundsteen, Merete; Mikkelsen, John Hagel; Csillag, Claudio; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2017-08-16

    People with anxiety disorders represent a significant part of a general practitioner's patient population. However, there are organisational obstacles for optimal treatment, such as a lack of coordination of illness management and limited access to evidence-based treatment such as cognitive behavioral therapy. A limited number of studies suggest that collaborative care has a positive effect on symptoms for people with anxiety disorders. However, most studies are carried out in the USA and none have reported results for social phobia or generalised anxiety disorder separately. Thus, there is a need for studies carried out in different settings for specific anxiety populations. A Danish model for collaborative care (the Collabri model) has been developed for people diagnosed with depression or anxiety disorders. The model is evaluated through four trials, of which three will be outlined in this protocol and focus on panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia. The aim is to investigate whether treatment according to the Collabri model has a better effect than usual treatment on symptoms when provided to people with anxiety disorders. Three cluster-randomised, clinical superiority trials are set up to investigate treatment according to the Collabri model for collaborative care compared to treatment-as-usual for 364 patients diagnosed with panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia, respectively (total n = 1092). Patients are recruited from general practices located in the Capital Region of Denmark. For all trials, the primary outcome is anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) 6 months after baseline. Secondary outcomes include BAI after 15 months, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) after 6 months, level of psychosocial functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning) and general psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90-R) after 6 and 15 months. Results will add to the limited pool of information about

  1. The use of oral fluralaner for the treatment of feline generalised demodicosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricoti, I; Maina, E

    2017-08-01

    There is little agreement on the most effective and safest treatment for feline demodicosis. Protocols generally consist of long-lasting therapy courses based on rinses, subcutaneous injections, oral drug administration or repeated spot-on formulation and the efficacy of most of these is poorly documented. Many of these products have also been associated with adverse effects and may be difficult to administer in cats, leading to poor owner compliance and treatment failure. This case report describes the successful use of fluralaner in treating a generalised form of demodicosis caused by Demodex cati in an adult cat that was probably triggered by chronic glucocorticoid administration. After a single oral dose of 28 mg/kg fluralaner, negative skin scrapings were obtained within one month and clinical cure within two months. No side effects were observed. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of fluralaner in treating feline generalised demodicosis. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Knee function in 10-year-old children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hansen, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik B

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knee function is reduced in patients with Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. The aim was to study knee function in children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and Non-GJH (NGJH)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a matched comparative study, 39 children and 36 adults (mean ...... age children 10.2years; adults 40.3years) were included, comprising 19 children and 18 adults with GJH (Beighton =5/9; Beighton =4/9), minimum one hypermobile knee, no knee pain (children), and 20 children and 18 adults with NGJH (Beighton......PURPOSE: Knee function is reduced in patients with Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. The aim was to study knee function in children and adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and Non-GJH (NGJH)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a matched comparative study, 39 children and 36 adults (mean...

  3. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  4. A One-Class Classification Approach to Generalised Speaker Verification Spoofing Countermeasures using Local Binary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre, Federico; Amehraye, Asmaa; Evans, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The vulnerability of automatic speaker verification systems to spoofing is now well accepted. While recent work has shown the potential to develop countermeasures capable of detecting spoofed speech signals, existing solutions typically function well only for specific attacks on which they are optimised. Since the exact nature of spoofing attacks can never be known in practice, there is thus a need for generalised countermeasures which can detect previously unseen spoo...

  5. Aspects of string theory compactifications. D-brane statistics and generalised geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeiner, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate two different aspects of string theory compactifications. The first part deals with the issue of the huge amount of possible string vacua, known as the landscape. Concretely we investigate a specific well defined subset of type II orientifold compactifications. We develop the necessary tools to construct a very large set of consistent models and investigate their gauge sector on a statistical basis. In particular we analyse the frequency distributions of gauge groups and the possible amount of chiral matter for compactifications to six and four dimensions. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four-dimensional compactifications, special attention is paid to solutions with gauge groups that include those of the standard model, as well as Pati-Salam, SU(5) and flipped SU(5) models. Additionally we investigate the frequency distribution of coupling constants and correlations between the observables in the gauge sector. These results are compared with a recent study of Gepner models. Moreover, we elaborate on questions concerning the finiteness of the number of solutions and the computational complexity of the algorithm. In the second part of this thesis we consider a new mathematical framework, called generalised geometry, to describe the six-manifolds used in string theory compactifications. In particular, the formulation of T-duality and mirror symmetry for nonlinear topological sigma models is investigated. Therefore we provide a reformulation and extension of the known topological A- and B-models to the generalised framework. The action of mirror symmetry on topological D-branes in this setup is presented and the transformation of the boundary conditions is analysed. To extend the considerations to D-branes in type II string theory, we introduce the notion of generalised calibrations. We show that the known calibration conditions of supersymmetric branes in type IIA and IIB can be obtained as special cases. Finally we investigate

  6. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, (ii) the expected runoff volume (calculated by radar-based nowcast models) and – most important – (iii) the estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecasts. The inclusion of uncertainty al...

  7. Aspects of string theory compactifications. D-brane statistics and generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmeiner, F.

    2006-05-26

    In this thesis we investigate two different aspects of string theory compactifications. The first part deals with the issue of the huge amount of possible string vacua, known as the landscape. Concretely we investigate a specific well defined subset of type II orientifold compactifications. We develop the necessary tools to construct a very large set of consistent models and investigate their gauge sector on a statistical basis. In particular we analyse the frequency distributions of gauge groups and the possible amount of chiral matter for compactifications to six and four dimensions. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four-dimensional compactifications, special attention is paid to solutions with gauge groups that include those of the standard model, as well as Pati-Salam, SU(5) and flipped SU(5) models. Additionally we investigate the frequency distribution of coupling constants and correlations between the observables in the gauge sector. These results are compared with a recent study of Gepner models. Moreover, we elaborate on questions concerning the finiteness of the number of solutions and the computational complexity of the algorithm. In the second part of this thesis we consider a new mathematical framework, called generalised geometry, to describe the six-manifolds used in string theory compactifications. In particular, the formulation of T-duality and mirror symmetry for nonlinear topological sigma models is investigated. Therefore we provide a reformulation and extension of the known topological A- and B-models to the generalised framework. The action of mirror symmetry on topological D-branes in this setup is presented and the transformation of the boundary conditions is analysed. To extend the considerations to D-branes in type II string theory, we introduce the notion of generalised calibrations. We show that the known calibration conditions of supersymmetric branes in type IIA and IIB can be obtained as special cases. Finally we investigate

  8. A study of the one dimensional total generalised variation regularisation problem

    KAUST Repository

    Papafitsoros, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences. In this paper we study the one dimensional second order total generalised variation regularisation (TGV) problem with L2 data fitting term. We examine the properties of this model and we calculate exact solutions using simple piecewise affine functions as data terms. We investigate how these solutions behave with respect to the TGV parameters and we verify our results using numerical experiments.

  9. The linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution to gravitational perturbations in the generalised wave gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In a recent seminal paper \\cite{D--H--R} of Dafermos, Holzegel and Rodnianski the linear stability of the Schwarzschild family of black hole solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations was established by imposing a double null gauge. In this paper we shall prove that the Schwarzschild family is linearly stable as solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations by imposing instead a generalised wave gauge: all sufficiently regular solutions to the system of equations that result from linearising the...

  10. Effect of lamotrigine on cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon [Ewha Womans University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hong, Seung Bong; Tae, Woo Suk; Han, Sun Jung; Seo, Dae Won [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center and Center for Clinical Medicine, SBRI, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Mann Hyung [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Pharmacy, Gyeongbuk (Korea)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the new anti-epileptic drug, lamotrigine, on cerebral blood flow by performing {sup 99m}Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after medication in patients with drug-naive idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Interictal {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT was performed before drug treatment started and then repeated after lamotrigine medication for 4-5 months in 30 patients with generalised epilepsy (M/F=14/16, 19.3{+-}3.4 years). Seizure types were generalised tonic-clonic seizure in 23 patients and myoclonic seizures in seven. The mean lamotrigine dose used was 214.1{+-}29.1 mg/day. For SPM analysis, all SPECT images were spatially normalised to the standard SPECT template and then smoothed using a 12-mm full-width at half-maximum Gaussian kernel. The paired t test was used to compare pre- and post-lamotrigine SPECT images. SPM analysis of pre- and post-lamotrigine brain SPECT images showed decreased perfusion in bilateral dorsomedial nuclei of thalami, bilateral uncus, right amygdala, left subcallosal gyrus, right superior and inferior frontal gyri, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior and inferior temporal gyri and brainstem (pons, medulla) after lamotrigine medication at a false discovery rate-corrected p<0.05. No brain region showed increased perfusion after lamotrigine administration. (orig.)

  11. Recent Fuzzy Generalisations of Rough Sets Theory: A Systematic Review and Methodological Critique of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set theory has been used extensively in fields of complexity, cognitive sciences, and artificial intelligence, especially in numerous fields such as expert systems, knowledge discovery, information system, inductive reasoning, intelligent systems, data mining, pattern recognition, decision-making, and machine learning. Rough sets models, which have been recently proposed, are developed applying the different fuzzy generalisations. Currently, there is not a systematic literature review and classification of these new generalisations about rough set models. Therefore, in this review study, the attempt is made to provide a comprehensive systematic review of methodologies and applications of recent generalisations discussed in the area of fuzzy-rough set theory. On this subject, the Web of Science database has been chosen to select the relevant papers. Accordingly, the systematic and meta-analysis approach, which is called “PRISMA,” has been proposed and the selected articles were classified based on the author and year of publication, author nationalities, application field, type of study, study category, study contribution, and journal in which the articles have appeared. Based on the results of this review, we found that there are many challenging issues related to the different application area of fuzzy-rough set theory which can motivate future research studies.

  12. Assessment of Vegetation Indices Derived by UAV Imagery for Durum Wheat Phenotyping under a Water Limited and Heat Stressed Mediterranean Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Angelos C; Skarlatos, Dimitrios P; Menexes, George C; Vamvakousis, Vasileios F; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were observed for SVIs. GNDVI explained more variability than NDVI and SR, when recorded at booting. GNDVI was significantly correlated with grain yield when recorded at booting and anthesis during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively, while NDVI was correlated to grain yield when recorded at booting, but only for the 1st year. These results suggest that GNDVI has a better discriminating efficiency and can be a better predictor of yield when recorded at early reproductive stages. The predictive ability of SVIs was affected by plant phenology. Correlations of grain yield with SVIs were stronger as the correlations of SVIs with heading were weaker or not significant. NDVIs recorded at the experimental site were significantly correlated with grain yield of the same set of genotypes grown in other environments. Both positive and negative correlations were observed indicating that the environmental conditions during grain filling can affect the sign of the correlations. These findings highlight the potential use of SVIs derived by UAV imagery for durum wheat phenotyping under low yielding Mediterranean conditions.

  13. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.

    2013-03-01

    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, S Brian; Ramos, M P Machado

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,

  15. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, S Brian [Department of Mathematics, Linkoepings Universitet Linkoeping, S-581 83 (Sweden); Ramos, M P Machado [Departamento de Matematica para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Azurem 4800-058 Guimaraes, Universidade do Minho (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extracting drug mechanism and pharmacodynamic information from clinical electroencephalographic data using generalised semi-linear canonical correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain, P; Strimenopoulou, F; Ivarsson, M; Wilson, F J; Diukova, A; Wise, R G; Berry, E; Jolly, A; Hall, J E

    2014-01-01

    Conventional analysis of clinical resting electroencephalography (EEG) recordings typically involves assessment of spectral power in pre-defined frequency bands at specific electrodes. EEG is a potentially useful technique in drug development for measuring the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of a centrally acting compound and hence to assess the likelihood of success of a novel drug based on pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) principles. However, the need to define the electrodes and spectral bands to be analysed a priori is limiting where the nature of the drug-induced EEG effects is initially not known. We describe the extension to human EEG data of a generalised semi-linear canonical correlation analysis (GSLCCA), developed for small animal data. GSLCCA uses data from the whole spectrum, the entire recording duration and multiple electrodes. It provides interpretable information on the mechanism of drug action and a PD measure suitable for use in PK–PD modelling. Data from a study with low (analgesic) doses of the μ-opioid agonist, remifentanil, in 12 healthy subjects were analysed using conventional spectral edge analysis and GSLCCA. At this low dose, the conventional analysis was unsuccessful but plausible results consistent with previous observations were obtained using GSLCCA, confirming that GSLCCA can be successfully applied to clinical EEG data. (paper)

  18. Investigation of the cognitive variables associated with worry in children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Caroline L; Holmes, Monique C; Farrell, Lara J

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), negative beliefs about worry (NBW), positive beliefs about worry (PBW), negative problem orientation (NPO) and cognitive avoidance (CA) have been found to be integral in the conceptualisation of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in adults, yet they have rarely been investigated in children with GAD. This study sought to determine (a) whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between children diagnosed with GAD and non-anxious children and (b) to examine whether IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA differ between parents of children diagnosed with GAD and parents of children without an anxiety disorder. Participants were 50 children (aged 7-12 years), plus one of their parents. The 25 GAD children and 25 non-anxious children were matched on age and gender. Parents and children completed clinical diagnostic interviews, as well as a battery of questionnaires measuring worry, IU, NBW, PBW, NPO and CA. Children with GAD endorsed significantly higher levels of worry, IU, NBW, NPO and CA, but not PBW compared to non-anxious children. Parents of children with GAD did not differ from parents of non-anxious children on any of the variables. The study was limited by it's use of modified adult measures for some variables and a lack of heterogeneity in the sample. The cognitive variables of IU, NBW, NPO and CA may also be important in the conceptualisation and treatment of GAD in children as they are in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of the limit of detection with a bootstrap-derived standard error by a partly non-parametric approach. Application to HPLC drug assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors......Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors...

  20. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J.T.; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R.

    2005-01-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC 4 ) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits. - Modelling approaches are used to assess human exposure routes to chemicals during spray irrigation of landfill leachates

  1. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J T; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R

    2005-02-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC(4)) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits.

  2. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Beugnet, Fr?d?ric; Halos, L?na?g; Larsen, Diane; de Vos, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial) administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer). Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg) on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same int...

  3. Generalised morphoea with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and unusual bone changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad P

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male patient presented with multiple plaques on the limbs and trunk suggestive of morphoea. He also exhibited multiple, small, atrophic, hypopigmented macules on the left side of the trunk, the histopathology of which was consistent with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA. The patient developed large ulcers on the left leg and foot, and contractures with flexion deformity of the left ring and little fingers. This combination of generalised morphoea with LSA and unusual osteolytic bone changes is uncommon.

  4. Formulation of a generalised switching CFAR with application to X-band maritime surveillance radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Graham V

    2015-01-01

    A generalisation of a switching based detector is examined, allowing the construction of such detectors for target detection in any clutter model of interest. Such detectors are important in radar signal processing because they are robust solutions to the management of interference. Although formulated in general terms, the theory is applied to the design of a switching constant false alarm rate detector for X-band maritime surveillance radar. It is shown that such a detector manages the problem of interference better than standard detection processes.

  5. Yangian and SUSY symmetry of high spin parton splitting amplitudes in generalised Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Roland; Savvidy, George

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated the high spin parton splitting amplitudes postulating the Yangian symmetry of the scattering amplitudes for tensor gluons. The resulting splitting amplitudes coincide with the earlier calculations, which were based on the BCFW recursion relations. The resulting formula unifies all known splitting probabilities found earlier in gauge field theories. It describes splitting probabilities for integer and half-integer spin particles. We also checked that the splitting probabilities fulfil the generalised Kounnas-Ross 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetry relations hinting to the fact that the underlying theory can be formulated in an explicit supersymmetric manner.

  6. FURTHER GENERALISATIONS OF THE KUMMER-SCHWARZ EQUATION: ALGEBRAIC AND SINGULARITY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sinuvasan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kummer–Schwarz Equation, 2y'y'''− 3(y''2 = 0, has a generalisation, (n − 1y(n−2y(n − ny(n−12 = 0, which shares many properties with the parent form in terms of symmetry and singularity. All equations of the class are integrable in closed form. Here we introduce a new class, (n+q−2y(n−2y(n −(n+q−1y(n−12 = 0, which has different integrability and singularity properties.

  7. Generalised universality of gauge thresholds in heterotic vacua with and without supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2015-01-01

    We study one-loop quantum corrections to gauge couplings in heterotic vacua with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Although in non-supersymmetric constructions these corrections are not protected and are typically model dependent, we show how a universal behaviour of threshold differences, typical of supersymmetric vacua, may still persist. We formulate specific conditions on the way supersymmetry should be broken for this to occur. Our analysis implies a generalised notion of threshold universality even in the case of unbroken supersymmetry, whenever extra charged massless states appear at enhancement points in the bulk of moduli space. Several examples with universality, including non-supersymmetric chiral models in four dimensions, are presented.

  8. Detection Limits for Blood on Fabrics Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Derivative Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu; DeJong, Stephanie A; Cassidy, Brianna M; Belliveau, Raymond G; Myrick, Michael L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2017-05-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) was used to detect blood stains based on signature protein absorption in the mid-IR region, where intensity changes in the spectrum can be related to blood concentration. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied for multivariate calibrations of IR spectra of blood dilutions on four types of fabric (acrylic, nylon, polyester, and cotton). Gap derivatives (GDs) were applied as a preprocessing technique to optimize the performance of calibration models. We report a much improved IR detection limit (DL) for blood on cotton (2700× in dilution factor units) and the first IR DL reported for blood on nylon (250×). Due to sample heterogeneity caused by fabric hydrophobicity, acrylic fabric produced variable ATR FT-IR spectra that caused poor DLs in concentration units compared to previous work. Polyester showed a similar problem at low blood concentrations that lead to a relatively poor DL as well. However, the increased surface sensitivity and decreased penetration depth of ATR FT-IR make it an excellent choice for detection of small quantities of blood on the front surface of all fabrics tested (0.0010 µg for cotton, 0.0077 µg for nylon, 0.011 µg for acrylic, and 0.0066 µg for polyester).

  9. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer. Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period.

  10. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; de Vos, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard(®), Merial) administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®), Bayer). Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg) on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  11. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  12. Hybrid Generalised Additive Type-2 Fuzzy-Wavelet-Neural Network in Dynamic Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodyanskiy Yevgeniy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new hybrid system of computational intelligence is proposed. This system combines the advantages of neuro-fuzzy system of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang, type-2 fuzzy logic, wavelet neural networks and generalised additive models of Hastie-Tibshirani. The proposed system has universal approximation properties and learning capability based on the experimental data sets which pertain to the neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems; interpretability and transparency of the obtained results due to the soft computing systems and, first of all, due to type-2 fuzzy systems; possibility of effective description of local signal and process features due to the application of systems based on wavelet transform; simplicity and speed of learning process due to generalised additive models. The proposed system can be used for solving a wide class of dynamic data mining tasks, which are connected with non-stationary, nonlinear stochastic and chaotic signals. Such a system is sufficiently simple in numerical implementation and is characterised by a high speed of learning and information processing.

  13. The use of generalised audit software by internal audit functions in a developing country: The purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. van der Nest

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool by internal audit functions in the locally controlled banking industry of South Africa. The evolution of the traditional internal audit methodology of collecting audit evidence through the conduct of interviews, the completion of questionnaires, and by testing controls on a sample basis, is long overdue, and such practice in the present technological, data-driven era will soon render such an internal audit function obsolete. The research results indicate that respondents are utilising GAS for a variety of purposes but that its frequency of use is not yet optimal and that there is still much room for improvement for tests of controls purposes. The top five purposes for which the respondents make use of GAS often to always during separate internal audit engagements are: (1 to identify transactions with specific characteristics or control criteria for tests of control purposes; (2 for conducting full population analysis; (3 to identify account balances over a certain amount; (4 to identify and report on the frequency of occurrence of risks or frequency of occurrence of specific events; and (5 to obtain audit evidence about control effectiveness

  14. Using a generalised identity reference model with archetypes to support interoperability of demographics information in electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Chen; Berry, Damon; Stephens, Gaye

    2015-01-01

    Computerised identity management is in general encountered as a low-level mechanism that enables users in a particular system or region to securely access resources. In the Electronic Health Record (EHR), the identifying information of both the healthcare professionals who access the EHR and the patients whose EHR is accessed, are subject to change. Demographics services have been developed to manage federated patient and healthcare professional identities and to support challenging healthcare-specific use cases in the presence of diverse and sometimes conflicting demographic identities. Demographics services are not the only use for identities in healthcare. Nevertheless, contemporary EHR specifications limit the types of entities that can be the actor or subject of a record to health professionals and patients, thus limiting the use of two level models in other healthcare information systems. Demographics are ubiquitous in healthcare, so for a general identity model to be usable, it should be capable of managing demographic information. In this paper, we introduce a generalised identity reference model (GIRM) based on key characteristics of five surveyed demographic models. We evaluate the GIRM by using it to express the EN13606 demographics model in an extensible way at the metadata level and show how two-level modelling can support the exchange of instances of demographic identities. This use of the GIRM to express demographics information shows its application for standards-compliant two-level modelling alongside heterogeneous demographics models. We advocate this approach to facilitate the interoperability of identities between two-level model-based EHR systems and show the validity and the extensibility of using GIRM for the expression of other health-related identities.

  15. Activity Limitation Stages empirically derived for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental ADL in the U.S. Adult community-dwelling Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Streim, Joel E; Pan, Qiang; Kurichi, Jibby E; Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Xie, Dawei

    2014-11-01

    Stages quantify severity like conventional measures but further specify the activities that people are still able to perform without difficulty. To develop Activity Limitation Stages for defining and monitoring groups of adult community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries. Cross-sectional. Community. There were 14,670 respondents to the 2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Stages were empirically derived for the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) by profiling the distribution of performance difficulties as reported by beneficiaries or their proxies. Stage prevalence estimates were determined, and associations with demographic and health variables were examined for all community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries. ADL and IADL stage prevalence. Stages (0-IV) define 5 groups across the separate ADL and IADL domains according to hierarchically organized profiles of retained abilities and difficulties. For example, at ADL-I, people are guaranteed to be able to eat, toilet, dress, and bathe/shower without difficulty, whereas they experience limitations getting in and out of bed or chairs and/or difficulties walking. In 2006, an estimated 6.0, 2.9, 2.2, and 0.5 million beneficiaries had mild (ADL-I), moderate (ADL-II), severe (ADL-III), and complete (ADL-IV) difficulties, respectively, with estimates for IADL stages even higher. ADL and IADL stages showed expected associations with age and health-related concepts, supporting construct validity. Stages showed the strongest associations with conditions that impair cognition. Stages as aggregate measures reveal the ADLs and IADLs that people are still able to do without difficulty, along with those activities in which they report having difficulty, consequently emphasizing how groups of people with difficulties can still participate in their own lives. Over the coming decades, stages applied to populations served by vertically integrated clinical practices could

  16. Study and development of a generalised input-output system for data base management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidi, Noureddine

    1975-01-01

    This thesis reports a study which aimed at designing and developing a software for the management and execution of all input-output actions of data base management systems. This software is also an interface between data base management systems and the various operating systems. After a recall of general characteristics of database management systems, the author presents the previously developed GRISBI system (rational management of information stored in an integrated database), and describes difficulties faced to adapt this system to the new access method (VSAM, virtual sequential access method). This lead to the search for a more general solution, the development of which is presented in the second part of this thesis: environment of the input-output generalised system, architecture, internal specifications. The last part presents flowcharts and statements of the various routines [fr

  17. Geometric Generalisation of Surrogate Model-Based Optimisation to Combinatorial and Program Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyuk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate models (SMs can profitably be employed, often in conjunction with evolutionary algorithms, in optimisation in which it is expensive to test candidate solutions. The spatial intuition behind SMs makes them naturally suited to continuous problems, and the only combinatorial problems that have been previously addressed are those with solutions that can be encoded as integer vectors. We show how radial basis functions can provide a generalised SM for combinatorial problems which have a geometric solution representation, through the conversion of that representation to a different metric space. This approach allows an SM to be cast in a natural way for the problem at hand, without ad hoc adaptation to a specific representation. We test this adaptation process on problems involving binary strings, permutations, and tree-based genetic programs.

  18. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyytiäinen, H K; McGowan, C M

    2011-11-01

    A 2-week-old Estonian Draft foal presented with signs of severe generalised tetanus, recumbency and inability to drink. The suspected source of infection was the umbilicus. Medical treatment was administered, including tetanus antitoxin, antimicrobial therapy and phenobarbital to control tetanic spasms. In addition, an intensive physiotherapy program was carried out during the recovery period. Techniques designed for syndromes involving upper motor neuron spasticity in humans were applied. Exercises aimed at weight-bearing and mobility were executed with the help of a walking-frame. The foal made a complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of tetanus in horses. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. QCD amplitudes with 2 initial spacelike legs via generalised BCFW recursion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Hameren, Andreas van; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-02

    We complete the generalisation of the BCFW recursion relation to the off-shell case, allowing for the computation of tree level scattering amplitudes for full High Energy Factorisation (HEF), i.e. with both incoming partons having a non-vanishing transverse momentum. We provide explicit results for color-ordered amplitudes with two off-shell legs in massless QCD up to 4 point, continuing the program begun in two previous papers. For the 4-fermion amplitudes, which are not BCFW-recursible, we perform a diagrammatic computation, so as to offer a complete set of expressions. We explicitly show and discuss some plots of the squared 2→2 matrix elements as functions of the differences in rapidity and azimuthal angle of the final state particles.

  20. Generalised Adaptive Harmony Search: A Comparative Analysis of Modern Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Fourie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS was introduced in 2001 as a heuristic population-based optimisation algorithm. Since then HS has become a popular alternative to other heuristic algorithms like simulated annealing and particle swarm optimisation. However, some flaws, like the need for parameter tuning, were identified and have been a topic of study for much research over the last 10 years. Many variants of HS were developed to address some of these flaws, and most of them have made substantial improvements. In this paper we compare the performance of three recent HS variants: exploratory harmony search, self-adaptive harmony search, and dynamic local-best harmony search. We compare the accuracy of these algorithms, using a set of well-known optimisation benchmark functions that include both unimodal and multimodal problems. Observations from this comparison led us to design a novel hybrid that combines the best attributes of these modern variants into a single optimiser called generalised adaptive harmony search.

  1. Burden analysis of rare microdeletions suggests a strong impact of neurodevelopmental genes in genetic generalised epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Dennis; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Trucks, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb) and rare (...%) autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers) were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1) assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2) estimate the relative...... a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes....

  2. Therapeutic hypercapnia prevents bleomycin-induced pulmonary hypertension in neonatal rats by limiting macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewing, A Charlotte P; Kantores, Crystal; Ivanovska, Julijana; Lee, Alvin H; Masood, Azhar; Jain, Amish; McNamara, Patrick J; Tanswell, A Keith; Jankov, Robert P

    2012-07-01

    Bleomycin-induced lung injury is characterized in the neonatal rat by inflammation, arrested lung growth, and pulmonary hypertension (PHT), as observed in human infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Inhalation of CO(2) (therapeutic hypercapnia) has been described to limit cytokine production and to have anti-inflammatory effects on the injured lung; we therefore hypothesized that therapeutic hypercapnia would prevent bleomycin-induced lung injury. Spontaneously breathing rat pups were treated with bleomycin (1 mg/kg/d ip) or saline vehicle from postnatal days 1-14 while being continuously exposed to 5% CO(2) (Pa(CO(2)) elevated by 15-20 mmHg), 7% CO(2) (Pa(CO(2)) elevated by 35 mmHg), or normocapnia. Bleomycin-treated animals exposed to 7%, but not 5%, CO(2), had significantly attenuated lung tissue macrophage influx and PHT, as evidenced by normalized pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular systolic function, decreased right ventricular hypertrophy, and attenuated remodeling of pulmonary resistance arteries. The level of CO(2) neither prevented increased tissue neutrophil influx nor led to improvements in decreased lung weight, septal thinning, impaired alveolarization, or decreased numbers of peripheral arteries. Bleomycin led to increased expression and content of lung tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which was found to colocalize with tissue macrophages and to be attenuated by exposure to 7% CO(2). Inhibition of TNF-α signaling with the soluble TNF-2 receptor etanercept (0.4 mg/kg ip from days 1-14 on alternate days) prevented bleomycin-induced PHT without decreasing tissue macrophages and, similar to CO(2), had no effect on arrested alveolar development. Our findings are consistent with a preventive effect of therapeutic hypercapnia with 7% CO(2) on bleomycin-induced PHT via attenuation of macrophage-derived TNF-α. Neither tissue macrophages nor TNF-α appeared to contribute to arrested lung development induced by bleomycin. That 7% CO(2

  3. The adherence/resource priming paradigm--a randomised clinical trial conducting a bonafide psychotherapy protocol for generalised anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, Christoph

    2014-02-20

    Bonafide psychotherapy is an effective treatment for generalised anxiety disorder compared to no-treatment. Rather than creating increasing numbers of new overall treatment-packets within a medical meta-model, an additional approach to investigating clinical research designs may be to increase the understanding of already effective psychotherapies. Treatment manuals and protocols allow a relatively high degree of freedom for the way therapists implement the overall treatment manuals. There is a systematic lack of knowledge on how therapists should customise these overall protocols. The present study experimentally examines three ways of conducting a bonafide psychotherapy based on a 15 session time-limited cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) protocol and their relation to the therapists' protocol adherence and treatment efficacy. This trial will investigate three different methods of customising a bonafide CBT-protocol using dyadic peer-tutoring methodology (primings). The individuals with GAD will be randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions (resource priming, supportive resource priming, or adherence priming). The participant treatment allocation will be performed randomly. Therapists will be assigned to a peer-tutoring partner and priming condition based on a mutual agreement. Treatment outcomes will be assessed at the following times: observer based in-session outcomes, session-by-session post-session outcomes, treatment outcome at post assessment and treatment outcome at 6-month follow-up. The proposed trial addresses the clinically relevant question of how to customise a bonafide psychotherapy protocol using tandem peer-tutoring methodology (three priming conditions). Through the development and testing of the proposed priming procedures, this study describes levels of adherence and how to conduct an overall treatment protocol in a more systematised way. From ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02039193.

  4. Issues of validity and generalisability in the Grade 12 English Home Language examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Plessis, Colleen Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little research has been devoted to evaluating the national English Home Language (HL curriculum and assessment system. Not only is there a lack of clarity on whether the language subject is being offered at an adequately high level to meet the declared objectives of the curriculum, but the reliability of the results obtained by Grade 12 learners in the exit-level examination has been placed under suspicion. To shed some light on the issue, this study takes a close look at the language component of the school-leaving examination covering the period 2008-2012, to see whether evidence of high language ability can be generated through the current selection of task types and whether the inferred ability can be generalised to non-examination contexts. Of primary interest here are the validity of the construct on which the examination is built and the sub-abilities that are being measured, as well as the validity of the scoring. One of the key findings of the study is that the language papers cannot be considered indicators of advanced and differential language ability, only of basic and general proficiency. The lack of specifications in the design of the examination items and construction of the marking memoranda undermine the validity and reliability of the assessment. As a consequence hereof, the inferences made on the basis of the scores obtained by examinees are highly subjective and cannot be generalised to other domains of language use. The study hopes to draw attention to the importance of the format and design of the examination papers in maintaining educational standards.

  5. Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Hallett

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV surveillance of generalised epidemics in Africa primarily relies on prevalence at antenatal clinics, but estimates of incidence in the general population would be more useful. Repeated cross-sectional measures of HIV prevalence are now becoming available for general populations in many countries, and we aim to develop and validate methods that use these data to estimate HIV incidence.Two methods were developed that decompose observed changes in prevalence between two serosurveys into the contributions of new infections and mortality. Method 1 uses cohort mortality rates, and method 2 uses information on survival after infection. The performance of these two methods was assessed using simulated data from a mathematical model and actual data from three community-based cohort studies in Africa. Comparison with simulated data indicated that these methods can accurately estimates incidence rates and changes in incidence in a variety of epidemic conditions. Method 1 is simple to implement but relies on locally appropriate mortality data, whilst method 2 can make use of the same survival distribution in a wide range of scenarios. The estimates from both methods are within the 95% confidence intervals of almost all actual measurements of HIV incidence in adults and young people, and the patterns of incidence over age are correctly captured.It is possible to estimate incidence from cross-sectional prevalence data with sufficient accuracy to monitor the HIV epidemic. Although these methods will theoretically work in any context, we have able to test them only in southern and eastern Africa, where HIV epidemics are mature and generalised. The choice of method will depend on the local availability of HIV mortality data.

  6. Generalisation of the Clark and Wells Cognitive Model of Social Anxiety to Children's Athletic and Sporting Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Tziouma, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that social anxiety generalises to sporting and athletic situations. The present study explored the applicability of the Clark and Wells model of social anxiety--and its metacognitive extension--to sport anxiety. Participants were 290 students aged 11-13 years, who completed measures of sport anxiety, social anxiety, depression…

  7. Mutations in THAP1 (DYT6) and generalised dystonia with prominent spasmodic dysphonia: a genetic screening study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djarmati, Ana; Schneider, Susanne A; Lohmann, Katja

    2009-01-01

    -onset generalised dystonia with spasmodic dysphonia. This combination of symptoms might be a characteristic feature of DYT6 dystonia and could be useful in the differential diagnosis of DYT1, DYT4, DYT12, and DYT17 dystonia. In addition to the identified mutations, a rare non-coding substitution in THAP1 might...

  8. APPLICATION OF THE GENERALISED OBJECT MODEL FOR THE TECHNICAL CREATION RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF WOODEN BRIQUETTES AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai OLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the usage of the generalised object model for the analysis of the production processes of biofuels from wooden biomass. The “imposed decision” technique is employed to analyse several alternative solutions in order to find out the optimum one, to be further developed and put into practice.

  9. Application of the Generalised Object Model for the Technical Creation Related to the Production of Wooden Briquettes and Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai OLAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the usage of the generalised object model for the analysis of the production processes of biofuels from wooden biomass. The “imposed decision” technique is employed to analyse several alternative solutions in order to find out the optimum one, to be further developed and put into practice.

  10. Developed generalised unified power flow controller model in the Newton–Raphson power-flow analysis using combined mismatches method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, Salah; Jurado, Francisco; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes the generalised unified power flow controller (GUPFC) model in the hybrid current power mismatch Newton-Raphson formulation (HPCIM). In this model, active power, real and imaginary current components are injected at the terminals of series impedances of GUPFC. These injected...

  11. New natural shapes of non-Gaussianity from high-derivative interactions and their optimal limits from WMAP 9-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the fantastic experimental effort, it is important to thoroughly explore the signature space of inflationary models. The fact that higher derivative operators do not renormalize lower derivative ones allows us to find a large class of technically natural single-clock inflationary models where, in the context of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation, the leading interactions have many derivatives. We systematically explore the 3-point function induced by these models and their overlap with the standard equilateral and orthogonal templates. We find that in order to satisfactorily cover the signature space of these models, two new additional templates need to be included. We then perform the optimal analysis of the WMAP 9-year data for the resulting four templates, finding that the overall significance of a non-zero signal is between 2–2.5σ, depending on the choice of parameter space, partially driven by the preference for nonzero f NL orth in WMAP9

  12. Birthplace Diversity, Income Inequality and Education Gradients in Generalised Trust: The Relevance of Cognitive Skills in 29 Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 164

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovi, Francesca; Pokropek, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines between-country differences in the mechanisms through which education could promote generalised trust using data from 29 countries participating in the OECD's Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with generalised trust and that a large part of this association is mediated by…

  13. Selection of protease for increased solubilization of protein-derived thiols during mashing with limited release of free amino acids in beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murmann, Anne Nordmark; Lunde, Christina; Lund, Marianne Nissen

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging. The pre......Extraction of protein-derived thiols by protease treatment during mashing for improvement of flavor stability in beer has previously been shown to cause concomitant increase in free amino acid concentrations and thereby increased levels of unwanted Maillard reaction products during aging...

  14. Generalisability theory analyses of concept mapping assessment scores in a problem-based medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah E; Fida, Mariam; Radwan, Ahmed; Hassan, Adla B; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan; O'Connor, Brian P

    2016-07-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students construct concept maps that integrate different concepts related to the PBL case and are guided by the learning needs generated in small-group tutorials. Although an instrument to measure students' concept maps in PBL programmes has been developed, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not yet been assessed. This study evaluated the generalisability of and sources of variance in medical students' concept map assessment scores in a PBL context. Medical students (Year 4, n = 116) were asked to construct three integrated concept maps in which the content domain of each map was to be focused on a PBL clinical case. Concept maps were independently evaluated by four raters based on five criteria: valid selection of concepts; hierarchical arrangement of concepts; degree of integration; relationship to the context of the problem, and degree of student creativity. Generalisability theory was used to compute the reliability of the concept map scores. The dependability coefficient, which indicates the reliability of scores across the measured facets for making absolute decisions, was 0.814. Students' concept map scores (universe scores) accounted for the largest proportion of total variance (47%) across all score comparisons. Rater differences accounted for 10% of total variance, and the student × rater interaction accounted for 25% of total variance. The variance attributable to differences in the content domain of the maps was negligible (2%). The remaining 16% of the variance reflected unexplained sources of error. Results from the D study suggested that a dependability level of 0.80 can be achieved by using three raters who each score two concept map domains, or by using five raters who each score only one concept map domain. This study demonstrated that concept mapping assessment scores of medical students in PBL have high reliability. Results suggested that greater improvements in dependability might be made

  15. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE.

  16. Spud and FLML: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Maddison, J. R.; Gorman, G. J.; Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Shipton, J.; Collins, G. S.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    The interfaces by which users specify the scenarios to be simulated by scientific computer models are frequently primitive, under-documented and ad-hoc text files which make using the model in question difficult and error-prone and significantly increase the development cost of the model. We present a model-independent system, Spud[1], which formalises the specification of model input formats in terms of formal grammars. This is combined with an automatically generated graphical user interface which guides users to create valid model inputs based on the grammar provided, and a generic options reading module which minimises the development cost of adding model options. We further present FLML, the Fluidity Markup Language. FLML applies Spud to the Imperial College Ocean Model (ICOM) resulting in a graphically driven system which radically improves the usability of ICOM. As well as a step forward for ICOM, FLML illustrates how the Spud system can be applied to an existing complex ocean model highlighting the potential of Spud as a user interface for other codes in the ocean modelling community. [1] Ham, D. A. et.al, Spud 1.0: generalising and automating the user interfaces of scientific computer models, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 1, 125-146, 2008.

  17. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  18. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Zachariou

    Full Text Available The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  19. Interference effects of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons with a generalised narrow-width approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elina

    2014-11-01

    Mixing effects in the MSSM Higgs sector can give rise to a sizeable interference between the neutral Higgs bosons. On the other hand, factorising a more complicated process into production and decay parts by means of the narrow-width approximation (NWA) simplifies the calculation. The standard NWA, however, does not account for interference terms. Therefore, we introduce a generalisation of the NWA (gNWA) which allows for a consistent treatment of interference effects between nearly mass-degenerate particles. Furthermore, we apply the gNWA at the tree and 1-loop level to an example process where the neutral Higgs bosons h and H are produced in the decay of a heavy neutralino and subsequently decay into a fermion pair. The h-H propagator mixing is found to agree well with the approximation of Breit-Wigner propagators times finite wave-function normalisation factors, both leading to a significant interference contribution. The factorisation of the interference term based on on-shell matrix elements reproduces the full interference result within a precision of better than 1% for the considered process. The gNWA also enables the inclusion of contributions beyond the 1-loop order into the most precise prediction.

  20. Modelled temperature-dependent excitability behaviour of a generalised human peripheral sensory nerve fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jacoba E; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a recently developed human Ranvier node model, which is based on a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, could predict the excitability behaviour in human peripheral sensory nerve fibres with diameters ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 microm. The Ranvier node model was extended to include a persistent sodium current and was incorporated into a generalised single cable nerve fibre model. Parameter temperature dependence was included. All calculations were performed in Matlab. Sensory nerve fibre excitability behaviour characteristics predicted by the new nerve fibre model at different temperatures and fibre diameters compared well with measured data. Absolute refractory periods deviated from measured data, while relative refractory periods were similar to measured data. Conduction velocities showed both fibre diameter and temperature dependence and were underestimated in fibres thinner than 12.5 microm. Calculated strength-duration time constants ranged from 128.5 to 183.0 micros at 37 degrees C over the studied nerve fibre diameter range, with chronaxie times about 30% shorter than strength-duration time constants. Chronaxie times exhibited temperature dependence, with values overestimated by a factor 5 at temperatures lower than body temperature. Possible explanations include the deviated absolute refractory period trend and inclusion of a nodal strangulation relationship.

  1. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, V

    2011-06-01

    To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102 cm, men; > 88 cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and WC categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases. Analyses of nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys, the Health Survey for England (HSE). Non-institutionalised men and women aged ≥ 65 years (in HSE 2005, 1512 men and 1747 women). Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements were taken according to standardised HSE protocols. Information collected on socio-demographic, health behaviour and doctor diagnosed health conditions. Generalised obesity and abdominal obesity increased among men and women from 1993 to 2008. In 2005, the HSE 2005 focussed on older people. 72% of men and 68% of women aged over 65 were either overweight or obese. Prevalence of raised WC was higher in women (58%) than in men (46%). The prevalence of diabetes and arthritis was higher in people with generalised obesity in both sexes. Men were more likely to have had a joint replacement and had a higher prevalence of stroke if they were overweight only but women were more likely to have had a joint replacement only if they were obese (13%) and had a higher risk of falls with generalised obesity. The pattern was similar for the prevalence of chronic diseases by raised WC. Multivariate analysis showed that generalised and abdominal obesity was independently associated with risk of hypertension, diabetes and arthritis in both men and women. In women only, there was an association between generalised obesity and having a fall in the last year (OR: 1.5), and between abdominal obesity and having a joint replacement (OR: 1.9, p=0.01). Complications of obesity such as diabetes, hypertension and arthritis, are more common in men and women aged over 65 who are

  2. Statement from the 1983 meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection: annual limits for intakes (ALI) and derived air concentrations (DAC) for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The limitation of the committed effective dose equivalent for members of the public is sufficient to provide compliance over a lifetime with the limit for single organs, thus avoiding non-stochastic effects. Relative values for infants and adults of the committed dose equivalent in a number of tissues per unit intake for each of a few radionuclides have been given: the values for infants are just more than 1 up to 100 times greater than those for adult workers. In each of these cases the appropriate annual dose-equivalent limits recommended by the Commission for members of the public are 10 times less than the corresponding values for workers; the resulting ALI for infants aged six months will be smaller than the values given in ICRP Publication 30 for limiting stochastic effects in workers by factors that range from just more than 10 (for caesium-137) to 1,000 (for ingested plutonium-239). Intermediate factors would apply for older members of the public. The magnitude of the range emphasises the need to consider each situation carefully, with particular reference to children and women. (author)

  3. Recombinant PrPSc shares structural features with brain-derived PrPSc suggesting that they have a similar architecture: Insights from limited proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive body of experimental and spectroscopic evidence supports the hypothesis that PrPSc is a multimer of 4-rung ß-solenoids, and that individual PrPSc solenoids stack to form amyloid fibers. We recently used limited proteolysis to map the ß-strands and connecting loops that make up the PrPSc...

  4. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta; Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  5. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland); Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biotechnology (Greece); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Jackson State University, Interdisciplinary Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: t.puzyn@qsar.eu.org [University of Gdansk, Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Environmental and Human Health Protection (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  6. Advantages and limitations of classic and 3D QSAR approaches in nano-QSAR studies based on biological activity of fullerene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiello, Karolina; Grzonkowska, Monika; Swirog, Marta; Ahmed, Lucky; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Papadopoulos, Manthos G.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the advantages and limitations of two computational techniques that can be used for the investigation of nanoparticles activity and toxicity: classic nano-QSAR (Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships employed for nanomaterials) and 3D nano-QSAR (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships, such us Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA/Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis, CoMSIA analysis employed for nanomaterials) have been briefly summarized. Both approaches were compared according to the selected criteria, including: efficiency, type of experimental data, class of nanomaterials, time required for calculations and computational cost, difficulties in the interpretation. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, we provide the recommendations for nano-QSAR modellers and QSAR model users to be able to determine a proper and efficient methodology to investigate biological activity of nanoparticles in order to describe the underlying interactions in the most reliable and useful manner.

  7. Generalised and abdominal adiposity are important risk factors for chronic disease in older people: results from a nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vasant Hirani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To look at the trends in prevalence of generalised (body mass index (BMI)≥ 25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) >102cm, men; >88cm, women) among older people from 1993 to 2008, prevalence of chronic disease by overweight/obesity and waist circumference categories in England 2005 and evaluate the association of these measures with chronic diseases.

  8. [Pharmacotherapy for social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, G C; Ferdinand, R F

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders during childhood. They are often persistent and are associated with a number of negative outcomes. Therefore, effective treatment is required. To present an overview of placebo-controlled studies of pharmacotherapy for social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder in children an adolescents and to determine which medication is the most effective. The literature was reviewed using Pubmed. Nine randomised double-blind studies on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder and social phobia were found. Tricyclic antidepressants were not more effective than placebo. Studies on benzodiazepines showed that the effect of these drugs was not superior to that of placebo either. Studies of the efficacy of ssris, however, proved that they were superior to placebo. SSRIS are the drugs of first choice for the treatment of social phobias, separation anxiety disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. There is strong evidence that ssris are effective for the treatment of these anxiety disorders; the standardised effect size varies between medium and large.

  9. Heterogeneous contribution of microdeletions in the development of common generalised and focal epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Helbig, Ingo; Klein, Karl Martin; Anttila, Verneri; Horn, Heiko; Reinthaler, Eva Maria; Gormley, Padhraig; Ganna, Andrea; Byrnes, Andrea; Pernhorst, Katharina; Toliat, Mohammad R; Saarentaus, Elmo; Howrigan, Daniel P; Hoffman, Per; Miquel, Juan Francisco; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V; Nürnberg, Peter; Lerche, Holger; Zimprich, Fritz; Neubauer, Bern A; Becker, Albert J; Rosenow, Felix; Perucca, Emilio; Zara, Federico; Weber, Yvonne G; Lal, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Background Microdeletions are known to confer risk to epilepsy, particularly at genomic rearrangement ‘hotspot’ loci. However, microdeletion burden not overlapping these regions or within different epilepsy subtypes has not been ascertained. Objective To decipher the role of microdeletions outside hotspots loci and risk assessment by epilepsy subtype. Methods We assessed the burden, frequency and genomic content of rare, large microdeletions found in a previously published cohort of 1366 patients with genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) in addition to two sets of additional unpublished genome-wide microdeletions found in 281 patients with rolandic epilepsy (RE) and 807 patients with adult focal epilepsy (AFE), totalling 2454 cases. Microdeletions were assessed in a combined and subtype-specific approaches against 6746 controls. Results When hotspots are considered, we detected an enrichment of microdeletions in the combined epilepsy analysis (adjusted p=1.06×10−6,OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.35). Epilepsy subtype-specific analyses showed that hotspot microdeletions in the GGE subgroup contribute most of the overall signal (adjusted p=9.79×10−12, OR 7.45, 95% CI 4.20–13.5). Outside hotspots , microdeletions were enriched in the GGE cohort for neurodevelopmental genes (adjusted p=9.13×10−3,OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.62–4.94). No additional signal was observed for RE and AFE. Still, gene-content analysis identified known (NRXN1, RBFOX1 and PCDH7) and novel (LOC102723362) candidate genes across epilepsy subtypes that were not deleted in controls. Conclusions Our results show a heterogeneous effect of recurrent and non-recurrent microdeletions as part of the genetic architecture of GGE and a minor contribution in the aetiology of RE and AFE. PMID:28756411

  10. Modelling of extreme minimum rainfall using generalised extreme value distribution for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delson Chikobvu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We modelled the mean annual rainfall for data recorded in Zimbabwe from 1901 to 2009. Extreme value theory was used to estimate the probabilities of meteorological droughts. Droughts can be viewed as extreme events which go beyond and/or below normal rainfall occurrences, such as exceptionally low mean annual rainfall. The duality between the distribution of the minima and maxima was exploited and used to fit the generalised extreme value distribution (GEVD to the data and hence find probabilities of extreme low levels of mean annual rainfall. The augmented Dickey Fuller test confirmed that rainfall data were stationary, while the normal quantile-quantile plot indicated that rainfall data deviated from the normality assumption at both ends of the tails of the distribution. The maximum likelihood estimation method and the Bayesian approach were used to find the parameters of the GEVD. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodnessof- fit tests showed that the Weibull class of distributions was a good fit to the minima mean annual rainfall using the maximum likelihood estimation method. The mean return period estimate of a meteorological drought using the threshold value of mean annual rainfall of 473 mm was 8 years. This implies that if in the year there is a meteorological drought then another drought of the same intensity or greater is expected after 8 years. It is expected that the use of Bayesian inference may better quantify the level of uncertainty associated with the GEVD parameter estimates than with the maximum likelihood estimation method. The Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for the GEVD was applied to construct the model parameter estimates using the Bayesian approach. These findings are significant because results based on non-informative priors (Bayesian method and the maximum likelihood method approach are expected to be similar.

  11. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Louise M; Gulliver, Amelia; Bennett, Kylie; Fassnacht, Daniel B; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2016-07-15

    Few studies have examined modifiable psychosocial risk factors for mental disorders among university students, and of these, none have employed measures that correspond to clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial and demographic risk factors for major depression and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of Australian university students. An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to undergraduate and postgraduate students at a mid-sized Australian university. A range of psychosocial and demographic risk factors were measured, and logistic regression models were used to examine significant predictors of major depression and GAD. A total of 611 students completed the survey. The prevalence of major depression and GAD in the sample was 7.9 and 17.5 %, respectively. In terms of demographic factors, the risk of depression was higher for students in their first year of undergraduate study, and the risk of GAD was higher for female students, those who moved to attend university, and students experiencing financial stress. In terms of psychosocial factors, students with experience of body image issues and lack of confidence were at significantly greater risk of major depression, and feeling too much pressure to succeed, lack of confidence, and difficulty coping with study was significantly associated with risk of GAD. University students experience a range of unique psychosocial stressors that increase their risk of major depression and GAD, in addition to sociodemographic risk factors. It is important to examine psychosocial factors, as these are potentially modifiable and could be the focus of university-specific mental health interventions.

  12. Heterogeneous contribution of microdeletions in the development of common generalised and focal epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Helbig, Ingo; Klein, Karl Martin; Anttila, Verneri; Horn, Heiko; Reinthaler, Eva Maria; Gormley, Padhraig; Ganna, Andrea; Byrnes, Andrea; Pernhorst, Katharina; Toliat, Mohammad R; Saarentaus, Elmo; Howrigan, Daniel P; Hoffman, Per; Miquel, Juan Francisco; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V; Nürnberg, Peter; Lerche, Holger; Zimprich, Fritz; Neubauer, Bern A; Becker, Albert J; Rosenow, Felix; Perucca, Emilio; Zara, Federico; Weber, Yvonne G; Lal, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Microdeletions are known to confer risk to epilepsy, particularly at genomic rearrangement 'hotspot' loci. However, microdeletion burden not overlapping these regions or within different epilepsy subtypes has not been ascertained. To decipher the role of microdeletions outside hotspots loci and risk assessment by epilepsy subtype. We assessed the burden, frequency and genomic content of rare, large microdeletions found in a previously published cohort of 1366 patients with genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) in addition to two sets of additional unpublished genome-wide microdeletions found in 281 patients with rolandic epilepsy (RE) and 807 patients with adult focal epilepsy (AFE), totalling 2454 cases. Microdeletions were assessed in a combined and subtype-specific approaches against 6746 controls. When hotspots are considered, we detected an enrichment of microdeletions in the combined epilepsy analysis (adjusted p=1.06×10 -6 ,OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.35). Epilepsy subtype-specific analyses showed that hotspot microdeletions in the GGE subgroup contribute most of the overall signal (adjusted p=9.79×10 -12 , OR 7.45, 95% CI 4.20-13.5). Outside hotspots , microdeletions were enriched in the GGE cohort for neurodevelopmental genes (adjusted p=9.13×10 -3 ,OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.62-4.94). No additional signal was observed for RE and AFE. Still, gene-content analysis identified known ( NRXN1 , RBFOX1 and PCDH7 ) and novel ( LOC102723362 ) candidate genes across epilepsy subtypes that were not deleted in controls. Our results show a heterogeneous effect of recurrent and non-recurrent microdeletions as part of the genetic architecture of GGE and a minor contribution in the aetiology of RE and AFE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: II Superluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available In part I of this paper we have deduced generalised Einstein mass variation formulae assuming relative frame velocities vc. We again use the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for v>c is defined by the equation m(v=m0(v[(v/c2-1]-1/2 for the actual mass m(v. The residual mass is essentially the actual mass with the Einstein factor removed, and we emphasise that we make no restrictions on m0(v. Using this formal device we deduce corresponding new mass variation formulae applicable to superluminal relative frame velocities, assuming only the extended Lorentz transformations and their consequences, and two invariants that are known to apply in special relativity. The present authors have previously speculated a dual framework such that both the rest mass m0∗ and the residual mass at infinite velocity m∞∗ (by which we mean p∞∗/c, assuming finite momentum at infinity are equally important parameters in the specification of mass as a function of its velocity, and the two arbitrary constants can be so determined. The new formulae involving two arbitrary constants may also be exploited so that the mass remains finite at the speed of light, and two distinct mass profiles are determined as functions of their velocity with the rest mass assumed to be alternatively prescribed at the origin of either frame. The two profiles so obtained (M(U,m(u and (M∗(U,m∗(u although distinct have a common ratio M(U/M∗(U=m(u/m∗(u that is a function of v>c, indicating that observable mass depends upon the frame in which the rest mass is prescribed. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  14. Better Rulesets by Removing Redundant Specialisations and Generalisations in Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Petersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining is a fundamental task in many data mining and analysis applications, both for knowledge extraction and as part of other processes (for example, building associative classifiers. It is well known that the number of associations identified by many association rule mining algorithms can be so large as to present a barrier to their interpretability and practical use. A typical solution to this problem involves removing redundant rules. This paper proposes a novel definition of redundancy, which is used to identify only the most interesting associations. Compared to existing redundancy based approaches, our method is both more robust to noise, and produces fewer overall rules for a given data (improving clarity. A rule can be considered redundant if the knowledge it describes is already contained in other rules. Given an association rule, most existing approaches consider rules to be redundant if they add additional variables without increasing quality according to some measure of interestingness. We claim that complex interactions between variables can confound many interestingness measures. This can lead to existing approaches being overly aggressive in removing redundant associations. Most existing approaches also fail to take into account situations where more general rules (those with fewer attributes can be considered redundant with respect to their specialisations. We examine this problem and provide concrete examples of such errors using artificial data. An alternate definition of redundancy that addresses these issues is proposed. Our approach is shown to identify interesting associations missed by comparable methods on multiple real and synthetic data. When combined with the removal of redundant generalisations, our approach is often able to generate smaller overall rule sets, while leaving average rule quality unaffected or slightly improved.

  15. Gender-based generalisations in school nurses' appraisals of and interventions addressing students' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Per-Åke; Nilsson, Stefan

    2016-08-30

    There has been an increase of reports describing mental health problems in adolescents, especially girls. School nurses play an important role in supporting young people with health problems. Few studies have considered how the nurses' gender norms may influence their discussions. To investigate this issue, semi-structured interviews focusing on school nurses' work with students who have mental health problems were conducted. Transcripts of interviews with Swedish school nurses (n = 15) from the Help overcoming pain early project (HOPE) were analysed using theories on gender as a theoretical framework and then organised into themes related to the school nurses' provision of contact and intervention. The interviewees were all women, aged between 42-63 years, who had worked as nurses for 13-45 years, and as school nurses for 2-28 years. Five worked in upper secondary schools (for students aged 16-19) and 10 in secondary schools (for students aged 12-16). The results show that school nurses more commonly associated mental health problems with girls. When the school nurses discussed students that were difficult to reach, boys in particular were mentioned. However, very few nurses mentioned specific intervention to address students' mental health problems, and all of the mentioned interventions were focused on girls. Some of the school nurses reported that it was more difficult to initiate a health dialogue with boys, yet none of the nurses had organized interventions for the boys. We conclude that generalisations can sometimes be analytically helpful, facilitating, for instance, the identification of problems in school nurses' work methods and interventions. However, the most important conclusion from our research, which applied a design that is not commonly used, is that more varied approaches, as well as a greater awareness of potential gender stereotype pitfalls, are necessary to meet the needs of diverse student groups.

  16. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob

    2011-09-01

    According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

  17. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  18. Sex-specific 99th percentiles derived from the AACC Universal Sample Bank for the Roche Gen 5 cTnT assay: Comorbidities and statistical methods influence derivation of reference limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsolus, Ian L; Jaffe, Allan S; Sexter, Anne; Schulz, Karen; Ler, Ranka; Lindgren, Brittany; Saenger, Amy K; Love, Sara A; Apple, Fred S

    2017-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine a) overall and sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limits (URL) and b) influences of statistical methods and comorbidities on the URLs. Heparin plasma from 838 normal subjects (423 men, 415 women) were obtained from the AACC (Universal Sample Bank). The cobas e602 measured cTnT (Roche Gen 5 assay); limit of detection (LoD), 3ng/L. Hemoglobin A1c (URL 6.5%), NT-proBNP (URL 125ng/L) and eGFR (60mL/min/1.73m 2 ) were measured, along with identification of statin use, to better define normality. 99th percentile URLs were determined by the non-parametric (NP), Harrell-Davis Estimator (HDE) and Robust (R) methods. 355 men and 339 women remained after exclusions. Overallstatistical method used influenced URLs as follows: pre/post exclusion overall, NP 16/16ng/L, HDE 17/17ng/L, R not available; men NP 18/16ng/L, HDE 21/19ng/L, R 16/11ng/L; women NP 13/10ng/L, HDE 14/14ng/L, R not available. We demonstrated that a) the Gen 5 cTnT assay does not meet the IFCC guideline for high-sensitivity assays, b) surrogate biomarkers significantly lowers the URLs and c) statistical methods used impact URLs. Our data suggest lower sex-specific cTnT 99th percentiles than reported in the FDA approved package insert. We emphasize the importance of detailing the criteria used to include and exclude subjects for defining a healthy population and the statistical method used to calculate 99th percentiles and identify outliers. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rigorous Derivation of a Nonlinear Diffusion Equation as Fast-Reaction Limit of a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, J. A.

    2009-10-30

    Weak solutions of the spatially inhomogeneous (diffusive) Aizenmann-Bak model of coagulation-breakup within a bounded domain with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are shown to converge, in the fast reaction limit, towards local equilibria determined by their mass. Moreover, this mass is the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation whose nonlinearity depends on the (size-dependent) diffusion coefficient. Initial data are assumed to have integrable zero order moment and square integrable first order moment in size, and finite entropy. In contrast to our previous result [5], we are able to show the convergence without assuming uniform bounds from above and below on the number density of clusters. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Becker

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM, either in full or reduced (-50% radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis.

  1. MAXWELL EQUATIONS FOR A GENERALISED LAGRANGIAN FUNCTIONAL ECUACIONES DE MAXWELL PARA UNA FUNCIONAL DE LAGRANGE GENERALIZADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of the construction of the Lagrange functional for an electromagnetic field. The generalised Maxwell equations for an electromagnetic field in free space are introduced. The main idea relies on the change of Lagrange function under the integral action. Usually, the Lagrange functional which describes the electromagnetic field is built with the quadrate of the electromagnetic field tensor . Such a quadrate term is the reason, from a mathematical point of view, for the linear form of the Maxwell equations in free space. The author does not make this assumption and nonlinear Maxwell equations are obtained. New material parameters of free space are established. The equations obtained are quite similar to the well-known Maxwell equations. The energy tensor of the electromagnetic field from a chiral approach to the Born Infeld Lagrangian is discussed in connection with the cosmological constant.Se aborda el problema de la construcción de la funcional de Lagrange de un campo electromagnético. Se introducen las ecuaciones generalizadas de Maxwell de un campo electromagnético en el espacio libre. La idea principal se basa en el cambio de función de Lagrange en virtud de la acción integral. Por lo general, la funcional de lagrange, que describe el campo electromagnético, se construye con el cuadrado del tensor de campo electromagnético. Ese término cuadrático es la razón, desde un punto de vista matemático, de la forma lineal de las ecuaciones de Maxwell en el espacio libre. Se obtienen las ecuaciones no lineales de Maxwell sin considerar esta suposición. Las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenidas son bastante similares a las conocidas ecuaciones de Maxwell. Se analiza el tensor de energía del campo electromagnético en un enfoque quiral de la Lagrangiana de Born Infeld en relación con la constante cosmológica.

  2. Attention avoidance of the threat conditioned stimulus during extinction increases physiological arousal generalisation and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Karina R; Waters, Allison M

    2018-05-01

    differences were observed in between-phase CS evaluations and subjective anxiety ratings. Avoidance of threat conditioned stimuli may impair extinction learning and increase physiological arousal generalisation to safe stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A specific dose of grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins to inhibit body weight gain limits food intake and increases energy expenditure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Gual, Andreu; Pérez-Vendrell, Anna Maria; Blay, M Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that flavanols may have antiobesity effects; however, those effects clearly depend on the experimental conditions. In a previous study, we found that a single acute dose of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has satiating effects. We therefore hypothesise that satiating doses of GSPE could be used to reduce body weight gain, and our present objective was to define the most effective dose. We assayed two GSPE doses in aged male Wistar rats. First we performed a subchronic (8-day) treatment by intragastric administration, which was repeated after a washout period. We measured body weight, energy intake and faeces composition; we performed indirect calorimetry; and we analysed the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism to determine the target tissue for the GSPE. We observed that 0.5 g GSPE/kg BW significantly reduced food intake and thus the amount of energy absorbed. This dosage also increased lipid oxidation in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thus causing a higher total energy expenditure. These combined effects caused a decrease in body weight. Conversely, 1 g GSPE/kg BW, which also reduced energy absorption after the first treatment, had a rebound effect on body weight gain which resulted in a lower response to the proanthocyanidin extract. That is, after the second treatment, the GSPE did not reduce the energy absorbed or modify energy expenditure and body weight. GSPE at a dose of 0.5 g/kg can reduce body weight by limiting food intake and activating energy expenditure in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  4. Generalised Predictive Control of a 12-bus Network Using Neutral-Point Clamped Voltage Source Converter UPFC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L; Kokkinakis, M; Chong, BVP

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a UPFC to a case study of a 12-bus high power network. The UPFC shunt converter employs 8 3-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) voltage source converters (VSC) and 12 single-phase three-winding phase shifting transformers (PST), generating a 48-pulse output voltage. The 3-phase H-bridge series converter shares the same dc-link with the shunt one. The novel feature of this work lies in the use of a model-based generalised predictive current control law to th...

  5. Short-term memory treatment: patterns of learning and generalisation to sentence comprehension in a person with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits (STM) are prevalent in aphasia and can contribute to sentence comprehension deficits. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel STM treatment in improving STM (measured with span tasks) and sentence comprehension (measured with the Token Test and the Test for the Reception of Grammar, TROG) in a person with severe aphasia (transcortical motor). In particular, the research questions were: (1) Would STM training improve STM? (2) Would improvements from the STM training generalise to improvements in comprehension of sentences? STM was trained using listening span tasks of serial word recognition. No other language or sentence comprehension skills were trained. Following treatment, STM abilities improved (listening span, forward digit span). There was also evidence of generalisation to untreated sentence comprehension (only on the TROG). Backward digit span, phonological processing and single word comprehension did not improve. Improvements in sentence comprehension may have resulted from resilience to rapid decay of linguistic representations within sentences (words and phrases). This in turn facilitated comprehension.

  6. 76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...). The Commission reserves the right, but shall have no obligation, to review, pre-screen, filter, redact... exemptions for passive investments in independently controlled and managed commercial entities as well as exemptions for certain positions held with futures commission merchants and for traders that are passive pool...

  7. 78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...).... 2011 21,788 21,606 2,200 2,200 2,200 2012 15,262 14,964 1,600 1,500 CME Milk Class III (DA). 2011 55,567 57,490 3,300 3,400 3,400 2012 47,378 47,064 3,100 3,100 CME Feeder Cattle (FC).. 2011 44,611 43...,000 9,100 9,400 2012 296,822 297,882 9,300 9,400 CME Live Cattle (LC).... 2011 433,581 440,229 12,800...

  8. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ..., 114 Stat. 2763 (Dec. 21, 2000). \\4\\ See Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008, Public Law 110-246... related to the relative size of such positions, i.e., the capacity of the market is not unlimited.''). In...

  9. Fundamental limitation on quantum broadcast networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Azuma, Koji

    2017-06-01

    The ability to distribute entanglement over complex quantum networks is an important step towards a quantum internet. Recently, there has been significant theoretical effort, mainly focusing on the distribution of bipartite entanglement via a simple quantum network composed only of bipartite quantum channels. There are, however, a number of quantum information processing protocols based on multipartite rather than bipartite entanglement. Whereas multipartite entanglement can be distributed by means of a network of such bipartite channels, a more natural way is to use a more general network, that is, a quantum broadcast network including quantum broadcast channels. In this work, we present a general framework for deriving upper bounds on the rates at which GHZ states or multipartite private states can be distributed among a number of different parties over an arbitrary quantum broadcast network. Our upper bounds are written in terms of the multipartite squashed entanglement, corresponding to a generalisation of recently derived bounds (Azuma et al, (2016), Nat. Commun. 7 13523). We also discuss how lower bounds can be obtained by combining a generalisation of an aggregated quantum repeater protocol with graph theoretic concepts.

  10. Generalised partial autocorrelations and the mutual information between past and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Luati, Alessandra

    the generalized partial autocorrelations as the partial autocorrelation coefficients of an auxiliary process, we derive their properties and relate them to essential features of the original process. Based on a parameterisation suggested by Barndorff-Nielsen and Schou (1973) and on Whittle likelihood, we develop...

  11. Probing scalar effective field theories with the soft limits of scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Antonio [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham,University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Stefanyszyn, David [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, Groningen, 9747 AG The (Netherlands); Wilson, Toby [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham,University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-04

    We investigate the soft behaviour of scalar effective field theories (EFTs) when there is a number of distinct derivative power counting parameters, ρ{sub 1}<ρ{sub 2}<…<ρ{sub Q}. We clarify the notion of an enhanced soft limit and use these to extend the scope of on-shell recursion techniques for scalar EFTs. As an example, we perform a detailed study of theories with two power counting parameters, ρ{sub 1}=1 and ρ{sub 2}=2, that include the shift symmetric generalised galileons. We demonstrate that the minimally enhanced soft limit uniquely picks out the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) symmetry, including DBI galileons. For the exceptional soft limit we uniquely pick out the special galileon within the class of theories under investigation. We study the DBI galileon amplitudes more closely, verifying the validity of the recursion techniques in generating the six point amplitude, and explicitly demonstrating the invariance of all amplitudes under DBI galileon duality.

  12. The limitation and modification of flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan; Huang Wenkai

    1986-01-01

    The limitation of various typical flux-limited diffusion theory and advantages of asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant are analyzed and compared. The conclusions are as following: Though the flux-limited problem in neutron diffusion theory are theoretically solved by derived flux-limited diffusion equation, it's going too far to limit flux due to the inappropriate assumption in deriving flux-limited diffusion equation. The asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant has eliminated the above-mentioned limitation, and it is more accurate than flux-limited diffusion theory in describing neutron transport problem

  13. Crack arrest model for a piezoelectric plate–A generalised Dugdale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consequently, a plastic zone and a saturation zone protrude ahead of each tip of the crack. These developed zones are in turn closed by applying yield point shear stress at the rims of plastic zone and normal closing saturation limit displacement on the rims of saturation zones. Two cases are investigated when.

  14. Shingle 2.0: generalising self-consistent and automated domain discretisation for multi-scale geophysical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Candy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, to ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. This paper takes a novel approach to spatial discretisation, considering it much like a numerical simulation model problem of its own. It introduces a generalised, extensible, self-documenting approach to carefully describe, and necessarily fully, the constraints over the heterogeneous parameter space that determine how a domain is spatially discretised. This additionally provides a method to accurately record these constraints, using high-level natural language based abstractions that enable full accounts of provenance, sharing, and distribution. Together with this description, a generalised consistent approach to unstructured mesh generation for geophysical models is developed that is automated, robust and repeatable, quick-to-draft, rigorously verified, and consistent with the source data throughout. This interprets the description above to execute a self-consistent spatial discretisation process, which is automatically validated to expected discrete characteristics and metrics. Library code, verification tests, and examples available in the repository at https://github.com/shingleproject/Shingle. Further details of the project presented at http://shingleproject.org.

  15. A bootstrap method to avoid the effect of concurvity in generalised additive models in time series studies of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, Adolfo; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    In recent years a great number of studies have applied generalised additive models (GAMs) to time series data to estimate the short term health effects of air pollution. Lately, however, it has been found that concurvity--the non-parametric analogue of multicollinearity--might lead to underestimation of standard errors of the effects of independent variables. Underestimation of standard errors means that for concurvity levels commonly present in the data, the risk of committing type I error rises by over threefold. This study developed a conditional bootstrap methology that consists of assuming that the outcome in any observation is conditional upon the values of the set of independent variables used. It then tested this procedure by means of a simulation study using a Poisson additive model. The response variable of this model is a function of an unobserved confounding variable (that introduces trend and seasonality), real black smoke data, and temperature. Scenarios were created with different coefficients and degrees of concurvity. Conditional bootstrap provides confidence intervals with coverages close to nominal (95%), irrespective of the degree of concurvity, number of variables in the model or magnitude of the coefficient to be estimated (for example, for a concurvity of 0.85, bootstrap confidence interval coverage is 95% compared with 71% in the case of the asymptotic interval obtained directly with S-plus gam function). The bootstrap method avoids the problem of concurvity in time series studies of air pollution, and is easily generalised to non-linear dose-risk effects. All bootstrap calculations described in this paper can be performed using S-Plus gam.boot software.

  16. Shingle 2.0: generalising self-consistent and automated domain discretisation for multi-scale geophysical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Adam S.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2018-01-01

    The approaches taken to describe and develop spatial discretisations of the domains required for geophysical simulation models are commonly ad hoc, model- or application-specific, and under-documented. This is particularly acute for simulation models that are flexible in their use of multi-scale, anisotropic, fully unstructured meshes where a relatively large number of heterogeneous parameters are required to constrain their full description. As a consequence, it can be difficult to reproduce simulations, to ensure a provenance in model data handling and initialisation, and a challenge to conduct model intercomparisons rigorously. This paper takes a novel approach to spatial discretisation, considering it much like a numerical simulation model problem of its own. It introduces a generalised, extensible, self-documenting approach to carefully describe, and necessarily fully, the constraints over the heterogeneous parameter space that determine how a domain is spatially discretised. This additionally provides a method to accurately record these constraints, using high-level natural language based abstractions that enable full accounts of provenance, sharing, and distribution. Together with this description, a generalised consistent approach to unstructured mesh generation for geophysical models is developed that is automated, robust and repeatable, quick-to-draft, rigorously verified, and consistent with the source data throughout. This interprets the description above to execute a self-consistent spatial discretisation process, which is automatically validated to expected discrete characteristics and metrics. Library code, verification tests, and examples available in the repository at https://github.com/shingleproject/Shingle. Further details of the project presented at http://shingleproject.org.

  17. Reference centiles for the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery pulsatility index and cerebro-placental ratio from a low-risk population - a Generalised Additive Model for Location, Shape and Scale (GAMLSS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Christopher; Kumar, Sailesh; Greer, Ristan M

    2018-02-06

    The primary aim of this study was to create reference ranges for the fetal Middle Cerebral artery Pulsatility Index (MCA PI), Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA PI) and the Cerebro-Placental Ratio (CPR) in a clearly defined low-risk cohort using the Generalised Additive Model for Location, Shape and Scale (GAMLSS) method. Prospectively collected cross-sectional biometry and Doppler data from low-risk women attending the Mater Mother's Hospital, Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department in Brisbane, Australia between January 2010 and April 2017 were used to derive gestation specific centiles for the MCA PI, UA PI and CPR. All ultrasound scans were performed between 18 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation with recorded data for the MCA PI and/or UA PI. The GAMLSS method was used for the calculation of gestational age-adjusted centiles. Distributions and additive terms were assessed and the final model was chosen on the basis of the Global Deviance, Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Schwartz bayesian criterion (SBC), along with the results of the model and residual diagnostics as well as visual assessment of the centiles themselves. Over the study period 6013 women met the inclusion criteria. The MCA PI was recorded in 4473 fetuses, the UA PI in 6008 fetuses and the CPR was able to be calculated in 4464 cases. The centiles for the MCA PI used a fractional polynomial additive term and Box-Cox t (BCT) distribution. Centiles for the UA PI used a cubic spline additive term with BCT distribution and the CPR used a fractional polynomial additive term and a BCT distribution. We have created gestational centile reference ranges for the MCA PI, UA PI and CPR from a large low-risk cohort that supports their applicability and generalisability.

  18. Generalised expressions for the response of pH to changes in ocean chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Mathilde; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-08-01

    The extent to which oceans are capable of buffering chemical changes resulting from the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) or other acidifying processes can be quantified using buffer factors. Here, we present general expressions describing the sensitivity of pH and concentrations of CO2 and other acid-base species to a change in ocean chemistry. These expressions can include as many acid-base systems as desirable, making them suitable for application to, e.g., upwelling regions or nutrient-rich coastal waters. We show that these expressions are fully consistent with previously derived expressions for the Revelle factor and other buffer factors, which only included the carbonate and borate acid-base systems, and provide more accurate values. We apply our general expressions to contemporary global ocean surface water and possible changes therein by the end of the 21st century. These results show that most sensitivities describing a change in pH are of greater magnitude in a warmer, high-CO2 ocean, indicating a decreased seawater buffering capacity. This trend is driven by the increase in CO2 and slightly moderated by the warming. Respiration-derived carbon dioxide may amplify or attenuate ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric CO2, depending on their relative importance. Our work highlights that, to gain further insight into current and future pH dynamics, it is crucial to properly quantify the various concurrently acting buffering mechanisms.

  19. Theoretical analysis of saturation and limit cycles in short pulse FEL oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovella, N.; Chaix, P.; Jaroszynski, D. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We derive a model for the non linear evolution of a short pulse oscillator from low signal up to saturation in the small gain regime. This system is controlled by only two independent parameters: cavity detuning and losses. Using a closure relation, this model reduces to a closed set of 5 non linear partial differential equations for the EM field and moments of the electron distribution. An analysis of the linearised system allows to define and calculate the eigenmodes characterising the small signal regime. An arbitrary solution of the complete nonlinear system can then be expanded in terms of these eigenmodes. This allows interpreting various observed nonlinear behaviours, including steady state saturation, limit cycles, and transition to chaos. The single mode approximation reduces to a Landau-Ginzburg equation. It allows to obtain gain, nonlinear frequency shift, and efficiency as functions of cavity detuning and cavity losses. A generalisation to two modes allows to obtain a simple description of the limit cycle behaviour, as a competition between these two modes. An analysis of the transitions to more complex dynamics is also given. Finally, the analytical results are compared to the experimental data from the FELIX experiment.

  20. Neuromuscular knee joint control in adolescents with and without Generalised Joint Hypermobility during landing in the Single leg Hop for Distance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, B; Thorlund, J B

    Severe knee injuries can occur due to biomechanical factors such as knee joint laxity. Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been proposed as an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries in adults and adolescents, as individuals with GJH often have knee joint hypermobility. Also, critical knee...

  1. Neuromuscular knee joint control in adolescents with and without Generalised Joint Hypermobility during landing in the Single leg Hop for Distance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, B; Thorlund, J B

    2014-01-01

    Severe knee injuries can occur due to biomechanical factors such as knee joint laxity. Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been proposed as an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries in adults and adolescents, as individuals with GJH often have knee joint hypermobility. Also, critical knee...

  2. Neuromuscular knee joint control in adolescents with and without Generalised Joint Hypermobility during landing in the Single leg Hop for Distance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, B; Bloch Thorlund, Jonas

    Severe knee injuries can occur due to biomechanical factors such as knee joint laxity. Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) has been proposed as an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries in adults and adolescents, as individuals with GJH often have knee joint hypermobility. Also, critical knee ...

  3. Cross-validation of generalised body composition equations with diverse young men and women: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalised skinfold equations developed in the 1970s are commonly used to estimate laboratory-measured percentage fat (BF%). The equations were developed on predominately white individuals using Siri's two-component percentage fat equation (BF%-GEN). We cross-validated the Jackson-Pollock (JP) gene...

  4. Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans, the members of the order Carnivora, exhibit wide dietary diversity – from overwhelmingly herbivorous species (like the giant and red pandas to species that specialise in the consumption of flesh (like the hypercarnivorous felids. Throughout the evolution of this order, many craniodental forms have emerged and gone extinct – notably the sabretooth felids that existed until the late Pleistocene. However, one carnivoran lineage, remarkable for its extreme masticatory adaptations, persists – the bone-cracking hyaenids. Three of the four extant members of this family (Crocuta crocuta, Hyaena hyaena and Parahyaena brunnea are among the most durophagous mammals to have ever lived. The fourth extant hyaenid – the aardwolf (Proteles cristatus – also exhibits impressive, although wholly different, masticatory adaptations as one of the most derived mammalian insectivores. How and when did the level of durophagy evident in extant bone-cracking hyenas evolve, and how do Mio-Pliocene hyenas compare to the extant members of the order in terms of their own dietary specialisations? An examination of the premolars of the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids from Langebaanweg, South Africa suggests that modern levels of durophagy appeared relatively recently. Results from an analysis of dental radii-of-curvature and premolar intercuspid notches suggest that these hyenas were neither bone crackers nor flesh specialists, but were dietary generalists.

  5. Cognitive bias modification for interpretation with and without prior repetitive negative thinking to reduce worry and rumination in generalised anxiety disorder and depression: protocol for a multisession experimental study with an active control condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Charlotte; Mathews, Andrew; Whyte, Jessica; Hirsch, Colette R

    2016-12-16

    Worry and rumination are two forms of repetitive thinking characterised by their negative content and apparently uncontrollable nature. Although worry and rumination share common features and have been conceptualised as part of a transdiagnostic repetitive negative thinking (RNT) process, it remains unclear whether they share the same underlying cognitive mechanisms. This multisession experimental study investigates the tendency to make negative interpretations regarding ambiguous information as a cognitive mechanism underlying RNT. We compare multisession cognitive bias modification for interpretations (CBM-I) with an active control condition to examine whether repeatedly training positive interpretations reduces worry and rumination in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder or depression, respectively. Further, we examine the potential modulatory effects of engaging in RNT immediately prior to CBM-I. A community sample of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for either generalised anxiety disorder (n=60) or current major depressive episode (n=60) will be randomly allocated to CBM-I with prior RNT, CBM-I without prior RNT (ie, standard CBM-I), or an active control (no resolution of ambiguity) condition. All conditions receive a 3-week internet-based intervention consisting of one initial session at the first study visit and nine home-based sessions of CBM-I training (or active control). We will assess and compare the effects of CBM-I with and without prior RNT on 'near-transfer' measures of interpretation bias closely related to the training as well as 'far-transfer' outcomes related to RNT and emotional distress. Impact on questionnaire measures will additionally be assessed at 1-month follow-up. Multigroup analyses will be conducted to assess the impact of CBM-I on near-transfer and far-transfer outcome measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Atmospheric radiative transfer generalised for use on Earth and other planets: ARTS 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Buehler, Stefan; Perrin, Agnes; Hartogh, Paul; Rezac, Ladislav; Lemke, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Microwave and (sub)millimetre-wave frequencies have long been of interest for remote sensing of the Earth and space objects. They suffer less from interference by small particles (dust, clouds), hence penetrate deeper into atmospheres revealing their deeper structures hidden to shorter wavelengths, and possess characteristic line absorption features of many gaseous species, which are of interest for the understanding of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. Models simulating radiative transfer and wave propagation (RT/WP) have been developed by many institutions. Most of them are designed for a particular, narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum, certain instrument types or missions, and specific atmospheric conditions. In particular, they are usually set up for a specific planetary body. This high level of specialisation allows for accurate modelling results. However, it also limits the flexibility of those models and comparability between them. One of the major differences in radiative transfer modeling in the atmospheres of Earth and other planets arises from the different composition of the atmospheres. When interested in measuring total abundance or even vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents, knowledge of parameters describing spectrally dependent absorption in dependence of atmospheric state is required. When modeling radiative transfer for different planets, the line shapes are often accounted for by scaling the parameters valid for Earth's ``air'' or by building a spectroscopic catalogue specific to the planet in question and its main atmospheric composition. This strongly limits applicability of these models. Based on the ARTS model [1], a sophisticated, flexible RT model for Earth atmosphere (3D spherical geometry, diverse absorption models, scattering, polarization, Jacobians), we have developed a toolbox for microwave atmospheric radiative transfer in solar system planets. As part of this, we developed and implemented a more generalized

  7. Generalised Einstein mass-variation formulae: I Subluminal relative frame velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Hill

    Full Text Available Much of the formalism in special relativity is intimately bound up with Einstein’s formula for the variation of mass m with its velocity v, namely m(v=m0∗[1-(v/c2]-1/2, where m is the mass, v the velocity, c denotes the speed of light and m0∗ denotes the rest mass, noting that in these papers, we employ an asterisk to designate the rest mass. Einstein’s formula together with the Lorentz transformations and their consequences are fundamental to the development of special relativity. Here we introduce the notion of the residual mass m0(v which for vderived that is singular at the speed of light. This new expression may be contrasted with the Einstein expression, and roughly speaking, the new formula predicts more mass than that given by the Einstein formula, since the singularity at the speed of light is steeper. Keywords: Special relativity, Einstein mass variation, New formulae

  8. The continuous spin limit of higher spin field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, Xavier [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mourad, Jihad [APC, Universite Paris VII, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    We show that the Wigner equations describing the continuous spin representations can be obtained as a limit of massive higher-spin field equations. The limit involves a suitable scaling of the wave function, the mass going to zero and the spin to infinity with their product being fixed. The result allows to transform the Wigner equations to a gauge invariant Fronsdal-like form. We also give the generalisation of the Wigner equations to higher dimensions with fields belonging to arbitrary representations of the massless little group.

  9. Saliva, Serum Levels of Interleukin-21, -33 and Prostaglandin E2 in Patients with Generalised Aggressive or Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Pınar; Nizam, Nejat; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Özçaka, Özgün; Buduneli, Nurcan

    This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate saliva, serum levels of interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-33, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with generalised chronic periodontitis or aggressive periodontitis. Before initiation of any periodontal treatment, saliva and serum samples were collected and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded from 94 participants (25 aggressive periodontitis patients, 25 chronic periodontitis patients, 44 periodontally healthy individuals). IL-21, IL-33 and PGE2 levels in serum and saliva samples were determined by ELISA. Data were tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, and Spearman-rho rank tests. Saliva IL-33 levels were statistically significantly higher in the chronic than the aggressive group (p periodontitis groups. Saliva IL-33 levels correlated with age in the chronic periodontitis group (p periodontitis groups (p aggressive periodontitis, but the present findings support the role of these cytokines in periodontitis. Statistically significantly higher saliva IL-33 levels in the chronic periodontitis group warrant further research.

  10. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Homotopy semi-numerical simulation of peristaltic flow of generalised Oldroyd-B fluids with slip effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O Anwar; Curiel-Sosa, J L

    2014-01-01

    This investigation deals with the peristaltic flow of generalised Oldroyd-B fluids (with the fractional model) through a cylindrical tube under the influence of wall slip conditions. The analysis is carried out under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Analytical approximate solutions are obtained by using the highly versatile and rigorous semi-numerical procedure known as the homotopy analysis method. It is assumed that the cross section of the tube varies sinusoidally along the length of the tube. The effects of the dominant hydromechanical parameters, i.e. fractional parameters, material constants, slip parameter, time and amplitude on the pressure difference across one wavelength, are studied. Graphical plots reveal that the influence of both fractional parameters on pressure is opposite to each other. Interesting responses to a variation in the constants are obtained. Pressure is shown to be reduced by increasing the slip parameter. Furthermore, the pressure in the case of fractional models (fractional Oldroyd-B model and fractional Maxwell model) of viscoelastic fluids is considerably more substantial than that in the corresponding classical viscoelastic models (Oldroyd-B and Maxwell models). Applications of the study arise in biophysical food processing, embryology and gastro-fluid dynamics.

  12. The use of generalised audit software by internal audit functions in a developing country: A maturity level assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. van der Nest

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the existing practices of internal audit functions in the locally controlled South African banking industry regarding the use of Generalised Audit Software (GAS, against a benchmark developed from recognised data analytic maturity models, in order to assess the current maturity levels of the locally controlled South African banks in the use of this software for tests of controls. The literature review indicates that the use of GAS by internal audit functions is still at a relatively low level of maturity, despite the accelerating adoption of information technology and generation of big data within organisations. The empirical results of this article also confirm that the maturity of the use of GAS by the internal auditors employed by locally controlled South African banks is still lower than expected, given that the world, especially from a business perspective is now fully immersed in a technological-driven business environment. This study has since been extended to other industries in the following countries namely, Canada, Columbia, Portugal and Australia

  13. Common and disorder-specific neural responses to emotional faces in generalised anxiety, social anxiety and panic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Letamendi, Andrea; Simmons, Alan N.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence exists for abnormal brain function across various anxiety disorders, direct comparison of neural function across diagnoses is needed to elicit abnormalities common across disorders and those distinct to a particular diagnosis. Aims To delineate common and distinct abnormalities within generalised anxiety (GAD), panic and social anxiety disorder (SAD) during affective processing. Method Fifty-nine adults (15 with GAD, 15 with panic disorder, 14 with SAD, and 15 healthy controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a facial emotion matching task with fearful, angry and happy faces. Results Greater differential right amygdala activation to matching fearful v. happy facial expressions related to greater negative affectivity (i.e. trait anxiety) and was heightened across all anxiety disorder groups compared with controls. Collapsing across emotional face types, participants with panic disorder uniquely displayed greater posterior insula activation. Conclusions These preliminary results highlight a common neural basis for clinical anxiety in these diagnoses and also suggest the presence of disorder-specific dysfunction. PMID:25573399

  14. Generalised teleparallel quintom dark energy non-minimally coupled with the scalar torsion and a boundary term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Marciu, Mihai; Rudra, Prabir

    2018-04-01

    Within this work, we propose a new generalised quintom dark energy model in the teleparallel alternative of general relativity theory, by considering a non-minimal coupling between the scalar fields of a quintom model with the scalar torsion component T and the boundary term B. In the teleparallel alternative of general relativity theory, the boundary term represents the divergence of the torsion vector, B=2∇μTμ, and is related to the Ricci scalar R and the torsion scalar T, by the fundamental relation: R=‑T+B. We have investigated the dynamical properties of the present quintom scenario in the teleparallel alternative of general relativity theory by performing a dynamical system analysis in the case of decomposable exponential potentials. The study analysed the structure of the phase space, revealing the fundamental dynamical effects of the scalar torsion and boundary couplings in the case of a more general quintom scenario. Additionally, a numerical approach to the model is presented to analyse the cosmological evolution of the system.

  15. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  16. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  17. Data assimilation and uncertainty analysis of environmental assessment problems--an application of Stochastic Transfer Function and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowicz, Renata; Young, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic Transfer Function (STF) and Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) techniques are outlined and applied to an environmental problem concerned with marine dose assessment. The goal of both methods in this application is the estimation and prediction of the environmental variables, together with their associated probability distributions. In particular, they are used to estimate the amount of radionuclides transferred to marine biota from a given source: the British Nuclear Fuel Ltd (BNFL) repository plant in Sellafield, UK. The complexity of the processes involved, together with the large dispersion and scarcity of observations regarding radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, require efficient data assimilation techniques. In this regard, the basic STF methods search for identifiable, linear model structures that capture the maximum amount of information contained in the data with a minimal parameterisation. They can be extended for on-line use, based on recursively updated Bayesian estimation and, although applicable to only constant or time-variable parameter (non-stationary) linear systems in the form used in this paper, they have the potential for application to non-linear systems using recently developed State Dependent Parameter (SDP) non-linear STF models. The GLUE based-methods, on the other hand, formulate the problem of estimation using a more general Bayesian approach, usually without prior statistical identification of the model structure. As a result, they are applicable to almost any linear or non-linear stochastic model, although they are much less efficient both computationally and in their use of the information contained in the observations. As expected in this particular environmental application, it is shown that the STF methods give much narrower confidence limits for the estimates due to their more efficient use of the information contained in the data. Exploiting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) analysis

  18. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  19. Application of a generalisation of the Kohn variational method to the calculation of cross sections for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The phaseshift corresponding to the lowest partial wave and the associated approximation to the total cross section are calculated for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering using a generalisation of the Kohn variational method. The trial wavefunction is expressed in terms of confocal elliptical coordinates. Except at incident positron energies below about 2 eV, reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained below the positronium formation threshold at 8.63 eV. (author)

  20. General solutions of the supersymmetric ℂP{sup 2} sigma model and its generalisation to ℂP{sup N−1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, L., E-mail: laurent.delisle@imj-prg.fr [Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu-Paris Rive Gauche, UP7D-Campus des Grands Moulins, Bâtiment Sophie Germain, Cases 7012, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Hussin, V., E-mail: hussin@dms.umontreal.ca [Département de Mathématiques et de Statistique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zakrzewski, W. J., E-mail: w.j.zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    A new approach for the construction of finite action solutions of the supersymmetric ℂP{sup N−1} sigma model is presented. We show that this approach produces more non-holomorphic solutions than those obtained in previous approaches. We study the ℂP{sup 2} model in detail and present its solutions in an explicit form. We also show how to generalise this construction to N > 3.

  1. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  2. Children aged 4-8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo

    2006-10-01

    In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.

  3. Linear-scaling calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange energy with non-orthogonal generalised Wannier functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, J; Hill, Q; Skylaris, C-K

    2013-12-07

    We present a method for the calculation of four-centre two-electron repulsion integrals in terms of localised non-orthogonal generalised Wannier functions (NGWFs). Our method has been implemented in the ONETEP program and is used to compute the Hartree-Fock exchange energy component of Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. As the NGWFs are optimised in situ in terms of a systematically improvable basis set which is equivalent to plane waves, it is possible to achieve large basis set accuracy in routine calculations. The spatial localisation of the NGWFs allows us to exploit the exponential decay of the density matrix in systems with a band gap in order to compute the exchange energy with a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of atoms. We describe the implementation of this approach in the ONETEP program for linear-scaling first principles quantum mechanical calculations. We present extensive numerical validation of all the steps in our method. Furthermore, we find excellent agreement in energies and structures for a wide variety of molecules when comparing with other codes. We use our method to perform calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for models of myoglobin systems bound with O2 and CO ligands and confirm that the same qualitative behaviour is obtained as when the same myoglobin models are studied with the DFT+U approach which is also available in ONETEP. Finally, we confirm the linear-scaling capability of our method by performing calculations on polyethylene and polyacetylene chains of increasing length.

  4. Evaluation of a direct 4D reconstruction method using generalised linear least squares for estimating nonlinear micro-parametric maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Georgios I; Matthews, Julian C; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Estimation of nonlinear micro-parameters is a computationally demanding and fairly challenging process, since it involves the use of rather slow iterative nonlinear fitting algorithms and it often results in very noisy voxel-wise parametric maps. Direct reconstruction algorithms can provide parametric maps with reduced variance, but usually the overall reconstruction is impractically time consuming with common nonlinear fitting algorithms. In this work we employed a recently proposed direct parametric image reconstruction algorithm to estimate the parametric maps of all micro-parameters of a two-tissue compartment model, used to describe the kinetics of [[Formula: see text]F]FDG. The algorithm decouples the tomographic and the kinetic modelling problems, allowing the use of previously developed post-reconstruction methods, such as the generalised linear least squares (GLLS) algorithm. Results on both clinical and simulated data showed that the proposed direct reconstruction method provides considerable quantitative and qualitative improvements for all micro-parameters compared to the conventional post-reconstruction fitting method. Additionally, region-wise comparison of all parametric maps against the well-established filtered back projection followed by post-reconstruction non-linear fitting, as well as the direct Patlak method, showed substantial quantitative agreement in all regions. The proposed direct parametric reconstruction algorithm is a promising approach towards the estimation of all individual microparameters of any compartment model. In addition, due to the linearised nature of the GLLS algorithm, the fitting step can be very efficiently implemented and, therefore, it does not considerably affect the overall reconstruction time.

  5. Linear-scaling calculation of Hartree-Fock exchange energy with non-orthogonal generalised Wannier functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic, J.; Hill, Q.; Skylaris, C.-K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the calculation of four-centre two-electron repulsion integrals in terms of localised non-orthogonal generalised Wannier functions (NGWFs). Our method has been implemented in the ONETEP program and is used to compute the Hartree-Fock exchange energy component of Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. As the NGWFs are optimised in situ in terms of a systematically improvable basis set which is equivalent to plane waves, it is possible to achieve large basis set accuracy in routine calculations. The spatial localisation of the NGWFs allows us to exploit the exponential decay of the density matrix in systems with a band gap in order to compute the exchange energy with a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of atoms. We describe the implementation of this approach in the ONETEP program for linear-scaling first principles quantum mechanical calculations. We present extensive numerical validation of all the steps in our method. Furthermore, we find excellent agreement in energies and structures for a wide variety of molecules when comparing with other codes. We use our method to perform calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for models of myoglobin systems bound with O 2 and CO ligands and confirm that the same qualitative behaviour is obtained as when the same myoglobin models are studied with the DFT+U approach which is also available in ONETEP. Finally, we confirm the linear-scaling capability of our method by performing calculations on polyethylene and polyacetylene chains of increasing length

  6. Analysis of the diversity of substrate utilisation of soil bacteria exposed to Cd and earthworm activity using generalised additive models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Muñiz

    Full Text Available Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP, which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs] to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826 and cadmium (Cd on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-. The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata. After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd.

  7. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden)); Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

  8. (AJST) GENERALISED DELETION DESIGNS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    th row if the t-th level is deleted from factor Fj in the preliminary design d-p to obtain d and xss j is an s x s permutation matrix with 1 in the aj - th column of the o-th row. We shall also write j j a j j. * a. cDPDc d j j. ′. ′= (3.2) where cj is a contrast ...

  9. Generalised thermostatistics using hyperensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Naudts, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The hyperensembles, introduced by Crooks in a context of non-equilibrium statistical physics, are considered here as a tool for systems in equilibrium. Simple examples like the ideal gas, the mean-field model, and the Ising interaction on small square lattices, are worked out to illustrate the concepts.

  10. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  11. Universal Limits on Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M

    2004-01-01

    The physical limits to computation have been under active scrutiny over the past decade or two, as theoretical investigations of the possible impact of quantum mechanical processes on computing have begun to make contact with realizable experimental configurations. We demonstrate here that the observed acceleration of the Universe can produce a universal limit on the total amount of information that can be stored and processed in the future, putting an ultimate limit on future technology for any civilization, including a time-limit on Moore's Law. The limits we derive are stringent, and include the possibilities that the computing performed is either distributed or local. A careful consideration of the effect of horizons on information processing is necessary for this analysis, which suggests that the total amount of information that can be processed by any observer is significantly less than the Hawking-Beckenstein entropy associated with the existence of an event horizon in an accelerating universe.

  12. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Koutný, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  13. Noncommutative vector bundles over fuzzy CPN and their covariant derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.; Huet, Idrish; Murray, Sean; O'Connor, Denjoe

    2007-01-01

    We generalise the construction of fuzzy CP N in a manner that allows us to access all noncommutative equivariant complex vector bundles over this space. We give a simplified construction of polarization tensors on S 2 that generalizes to complex projective space, identify Laplacians and natural noncommutative covariant derivative operators that map between the modules that describe noncommuative sections. In the process we find a natural generalization of the Schwinger-Jordan construction to su(n) and identify composite oscillators that obey a Heisenberg algebra on an appropriate Fock space

  14. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  15. Adaptive limit margin detection and limit avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavrucuk, Ilkay

    This thesis concerns the development of methods, algorithms, and control laws for the development of an adaptive flight envelope protection system to be used for both manned and unmanned aircraft. The proposed method lifts the requirement for detailed a priori information of aircraft dynamics by enabling adaptation to system uncertainty. The system can be used for limits that can be either measured or related to selected measurable quantities. Specifically, an adaptive technique for predicting limit margins and calculating the corresponding allowable control or controller command margins of an aircraft is described in an effort to enable true carefree maneuvering. This new approach utilizes adaptive neural network based loops for the approximation of required aircraft dynamics. For limits that reach their maximum value in steady state, a constructed estimator model is used to predict the maneuvering quasi-steady response behavior---the so called dynamic trim---of the limit parameters and the corresponding control or command margins. Linearly Parameterized Neural Networks as well as Single Hidden Layer Neural Networks are used for on-line adaptation. The approach does not require any off-line training of the neural networks, instead all learning is achieved during flight. Lyapunov based weight update laws are derived. The method is extended for multi-channelled control limiting for aircraft subject to multiple limits, and for automatic control and command limiting for UAV's. Simulation evaluations of the method using a linear helicopter model and a nonlinear Generalized Tiltrotor Simulation (GTRSIM) model are presented. Limit avoidance methods are integrated and tested through the implementation of an artificial pilot model and an active-stick controller model for tactile cueing in the tiltrotor simulation, GTRSIM. Load factor, angle-of-attack, and torque limits are considered as examples. Similarly, the method is applied to the Georgia Tech's Yamaha R-Max (GTMax

  16. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, James F.; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Benatar, Michael; Murai, Hiroyuki; Barohn, Richard J.; Illa, Isabel; Jacob, Saiju; Vissing, John; Burns, Ted M.; Kissel, John T.; Muppidi, Srikanth; Nowak, Richard J.; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing-Jing; Mantegazza, Renato; Mazia, Claudio Gabriel; Wilken, Miguel; Ortea, Carolina; Saba, Juliet; Rugiero, Marcelo; Bettini, Mariela; Vidal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Alejandra Dalila; Lamont, Phillipa; Leong, Wai-Kuen; Boterhoven, Heidi; Fyfe, Beverly; Roberts, Leslie; Jasinarachchi, Mahi; Willlems, Natasha; Wanschitz, Julia; Löscher, Wolfgang; de Bleecker, Jan; van den Abeele, Guy; de Koning, Kathy; de Mey, Katrien; Mercelis, Rudy; Wagemaekers, Linda; Mahieu, Delphine; van Damme, Philip; Smetcoren, Charlotte; Stevens, Olivier; Verjans, Sarah; D'Hondt, Ann; Tilkin, Petra; Alves de Siqueira Carvalho, Alzira; Hasan, Rosa; Dias Brockhausen, Igor; Feder, David; Ambrosio, Daniel; Melo, Ana Paula; Rocha, Rosana; Rosa, Bruno; Veiga, Thabata; Augusto da Silva, Luiz; Gonçalves Geraldo, Jordana; da Penha Morita Ananias, Maria; Nogueira Coelho, Erica; Paiva, Gabriel; Pozo, Marina; Prando, Natalia; Dada Martineli Torres, Debora; Fernanda Butinhao, Cristiani; Coelho, Erica; Renata Cubas Volpe, Luciana; Duran, Gustavo; Gomes da Silva, Tamires Cristina; Otavio Maia Gonçalves, Luiz; Pazetto, Lucas Eduardo; Souza Duca, Luciana; Suriane Fialho, Tomás Augusto; Gheller Friedrich, Maurício André; Guerreiro, Alexandre; Mohr, Henrique; Pereira Martins, Maurer; da Cruz Pacheco, Daiane; Macagnan, Ana Paula; de Cassia Santos, Aline; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Amaral de Andrade, Ana Carolina; Annes, Marcelo; Cavalcante Lino, Valeria; Pinto, Wladimir; Miranda, Carolina; Carrara, Fernanda; Souza, Iandra; Genge, Angela; Massie, Rami; Campbell, Natasha; Bril, Vera; Katzberg, Hans; Soltani, Mehran; Ng, Eduardo; Siddiqi, Zaeem; Phan, Celile; Blackmore, Derrick; Vohanka, Stanislav; Bednarik, Josef; Chmelikova, Magda; Cierny, Marek; Toncrova, Stanislava; Junkerova, Jana; Kurkova, Barbora; Reguliova, Katarina; Zapletalova, Olga; Pitha, Jiri; Novakova, Iveta; Tyblova, Michaela; Wolfova, Marcela; Jurajdova, Ivana; Andersen, Henning; Harbo, Thomas; Vinge, Lotte; Mogensen, Anita; Højgaard, Joan; Witting, Nanna; Autzen, Anne Mette; Pedersen, Jane; Färkkilä, Markus; Atula, Sari; Nyrhinen, Anne; Erälinna, Juha-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Oksaranta, Olli; Eriksson, Jaana; Harrison, Tuula; Desnuelle, Claude; Sacconi, Sabrina; Soriani, Marie-Hélène; Decressac, Sonia; Moutarde, Julie; Lahaut, Pauline; Solé, Guilhem; Le Masson, Gwendal; Wielanek-Bachelet, Anne-Cécile; Gaboreau, Morgane; Moreau, Caroline; Wilson, Amy; Vial, Christophe; Bouhour, Françoise; Gervais-Bernard, Helene; Merle, Hélène; Hourquin, Caroline; Lacour, Arnaud; Outteryck, Olivier; Vermersch, Patrick; Zephir, Hélène; Millois, Edouard; Deneve, Michel; Deruelle, Fabienne; Schoser, Benedikt; Wenninger, Stephan; Stangel, Martin; Alvermann, Sascha; Gingele, Stefan; Skripuletz, Thomas; Suehs, Kurt-Wolfram; Trebst, Corinna; Fricke, Karin; Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Bostantzopoulou, Sevasti; Vlaikidis, Nicholas; Zampaki, Martha; Papadopoulou, Nikoletta; Mitsikostas, Dimos-Dimitrios; Kasioti, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Efstathia; Charalambous, Despoina; Rozsa, Csilla; Horvath, Melinda; Lovas, Gabor; Matolcsi, Judit; Szabo, Gyorgyi; Szabadosne, Brigitta; Vecsei, Laszlo; Dezsi, Livia; Varga, Edina; Konyane, Monika; Gross, Bella; Azrilin, Olga; Greenbereg, Nelly; Bali Kuperman, Hila; Antonini, Giovanni; Garibaldi, Matteo; Morino, Stefania; Troili, Fernanda; Di Pasquale, Antonella; Filla, Alessandro; Costabile, Teresa; Marano, Enrico; Sacca, Francesco; Marsil, Angela; Puorro, Giorgia; Maestri Tassoni, Michelangelo; de Rosa, Anna; Bonanno, Silvia; Antozzi, Carlo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Campanella, Angela; Angelini, Corrado; Cudia, Paola; Pegoraro, Valentina; Pinzan, Elena; Bevilacqua, Francesca; Orrico, Daniele; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Evoli, Amelia; Alboini, Paolo Emilio; D'Amato, Valentina; Iorio, Raffaele; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Fionda, Laura; Frasca, Vittorio; Giacomelli, Elena; Gori, Maria; Lopergolo, Diego; Onesti, Emanuela; Gabriele, Maria; Patti, Francesco; Salvatore Caramma, Andrea; Messina, Silvia; Reggio, Ester; Caserta, Cinzia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kanai, Tetsuya; Mori, Masahiro; Kaneko, Yoko; Kanzaki, Akiko; Kobayashi, Eri; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Matsuse, Dai; Matsushita, Takuya; Uehara, Taira; Shimpo, Misa; Jingu, Maki; Kikutake, Keiko; Nakamura, Yumiko; Sano, Yoshiko; Nagane, Yuriko; Kamegamori, Ikuko; Fujii, Yuko; Futono, Kazumi; Tsuda, Tomoko; Saito, Yuka; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Morikawa, Miyuki; Samukawa, Makoto; Kamakura, Sachiko; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Mitazaki, Teiichiro; Motomura, Masakatsu; Mukaino, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Shunsuke; Asada, Shizuka; Kobashikawa, Tomomi; Koga, Megumi; Maeda, Yasuko; Takada, Kazumi; Takada, Mihoko Takada; Yamashita, Yumi; Yoshida, Seiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Akiyama, Tetsuya; Narikawa, Koichi; Tsukita, Kenichi; Meguro, Fumie; Fukuda, Yusuke; Sato, Miwako; Matsuo, Hidenori; Fukudome, Takayasu; Gondo, Yuichiro; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Nagaishi, Akiko; Nakane, Shunya; Okubo, Yoshinori; Okumura, Meinoshin; Funaka, Soichiro; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Makamori, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masanori; Hasuike, Tomoya; Higuchi, Eriko; Kobayashi, Hisako; Osakada, Kaori; Taichi, Namie; Tsuda, Emiko; Hayashi, Takashi; Hisahara, Shin; Imai, Tomihiro; Kawamata, Jun; Murahara, Takashi; Saitoh, Masaki; Shimohama, Shun; Suzuki, Shuichiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Konno, Shingo; Imamura, Tomomi; Inoue, Masashi; Murata, Mayumi; Nakazora, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Ritsu; Ikeda, Yasuko; Ogawa, Miki; Shirane, Maoko; Kanda, Takashi; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Junichi; Omoto, Masatoshi; Sano, Yasuteru; Arima, Hideki; Fukui, Sachie; Shimose, Shigemi; Shinozaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Chieko; van der Kooi, Anneke; de Visser, Marianne; Gibson, Tamar; Maessen, Jos; de Baets, Marc; Faber, Catherine; Keijzers, Maria Johanna; Miesen, Monique; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kaminska, Anna; Kim, Byung-Jo; Lee, Chang Nyoung; Koo, Yong Seo; Seok, Hung Youl; Kang, Hoo Nam; Ra, HyeJin; Kim, Byoung Joon; Cho, Eun Bin; Lee, HyeLim; Min, Ju-Hong; Seok, Jinmyoung; Koh, Da Yoon; Kwon, JuYoung; Lee, JiEun; Park, SangAe; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, MiRi; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Yool-Hee; Lee, Hyung Seok; Shin, Ha Young; Hwang, Eun Bi; Shin, MiJu; Sazonov, Denis; Yarmoschuk, Asya; Babenko, Larisa; Malkova, Nadezhda; Melnikova, Anna; Korobko, Denis; Kosykh, Evgeniya; Pokhabov, Dmitry; Nesterova, Yulia; Abramov, Vladislav; Balyazin, Victor; Casasnovas Pons, Carlos; Alberti Aguilo, Maria; Homedes-Pedret, Christian; Palacios, Natalia Julia; Lazaro, Ana; Diez Tejedor, Exuperio; Fernandez-Fournier, Mireya; Lopez Ruiz, Pedro; Rodriguez de Rivera, Francisco Javier; Salvado Figueras, Maria; Gamez, Josep; Salvado, Maria; Cortes Vicente, Elena; Diaz-Manera, Jordi; Querol Gutierrez, Luis; Rojas Garcia, Ricardo; Vidal, Nuria; Arribas-Ibar, Elisabet; Piehl, Fredrik; Hietala, Albert; Bjarbo, Lena; Lindberg, Christopher; Jons, Daniel; Andersson, Blanka; Sengun, Ihsan; Ozcelik, Pinar; Tuga, Celal; Ugur, Muzeyyen; Boz, Cavit; Altiparmak, Didem; Gazioglu, Sibel; Ozen Aydin, Cigdem; Erdem-Ozdamar, Sevim; Bekircan-Kurt, Can Ebru; Yilmaz, Ezgi; Acar, Nazire Pinar; Caliskan, Yagmur; Efendi, Husnu; Aydinlik, Seda; Cavus, Hakan; Semiz, Cansu; Tun, Ozlem; Terzi, Murat; Dogan, Baki; Onar, Musa Kazim; Sen, Sedat; Cavdar, Tugce Kirbas; Norwood, Fiona; Dimitriou, Aikaterini; Gollogly, Jakit; Mahdi-Rogers, Mohamed; Seddigh, Arshira; Maier, Gal; Sohail, Faisal; Sathasivam, Sivakumar; Arndt, Heike; Davies, Debbie; Watling, Dave; Rivner, Michael; Hartmann, J. Edward; Quarles, Brandy; Smalley, Nicole; Amato, Anthony; Cochrane, Thomas; Salajegheh, Mohammed; Roe, Kristen; Amato, Katherine; Toska, Shirli; Wolfe, Gil; Silvestri, Nicholas; Patrick, Kara; Zakalik, Karen; Katz, Jonathan; Miller, Robert; Engel, Marguerite; Bravver, Elena; Brooks, Benjamin; Plevka, Sarah; Burdette, Maryanne; Sanjak, Mohammad; Kramer, Megan; Nemeth, Joanne; Schommer, Clara; Juel, Vern; Guptill, Jeffrey; Hobson-Webb, Lisa; Beck, Kate; Carnes, Donna; Loor, John; Anderson, Amanda; Lange, Dale; Agopian, Eliz; Goldstein, Jonathan; Manning, Erin; Kaplan, Lindsay; Holzberg, Shara; Kassebaum, Nicole; Pascuzzi, Robert; Bodkin, Cynthia; Kincaid, John; Snook, Riley; Guinrich, Sandra; Micheels, Angela; Chaudhry, Vinay; Corse, Andrea; Mosmiller, Betsy; Ho, Doreen; Srinivasan, Jayashri; Vytopil, Michael; Ventura, Nicholas; Scala, Stephanie; Carter, Cynthia; Donahue, Craig; Herbert, Carol; Weiner, Elaine; McKinnon, Jonathan; Haar, Laura; McKinnon, Naya; Alcon, Karan; Daniels, Kevin; Sattar, Nadia; Jeffery, Dennis; McKenna, Kaitlyn; Guidon, Amanda; David, William; Dheel, Christina; Levine-Weinberg, Mark; Nigro, Catherine; Simpson, Ericka; Appel, Stanley H.; Lai, Eugene; Lay, Luis; Pleitez, Milvia; Halton, Sharon; Faigle, Casey; Thompson, Lisa; Sivak, Mark; Shin, Susan; Bratton, Joan; Jacobs, Daniel; Brown, Gavin; Bandukwala, Ibrez; Brown, Morris; Kane, Jennifer; Blount, Ira; Freimer, Miriam; Hoyle, J. Chad; Agriesti, Julie; Khoury, Julie; Marburger, Tessa; Kaur, Harpreet; Dimitrova, Diana; Mellion, Michelle; Sachs, George; Crabtree, Brigid; Keo, Roseann; Perez, Ele Kim; Taber, Sandra; Gilchrist, James; Andoin, Angela; Darnell, Taylor; Goyal, Neelam; Sakamuri, Sarada; So, Yuen T.; Welsh, Lesly Welsh; Bhavaraju-Sanka, Ratna; Tobon Gonzalez, Alejandro; Jones, Floyd; Saklad, Amy; Nations, Sharon; Trivedi, Jaya; Hopkins, Steve; Kazamel, Mohamed; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Lu, Liang; Mumfrey-Thomas, Sandi; Woodall, Amy; Richman, David; Butters, Janelle; Lindsay, Molly; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Cash, Tiyonnoh; Goyal, Namita; Roy, Gulmohor; Mathew, Veena; Maqsood, Fatima; Minton, Brian; Jones, H. James; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Garcia, Rebekah; Garcia, Sonia; Echevarria, Laura; Pulley, Michael; Aranke, Shachie; Berger, Alan Ross; Shah, Jaimin; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Smith, Lisa; Varghese, Mary; Gutmann, Laurie; Gutmann, Ludwig; Swenson, Andrea; Olalde, Heena; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Kwan, Justin; Zilliox, Lindsay; Callison, Karen; DiSanzo, Beth; Naunton, Kerry; Bilsker, Martin; Sharma, Khema; Reyes, Eliana; Cooley, Anne; Michon, Sara-Claude; Steele, Julie; Karam, Chafic Karam; Chopra, Manisha; Bird, Shawn; Kaufman, Jacob; Gallatti, Nichole; Vu, Tuan; Katzin, Lara; McClain, Terry; Harvey, Brittany; Hart, Adam; Huynh, Kristin; Beydoun, Said; Chilingaryan, Amaiak; Droker, Brian; Lin, Frank; Shah, Akshay; Tran, Anh; Akhter, Salma; Malekniazi, Ali; Tandan, Rup; Hehir, Michael; Waheed, Waqar; Lucy, Shannon; Weiss, Michael; Distad, Jane; Downing, Sharon; Strom, Susan; Lisak, Robert; Bernitsas, Evanthia; Khan, Omar; Kumar Sriwastava, Shitiz; Tselis, Alexandros; Jia, Kelly; Bertorini, Tulio; Arnold, Thomas; Henderson, Kendrick; Pillai, Rekha; Liu, Ye; Wheeler, Lauren; Hewlett, Jasmine; Vanderhook, Mollie; Dicapua, Daniel; Keung, Benison; Kumar, Aditya; Patwa, Huned; Robeson, Kimberly; Nye, Joan; Vu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with

  17. Major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder, and generalised anxiety disorder among emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A

    2016-10-01

    Despite the considerable physical, emotional and social change that occurs during emerging adulthood, there is little research that examines the association between having a chronic health condition and mental disorder during this developmental period. The aims of this study were to examine the sex-specific prevalence of lifetime mental disorder in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults aged 15-30 years with and without chronic health conditions; quantify the association between chronic health conditions and mental disorder, adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors; and, examine potential moderating and mediating effects of sex, level of disability and pain. Data come from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Respondents were 15-30 years of age (n = 5947) and self-reported whether they had a chronic health condition. Chronic health conditions were classified as: respiratory, musculoskeletal/connective tissue, cardiovascular, neurological and endocrine/digestive. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was used to assess the presence of mental disorder (major depressive disorder, suicidal behaviour, bipolar disorder and generalised anxiety disorder). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorder was significantly higher for individuals with chronic health conditions compared with healthy controls. Substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence of mental disorder was found in males, but not in females. Logistic regression models adjusting for several sociodemographic and health factors showed that the individuals with chronic health conditions were at elevated risk for mental disorder. There was no evidence that the level of disability or pain moderated the associations between chronic health conditions and mental disorder. Sex was found to moderate the association between musculoskeletal/connective tissue conditions and bipolar disorder (β = 1.71, p = 0.002). Exploratory analyses suggest that the levels of

  18. A Generalised Assessment of Working Fluids and Radial Turbines for Non-Recuperated Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T. White

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to conduct a generalised assessment of both optimal working fluids and radial turbine designs for small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems across a range of heat-source temperatures. The former has been achieved by coupling a thermodynamic model of subcritical, non-recperated cycles with the Peng–Robinson equation of state, and optimising the working-fluid and cycle parameters for heat-source temperatures ranging between 80 ° C and 360 ° C . The critical temperature of the working fluid is found to be an important parameter governing working-fluid selection. Moreover, a linear correlation between heat-source temperature and the optimal critical temperature that achieves maximum power output has been found for heat-source temperatures below 300 ° C ( T cr = 0.830 T hi + 41.27 . This correlation has been validated against cycle calculations completed for nine predefined working fluids using both the Peng–Robinson equation of state and using the REFPROP program. Ultimately, this simple correlation can be used to identify working-fluid candidates for a specific heat-source temperature. In the second half of this paper, the effect of the heat-source temperature on the optimal design of a radial-inflow turbine rotor for a 25 kW subcritical ORC system has been studied. As the heat-source temperature increases, the optimal blade-loading coefficient increases, whilst the optimal flow coefficient reduces. Furthermore, passage losses are dominant in turbines intended for low-temperature applications. However, at higher heat-source temperatures, clearance losses become more dominant owing to the reduced blade heights. This information can be used to identify the most direct route to efficiency improvements in these machines. Finally, it is observed that the transition from a conventional converging stator to a converging-diverging stator occurs at heat-source temperatures of approximately 165 ° C , whilst radially

  19. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus usual care in daily practice in the treatment of refractory generalised anxiety disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salas-Cansado, Marina; Álvarez, Enrique; Olivares, José M; Carrasco, Jose L; Ferro, M Belén; Rejas, Javier

    2013-06-01

    To model the cost-effectiveness (CEA) of the use of pregabalin versus usual care (UC) in outpatients with refractory generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) treated in daily practice in mental health settings in Spain. This CEA model used data extracted from a 6-month prospective non-interventional trial: the Amplification of Definition of ANxiety (ADAN) study, which was conducted to determine the cost-of-illness in GAD subjects. Refractory subjects were those who reported persistent symptoms of anxiety and showed suboptimal response in the Hamilton-anxiety scale (HAM-A ≥ 16) after a standard dose regimen of anxiolytics other than pregabalin, alone or in combination, over 6 months. The pregabalin arm was documented with data extracted from patients who received pregabalin in the study for the first time, added or replacing the existing therapy. In the UC arm, treatment might include one or more of the following: a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, other anti-depressants, a benzodiazepine or an anti-epileptic drug other than pregabalin. The time horizon of the modelling was 6 months in the base-case scenario, and the National Health System perspective was chosen to calculate costs. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, which were derived using the EQ-5D questionnaire, at baseline and end-of-trial visits. Results of the CEA model was expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrapping techniques was also carried out to obtain the cost-effectiveness plane and the corresponding acceptability curve. Data from a total of 429 subjects per arm (mean HAM-A score 25.7) meeting eligible criteria for inclusion in CEA modelling were extracted from the original trial. Compared with UC, pregabalin (average dose 218 mg/day) was associated with significantly higher QALY gain; 0.1209 ± 0.1030 versus 0.0994

  20. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  1. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...

  2. Age Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Antfolk

    2017-01-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men—regardless of their age—have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes’ age preferences is resolved according to women’s preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in...

  3. Development and validation of self-reported line drawings of the modified Beighton score for the assessment of generalised joint hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dale J; Scammell, Brigitte E; Batt, Mark E; Palmer, Debbie

    2018-01-17

    The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants' on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen's kappa (k). Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00). Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00). The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00). Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91) and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00). The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological studies.

  4. Assessing the effect of a partly unobserved, exogenous, binary time-dependent covariate on survival probabilities using generalised pseudo-values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pötschger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating the impact of a time-dependent intervention on the probability of long-term survival is statistically challenging. A typical example is stem-cell transplantation performed after successful donor identification from registered donors. Here, a suggested simple analysis based on the exogenous donor availability status according to registered donors would allow the estimation and comparison of survival probabilities. As donor search is usually ceased after a patient’s event, donor availability status is incompletely observed, so that this simple comparison is not possible and the waiting time to donor identification needs to be addressed in the analysis to avoid bias. It is methodologically unclear, how to directly address cumulative long-term treatment effects without relying on proportional hazards while avoiding waiting time bias. Methods The pseudo-value regression technique is able to handle the first two issues; a novel generalisation of this technique also avoids waiting time bias. Inverse-probability-of-censoring weighting is used to account for the partly unobserved exogenous covariate donor availability. Results Simulation studies demonstrate unbiasedness and satisfying coverage probabilities of the new method. A real data example demonstrates that study results based on generalised pseudo-values have a clear medical interpretation which supports the clinical decision making process. Conclusions The proposed generalisation of the pseudo-value regression technique enables to compare survival probabilities between two independent groups where group membership becomes known over time and remains partly unknown. Hence, cumulative long-term treatment effects are directly addressed without relying on proportional hazards while avoiding waiting time bias.

  5. Generalised joint hypermobility and shoulder joint hypermobility, - risk of upper body musculoskeletal symptoms and reduced quality of life in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Østengaard, Lasse; Hansen, Sebrina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is a hereditary condition with an ability to exceed the joints beyond the normal range. The prevalence of GJH in the adult population and its impact on upper body musculoskeletal health and quality of life has mostly been studied in selected....../wrists), and 1.5-3.5 for reduced HRQoL (all dimensions, but anxiety/depression) compared with NGJH. Generally, most OR for GJHS were about twice as high as for those having GJH alone. CONCLUSIONS: GJH and GJHS are frequently self-reported musculoskeletal conditions in the Danish adult population. Compared...

  6. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  7. Diffusion-limited mixing by incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher J.; Doering, Charles R.

    2018-05-01

    Incompressible flows can be effective mixers by appropriately advecting a passive tracer to produce small filamentation length scales. In addition, diffusion is generally perceived as beneficial to mixing due to its ability to homogenize a passive tracer. However we provide numerical evidence that, in cases where advection and diffusion are both actively present, diffusion may produce negative effects by limiting the mixing effectiveness of incompressible optimal flows. This limitation appears to be due to the presence of a limiting length scale given by a generalised Batchelor length (Batchelor 1959 J. Fluid Mech. 5 113–33). This length scale limitation may in turn affect long-term mixing rates. More specifically, we consider local-in-time flow optimisation under energy and enstrophy flow constraints with the objective of maximising the mixing rate. We observe that, for enstrophy-bounded optimal flows, the strength of diffusion may not impact the long-term mixing rate. For energy-constrained optimal flows, however, an increase in the strength of diffusion can decrease the mixing rate. We provide analytical lower bounds on mixing rates and length scales achievable under related constraints (point-wise bounded speed and rate-of-strain) by extending the work of Lin et al (2011 J. Fluid Mech. 675 465–76) and Poon (1996 Commun. PDE 21 521–39).

  8. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    , postgraduate qualification or MBA programme. This book also caters for practicing managers and executives who need to understand current developments in global derivatives markets and require cutting-edge insight on strategic risk management issues. Dr Torben Juul Andersen is currently Associate Professor...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  9. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  10. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  11. dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dione derivatives via de-Boc and cyclization reaction in modest yield. Spectroscopic (1H, 13C NMR, and Mass) and analytical techniques have been used to identify and confirm the structure of the products. Keywords. Triflic anhydride; Boc anhydride; Negishi coupling; acid-amine coupling; cyclization reaction; cytotoxicity ...

  12. Age Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  13. Age Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antfolk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men—regardless of their age—have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes’ age preferences is resolved according to women’s preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years. Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men’s age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men’s sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  14. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  15. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  16. Development and validation of self-reported line drawings of the modified Beighton score for the assessment of generalised joint hypermobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale J. Cooper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impracticalities and comparative expense of carrying out a clinical assessment is an obstacle in many large epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a series of electronic self-reported line drawing instruments based on the modified Beighton scoring system for the assessment of self-reported generalised joint hypermobility. Methods Five sets of line drawings were created to depict the 9-point Beighton score criteria. Each instrument consisted of an explanatory question whereby participants were asked to select the line drawing which best represented their joints. Fifty participants completed the self-report online instrument on two occasions, before attending a clinical assessment. A blinded expert clinical observer then assessed participants’ on two occasions, using a standardised goniometry measurement protocol. Validity of the instrument was assessed by participant-observer agreement and reliability by participant repeatability and observer repeatability using unweighted Cohen’s kappa (k. Validity and reliability were assessed for each item in the self-reported instrument separately, and for the sum of the total scores. An aggregate score for generalised joint hypermobility was determined based on a Beighton score of 4 or more out of 9. Results Observer-repeatability between the two clinical assessments demonstrated perfect agreement (k 1.00; 95% CI 1.00, 1.00. Self-reported participant-repeatability was lower but it was still excellent (k 0.91; 95% CI 0.74, 1.00. The participant-observer agreement was excellent (k 0.96; 95% CI 0.87, 1.00. Validity was excellent for the self-report instrument, with a good sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91 and excellent specificity of 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00. Conclusions The self-reported instrument provides a valid and reliable assessment of the presence of generalised joint hypermobility and may have practical use in epidemiological

  17. Cationic metallocene polymerization catalysts based on tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate and its derivatives. Probing the limits of anion `noncoordination` via a synthetic, solution dynamic, structural, and catalytic olefin polymerization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, L.; Yang, X.; Stern, C.L.; Marks, T.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1997-03-04

    The silyl-functionalized/protected derivatives of the tetrakis(perfluoroaryl)borate anions, B(C{sub 6}F{sub 4}TBS){sub 4}{sup -} and B(C{sub 6}F{sub 4}TIPS){sub 4}{sup -} (TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl and TIPS = triisopropylsilyl) have been synthesized, and a series of stable, highly reactive Zr and Th ion-paired methyl and hydride catalysts have been isolated using these anions. In contrast, the analogous B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -}-based zirconocene methyl complexes are not stable at room temperature; however, B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -}-based zirconocene hydride complexes can be isolated. The relative coordinative ability of the series of fluoroarylborates with respect to metallocene cations has been evaluated on the basis of spectroscopic and reactivity data. The polymerization activity of the zirconocene catalysts reaches a maximum when B(C{sub 6}F{sub 4}TBS){sub 4}{sup -} and B(C{sub 6}F{sub 4}TIPS){sub 4}{sup -} are counteranions, and the polymerization activity of the Zr constrained geometry catalyst reaches a maximum in aromatic solvents due to arene coordination when B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -} is the counteranion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Deformable fractional derivative and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Priyanka; Zulfeqarr, Fahed; Ujlayan, Amit

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce an application of recently proposed deformable derivative which is equivalent to ordinary derivative in the sense that one implies other. The deformable derivative is defined using limit approach as ordinary derivative. Thus it could also be regarded as fractional derivative. The simple nature of this definition allows us for the extension of some classical theorems in calculus like the Rolles, Mean Value and Extended Mean Value theorems. As a theoritical application some fractional differentiable equations are solved.

  19. The inclusion of π functions in the treatment of low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering by a generalisation of the Kohn method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the application of a generalisation of the Kohn method to low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering, up to 31 short-range correlation functions, made up of one-particle functions of σ symmetry, were included in the trial function. In the calculation described in this paper, the flexibility of the trial function is greatly improved by the inclusion of up to 64-short-range correlation functions of which 32 contain products of one-particle functions of π symmetry. The behaviour of the phaseshift values with increasing incident energy is qualitatively similar to the behaviour of the corresponding S-wave phaseshifts in low-energy positron-helium scattering. Comparison with experiment indicates that the results reproduce qualitatively the experimental trend at very low energies but higher partial waves must make a significant contribution to the total cross section above about 0.1 eV. (author)

  20. What Feynman could not yet use: the generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to improve the QED explanation of the Pauli exclusion principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in ‘QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter’ and improve it by discussing with students modern experimental evidence from the famous Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with indistinguishable photons and its generalised version using electrons. The experiments can be analysed in a rather simple way using Feynman’s method of ‘arrow multiplication’ for treating processes involving more than one quantum object. The approach described is especially relevant in the formation of high school physics teachers to the basics of modern physics.

  1. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio with sorghum silage as a source of forage on rumen fermentation, N balance, and purine derivative excretion in limit-fed dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljak, K; Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum silage has been shown to be a good alternative to corn silage for dairy cows; however, studies regarding heifers are insufficiently explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of changing forage to concentrate ratio (FOR:CON) in diets based on sorghum silage on N digestibility, rumen fermentation, N balance, C excretion, and microbial N yield in limit-fed dairy heifers. A split-plot 4×4 Latin square design with 19-d periods (15 d of adaptation and 4 d of sampling) was conducted with 8 rumen cannulated dairy heifers (age 13.7±0.6mo and weight 364.8±17.6kg). Heifers were fed sorghum silage-based diets with 4 FOR:CON (85:15, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45) balanced for similar metabolizable energy intake per unit of body weight and crude protein concentration. Diets were fed to allow 900 to 1,000g/d body weight gain and were fed once daily. Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine N, C, urea N, allantoin, uric acid, and creatinine excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 19 at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 13, 17, 21, and 23h after feeding to measure pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), ammonia-N, and free AA concentrations. The pH decreased linearly while ammonia-N and free AA levels increased linearly with decreasing FOR:CON of diets. Although mean total VFA did not differ among treatment diets, molar proportions of VFA did. Acetate proportion decreased while propionate and butyrate increased with decreasing FOR:CON. Intake of N and urea N excretion decreased with decreasing forage proportion in diets while total N excretion, apparent N digestibility, and N retention were not different. Intake of C and excretion in feces (g/d) decreased linearly with decreasing FOR:CON in diets. Creatinine, allantoin, and uric acid excretion were not affected by FOR:CON; however, microbial N yield tended to increase linearly with greater concentrate in diets. Heifers limit fed diets based on sorghum silage demonstrated the

  2. Comparison and Limitations of DVH-Based NTCP Models Derived From 3D-CRT and IMRT Data for Prediction of Gastrointestinal Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients by Using Propensity Score Matched Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeller, Almut [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Yan, Di, E-mail: dyan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Schulze, Derek [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Parodi, Katia [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus; Söhn, Matthias [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: This study compared normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling of chronic gastrointestinal toxicities following prostate cancer treatment for 2 treatment modalities. Possible factors causing discrepancies in optimal NTCP model parameters between 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated RT (IMRT) were analyzed and discussed, including the impact of patient characteristics, image guidance, toxicity scoring bias, and NTCP model limitations. Methods and Materials: Rectal wall dose-volume histograms of 1115 patients treated for prostate cancer under an adaptive radiation therapy protocol were used to model gastrointestinal toxicity grade ≥2 (according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). A total of 457 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 658 with IMRT. 3D-CRT patients were matched to IMRT patients based on various patient characteristics, using a propensity score–based algorithm. Parameters of the Lyman equivalent uniform dose and cut-off dose logistic regression NTCP models were estimated for the 2 matched treatment modalities and the combined group. Results: After they were matched, the 3D-CRT and IMRT groups contained 275 and 550 patients with a large discrepancy of 28.7% versus 7.8% toxicities, respectively (P<.001). For both NTCP models, optimal parameters found for the 3D-CRT groups did not fit the IMRT patients well and vice versa. Models developed for the combined data overestimated NTCP for the IMRT patients and underestimated NTCP for the 3D-CRT group. Conclusions: Our analysis did not reveal a single definitive cause for discrepancies of model parameters between 3D-CRT and IMRT. Patient characteristics and bias in toxicity scoring, as well as image guidance alone, are unlikely causes of the large discrepancy of toxicities. Whether the cause was inherent to the specific NTCP models used in this study needs to be verified by future investigations. Because IMRT is increasingly used

  3. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James F; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Benatar, Michael; Murai, Hiroyuki; Barohn, Richard J; Illa, Isabel; Jacob, Saiju; Vissing, John; Burns, Ted M; Kissel, John T; Muppidi, Srikanth; Nowak, Richard J; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing-Jing; Mantegazza, Renato

    2017-12-01

    Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in this patient population in a phase 3 trial. We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (REGAIN) in 76 hospitals and specialised clinics in 17 countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) score of 6 or more, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class II-IV disease, vaccination against Neisseria meningitides, and previous treatment with at least two immunosuppressive therapies or one immunosuppressive therapy and chronic intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange for 12 months without symptom control. Patients with a history of thymoma or thymic neoplasms, thymectomy within 12 months before screening, or use of intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange within 4 weeks before randomisation, or rituximab within 6 months before screening, were excluded. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either intravenous eculizumab or intravenous matched placebo for 26 weeks. Dosing for eculizumab was 900 mg on day 1 and at weeks 1, 2, and 3; 1200 mg at week 4; and 1200 mg given every second week thereafter as maintenance dosing. Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive voice or web-response system with patients stratified to one of four groups based on MGFA disease classification. Where possible, patients were maintained on existing myasthenia gravis therapies and rescue medication was allowed at the study physician's discretion. Patients, investigators

  4. Belief in a just world, generalised self-efficacy and stigma may contribute to unsafe sexual intentions via a reduced perception of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS amongst young people in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gerard A; Baah-Odoom, Dinah

    2012-01-01

    Complacency about one's HIV risk status may reduce the intention to practise safe sex. It was hypothesised that belief in a just world and stigmatising attitudes may contribute to complacency and thereby have a negative impact on safe sex intention. A sample of 238 young people in Ghana, ranging in age from 14 to 22, completed the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale and the Belief in a Just World Scales for Self and Other, together with self-report measures of stigmatising attitudes, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and intentions to practise safe sex. Mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that stigma and just world beliefs may have a negative impact on safe sex intention that is mediated by a reduced perception of vulnerability. It was also found that generalised self-efficacy beliefs had a similar mediated impact. Each of the three factors had a mediated impact that was relatively independent of the other two factors. In addition, stigma had a negative direct (unmediated) effect on safe sex intention (i.e., more stigma was associated with reduced safe sex intention); but generalised self-efficacy beliefs had a positive direct effect (i.e., greater belief was associated with increased safe sex intention). The study replicates some previous research about stigma, and provides new evidence about the role of just world and generalised self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for public health programmes are discussed.

  5. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  6. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  7. Confidence limits for Neyman type A-distributed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, J.; Deperas-Standylo, J.; Urbanik, W.; Moss, R.; Hachem, S.; Sauerwein, W.; Wojcik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Neyman type A distribution, a generalised, 'contagious' Poisson distribution, finds application in a number of disciplines such as biology, physics and economy. In radiation biology, it best describes the distribution of chromosomal aberrations in cells that were exposed to neutrons, alpha radiations or heavy ions. Intriguingly, no method has been developed for the calculation of confidence limits (CLs) of Neyman type A-distributed events. Here, an algorithm to calculate the 95% CL of Neyman type A-distributed events is presented. Although it has been developed in response to the requirements of radiation biology, it can find application in other fields of research. The algorithm has been implemented in a PC-based computer program that can be downloaded, free of charge, from www.pu.kielce.pl/ibiol/neta. (authors)

  8. Behaviour change in generalised HIV epidemics: impact of reducing cross-generational sex and delaying age at sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, T B; Gregson, S; Lewis, J J C; Lopman, B A; Garnett, G P

    2007-08-01

    Sexual behavioural change is essential to prevent HIV infections in Africa and statistical analysis of risk factors at the individual-level may be used to design interventions. The importance of reducing cross-generational sex (young women having sex with older men) and delaying age at first sex on the spread of HIV at the population-level has been presumed but not scientifically investigated and quantified. A mathematical model of heterosexual spread of HIV was developed to predict the population-level impact of reducing cross-generational sex and delaying sexual debut. The impact of behaviour change on the spread of HIV is sensitive to the structure and reaction of the sexual network. Reducing cross-generational sex could have little impact on the risk of infection unless it is accompanied by a reduction in the number of risky sexual contacts. Even peer-to-peer sexual mixing can support high endemic levels of HIV. The benefit of delaying sexual debut is comparatively small and is reduced if males continue to prefer young partners or if young women spend more time unmarried. In Manicaland, Zimbabwe, if older men were to use condoms as frequently as young men, the reduction in risk of infection could exceed that generated by a two-year delay in first sex. At the individual-level avoiding sex with older partners and delaying sexual debut can decrease the risk of infection but at the population-level these interventions may do little to limit the spread of HIV without wider-ranging behavioural changes throughout the sexual network.

  9. Dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang

    1993-01-01

    Most physical quantities we are interested in are derived from some directly measured physical quantities. To obtain correct least-square result in derived quantity space, one must pay attention to inconsistencies problem to avoid ppp phenomenon in generating derived quantities and their covariance matrix. The situation is complicated by the problems of dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities. Some more general problems, which are independent of ppp, are discussed

  10. Analysis of PDE6D and PDE6G genes for generalised progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA mutations in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekomien Gabriele

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The δ and γ subunits of the cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE6D, PDE6G genes were screened in order to identify mutations causing generalised progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA in dogs. In the PDE6D gene, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were observed in exon 4, in introns 2 and 3 and in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of different dog breeds. In the coding region of the PDE6G gene, exclusively healthy Labrador Retrievers showed an A → G transition in exon 4 without amino acid exchange. SNP were also observed in introns 1 and 2 in different dog breeds. The different SNP were used as intragenic markers to investigate the involvement of both genes in gPRA. The informative substitutions allowed us to exclude mutations in the PDE6D and PDE6G genes as causing retinal degeneration in 15 of the 22 dog breeds with presumed autosomal recessively transmitted (ar gPRA.

  11. A 12-month comparison of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy treatment in subjects with generalised anxiety disorders in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea; Pierò, Andrea; Fassina, Simona; Massola, Tiziana; Lanteri, Antonello; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Fassino, Secondo

    2007-11-01

    Little information is available on the use of brief psychotherapy among subjects with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) within community mental health services. This study compared results among subjects treated with brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy (B-APP), those treated with medication (MED), or those who experienced combined treatment (COM). Symptomatology and occupational functioning were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scales (HAM-A; HAM-D), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) at intake (T1) and at 3, 6, and 12 months later (T3, T6, T12). The study sample included 87 patients with GAD (B-APP 34; MED 33; COM 20), and an ANOVA was applied for analysing repeated measures while controlling for personality disorder. After 6 months, CGI, HAM-A, HAM-D, and SOFAS scores significantly improved independently from the type of treatment. Subjects with personality disorders treated with B-APP exhibited superior results to those treated using other methods only in SOFAS scores at T6. These results were generally maintained at T12. Remission rates among subjects (HAM-A scores APP) at T6 and between 63% (MED) and 78% (COM) at T12; no significant differences appeared between the three treatment groups. A logistic regression model predicted anxiety remission only by CGI at T1. This paper discusses these results in relation to the use of brief psychotherapy within community mental health services.

  12. Nonequilibrium generalised Langevin equation for the calculation of heat transport properties in model 1D atomic chains coupled to two 3D thermal baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, H; Stella, L; Lorenz, C D; Kantorovich, L

    2017-04-28

    We use a generalised Langevin equation scheme to study the thermal transport of low dimensional systems. In this approach, the central classical region is connected to two realistic thermal baths kept at two different temperatures [H. Ness et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 174303 (2016)]. We consider model Al systems, i.e., one-dimensional atomic chains connected to three-dimensional baths. The thermal transport properties are studied as a function of the chain length N and the temperature difference ΔT between the baths. We calculate the transport properties both in the linear response regime and in the non-linear regime. Two different laws are obtained for the linear conductance versus the length of the chains. For large temperatures (T≳500 K) and temperature differences (ΔT≳500 K), the chains, with N>18 atoms, present a diffusive transport regime with the presence of a temperature gradient across the system. For lower temperatures (T≲500 K) and temperature differences (ΔT≲400 K), a regime similar to the ballistic regime is observed. Such a ballistic-like regime is also obtained for shorter chains (N≤15). Our detailed analysis suggests that the behaviour at higher temperatures and temperature differences is mainly due to anharmonic effects within the long chains.

  13. Thermodynamic limits of energy harvesting from outgoing thermal radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-04-17

    We derive the thermodynamic limits of harvesting power from the outgoing thermal radiation from the ambient to the cold outer space. The derivations are based on a duality relation between thermal engines that harvest solar radiation and those that harvest outgoing thermal radiation. In particular, we derive the ultimate limit for harvesting outgoing thermal radiation, which is analogous to the Landsberg limit for solar energy harvesting, and show that the ultimate limit far exceeds what was previously thought to be possible. As an extension of our work, we also derive the ultimate limit of efficiency of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  14. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...

  15. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  16. Modelling the association of dengue fever cases with temperature and relative humidity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia-A generalised linear model with break-point analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever. Break-point analysis was performed to modelled the effect before and after a break-point (change point) in the explanatory parameters under various scenarios. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and cross validation (CV) were used to assess the performance of the models. The results showed that maximum temperature and mean relative humidity are most probably the better predictors of the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. In this study three scenarios were modelled: no time lag, 1-week lag and 2-weeks lag. Among these scenarios, the 1-week lag model using mean relative humidity as an explanatory variable showed better performance. This study showed a clear relationship between the meteorological variables and the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. The results also demonstrated that meteorological variables can be successfully used to estimate the number of dengue fever cases for a given period of time. Break-point analysis provides further insight into the association between meteorological parameters and dengue fever cases by dividing the meteorological parameters into certain break-points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Generalisability and Cost-Impact of Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters for Reducing Risk of Bloodstream Infection in Paediatric Intensive Care Units in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available We determined the generalisability and cost-impact of adopting antibiotic-impregnated CVCs in all paediatric intensive care units (PICUs in England, based on results from a large randomised controlled trial (the CATCH trial; ISRCTN34884569.BSI rates using standard CVCs were estimated through linkage of national PICU audit data (PICANet with laboratory surveillance data. We estimated the number of BSI averted if PICUs switched from standard to antibiotic-impregnated CVCs by applying the CATCH trial rate-ratio (0.40; 95% CI 0.17,0.97 to the BSI rate using standard CVCs. The value of healthcare resources made available by averting one BSI as estimated from the trial economic analysis was £10,975; 95% CI -£2,801,£24,751.The BSI rate using standard CVCs was 4.58 (95% CI 4.42,4.74 per 1000 CVC-days in 2012. Applying the rate-ratio gave 232 BSI averted using antibiotic CVCs. The additional cost of purchasing antibiotic-impregnated compared with standard CVCs was £36 for each child, corresponding to additional costs of £317,916 for an estimated 8831 CVCs required in PICUs in 2012. Based on 2012 BSI rates, management of BSI in PICUs cost £2.5 million annually (95% uncertainty interval: -£160,986, £5,603,005. The additional cost of antibiotic CVCs would be less than the value of resources associated with managing BSI in PICUs with standard BSI rates >1.2 per 1000 CVC-days.The cost of introducing antibiotic-impregnated CVCs is less than the cost associated with managing BSIs occurring with standard CVCs. The long-term benefits of preventing BSI could mean that antibiotic CVCs are cost-effective even in PICUs with extremely low BSI rates.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Global Warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the Last 50 Years Based on a Generalised Temperature Zone - Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Fang, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the primary factors influencing the climate and ecosystem, and examining its change and fluctuation could elucidate the formation of novel climate patterns and trends. In this study, we constructed a generalised temperature zone elevation model (GTEM) to assess the trends of climate change and temporal-spatial differences in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using the annual and monthly mean temperatures from 1961–2010 at 144 meteorological stations in and near the TP. The results showed the following: (1) The TP has undergone robust warming over the study period, and the warming rate was 0.318°C/decade. The warming has accelerated during recent decades, especially in the last 20 years, and the warming has been most significant in the winter months, followed by the spring, autumn and summer seasons. (2) Spatially, the zones that became significantly smaller were the temperature zones of −6°C and −4°C, and these have decreased 499.44 and 454.26 thousand sq km from 1961 to 2010 at average rates of 25.1% and 11.7%, respectively, over every 5-year interval. These quickly shrinking zones were located in the northwestern and central TP. (3) The elevation dependency of climate warming existed in the TP during 1961–2010, but this tendency has gradually been weakening due to more rapid warming at lower elevations than in the middle and upper elevations of the TP during 1991–2010. The higher regions and some low altitude valleys of the TP were the most significantly warming regions under the same categorizing criteria. Experimental evidence shows that the GTEM is an effective method to analyse climate changes in high altitude mountainous regions. PMID:23565182

  19. Generalisability and Cost-Impact of Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters for Reducing Risk of Bloodstream Infection in Paediatric Intensive Care Units in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Mok, Quen; Hughes, Dyfrig; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Parslow, Roger; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We determined the generalisability and cost-impact of adopting antibiotic-impregnated CVCs in all paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in England, based on results from a large randomised controlled trial (the CATCH trial; ISRCTN34884569). BSI rates using standard CVCs were estimated through linkage of national PICU audit data (PICANet) with laboratory surveillance data. We estimated the number of BSI averted if PICUs switched from standard to antibiotic-impregnated CVCs by applying the CATCH trial rate-ratio (0.40; 95% CI 0.17,0.97) to the BSI rate using standard CVCs. The value of healthcare resources made available by averting one BSI as estimated from the trial economic analysis was £10,975; 95% CI -£2,801,£24,751. The BSI rate using standard CVCs was 4.58 (95% CI 4.42,4.74) per 1000 CVC-days in 2012. Applying the rate-ratio gave 232 BSI averted using antibiotic CVCs. The additional cost of purchasing antibiotic-impregnated compared with standard CVCs was £36 for each child, corresponding to additional costs of £317,916 for an estimated 8831 CVCs required in PICUs in 2012. Based on 2012 BSI rates, management of BSI in PICUs cost £2.5 million annually (95% uncertainty interval: -£160,986, £5,603,005). The additional cost of antibiotic CVCs would be less than the value of resources associated with managing BSI in PICUs with standard BSI rates >1.2 per 1000 CVC-days. The cost of introducing antibiotic-impregnated CVCs is less than the cost associated with managing BSIs occurring with standard CVCs. The long-term benefits of preventing BSI could mean that antibiotic CVCs are cost-effective even in PICUs with extremely low BSI rates.

  20. On the generalised stretch function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kharlamov, Alexander A.; Filip, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 272-278 ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : molecular length * recurrence equations * rubber * strain * stretch functions Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.606, year: 2012

  1. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  2. Truchet Tilings and their Generalisations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The range and depth of Cyril Stanley Smith's erudition was astonishing. Apart from being one of the most creative metallur- gists of the twentieth century, he was also an eminent historian of science and technology. The aesthetic aspects of science and the relationship between art and science interested him im- mensely [1].

  3. Truchet Tilings and their Generalisations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyril Stanley Smith was acutely sensitive to this in every aspect of his work. In a diversion he rediscovered the. Truchet tilings of 1704 and added to their richness and variety. 1. Introduction. The range and depth of Cyril Stanley Smith's erudition was astonishing. Apart from being one of the most creative metallur- gists of the ...

  4. Asymptotic Limits in Macroscopic Plasma Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    2000-01-01

    A model hierarchy of macroscopic equations for plasmas consisting of electrons and ions is presented. The model equations are derived from the transient Euler-Poisson system in the zero-relaxation-time, zero-electron-mass and quasineutral limits. These asymptotic limits are performed using entropy estimates and compactness arguments. The resulting limits equations are Euler systems with a nonlinear Poisson equation and nonlinear drift-diffusion equations.

  5. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  6. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  7. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  8. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a < 0, and determine the multiple SLE in the hydrodynamic limit. After reporting these exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  9. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  10. Derivation of Path Independent Coupled Mix Mode Cohesive Laws from Fracture Resistance Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2016-01-01

    A generalised approach is presented to derive coupled mixed mode cohesive laws described with physical parameters such as peak traction, critical opening, fracture energy and cohesive shape. The approach is based on deriving mix mode fracture resistance curves from an effective mix mode cohesive...... law at different mode mixities. From the fracture resistance curves, the normal and shear stresses of the cohesive laws can be obtained by differentiation. Since, the mixed mode cohesive laws are obtained from a fracture resistance curve (potential function), path independence is automatically...... satisfied. The effective mix mode cohesive law can have different shape and cohesive law parameters at different mode mixities so that the approach can be applied to various material failure models....

  11. Analytical studies of a time-fractional porous medium equation. Derivation, approximation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Łukasz

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the porous medium equation with a time-fractional derivative. We justify that the resulting equation emerges when we consider a waiting-time (or trapping) phenomenon that can have its place in the medium. Our deterministic derivation is dual to the stochastic CTRW framework and can include nonlinear effects. With the use of the previously developed method we approximate the investigated equation along with a constant flux boundary conditions and obtain a very accurate solution. Moreover, we generalise the approximation method and provide explicit formulas which can be readily used in applications. The subdiffusive anomalies in some porous media such as construction materials have been recently verified by experiment. Our simple approximate solution of the time-fractional porous medium equation fits accurately a sample data which comes from one of these experiments.

  12. A Limited Evaluation of the Have Derivatives Process to Reduce Aircraft Stability Derivative Estimate Errors Caused by Turbulence (Have Derivatives)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    .... The evaluation consisted of 11 sorties totaling 15.2 flight hours. The sorties were flown at the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, California, in a production-representative Block 15 F-16B aircraft...

  13. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  14. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  15. Limit of crustal drilling depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep drilling is becoming the direct and the most efficient means in exploiting deep mineral resources, facilitating to understanding the earthquake mechanism and performing other scientific researches on the Earth's crust. In order to understand the limit of drilling depth in the Earth's crust, we first conducted tests on granite samples with respect to the borehole deformation and stability under high temperature and high pressure using the triaxial servo-controlled rock testing system. Then the critical temperature-pressure coupling conditions that result in borehole instability are derived. Finally, based on the testing results obtained and the requirements for the threshold values of borehole deformations during deep drilling, the limit of drilling depth in the Earth's crust is formulated with ground temperature.

  16. Investigating the generalisation of an atlas-based synthetic-CT algorithm to another centre and MR scanner for prostate MR-only radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jonathan J.; Dowling, Jason A.; Kelly, Charles G.; McKenna, Jill; Johnstone, Emily; Speight, Richard; Henry, Ann; Greer, Peter B.; McCallum, Hazel M.

    2017-12-01

    expansion improves the synthetic CT accuracy for MR images acquired at 1.5 T but requires the MR voxel size to be similar to the atlas MR voxel size. This study suggests that the atlas-based algorithm can be generalised to MR data acquired using a different field strength at a different centre.

  17. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  18. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  19. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  20. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  1. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    limits were derived from 1.0 mg/L concentration levels for ISO 12103-1 A1Ultrafine and ISO 12103-1 A2 Fine test dusts , and down to a 5 ppm free water...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel... contamination . Based on this work the Department of Defense Tri-Service Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants Technical Steering Committee has recommended

  2. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  3. Lax pair, conservation laws, solitons, and rogue waves for a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system under the nonlinear tunneling effect for an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhe; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Min; Mao, Bing-Qing [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Ministry-of-Education Key Lab. of Fluid Mechanics and National Lab. for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    2016-04-01

    Under investigation in this article is a generalised nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system for the picosecond optical pulse propagation in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped silica optical fibre. Lax pair, conservation laws, Darboux transformation, and generalised Darboux transformation for the system are constructed; with the one- and two-soliton solutions, the first- and second-order rogue waves given. Soliton propagation is discussed. Nonlinear tunneling effect on the solitons and rogue waves are investigated. We find that (i) the detuning of the atomic transition frequency from the optical pulse frequency affects the velocity of the pulse when the detuning is small, (ii) nonlinear tunneling effect does not affect the energy redistribution of the soliton interaction, (iii) dispersion barrier/well has an effect on the soliton velocity, whereas nonlinear well/barrier does not, (iv) nonlinear well/barrier could amplify/compress the solitons or rogue waves in a smoother manner than the dispersion barrier/well, and (v) dispersion barrier could ''attract'' the nearby rogue waves, whereas the dispersion well has a repulsive effect on them.

  4. Limits of detection and decision. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Probability density functions (PDFs) have been derived for a number of commonly used limit of detection definitions, including several variants of the Relative Standard Deviation of the Background-Background Equivalent Concentration (RSDB-BEC) method, for a simple linear chemical measurement system (CMS) having homoscedastic, Gaussian measurement noise and using ordinary least squares (OLS) processing. All of these detection limit definitions serve as both decision and detection limits, thereby implicitly resulting in 50% rates of Type 2 errors. It has been demonstrated that these are closely related to Currie decision limits, if the coverage factor, k, is properly defined, and that all of the PDFs are scaled reciprocals of noncentral t variates. All of the detection limits have well-defined upper and lower limits, thereby resulting in finite moments and confidence limits, and the problem of estimating the noncentrality parameter has been addressed. As in Parts 1-3, extensive Monte Carlo simulations were performed and all the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the derived theoretical expressions. Specific recommendations for harmonization of detection limit methodology have also been made

  5. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  6. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  7. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  8. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Mass limit for the lightest neutralino

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Lees, J.P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.N.; Nief, J.Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I.C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J.A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E.B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I.R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Rouge, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S.J.; Halley, A.W.; Knowles, I.G.; Lynch, J.G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J.M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R.M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Stacey, A.M.; Williams, M.D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A.P.; Bowdery, C.K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E.P.; Williams, M.I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A.M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jacobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J.J.; Bencheikh, A.M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Bauer, C.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lutjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Richter, Robert; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Hocker, Andreas; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D.W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Lutz, A.M.; Nikolic, Irina; Park, H.J.; Schune, M.H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M.A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G.A.; Bryant, L.M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J.T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M.G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Wright, A.E.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Johnson, R.P.; Kim, H.Y.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C.A.J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W.M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, N.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.S.; Gonzales, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T.C.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nachtman, J.M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, A.M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J.M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-01-01

    Indirect limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino are derived from the results of searches for charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons performed with data taken by the ALEPH Collaboration at centre-of-mass energies near the Z peak and at 130 and 136 GeV. Within the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and when $M_{\\tilde\

  10. Higher derivative mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.

  11. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...

  12. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  13. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    with an associated notion of context isomorphism. For� getting this structure often leads to problems and we shall show that the theory can be extended smoothly, retaining this useful information as well as the congruence theorems. Technically, the generalisation includes defining the central notion of groupoidal...

  14. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  15. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  16. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The evidences from all these integrated systems can be combined to obtain a speaker identification system that provides improved performance under limited data. Hence the motivation for this work. A few attempts have been made earlier to study and provide solution to the problem of limited data in the speaker recognition ...

  17. Advanced limiters for ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  18. Numerical derivation in optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Salhi, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Newton's method for function minimization possesses an outstanding property. Its final quadratic convergence under very weak hypothesis, but also some drawbacks, among which (i) the possibility of non convergence when starting far from the solution sought and (ii) the necessity of computing (and then programming) the first and second partial derivatives. We show in this paper how to avoid both difficulties, assuming however that the first partial derivatives are computed by exact formulae. The second partial derivatives are computed by central differences of first derivatives. The difference step h is calculated so as to establish a trade-off between accuracy and computation speed. Encouraging numerical experiments support the proposed method [fr

  19. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  20. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  1. Predicting incident size from limited information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englehardt, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Predicting the size of low-probability, high-consequence natural disasters, industrial accidents, and pollutant releases is often difficult due to limitations in the availability of data on rare events and future circumstances. When incident data are available, they may be difficult to fit with a lognormal distribution. Two Bayesian probability distributions for inferring future incident-size probabilities from limited, indirect, and subjective information are proposed in this paper. The distributions are derived from Pareto distributions that are shown to fit data on different incident types and are justified theoretically. The derived distributions incorporate both inherent variability and uncertainty due to information limitations. Results were analyzed to determine the amount of data needed to predict incident-size probabilities in various situations. Information requirements for incident-size prediction using the methods were low, particularly when the population distribution had a thick tail. Use of the distributions to predict accumulated oil-spill consequences was demonstrated

  2. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. 1400.204 Section 1400.204..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  3. Controlling percolation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Malte; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Sornette, Didier; Nagler, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity, or the lack thereof, is crucial for the function of many man-made systems, from financial and economic networks over epidemic spreading in social networks to technical infrastructure. Often, connections are deliberately established or removed to induce, maintain, or destroy global connectivity. Thus, there has been a great interest in understanding how to control percolation, the transition to large-scale connectivity. Previous work, however, studied control strategies assuming unlimited resources. Here, we depart from this unrealistic assumption and consider the effect of limited resources on the effectiveness of control. We show that, even for scarce resources, percolation can be controlled with an efficient intervention strategy. We derive such an efficient strategy and study its implications, revealing a discontinuous transition as an unintended side effect of optimal control.

  4. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  5. The Acoustic Limit for the Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, Claude; Golse, François; Levermore, C. David

    The acoustic equations are the linearization of the compressible Euler equations about a spatially homogeneous fluid state. We first derive them directly from the Boltzmann equation as the formal limit of moment equations for an appropriately scaled family of Boltzmann solutions. We then establish this limit for the Boltzmann equation considered over a periodic spatial domain for bounded collision kernels. Appropriately scaled families of DiPerna-Lions renormalized solutions are shown to have fluctuations that converge entropically (and hence strongly in L1) to a unique limit governed by a solution of the acoustic equations for all time, provided that its initial fluctuations converge entropically to an appropriate limit associated to any given L2 initial data of the acoustic equations. The associated local conservation laws are recovered in the limit.

  6. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  7. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives a...

  8. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  9. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  10. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  11. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  12. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  13. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  14. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  15. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  16. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  17. Limited Scleroderma (CREST Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited scleroderma is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, in which your immune system turns against your body. The immune system appears to stimulate the production of too much collagen, a key component of connective tissue. This overproduction ...

  18. Political campaign spending limits

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana

    2010-01-01

    Political campaign spending ceilings are purported to limit the incumbent’s ability to exploit his fundraising advantage. If the challenger does not have superior campaign effectiveness, in contrast to conventional wisdom, we show that the incumbent always benefits from a limit as long as he has an initial voter disposition advantage, however small and regardless of the candidates’ relative fundraising ability. If the challenger has higher campaign spending effectiveness, th...

  19. Safety and design limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  20. Xenotransplantation: Perspectives and limits

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Xenotransplantation faces the dilemma of an unlimited supply of cells, tissues and organs on the one hand and severe obstacles and limits on the other. One reason for the limitations is that the source animal of choice, the pig, and the human recipient separated 90 million years ago during evolution, a time in which biological characteristics such as anatomy, physiology and immunology have had much time to drift far apart. The acceptance of such an evolutionary widely divergent organ, especia...

  1. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  2. A revised oceanographic model to calculate the limiting capacity of the ocean to accept radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Grimwood, P.D.

    1976-12-01

    This report describes an oceanographic model which has been developed for the use in calculating the capacity of the oceans to accept radioactive wastes. One component is a relatively short-term diffusion model which is based on that described in an earlier report (Webb et al., NRPB-R14(1973)), but which has been generalised to some extent. Another component is a compartment model which is used to calculate long-term widespread water concentrations. This addition overcomes some of the short comings of the earlier diffusion model. Incorporation of radioactivity into deep ocean sediments is included in this long-term model as a removal mechanism. The combined model is used to provide a conservative (safe) estimate of the maximum concentrations of radioactivity in water as a function of time after the start of a continuous disposal operation. These results can then be used to assess the limiting capacity of an ocean to accept radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with generalised joint hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Juul-Kristensen, B; Bloch Thorlund, Jonas

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single......-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15 years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score ≥5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary...... Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co-contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity...

  4. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single......-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary...... Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity...

  5. Quantum-limit spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the main ideas, methods, and recent developments of quantum-limit optical spectroscopy and applications to quantum information, resolution spectroscopy, measurements beyond quantum limits, measurement of decoherence, and entanglement. Quantum-limit spectroscopy lies at the frontier of current experimental and theoretical techniques, and is one of the areas of atomic spectroscopy where the quantization of the field is essential to predict and interpret the existing experimental results. Currently, there is an increasing interest in quantum and precision spectroscopy both theoretically and experimentally, due to significant progress in trapping and cooling of single atoms and ions. This progress allows one to explore in the most intimate detail the ways in which light interacts with atoms and to measure spectral properties and quantum effects with high precision. Moreover, it allows one to perform subtle tests of quantum mechanics on the single atom and single photon scale which were hardly eve...

  6. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  7. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters ( 131 I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables

  8. The azobenzene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  9. ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE DERIVED DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, based on the Warner et al. (2009) Asteroid Lightcurve Database....

  10. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  11. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  12. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  13. Granin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troger, Josef; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Pasqua, Teresa; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria C; Nowosielski, Yvonne; Mätzler, Raphaela; Troger, Jasmin; Gayen, Jaur R; Trudeau, Vance; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2017-07-01

    The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980s it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance. The aim of this comprehensive overview is to provide an up-to-date insight into the distribution and properties of the well established granin-derived peptides and their putative roles in homeostatic regulations. Hence, focus is directed to peptides derived from the three main granins, e.g. to the chromogranin A derived vasostatins, betagranins, pancreastatin and catestatins, the chromogranin B-derived secretolytin and the secretogranin II-derived secretoneurin (SN). In addition, the distribution and properties of the chromogranin A-derived peptides prochromacin, chromofungin, WE14, parastatin, GE-25 and serpinins, the CgB-peptide PE-11 and the SgII-peptides EM66 and manserin will also be commented on. Finally, the opposing effects of the CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin and the SgII-derived peptide SN on the integrity of the vasculature, myocardial contractility, angiogenesis in wound healing, inflammatory conditions and tumors will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  15. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...

  16. A Graphical Introduction to the Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Calculus has frequently been called one the greatest intellectual achievements of humankind. As a key transitional course to college mathematics, it combines such elementary ideas as rate with new abstract ideas--such as infinity, instantaneous change, and limit--to formulate the derivative and the integral. Most calculus texts begin with the…

  17. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro, including cardiomyocytes. Successful applications of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes in cell therapy and tissue engineering were limited by difficulties in selecting the desired cells from the heterogeneous cell population ...

  18. Fault current limiter with shield and adjacent cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony; Moriconi, Franco; Hodge, Eoin Patrick

    2013-10-22

    In a fault current limiter (FCL) of a saturated core type having at least one coil wound around a high permeability material, a method of suppressing the time derivative of the fault current at the zero current point includes the following step: utilizing an electromagnetic screen or shield around the AC coil to suppress the time derivative current levels during zero current conditions.

  19. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  20. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Speaker identification; limited training and testing data; MFSR; LPR; LPRP; LVQ; GMM–UBM and combining. ... Department of Information Science and Engineering, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur 572 103; Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, ...