WorldWideScience

Sample records for general texts decree

  1. Generalized entropies and the similarity of texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Dias, Laércio; Gerlach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs–Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf’s law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen–Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  2. Generalized Entropies and the Similarity of Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Gerlach, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs-Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen-Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the Google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  3. Generalized minimum dominating set and application in automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yi-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    For a graph formed by vertices and weighted edges, a generalized minimum dominating set (MDS) is a vertex set of smallest cardinality such that the summed weight of edges from each outside vertex to vertices in this set is equal to or larger than certain threshold value. This generalized MDS problem reduces to the conventional MDS problem in the limiting case of all the edge weights being equal to the threshold value. We treat the generalized MDS problem in the present paper by a replica-symmetric spin glass theory and derive a set of belief-propagation equations. As a practical application we consider the problem of extracting a set of sentences that best summarize a given input text document. We carry out a preliminary test of the statistical physics-inspired method to this automatic text summarization problem.

  4. t-Plausibility: Generalizing Words to Desensitize Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Anandan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De-identified data has the potential to be shared widely to support decision making and research. While significant advances have been made in anonymization of structured data, anonymization of textual information is in it infancy. Document sanitization requires finding and removing personally identifiable information. While current tools are effective at removing specific types of information (names, addresses, dates, they fail on two counts. The first is that complete text redaction may not be necessary to prevent re-identification, since this can affect the readability and usability of the text. More serious is that identifying information, as well as sensitive information, can be quite subtle and still be present in the text even after the removal of obvious identifiers. Observe that a diagnosis ``tuberculosis'' is sensitive, but in some situations it can also be identifying. Replacing it with the less sensitive term ``infectious disease'' also reduces identifiability. That is, instead of simply removing sensitive terms, these terms can be hidden by more general but semantically related terms to protect sensitive and identifying information, without unnecessarily degrading the amount of information contained in the document. Based on this observation, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a novel information theoretic approach to text sanitization and develop efficient heuristics to sanitize text documents.

  5. Detecting General and Specific Errors in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussen, Steven R.; Smith, M. Cecil

    1990-01-01

    In three experiments, a total of 148 college students read or listened to expository passages containing general or specific errors. In all 3 experiments, students were more likely to spot general errors. Results do not indicate that monitoring skills were substantially different for listening or reading. (SLD)

  6. Prospects of development of the court decrees enforcement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sergeyevna Morkovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective the relevance of the topic the insufficient level of its scientific elaboration predetermined the research objectives which consist in the analysis of the institution of enforcement proceedings the identification of key challenges trends and ways to improve the current system of court decrees enforcement. Methods the methodological basis of the undertaken research is scientific method of cognition in conjunction with certain specific scientific methods the laws of formal logic historical method comparative legal method and systematic analysis of theoretical works studied in this work. Results the emerging trends in the enforcement proceedings reform in the country cannot be considered to be satisfactory in general although some initiatives seem quite appropriate in case of the proper performance. If you the situation cannot be rectified with the execution of judicial decrees basing on own experience only it is necessary to pay attention to foreign practices and to provide citizens with the right to an effective judicial protection. Of all approaches to reforming of the enforcement institution analyzed in the article the preferred for the Russian legal reality is modernization of the existing nonjudicial system of enforcement through civil procedural means. Scientific novelty at present neither the civil procedure nor the general theory of law has not developed a unified understanding of the civil procedural tools for improving the efficiency of enforcement proceedings. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when viewing the issues of the effectiveness of enforcement proceedings. nbsp

  7. Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensar, Ferhat; Sallabas, Muhammed Eyyüp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of…

  8. On the reduction of generalized polylogarithms to $\\text{Li}_n$ and $\\text{Li}_{2,2}$ and on the evaluation thereof

    CERN Document Server

    Frellesvig, Hjalte; Wever, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We give expressions for all generalized polylogarithms up to weight four in terms of the functions log, $\\text{Li}_n$, and $\\text{Li}_{2,2}$, valid for arbitrary complex variables. Furthermore we provide algorithms for manipulation and numerical evaluation of $\\text{Li}_n$ and $\\text{Li}_{2,2}$, and add codes in Mathematica and C++ implementing the results. With these results we calculate a number of previously unknown integrals, which we add in App. C.

  9. Decree No. 2006 partially amending Decree No. 1906 of 30 December 1987, published in La Gaceta Oficial of the same date, 18 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree and Decree 1906, which it amends, mandate the formation of a Special Commission charged with reviewing all loan applications in Venezuela for the acquisition or construction of low-income housing filed in mortgage banks, financing institutions, or savings and loan institutions. Under the Decrees, builders of low-income housing complexes can receive up to 60% of the cost as a loan and buyers up to 75%. Loans will be granted to individual buyers only if they lack housing or their current housing does not meet minimum standards; they can make an initial payment of 15% of the selling price, and monthly payments on the loan do not exceed 30% of their salary. Loans are, in general, to be made at a 9% yearly interest rate. Repayment for loans made for the construction of rental units or the individual purchase of units is set at 20 years. Repayment for loans for the construction of units for sale is set between 18 and 36 months. full text

  10. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage Claims... St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The NRD Settlement Agreement resolves claims for natural resource damages and... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division,...

  11. Decree no. 2003-588 from June 27, 2003, relative to the general technical prescriptions of design and operation to which the facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power transportation grid; Decret no. 2003-588 du 27 juin 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques generales de conception et de fonctionnement auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations en vue de leur raccordement au reseau public de transport de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This decree fixes the general technical prescriptions of design and operation as foreseen in the article no. 14 of the law from February 10, 2000 and to which the power consuming or power generating facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power grid. The prescriptions concern the voltage level, the capacity and the power of the facility, the connection scheme, the possible disturbances, the protection systems, the metering etc.. (J.S.)

  12. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  13. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  14. Use of text messaging in general practice: a mixed methods investigation on GPs' and patients' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Dorothy; Lyons, Aoife; Dahm, Matthias; Quinlan, Diarmuid; Bradley, Colin

    2017-09-25

    Text messaging has become more prevalent in general practice as a tool with which to communicate with patients. The main objectives were to assess the extent, growth, and perceived risks and benefits of text messaging by GPs to communicate with patients, and assess patients' attitudes towards receiving text messages from their GP. A mixed methods study, using surveys, a review, and a focus group, was conducted in both urban and rural practices in the south-west of Ireland. A telephone survey of 389 GPs was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of text messaging. Subsequently, the following were also carried out: additional telephone surveys with 25 GPs who use text messaging and 26 GPs who do not, a written satisfaction survey given to 78 patients, a review of the electronic information systems of five practices, and a focus group with six GPs to ascertain attitudes towards text messaging. In total, 38% (n = 148) of the surveyed GPs used text messaging to communicate with patients and 62% (n = 241) did not. Time management was identified as the key advantage of text messaging among GPs who used it (80%; n = 20) and those who did not (50%; n = 13). Confidentiality was reported as the principal concern among both groups, at 32% (n = 8) and 69% (n = 18) respectively. Most patients (99%; n = 77) were happy to receive text messages from their GP. The GP focus group identified similar issues and benefits in terms of confidentiality and time management. Data were extracted from the IT systems of five consenting practices and the number of text messages sent during the period from January 2013 to March 2016 was generated. This increased by 40% per annum. Collaborative efforts are required from relevant policymakers to address data protection and text messaging issues so that GPs can be provided with clear guidelines to protect patient confidentiality. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  16. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  17. An implementation assessment of China's Environmental Information Disclosure Decree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Arthur P.J Mol; Guizhen He; Yonglong Lu

    2010-01-01

    China's 2007 Open Government Information Regulations is widely considered as a milestone in the country's information policy history and is praised as a "sunshine program".The Environmental Information Disclosure Decree was the first to operationalize these general regulations into a sectoral information disclosure system on environment.This study assessed the implementation of the environmental information disclosure system about six months after the Decree took effect on May 1,2008.Through reviewing the websites of all 31 provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus and the Ministry of Environmental Protection,conducting an experiment with actual information disclosure request,and through interviews with all provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus,this article concluded that the implementation of the environmental information disclosure system still falls short.Future improvements should focus on further publicity of the regulations and decree to enhance public participation,the establishment of an independent evaluation and supervision system for information disclosure,the exchange of experiences and best practices among provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus,and on strengthening the legal status of environmental information disclosure.

  18. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  19. Aspects pertaining to the legal regime of Presidential decrees in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florentina STOICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The doctrinal debates on the legal regime of presidential decrees and the recent case-law of the Constitutional Court have determined the present approach for analysis of some aspects pertaining to the issues arising in relation to these acts, especially their legal features and nature and, from this perspective, the differentiations with regard to the challenging of presidential decrees – we refer, in this context, to the extension of the control carried out by courts. The conclusions of the study reveal the importance of addressing and establishing the relations between public authorities, inclusively with regard to the substantiation, issuance and implementation of presidential decrees, in relation to the principle of constitutional loyalty.

  20. The “May” Decrees of the President: objective, indicators, implementation dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two and a half years have passed since the RF President’s adoption of a number of decrees aimed at improving social welfare of the citizens. The objectives of the given legal documents concern the issues of education and science, health, demography and social policy, economy and foreign policy, military service and development of the Armed Forces of Russia, inter-ethnic harmony, governance and quality of housing and utility services. V.V. Putin has set targets to be achieved in Russia by 2020. However, the acute budget crisis of regional systems hinders the implementation of Presidential Decrees. This article provides the reader with the analysis of the achieved results and states the problems of “May” requirements funding. In addition, there are possible options for the implementation of the targets laid down in the presidential decrees in the prescribed period

  1. 76 FR 41301 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    .... Fairchild Semiconductor Corp., et al., Civil Action No. 3:11-CV-01261 was lodged with the United States..., Pennsylvania. The Consent Decree requires Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, General Electric Company, Harris.... Fairchild Semiconductor Corp., et al., D.J. Ref. 90- 11-3-09634. During the public comment period,...

  2. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Arkansas in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Lion Oil Company, Civil Action No. 1:13-cv-01059-SOH. The... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and should refer to United States v. Lion Oil Company... of reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ-ENRD...

  3. 76 FR 61384 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent Decree Library, please enclose...

  4. 77 FR 46121 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... request to ``Consent Decree Copy'' ( EESCDCopy.ENRD@usdoj.gov ), fax number (202) 514-0097,...

  5. 76 FR 76763 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and... Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division... number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent Decree Library, please enclose a check...

  6. Characteristics of Beach Seine Fishery of East Java: Facing Ministerial Decree of Marine Affairs and Fisheries No. 2/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Gede Raka Wiadnya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catch biomass and time-trend perception of Beach seine fishery were studied during 2015, from four different sites in East Java: Padikde Madura, Santan Island Banyuwangi, Prigi Beach Trenggalek, and Dangkal Beach Pacitan. The study aimed to assess the impact of recently Ministerial Decree (No. 2/2015 on this particular fishery. Catch biomass was analyzed based on swept area method. Time trend perception was traced back from fishermen in relation to reduced catch biomass, catch size, habitat degradation, and income contribution from the fishery. The results showed that Beach Seines in East Java are considerably subsistence. It swept fixed-bottom habitats of 1–9 ha. Average catch biomass for all sites was 15±19.4 kg trip-1. With low price of fish catch, fishermen cannot place down their family income solely from this livelihood. Beach seine is more as to maintain tradition of subsistence. Fishermen clearly observed the reduced in catch biomass and catch size compared to what it used to be (±30 years ago. With very low contribution to total catch in the region, negligible impact to habitat degradation, and consumed no fuel subsidy, it is no real reason to include this gear in general ban through Ministerial Decree of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.

  7. "Veinte poemas de amor y Canto general," Pablo Neruda. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  8. Recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge: An experimental study of English for Medical Purposes

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    Zarein-Dolab S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: A 3-unit course is dedicated to general language in medical universities and the vocabulary and text structure of the courses have usually no relation to medical language. We examine whether teaching general language will be as effective as medical language as assessed through recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge. Methods: an experimental study was designed, in that, the third year students who had participated in the 3-unit general language classes in the first year of their General Practitioner (GP program were selected and sat for a 60 MCQ tests. The 60 MCQ tests consisted of 30 questions of general language, 25 vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions and also 30 questions of medical language, 25 technical and semi-technical vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions. In all, 145 medical students attended the exam which took 40 minutes to accomplish. Results: The results of the study indicated that memory retention was significantly lower in general language than medical language. The technical and semi-technical vocabulary items were significantly better recalled and the medical text was significantly better understood by the participants. Conclusion: A 3-unit course in general language may be a futile effort since the students will not be exposed to the same vocabulary and text structure knowledge in later years of their GP program. It is recommended that the focus of all the university English courses be on the medical language. Key words: Medical Vocabulary, English For Specific Purposes, ESP

  9. Cauchy problem of the generalized Zakharov type system in [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shujun; Ning, Xiaoqi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial value problem for a two-dimensional generalized Zakharov system with quantum effects. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global smooth solutions to the initial value problem in the Sobolev space through making a priori integral estimates and the Galerkin method.

  10. THE GOSPEL TEXT IN DOSTOYEVSKY'S WORKS IN THE LIGHT OF GENERAL FORM-PRODUCING PRINCIPLES

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    Sergey Viktorovich Syzranov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The artistic functions of the Gospel text in Dostoyevsky’s Th e Double, Notes from the Underground and The Idiot" are examined in the light of Losev’s aesthetic theory. The focus is on the fact that the categories of Prime-image, Myth, Name take important place both in Losev’s aesthetics and Dostoyevsky’s poetics. Dynamics of the form-producing process is described by Losev as a dialectical way of the movement of Image towards Prime-image, its purpose is their complete equation. In Dostoyevsky’s works this dynamics is already apparent at onomapoetics: hero’s name actualizes dialectical relations between the character and its ideal prototype. These relations are materialized in diverse interactions of the artistic and the Gospel texts. Gospel text is actively involved in the process of formation; it carries interpenetration of architectonics and of composition aspects of artistic form, organizes artistic teleology of the writer’s works. Teleological direction of artistic myth created by Dostoyevsky embodies teleology of Absolute Myth of Sacred history.

  11. TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.; Jacobs, Dennis C.

    2003-01-01

    Points out the important use of textbooks and their ancillary resources in lower-division chemistry courses and the scientific misconceptions found in them. Introduces the TextRev Project which is a new resource for data collection and analysis. Investigates how first and second year chemistry students use and value their textbooks and their study…

  12. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai\\\\\\'s views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khajegir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sadraee's transcendental philosophy in theology affected by the authentic Divinity texts and discussions and has inspired in resolving many of the theological and philosophical problems of this school. Therefore, this school can be considered as the most prominent school. Although, Molla sadra does not know enough the argument and arguing without conscience and purification of self, but, the most based on imported sources of revelation and interpretations of Imams (AS and believes that truths of faith are not possible except by purifying heart from the whims, thinking of the Divine verses, hadith of the Prophet (The Prophet's massage and his tribe, and following the way of the pious men. Proposing the problem of Divine Decrees of fate in transcendental philosophy and explaining its principles that brought up in both the philosophical texts and exegesis of the followers of transcendental philosophy are of the most important Instances that this school takes impression from religious texts.    Decrees of fate has various levels,  such as essential and actual, scientific and objective, divine creation and divine legislation, fixed and variable, that is every level take into consideration the discussion of Divine Decrees of fate from a particular direction. Divine Decrees of fate in one dimension is related to the degrees of Divine knowledge and the quality of Divine knowledge on what is apart from God, on the other dimension, is related to the question of the necessity of The existence system and the quality of causal connection between the elements of the universe and the origin of necessity of The existence system that has been expressed in these schools with a certain thoughtfulness in both theology and cosmology. Divine Decrees of fate in comparing with universal realms of existence is considered the same as degree of intellectual forms beyond the spiritual and natural forms that emanated from the god, suddenly and timelessly and called

  13. Explanation of the degree of Divine Knowledge in the degree of Decrees of fate in Molla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khwajegir

    Full Text Available The Sadraee's transcendental philosophy in theology affected by the authentic Divinity texts and discussions and has inspired in resolving many of the theological and philosophical problems of this school. Therefore, this school can be considered as the most prominent school. Although, Molla sadra does not know enough the argument and arguing without conscience and purification of self, but, the most based on imported sources of revelation and interpretations of Imams (AS and believes that truths of faith are not possible except by purifying heart from the whims, thinking of the Divine verses, hadith of the Prophet (The Prophet's massage and his tribe, and following the way of the pious men. Proposing the problem of Divine Decrees of fate in transcendental philosophy and explaining its principles that brought up in both the philosophical texts and exegesis of the followers of transcendental philosophy are of the most important Instances that this school takes impression from religious texts. Decrees of fate has various levels, such as essential and actual, scientific and objective, divine creation and divine legislation, fixed and variable, that is every level take into consideration the discussion of Divine Decrees of fate from a particular direction. Divine Decrees of fate in one dimension is related to the degrees of Divine knowledge and the quality of Divine knowledge on what is apart from God, on the other dimension, is related to the question of the necessity of The existence system and the quality of causal connection between the elements of the universe and the origin of necessity of The existence system that has been expressed in these schools with a certain thoughtfulness in both theology and cosmology. Divine Decrees of fate in comparing with universal realms of existence is considered the same as degree of intellectual forms beyond the spiritual and natural forms that emanated from the god, suddenly and timelessly and called one of

  14. General practice ethics: text messages and boundaries in the GP-patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzker, Yishai; Rogers, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Virtual forms of communication (eg texting) can support patients and may contribute to better care. However, these informal communication methods may intrude on the doctor’s leisure time and undermine standards of care if they replace face-to-face consultations.Texting may cross boundaries in potentially unprofessional ways, especially when particular patients are favoured with this privilege. It may disadvantage patients who are not favoured or who are not comfortable using mobile technology. We also note that GPs cannot control the distribution of their number or recall it without the inconvenience of changing the number once it has been disclosed.Virtual communication is an integral part of the way we live, despite the potential pitfalls. Each form (social media, electronic messaging systems, video consultations, mobile phones, etc) has its advantages and disadvantages. This makes it important for practices to develop policies supporting the responsible use of virtual communication. Such policies should:clarify (for patients and GPs) when its use is appropriate accommodate doctors’ individual preferences regarding technology provide guidance regarding GPs’ duties, especially for interactions that do not allow full evaluation of patients.GPs may wish to have specific criteria for providing patients with this degree of access, set very clear indications and contraindications to its use, explain the potential pitfalls, and ensure that text messages augment good care rather than replace it.

  15. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended.

  16. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees....

  17. 77 FR 12327 - Notice of Lodging of RCRA Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. Pure Earth Recycling, Inc. (f/k/a Casie Ecology Oil... States sought civil penalties and injunctive relief against Pure Earth Recycling under the Resource... States v. Pure Earth Recycling, Inc. (f/k/a Casie Ecology Oil Salvage, Inc. and Mid-Atlantic...

  18. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart

  19. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  20. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart abs

  1. Generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal function of original and translated texts mapped into frequency and length time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M

    2012-09-01

    A nonlinear dynamics approach can be used in order to quantify complexity in written texts. As a first step, a one-dimensional system is examined: two written texts by one author (Lewis Carroll) are considered, together with one translation into an artificial language (i.e., Esperanto) are mapped into time series. Their corresponding shuffled versions are used for obtaining a baseline. Two different one-dimensional time series are used here: one based on word lengths (LTS), the other on word frequencies (FTS). It is shown that the generalized Hurst exponent h(q) and the derived f(α) curves of the original and translated texts show marked differences. The original texts are far from giving a parabolic f(α) function, in contrast to the shuffled texts. Moreover, the Esperanto text has more extreme values. This suggests cascade model-like, with multiscale time-asymmetric features as finally written texts. A discussion of the difference and complementarity of mapping into a LTS or FTS is presented. The FTS f(α) curves are more opened than the LTS ones.

  2. Generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal function of original and translated texts mapped into frequency and length time series

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamics approach can be used in order to quantify complexity in written texts. As a first step, a one-dimensional system is examined : two written texts by one author (Lewis Carroll) are considered, together with one translation, into an artificial language, i.e. Esperanto are mapped into time series. Their corresponding shuffled versions are used for obtaining a "base line". Two different one-dimensional time series are used here: (i) one based on word lengths (LTS), (ii) the other on word frequencies (FTS). It is shown that the generalized Hurst exponent $h(q)$ and the derived $f(\\alpha)$ curves of the original and translated texts show marked differences. The original "texts" are far from giving a parabolic $f(\\alpha)$ function, - in contrast to the shuffled texts. Moreover, the Esperanto text has more extreme values. This suggests cascade model-like, with multiscale time asymmetric features as finally written texts. A discussion of the difference and complementarity of mapping into a LTS or F...

  3. LINGUISTIC POETICS AND GENERAL THEORY OF LANGUAGE. (ON CONTEXT-DEPENDENT SEMANTICS AND TEXT-ORIENTED LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suren Zolyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to reconsider the generally accepted conceptions on the relationship between the general theory of language, on the one hand, and the poetic semantics and linguistic poetics, on the other. Based on the concepts of ekspressema, createma and evristema were introduced by V.P.Grigoryev we try to demonstrate the inadequacy of the traditional dichotomy between the poetic usage of language - as if it were the only creative sphere of linguistic activity - and all another types. The matter is that the text-oriented methods of linguistic poetics have anticipated the lexical-oriented approaches in the general linguistic theory. Thus, linguistic poetics and poetic semantics are grounded on the idea that text is a basic unit of processing and lexical meanings are dependent on contextual and intertextual connections. In accordance of this approach V. Grigoryev had coined the new terminology and elaborated the special principles of compiling the dictionary of the Russian poetry. This was considered as a manifestation of the peculiarity of poetic language. Meanwhile, in the modern corpus linguistics the notion of any lexical unit is treated on similar way. Using the experience of poetic semantics, we put forward some principles of the text-oriented theory of language where word is not seen as a constant semantic entity predetermined through lexicon, but as a context-dependent variable. If meaning is identified as a function dependent on text, intertext and context, so the language proficiency is considered as a creative ability to determine what meaning can express the given word, including neologisms, in a particular context. 

  4. [Decree no. 0559 of 22 February 1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-25

    Colombia's decree 559 of February 1991 outlines partial regulations of two laws governing prevention, control, and vigilance of transmissible diseases, especially HIV infections and AIDS. A preamble states the justification for the regulations. Chapter 1 specifies the scope of the regulations and defines terms related to HIV infection and its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Chapter 2 outlines regulations regarding who should be tested, the qualifications of screening facilities, the presumption for legal purposes that seropositive individuals are not ill, and the prohibition against denying care to a seropositive individual. Health institutions are responsible for providing information and training programs to assure that their staffs remain abreast of scientific and technological advances in care of HIV patients. Chapter 3 calls for prevention programs on radio and television, prevention of infections through self-care and avoidance of risks, and sex education programs at all levels of the educational system, emphasizing responsible attitudes and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Nongovernmental organizations, in coordination with the Ministry of Health, are to train promoters for specific communities at risk. All cases of AIDS and HIV infection are to be reported, and the information is to be considered confidential. Requiring HIV serodiagnosis for educational or employment purposes is prohibited. Banks of organs or organic liquids are required to test donors. Health institutions of all kinds must follow the biosafety norms of the Ministry of Health. Availability of condoms should be guaranteed in pharmacies, supermarkets, and similar establishments. Identification cards specifically for individuals with sexually transmitted diseases or HIV are prohibited. Chapter 4 concerns promotion and conditions of research on HIV and its treatment. Chapter 5 outlines the rights of seropositive individuals to adequate and confidential medical care. Chapter 6

  5. 78 FR 45970 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... million into the Mobile Bay Watershed/Ciba- Geigy Site (AL) Restoration Account; $500,000 to the Alabama..._Decrees.html . We will provide a paper copy of the consent decree upon written request and payment of reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ--ENRD, P.O....

  6. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  7. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  8. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  9. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  10. 75 FR 48361 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... entire commuter train fleet from low sulfur diesel fuel (500 ppm sulfur) to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel... proposed Consent Decree (the ``Decree'') in United States v. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority... simultaneously with the Decree, the United States alleges that the Massachusetts Bay Transportation...

  11. 76 FR 40393 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... Consent Decrees were lodged in the case United States et al. v. Seachrome Corporation, Civil Action No. 11... each settling defendant under Section 106 or 107 of CERCLA. The Department of Justice will receive...

  12. 75 FR 61773 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... Consent Decree was lodged in the case United States v. Air Distribution Products, et al., Civil Action No... of Justice will receive for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of this publication...

  13. 77 FR 34066 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Dennis Wendt, individually and as Trustee of the Dennis Wendt Trust Co., Wendt Construction Co., Inc., and WWW.PERSSARD.INC., Civil... against Dennis Wendt, individually and as Trustee of the Dennis Wendt Trust Co., Wendt Construction...

  14. 76 FR 37153 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Eddie's Service Station, et al., No. 5:10... Eddie's Service Station, Inc., and Gerald Oswald pursuant to 33 U.S.C. 1311(a), to obtain injunctive... Department of Justice, P.O. Box 23795, Washington, DC 20026 and refer to United States v. Eddie's...

  15. 76 FR 78314 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ....justice.gov/enrd/Consent_Decrees.html . Cherie L. Rogers, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Defense... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... to restore streams, purchase mitigation credits, and pay a civil penalty. The Department of...

  16. 76 FR 63326 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... America v. Brent Nicholson and Mary K. Nicholson, Case No. C01-809RBL, was lodged with the United States... concerns a complaint filed by the United States against Brent Nicholson and Mary K. Nicholson, pursuant to.... Brent Nicholson and Mary K. Nicholson, Case No. C01-809RBL. The proposed Consent Decree may be...

  17. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´"non-episodes", by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being...

  18. Teaching Children to Fluently Decode Nonsense Words in Lists: Generalized Effects to Oral Reading Fluency of Connected Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Candace Susan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the generalized effects of training children to fluently blend nonsense words containing target vowel teams on their reading of untrained real words in lists and passages. Eight second-grade students participated. Nonsense words containing each of 3 target vowel teams ("aw," "oi," and "au")…

  19. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  20. Access to General Education Curriculum: The Effect of Preteaching Key Words Upon Fluency and Accuracy in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Gail A.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on accuracy and fluency in connected text were examined with three fifth-grade participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching…

  1. Selected text of Atomic Energy Act, Executive Orders and other laws of general interest to safeguards and security executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three report set, BNL 52201 contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled, U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled, U.S.Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors, and only contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors. These are a newly updated version of a set of documents of similar titles published in September 1988, which were an updated version of an original set of documents published in November 1983.

  2. Decree-Law No. 426/88, 18 November 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A 1988 Decree-Law of Portugal facilitates preventative and remedial actions with respect to discrimination against women in the civil service. Under the Decree-Law, discriminatory admission and promotion practices are forbidden in all levels of the central administration, independent agencies, the social security administration, and regional administrations. Practices forbidden include those having an unintended discriminatory impact and all job-related differentiation based on sex, directly or indirectly, as in cases where reference is made to a woman's marital or family status. The Decree-Law guarantees equality of remuneration for male and female workers for equal work or work of equal value and prohibits restrictions based on sex in entrance examinations and job advertising. Practices not considered discriminatory include those designed to correct the imbalance between male and female employees and those undertaken to protect maternity. Moreover, work may be restricted that poses risks or the potential of risk to genetic functions and jobs may be conditioned on sex if sex is essential to the performance of the job. Major procedural provisions are as follows: 1) the burden of proving that a decision affecting the position of a female civil servant is justified and does not violate the law is placed on the public authority accused of practicing discrimination; 2) workers have the right to challenge any act of alleged discrimination and may be represented by the pertinent body of collective representation in any proceeding arising under the Decree-Law; 3) no worker may be punished or otherwise penalized for alleging discrimination; 4) directors or workers whose actions have been judged as discriminatory are subject to disciplinary proceedings; and 5) any administrative authority conducting an inquiry regarding alleged discrimination or adopting disciplinary measures in connection with unfounded allegations of the practice of discrimination must obtain from the

  3. C-class functions with new approach on coincidence point results for generalized [Formula: see text]-weakly contractions in ordered b-metric spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zead; Jaradat, Mohammed M M; Ansari, Arslan Hojat; Popović, Branislav Z; Jaradat, Husein M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by using the C-class functions and a new approach we present some coincidence point results for four mappings satisfying generalized [Formula: see text]-weakly contractive condition in the setting of ordered b-metric spaces. Also, an application and example are given to support our results.

  4. 75 FR 13304 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) Notice is hereby given that on March... Decree alleging that on or about October 13, 2004, the oil tank vessel POLAR TEXAS, owned by Polar Tankers, Inc., a subsidiary of ConocoPhillips, Inc., discharged oil into waterways near Vashon and...

  5. 76 FR 17671 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 21, 2011, a... this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental Protection Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  6. 75 FR 37837 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... proposed Consent Decree (the ``Decree'') in United States v. Colaska, Inc. d/b/a QAP, Civil Case No. 3:10..., and should refer to United States v. Colaska, Inc., d/b/a QAP, D.J. Ref. 90-5-1-1-08977/2. During...

  7. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013, the... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree,...

  8. 5 CFR 838.1010 - Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums. 838.1010 Section 838.1010 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1010 Court orders or decrees preventing payment of...

  9. 75 FR 20863 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on April 16, 2010, a... complaint filed together with the Consent Decree that Defendants violated the Clean Air Act and regulations... bringing storage tanks and loading racks at their bulk gasoline terminals into compliance with the NSPS...

  10. 78 FR 27258 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed First Amended Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... contamination at the Site. The proposed First Amended Consent Decree amends the Consent Decree to include work required to implement the remedy as set forth in EPA's Statement of Work for Remedial Design and Remedial... Resources Division, and should refer to United States and the State of California v. Texaco Inc., D.J....

  11. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act Notice is hereby given that... Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') for violations of Section 7003 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (as... oilfield waste disposal facility, located in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Consent Decree resolves...

  12. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  13. 75 FR 6060 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... on Thursday, January 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States, et al. v. Lafarge North... Decree, the United States seeks injunctive relief and penalties against Lafarge North America, Inc., Lafarge Midwest, Inc. and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc. (collectively ``Lafarge Companies''),...

  14. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of direct final...

  15. 76 FR 30197 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Colorado. The Decree between the United States and Rocky Mountain Pipeline System, LLC, Western Convenience... Regulations and Registration Regulations by failing to comply with the sampling, testing, record keeping and...

  16. 78 FR 32276 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... that CRRM violated various Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations promulgated under Section 112(r... of reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S....

  17. 77 FR 67669 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility... Defendant under Sections 106 and 107 of the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and...

  18. 75 FR 45666 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... and sediment and the extraction and treatment of groundwater. The Consent Decree also requires the...://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/blackburn/293498.pdf ), payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if...

  19. 77 FR 37439 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... reline sewer lines, a pilot study of combined sewer overflows, and the development of a revised operation... properly operate and maintain its combined sewer system. Under the terms of the Consent Decree, Perth...

  20. 77 FR 52762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    .... 42. The Modified Consent Decree requires Gloucester to: (1) Adjust the existing Combined Sewer Overflows schedule to accommodate information collected during construction of currently required projects; (2) more accurately characterize drainage basin overflows and propose mitigation measures; and...

  1. [La Dore Reservoir water rights priority decree : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1919

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Issued in November of 1924, this decree sets forth the adjudication of priorities of water rights and usage for irrigation and other beneficial uses in Water...

  2. Decree No. 922 on land use and exercise of agricultural activities, 19 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Bulgarian Decree 922, May 19, 1989, regulates land use and the exercise of agricultural activities. It stipulates in general that agricultural activities and land use will be based on the principles of company organization, ensuring the unity and indivisibility of socialist property and the variety of forms of land use and management, using collective farms and companies. Citizens may engage in agricultural activities without having a registered company; users of farmland must protect the environment; observe veterinary, plant protection, and sanitary hygiene regulations; and protect and improve soil fertility. Farms and other companies will carry out their activities under equal conditions, may sell their commodities may set up an association for the protection of their economic and social interests, and may establish agricultural stock exchanges and other cooperatives in accordance with stipulated procedures. Individual farms include an individual farmer or several farmers. Farmers may rent or purchase agricultural equipment without restriction as to model, capacity, or other features. Limitations apply on the number of workers employed on a nonseasonal basis. Farmers may form associations for specified purposes. Taxation is based on the general income tax law. Piece rate is a form of organization and payment of labor in agriculture; written agreements are required regarding wages, quality, quantity, deadlines, and supplies furnished. Lease contracts must be in writing, be registered by the municipal people's council at the location of the project, and contain specified information.

  3. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  4. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  5. Learner corpora, corpora of professional translations and creative writing in a course on translation of general texts: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Sánchez Nieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.

  6. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    towards PLHIV in the workplace is lacking, possibly because generally the workplace is not ... the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Health. Sciences ..... AIDS policies and educational programmes among Japanese businesses.

  7. Russian decree on excise duty on petroleum extraction, ukase on excise tax on mineral users and decree on improving free trade in Russia. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The decree defines the rates for an excise duty included in the price for petroleum and gas condensate in Russia; how the excise duty is to be paid to the Russian Federation budget when petroleum and gas condensate are sold; and maximum levels of profitability in the production of all types of petroleum products.

  8. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  9. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  10. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  11. 76 FR 35471 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Modification to Consent Decree (``Second Decree Modification'') in United States, et al. v. Bunge North America... implementing regulations at 12 soybean and corn processing facilities owned and operated by Bunge North America, Inc. and several affiliated entities (collectively referred to herein as ``Bunge''). A First...

  12. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Modification to Consent Decree (``First Decree Modification'') in United States, et al. v. Bunge North America... implementing regulations at 12 soybean and corn processing facilities owned and operated by Bunge North America, Inc. and several affiliated entities (collectively referred to herein as ``Bunge''). The First...

  13. 77 FR 518 - Notice of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... of Lodging of the Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Clean Water... Underground Storage Tanks (``USTs'') at sixteen facilities throughout the county. The Consent Decree also resolves Erie's Clean Water Act (``CWA'') violations stemming from its failure to prepare and...

  14. 75 FR 16177 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Consent Decree required Anderson to develop and implement a Long Term Control Plan to control Combined Sewer Overflows from its combined sewer system. Since entry of the 2002 Consent Decree, Anderson has... selected under that proposed Long Term Control Plan would require an array of sewer system and...

  15. Decree No. 19157-J of 1 August 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Costa Rican Decree creates a Defense Counsel for Women with the objective of protecting women's rights; promoting policies, programs, projects, studies, and activities intended to promote equality of opportunity between the sexes; and sponsoring activities to improve the status of women. The Counsel is to have the following functions: 1) to verify that women are treated justly; 2) to promote the adherence of Costa Rica to international conventions relating to the recognition of the rights of women and the improvement of their quality of life and to watch over the effective compliance with conventions signed by Costa Rica; 3) to prevent the violation of women's rights by initiating lawsuits and bringing recommendations before the competent tribunals; 4) to intercede in the private and public sectors in order to defend the rights of women guaranteed by the legal system; 5) to bring about reforms in procedures, regulations, and laws in order to ensure the defense of women's rights; 6) to bring about the improvement of public and private services devoted to giving attention to women; 7) to investigate violations and accusations relating to women's rights and channel them to the appropriate tribunals; 8) to cooperate in the discussion of the status, needs, and rights of women; 9) to strive to protect before the public administration the rights inherent to women; and 10) to ensure that no discrimination because of sex exists in public and private institutions. The Counsel may act on its own or at the request of a 3rd party, undertake investigations, visit public and private institutions, require that information necessary to its functions be provided, and hold meetings and conferences.

  16. 78 FR 16412 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY... is also approving public notice requirements for these permit actions. These rules will help...

  17. 78 FR 16449 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Consent Decree Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... is also approving public notice requirements for these permit actions. These rules will help...

  18. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On December 21, 2012, the...'') natural resource damage claims brought pursuant to Sections 1002 and 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act, 33...

  19. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on November 15... Rhode Island for natural resource damages under the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701, et seq... to an oil spill from the tank barge Bouchard No. 120, which occurred in April 2003 in Buzzards...

  20. 75 FR 18239 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...-01042, was lodged with the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. United... violations at Shell Chemical LP's petroleum refineries in Saraland, Alabama and St. Rose, Louisiana, and at Shell Chemical Yabucoa, Inc.'s petroleum refinery in Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. The proposed Consent Decree...

  1. 78 FR 41423 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... at the request of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources... request and payment of reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library... $13 (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to the United States Treasury. Robert E. Maher,...

  2. 77 FR 6822 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice..., a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Columbus Manufacturing, Inc. Case No. 4:12... Justice will receive, for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of this publication,...

  3. 78 FR 59718 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas in the lawsuit entitled United States v CITGO Petroleum Corporation, Case No....

  4. 75 FR 48726 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... its implementing regulations by CF Industries, Inc. (``CFI''). CFI manufactures phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer products at a single production facility in Plant City... that on August 6, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. CF Industries, Inc.,...

  5. 75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is... Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300G-3(b), based upon Evenhouse's alleged violations of the SDWA and regulations thereunder at two separate community water systems serving the...

  6. 77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... action the United States sought permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26, resulting from violations of the National Primary...

  7. 78 FR 65385 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On Wednesday, October 23... Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), Newfield Production Company (``Newfield'') will pay a civil penalty of...

  8. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 29... the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f through 300j-26, including violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), at Lincoln Road RV Park, Inc.'s...

  9. 78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the... requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...-142-F. The action concerns the public water system the defendant, Bryan Pownall (``Defendant'')...

  10. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Colorado doing business as Xcel Energy to operate the Pawnee coal-fired power plant in Morgan...

  11. 75 FR 17770 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Decree in United States v. Exxon Mobil Corporation and Holcim (US) Inc., Civil Action No. 3:10-cv-00222... Corporation and from Holcim (US) Inc. costs incurred by the United States in response to the release or..., Iberville Parish, Louisiana. (The United States alleges that Holcim is liable as a result of its...

  12. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 18, 2013, the Department of... civil penalties under the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, resulting from unauthorized discharges of flowback fluid and produced fluid into waters of the United States from tanks and...

  13. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...-fired boilers and ammonia compressors, and other failures to abide by the Risk Management Program (``RMP... pursuant to the CAA Risk Management Program, to fire departments in the affected communities within 180... your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ-ENRD, P.O. Box 7611, Washington, DC...

  14. 77 FR 45605 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice,...

  15. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... request to the Court to dismiss this matter with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following...

  16. 77 FR 14785 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... would then dismiss the case with prejudice once EPA has fulfilled these obligations under the...

  17. 78 FR 30919 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a... shall be terminated and the case dismissed with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days...

  18. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S..., International Hospitality Associates S. en C. Por A. (SE.) and International Hospitality Associates, Inc., for... 20530, and should refer to United States of America v. International Hospitality Associates, S. en C...

  19. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... against Newport Sand & Gravel Company, Inc., and Carroll Concrete Company, Inc. (``Defendants'') for..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Newport Sand & Gravel Company, Inc., and Carroll Concrete Company, Inc., Civil Action No. 2:11-cv-228, was lodged with the United States District Court...

  20. 76 FR 37152 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Amendment to the 2004 Decree, a third party, Pollution Risk Services LLC (``PRS''), became party to the... Section of the Site. Tecumseh, however, remains liable for completion of the Upper River remedy should PRS fail to perform. In 2006, PRS purchased the former Tecumseh plant in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin,...

  1. 77 FR 30555 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., at five compressor stations Questar Gas Management Co., now... proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Questar Gas Management Co., Civil Action No. 2:08-cv... United States alleges that QEPFS constructed, modified, and operated the compressor stations in...

  2. 77 FR 516 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental... pay $5.5 million to the United States Department of the Interior's Natural Resource Damage Assessment... natural resource losses at the mine sites. Finally, Freeport-McMoRan will reimburse the Department...

  3. 77 FR 25499 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental... Freeport-McMoRan is civilly liable for payment of damages for injuries to natural resources belonging to... Interior's Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Fund, which can be used to...

  4. Jewish responses to the decree of expulsion by king Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bekkum, W

    2005-01-01

    The expulsion of the Sephardim - the term for Spain's Jews - was a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula. A rising tide of religious fanaticism gradually engulfed Spain, leading to the persecution of 1391 and then, in March 1492, to the decree of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and I

  5. 78 FR 69875 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On November 15, 2013, the....) Inc. (``Suncor'') pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701-2762. The United States'...

  6. 76 FR 3159 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... to cause violations of applicable water quality standards for E. coli in the receiving streams; (2... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on January 6... and Evansville Water and Sewer Utility Board, Civil Action No. 3:09-CV-128, was lodged with the...

  7. 77 FR 74222 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Liability Act (CERCLA) On December 6, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree for... Liability Act (CERCLA). The complaint, which was filed on March 25, 2002, contained claims seeking... wells; optimization and expansion of existing groundwater corrective action, carbon filtration,...

  8. 77 FR 61641 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Rico in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Suiza Dairy Corporation, Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-01810. The proposed Consent Decree memorializes a proposed settlement between the United States and Suiza.... The proposed settlement provides for Suiza to: (1) Implement over 40 compliance measures at each...

  9. Developing an environmental performance standard for the materials in buildings for the Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Groot-Van Dam, A. de; Kortman, J.G.M.; Huppes, G.; Ven, B. van der; Schuurmans, A.; Anink, D.

    2001-01-01

    After consulting the building industry the Dutch government decided in February 1998 to implement sustainability requirements in the Dutch Building Decree by the year 2001. Part of these requirements will be the material-based environmental performance of a building, mepb.. An energy performance

  10. 77 FR 1085 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on December 21... Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2710, et seq., which arose from an alleged August 2008 discharge, from a...

  11. Restoration analysis of the right figure in Decree Law 290 Of the Inventions and Industrial Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2014-06-01

    Recently in Cuba, with the enactment of Decree Law 290, From Inventions and Industrial Designs, dated February 1, 2012, is introduced for the first time the figure of the restoration of the right in inventions matter. That is why this article tries to make an analysis of this figure considering its essential elements.

  12. 76 FR 70164 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... in connection with the Armour Road Superfund Site located at 2251 Armour Road North Kansas City...

  13. 77 FR 8900 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to P.O. Box 7611..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... confirmation number (202) 514-5271. If requesting a copy from the Consent Decree Library by mail,...

  14. 76 FR 69285 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to P.O. Box 7611... Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent Decree Library, please enclose...

  15. 78 FR 45971 - Amended Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... no more than two installments with the first installment payment of no less than one million dollars ($1,000,000) due within 60 days of the Decree entry. The subsequent installment payment of the remaining balance is due 120 days after the effective date and shall include an additional sum for interest...

  16. Jewish responses to the decree of expulsion by king Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bekkum, W

    2005-01-01

    The expulsion of the Sephardim - the term for Spain's Jews - was a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula. A rising tide of religious fanaticism gradually engulfed Spain, leading to the persecution of 1391 and then, in March 1492, to the decree of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and I

  17. 77 FR 66081 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Kellogg's cereal and snack food manufacturing plants located in Battle Creek, Michigan and Grand Rapids... reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: ] Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ-ENRD, P.O. Box... reproduction cost) payable to the United States Treasury. Maureen Katz, Assistant Section Chief,...

  18. 76 FR 75913 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America et al. v. Lafarge North America Inc., et al... 21 facilities in Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, and New York owned and operated by Lafarge North America Inc., Lafarge Building Materials, Inc., Lafarge West, Inc., Lafarge Mid-Atlantic, LLC,...

  19. 77 FR 42332 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Modification Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... combined sewer overflow (``CSO'') outfalls, propose a schedule for construction of a secondary wastewater... the schedule in the Decree, comply with the construction schedule. The City encountered unexpected... construction schedule. The Modification extends the completion deadline for the CSO projects by one...

  20. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...-00946 PJH (N.D. C.A.). On March 5, 2010, Plaintiff filed a complaint to compel the U. S. Environmental... County Air Pollution Control District Rule 420'' (Imperial Rule 420), a State implementation plan (SIP... Rule 420. In addition, the proposed consent decree requires that following signature on such notice...

  1. 76 FR 50757 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... weather overflows (``DWOs'') and reduce combined sewer overflows (``CSOs'') by March 2023 by completing sewer separation projects and upgrades at an approximate cost of $4.2 million; (2) pay the United States... of its municipal wastewater and sewer system. Under the proposed Consent Decree, Elkins is...

  2. 78 FR 26028 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... decree, to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the District of... Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, and Utah which are identified in... submitted by Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, and Utah identified in...

  3. 75 FR 59292 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conseation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Defendant will (a) Implement an operation and maintenance (``O&M'') plan to prevent endangering migratory... to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington... Consent Decree may be examined at the Office of the United States Attorney, District of Wyoming, J.C. O...

  4. TML:A General High-Performance Text Mining Language%TML:一种通用高效的文本挖掘语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳静; 李晓明; 孟涛

    2015-01-01

    实现了一种通用高效的文本挖掘编程语言,包括其编译器、运行虚拟机和图形开发环境。其工作方式是用户通过编写该语言的代码以定制抽取目标和抽取手段,然后将用户代码编译成字节码并进行优化,再将其与输入文本语义结构做匹配。该语言具有如下特点:1)提供了一种描述文本挖掘的范围、目标和手段的形式化方法,从而能通过编写该语言的代码来在不同应用领域做声明式文本挖掘;2)运行虚拟机以信息抽取技术为核心,高效地实现了多种常用文本挖掘技术,并将其组成一个文本分析流水线;3)通过一系列编译优化技术使得大量匹配指令能够充分并发执行,从而解决了该语言在处理海量规则和海量数据上的执行效率问题。实用案例说明了TML语言的描述能力以及它的实际应用情况。%This paper proposes a general‐purpose programming language named TML for text mining . TML is the abbreviation of “text mining language” ,and it aims at turning complicated text mining tasks into easy jobs . The implementation of TML includes a compiler ,a runtime virtual machine (interpreter ) , and an IDE . TML has supplied most usual text mining techniques , which are implemented as grammars and reserved words .Users can use TML to program ,and the code will be compiled into bytecodes ,which will be next interpreted in the virual runtime machine .TML has the following characteristics :1) It supplies a formal way to model the searching area ,object definition and mining methods of text mining jobs ,so users can program with it to make a declarative text mining easily ;2) The TML runtime machine implements usual text mining techniques ,and organizes them into an efficient text analysis pipeline ;3) The TML compiler fully explores the possibility of concurrently executing its byte codes , and the execution has good performance on very large collections of

  5. The ATEE action during the drawing up of regulatory texts; L`action de l`ATEE lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacubowiez, I. [Groupe de Travail Environnement de ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The role of the French Energy Environment Technical Association (ATEE) is to promote the rational and efficient use of energies. In this context, the ATEE participated to the elaboration of regulatory text and in particular to the revision of the nomenclature of classified installations and to the decrees proceeding from the clean air acts and from the rational use of energy. This paper describes the action of the ATEE carried out in both topics. (J.S.)

  6. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  7. LEGAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL FATHER: The Analysis of Constitutional Court Decree No. 46/PUU-VIII/2010 in the Perspective of Civil and Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang Marilang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, children born out of wedlock only have legal relationship or family lineage relationship with their mother and mother’s family, not with their biological father and biological father’s family. This provisions of law are arranged in Article 43 paragraph (1 of Marriage Law No. 1 of 1974 which is highly influenced by Shafi’ite School of Islamic jurisprudence. Through judicial review of Aisyah (Machica Mochtar and her son named M. Iqbal Ramadhan, Constitutional Court has agreed to waive the provisions by means of the Decree Number 46/PUU-VIII/2010 with legal consideration that the concerned article contravenes the Constitution, then it creates new legal norm which states those children have legal relationship and family lineage with their mother and mother’s family and also the man who is their father. The Decree sparks controversies concerning the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ and ‘legal relationship’ in the decree. Contrary to many law experts, the article argues that the term ‘children born out of wedlock’ simply means children born from zina (adultery or fornication. Thus, ‘legal relationship’ only refer to limited relationship between both parties.

  8. Leaching standards for mineral recycling materials--a harmonized regulatory concept for the upcoming German Recycling Decree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susset, Bernd; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-02-01

    In this contribution we give a first general overview of results of recent studies in Germany which focused on contaminant leaching from various materials and reactive solute transport in the unsaturated soil zone to identify the key factors for groundwater risk assessment. Based on these results we developed new and improved existing methods for groundwater risk assessment which are used to derive a new regulatory concept for the upcoming "Decree for the Requirements of the Use of Alternative Mineral Building Materials in Technical Constructions and for the Amendment of the Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance" of the German Federal Ministry of Environment. The new concept aims at a holistic and scientifically sound assessment of the use of mineral recycling materials (e.g., mineral waste, excavated soils, slag and ashes, recycling products, etc.) in technical constructions (e.g., road dams) and permanent applications (e.g., backfilling and landscaping) which is based on a mechanistic understanding of leaching and transport processes. Fundamental for risk assessment are leaching standards for the mineral recycling materials. For each application of mineral recycling materials specific maximum concentrations of a substance in the seepage water at the bottom of an application were calculated. Technical boundary conditions and policy conventions derived from the "German precautionary groundwater and soil protection policy" were accounted to prevent adverse environmental effects on the media soil and groundwater. This includes the concentration decline of highly soluble substances (e.g., chloride and sulphate), retardation or attenuation of solutes, accumulation of contaminants in sub-soils and the hydraulic properties of recycling materials used for specific applications. To decide whether the use of a mineral recycling material is possible in a specific application, the leaching qualities were evaluated based on column percolation tests with

  9. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    and free online dictionaries. The Diccionario español para la producción de textos is an example of a general text production dictionary that makes use of internet technologies, is based on a lexicographic theory, contains all the lexicographic data that users need in a production situation, and aims...

  10. Of horses and swords: The 25 May and the Wars of Independence in text books of the third cycle of basic general school of "educational transformation" of the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Alvaro De Amézola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in the narrative of the independence of Argentina that the educative reform tried to introduce in textbooks for the third cycle of General Basic Education, the new compulsory education path defined by the reform of the 90s. These changes included an update of transmitting knowledge in school and the skills that history should be promoted in the classroom.

  11. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex on Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter; Availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 1: Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Residue on Ignition/Sulphated Ash General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability among these texts from the local regional pharmacopeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  12. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  13. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14 on Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 14: Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bacterial Endotoxins Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  14. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6 on Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 6: Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Uniformity of Dosage Units General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions'' (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13 on Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 13: Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Bulk Density and Tapped Density of Powders General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. The guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4A on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4A: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Microbial Enumeration Tests General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 8 on Sterility Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 8: Sterility Test General Chapter.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Sterility Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 9 on Tablet Friability General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 9: Tablet Friability General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Tablet Friability General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 10 on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 10: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter. The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  20. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 5 on Disintegration Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 5: Disintegration Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Disintegration Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 3: Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Particulate Contamination: Subvisible Particles General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 7 on Dissolution Test General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 7: Dissolution Test General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Dissolution Test General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (core ICH Q4B guidance).

  3. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex on Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 2: Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Test for Extractable Volume of Parenteral Preparations General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  4. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 12 on Analytical Sieving General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 12: Analytical Sieving General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Analytical Sieving General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. This guidance is in the form of an annex to the core guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions" (the core ICH Q4B guidance).

  5. On the Relation between the General Affective Meaning and the Basic Sublexical, Lexical, and Inter-lexical Features of Poetic Texts-A Case Study Using 57 Poems of H. M. Enzensberger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Susann; Aryani, Arash; Kraxenberger, Maria; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The literary genre of poetry is inherently related to the expression and elicitation of emotion via both content and form. To explore the nature of this affective impact at an extremely basic textual level, we collected ratings on eight different general affective meaning scales-valence, arousal, friendliness, sadness, spitefulness, poeticity, onomatopoeia, and liking-for 57 German poems ("die verteidigung der wölfe") which the contemporary author H. M. Enzensberger had labeled as either "friendly," "sad," or "spiteful." Following Jakobson's (1960) view on the vivid interplay of hierarchical text levels, we used multiple regression analyses to explore the specific influences of affective features from three different text levels (sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical) on the perceived general affective meaning of the poems using three types of predictors: (1) Lexical predictor variables capturing the mean valence and arousal potential of words; (2) Inter-lexical predictors quantifying peaks, ranges, and dynamic changes within the lexical affective content; (3) Sublexical measures of basic affective tone according to sound-meaning correspondences at the sublexical level (see Aryani et al., 2016). We find the lexical predictors to account for a major amount of up to 50% of the variance in affective ratings. Moreover, inter-lexical and sublexical predictors account for a large portion of additional variance in the perceived general affective meaning. Together, the affective properties of all used textual features account for 43-70% of the variance in the affective ratings and still for 23-48% of the variance in the more abstract aesthetic ratings. In sum, our approach represents a novel method that successfully relates a prominent part of variance in perceived general affective meaning in this corpus of German poems to quantitative estimates of affective properties of textual components at the sublexical, lexical, and inter-lexical level.

  6. Sialadenoma Papilliferum: Clinical Misdiagnosis with a Histological Decree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare salivary gland tumor clinically resembling papilloma originating probably from the excretory duct. It is characterized by a biphasic growth pattern of exophytic squamous component and endophytic glandular component. We report a rare case of sialadenoma papilliferum in the floor of the mouth with epithelial dysplasia with pertinent review of literature. The present case highlights the importance of keeping sialadenoma papilliferum as a differential diagnosis of exophytic papilliferous oral lesions and the need to explore the etiology and malignant potential of the tumor.

  7. Decree no 2007-1557 from November 2, 2007, relative to basic nuclear facilities and to the nuclear safety control of nuclear materials transport; Decret no 2007-1557 du 2 novembre 2007 relatif aux installations nucleaires de base et au controle, en matiere de surete nucleaire, du transport de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This decree concerns the enforcement of articles 5, 17 and 36 of the law 2006-686 from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. A consultative commission of basic nuclear facilities is established. The decree presents the general dispositions relative to basic nuclear facilities, the dispositions relative to their creation and operation, to their shutdown and dismantling. It precises the dispositions in the domain of public utility services, administrative procedures and sanctions. It stipulates also the particular dispositions relative to other facilities located in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, relative to the use of pressure systems, and relative to the transport of radioactive materials. (J.S.)

  8. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  9. 77 FR 55861 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA'') Notice is hereby given... and Section 48-1-90 of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 48-1-90. In their... sought damages in order to compensate for natural resources injured by the discharge of fuel oil from...

  10. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On... Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA''), 33 U.S.C. 2702(a), incurred by the United States Oil Spill Liability Trust... and July 1, 2007 discharge of approximately 2,145 barrels of crude oil, diesel fuel, and oily...

  11. 75 FR 41239 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Agreement and Final Order (``CA/FO'') entered into between MBA and the United States Environmental... procedures, a RCRA-specific employee training program, and undertaking a comprehensive third-party multimedia environmental compliance audit at its Central Facility in San Juan. The proposed Consent Decree resolves...

  12. 75 FR 21660 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... the Environmental Protection Agency (``U.S. EPA'') and the Department of Housing and Urban Development... Southern District of Ohio. The consent decree settles claims against the owner of 128 housing units in... will abate lead-based paint hazards on friction and impact surfaces, stabilize other lead- based...

  13. 77 FR 21808 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Clean Air Act, The Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... violations involve all twenty-two steam-assisted flares at these refineries. Under the Consent Decree, MPC is required to minimize flaring and to efficiently combust any gases that are flared. Under the flare... these efforts, comply with ``flaring caps,'' which limit the volume of gas that MPC can flare. Under the...

  14. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated by defendants in Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia. The defendants treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its mobile... about drinking water problems. The Consent Decree requires payment of a civil penalty of...

  15. 76 FR 23625 - Notice of Filing of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... States v. P4 Production L.L.C., No. 11-00166-REB (D. Idaho), Department of Justice Case Number 90-5-1-1... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... Department of Justice will receive comments related to the Consent Decree for a period of thirty (30)...

  16. 77 FR 44672 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts Notice is hereby given that on... resolve its violations of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The Allegheny County Health... the Clean Water Act, Plaintiffs allege that Shenango violated the effluent limitations in the...

  17. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  18. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water...

  19. 77 FR 19716 - Notice of Filing of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, CERCLA and EPCRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Risk Management Plan regulations, and CERCLA and EPCRA... injunctive relief directed primarily at insuring future compliance with the Risk Management Program... be obtained by mail from the Consent Decree Library, P.O. Box 7611, U.S. Department of...

  20. 78 FR 14358 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... proposed Consent Decree resolves claims of the United States under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended... of fully automated ] electronic release detection monitoring equipment on the UST systems and... (1) Centralized monitoring equipment to collect the data generated by the electronic...

  1. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby... requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33 U.S.C....

  2. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  3. 78 FR 63494 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To Know Act On September 30, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent... Door Company, Civil Action No. 6:13-cv-01738-MC. In this lawsuit filed under the Clean Air Act and...

  4. 75 FR 5343 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under Sections 106, 107 and 113 of the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under Sections 106, 107 and 113 of the Comprehensive Environmental... Armour Road Superfund Site, located at and adjacent to 2251 Armour Road in North Kansas City, Clay County...

  5. 77 FR 51048 - Notice of Lodging Sixth Amendment to Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov or mailed to P..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... ``Consent Decree Copy'' ( EESCDCopy.enrd@usdoj.gov ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number...

  6. 76 FR 11280 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... February 14, 2011, a proposed Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge North... states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc.'s, Lafarge Midwest, Inc.'s, and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc.'s (``Lafarge's'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'' or...

  7. 77 FR 38830 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... June 25, 2012, a proposed Second Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge... and twelve states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc., Lafarge Midwest, Inc., and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc. (``Lafarge'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''...

  8. 77 FR 22612 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... hereby given that on April 6, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Wilmette Real Estate... of 463 housing units in 14 separate properties located in or near Chicago, Illinois. The claims were brought on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency (``U.S. EPA'') and the Department of Housing...

  9. 75 FR 69704 - Notice of Lodging of Second Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... connection with the City's operation of its municipal wastewater and sewer system. In December 2006, the Court entered a Consent Decree which requires the City to reduce Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO) by, among other things, performing certain activities and constructing thirty-one (31) Combined...

  10. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  11. Consent Decrees

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAs Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) cases and settlements webpage contains links to selected settlements resolving civil enforcement cases...

  12. Metacomprehension of text material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.

  13. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF OLD BELIEVERS COMUNITIES OF THE VYATKA PROVINCE AFTER THE ISSUANCE OF THE DECREE «ABOUT STRENGTHENING OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF TOLERATION» IN THE YEAR 1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Иванович Бронников

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After the edition in 1905 of the decree «About strengthening of the first principles of toleration» Old Believers acquired the right to freely practise the religion and to officially register communities for the first time. The purpose of this article is to analyze the institutionalization process of Old Believers communities of the Vyatka province after the publication of the decrees of 1905-1906. The research is based on archival documents introduced for scientific use for the first time. The institutionalization process of Old Believers communities has never been a subject of independent research before. The article focuses on the procedure of registration, the statistics of the registered communities, and relationship with officials and representatives of Synod church at the initial stage. Analyzing the research findings, the author shows that there was no unequivocal attitude to the right of legal registration of the communities among Old Believers consents, the greatest activity at registration in the Vyatka province was shown by Old Believers of belokrinitsky hierarchy. The activity of newly established communities was limited in many respects because of imperfection of the legislative base.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-7

  14. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF OLD BELIEVERS COMUNITIES OF THE VYATKA PROVINCE AFTER THE ISSUANCE OF THE DECREE «ABOUT STRENGTHENING OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF TOLERATION» IN THE YEAR 1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronnikov Nikolai Ivanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After the edition in 1905 of the decree «About strengthening of the first principles of toleration» Old Believers acquired the right to freely practise the religion and to officially register communities for the first time. The purpose of this article is to analyze the institutionalization process of Old Believers communities of the Vyatka province after the publication of the decrees of 1905-1906. The research is based on archival documents introduced for scientific use for the first time. The institutionalization process of Old Believers communities has never been a subject of independent research before. The article focuses on the procedure of registration, the statistics of the registered communities, and relationship with officials and representatives of Synod church at the initial stage. Analyzing the research findings, the author shows that there was no unequivocal attitude to the right of legal registration of the communities among Old Believers consents, the greatest activity at registration in the Vyatka province was shown by Old Believers of belokrinitsky hierarchy. The activity of newly established communities was limited in many respects because of imperfection of the legislative base.

  15. Text Retrieval on a Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Richard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents description of the Generalized Automatic Text Organization and Retrieval system (GATOR), a database system that indexes and retrieves information from machine-readable texts such as interviews and case histories. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are discussed, and integrating GATOR with standard statistical packages is described.…

  16. Typesafe Modeling in Text Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Steeg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of annotation-based agents, this report introduces tools and a formal notation for defining and running text mining experiments using a statically typed domain-specific language embedded in Scala. Using machine learning for classification as an example, the framework is used to develop and document text mining experiments, and to show how the concept of generic, typesafe annotation corresponds to a general information model that goes beyond text processing.

  17. Measures of the General Administration of Gustoms of the People's Republic of China for the Administration of Manifests of Inbound and Outbound Means of Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Measures adopted at the Executive Meeting of the General Administration of Customs on 10 March 2008,promulgated in the form of Decree No.172 of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China on28 March 2008,and effective as of 1 January 2009.

  18. [Decree No. 1.373 of 29 October 1990 establishing support systems for the care of minors in irregular situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This decree, issued by the Chilean Ministry of Justice, establishes the following regimes for the care of minors in irregular situations: a) ambulatory diagnosis services; b) day care in a family setting for breast feeding and pre-school children; c) substitute family care for minors who do not have problems with the law; d) care in group homes for such minors; e) emergency care in substitute families for minors; f) rehabilitation in substitute homes for minors who have problems with the law or severe behavioral problems; g) technical on-job training for minors who have broken the law; and h) group care for minors who have broken the law. These regimes can be implemented by the National Agency for Minors or public and private organizations entering into agreements with the Agency. Decree No. 1610 of 26 December 1991 of the Ministry of Justice sets forth regulations governing agreements between public and private organizations and the National Agency for Minors with respect to the Program of Support for Minors in Irregular Situations (a different program from the above regimes). These agreements are to have the following primary objectives: diagnosis; rehabilitation for minors who have broken the law; attention for minors with behavioral problems; deinstitutionalization of minors and their reinsertion in society; personal attention to minors who have problems with the law, including advising their families; education and training for minors; community prevention of juvenile delinquency; and awareness raising projects. See Recopilacion de Leyes y Reglamentos, Vol. 98, 1991, pp. 765-8 (Diario Oficial, No. 34179, 29 January 1992). Further provisions of the decree deal with applications, financing, and records, among other things. Decree No. 32 of 11 November 1991 establishes rules for the execution of the above program. See Recopilacion de Leyes y Reglamentos, Vol. 98, 1991, pp. 492-495.

  19. TEXT DEIXIS IN NARRATIVE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rivera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at demonstrative descriptions, regarding them as text-deictic procedures which contribute to weave discourse reference. Text deixis is thought of as a metaphorical referential device which maps the ground of utterance onto the text itself. Demonstrative expressions with textual antecedent-triggers, considered as the most important text-deictic units, are identified in a narrative corpus consisting of J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan and its translation into Catalan. Some linguistic and discourse variables related to DemNPs are analysed to characterise adequately text deixis. It is shown that this referential device is usually combined with abstract nouns, thus categorising and encapsulating (non-nominal complex discourse entities as nouns, while performing a referential cohesive function by means of the text deixis + general noun type of lexical cohesion.

  20. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  1. What makes a written text written

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亦倩

    2008-01-01

    Text can be used for both written and spoken language, and different features of spoken and written texts provide us the possibility to have a general idea of the division of two main categories--spoken English and written English. In this article, an attempt will be given to a sample text in order to discuss the general features of written texts.

  2. Quality text editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Bujdosó

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.

  3. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  4. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  5. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  6. Decree No. 1900 of 24 August 1989 authorizing civil divorce before a notary for reasons provided in Section 8 of Article 154 of the Civil Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Colombian Decree authorizes civil divorce to take place before a notary by means of public document when the spouses are in mutual agreement; the ground for the divorce is separation, either decreed by a court or formalized before a notary; and the separation has lasted more than 2 years. Such a divorce produces the same legal effects as a divorce decreed by a court. The document is to set forth the duties of both spouses with respect to the provisions of sentence 3 of Article 166 of the Civil Code. If there are minors, the document must receive the approval of the municipal or district representative. Decree No. 2275 of 7 October 1989 (Diario Oficial, 7 October 1989, pp. 75-76) amends this Decree to provide that the judgment of the municipal or district representative must be made within 10 days after the document is received. Sentence 3 of Article 166 of the Civil Code requires that spouses who are separating by mutual consent send to a judge their agreement with respect to the care and support of children, which the judge may reject if necessary in the interests of the children.

  7. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  8. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  9. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  10. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  11. Making Sense of Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  12. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  13. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  14. [Traditional midwife texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ingela; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We report an hermeneutic text study in two early midwife text books. In Louise Bourgeois book from early 17th century the individual caring perspective is more present than in Helena Malhiems book from the middle of the 18th century. In both books, however, non-technological aspects of child birth delivery is more prominent than in books written by doctors.

  15. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  16. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  17. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third

  18. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly

  19. Emotion Detection from Text

    CERN Document Server

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  20. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, University of Agriculture, ... engineering students selected from two Nigerian Federal Universities. ... Numerous factors that may likely influence academic performance have been ... parents and teachers or as a result of the prestige attached to certain jobs.

  1. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health

  2. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-

  3. Text as Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  4. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  5. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  6. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  7. Text analysis and computers

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).

  8. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  9. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2017-01-01

    modality, which is both an independent modality and a container in which other modalities may be contained. In the first case, the notion of electronic text would be paradigmatically formed around the e-book, conceived as a digital copy a printed book, but now produced as a deliberately closed work. Even...

  10. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  11. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  12. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  13. Summarizing Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  14. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  15. Wisdom Texts and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Preus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last essay of this issue concerns to a more "technical" subject: in many ancient cultures, literary monuments are mainly "wisdom literature". In these early works. Philosophy and Literature are more closely related than in many contemporary approaches. The author here tries to sketch the relationships between the ancient wisdom literatures of Egipt, Greece and Israel, and to show how this literary genre precedes "philosophy".

  16. Texts of presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Vidolov, K.; Dufour-Fallot, B.; Dewarrat, Th.; Rose, T.; Favatier, A.; Gazeley, D.; Pujol, T.; Worner, D.; Van de Wel, E.; Revaz, J.M.; Clerfayt, G.; Creedy, A.; Moisan, F.; Geissler, M.; Isbell, P.; Macaluso, M.; Litzka, V.; Gillis, W.; Jarvis, I.; Gorg, M.; Bebie, B.

    2004-07-01

    Implementing a sustainable local energy policy involves a long term reflection on the general interest, energy efficiency, distributed generation and environmental protection. Providing services on a market involves looking for activities that are profitable, if possible in the 'short-term'. The aim of this conference is to analyse the possibility of reconciling these apparently contradictory requirements and how this can be achieved. This conference brings together the best specialists from European municipalities as well as important partners for local authorities (energy agencies, service companies, institutions, etc.) in order to discuss the public-private partnerships concerning the various functions that municipalities may perform in the energy field as consumers and customers, planners and organizers of urban space and rousers as regards inhabitants and economic players of their areas. This document contains the summaries of the following presentations: 1 - Performance contracting: Bulgarian municipalities use private capital for energy efficiency improvement (K. VIDOLOV, Varna (BG)), Contracting experiences in Swiss municipalities: consistent energy policy thanks to the Energy-city label (B. DUFOUR-FALLOT and T. DEWARRAT (CH)), Experience of contracting in the domestic sector (T. ROSE (GB)); 2 - Public procurement: Multicolor electricity (A. FAVATIER (CH)), Tendering for new green electricity capacity (D. GAZELEY (GB)), The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance (T. PUJOL (ES)); 3 - Urban planning and schemes: Influencing energy issues through urban planning (D. WOERNER (DE)), Tendering for the supply of energy infrastructure (E. VAN DE WEL (NL)), Concessions and public utility warranty (J.M. REVAZ (CH)); 4 - Certificate schemes: the market of green certificates in Wallonia region in a liberalized power market (G. CLERFAYT (BE)), The Carbon Neutral{sup R} project: a voluntary certification scheme with opportunity for implementation in other European

  17. Weaving with text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter

    This paper explores how a school principal by means of practical authorship creates reservoirs of language that provide a possible context for collective sensemaking. The paper draws upon a field study in which a school principal, and his managerial team, was shadowed in a period of intensive cha...... changes. The paper explores how the manager weaves with text, extracted from stakeholders, administration, politicians, employees, public discourse etc., as a means of creating a new fabric, a texture, of diverse perspectives that aims for collective sensemaking....

  18. [Decree No. 1010 of 5 September 1989 approving Regulations on ordinary passports, travel documents, and travel papers for foreigners; repealing Decree No. 676 of 15 February 1966 of the Ministry of Justice and amending Decree No. 172 of 23 March 1977 of the Ministry of Foreign Relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Chilean decree approves regulations on passports and travel documents. It provides that Chilean nationals must obtain an ordinary passport in order to enter or leave the country. Ordinary passports can be issued to an individual or a family. Individual passports are valid for 10 years and can be renewed; family passports are valid for the same period unless the oldest child in the family reaches the age of 18, at which time the passports expire. Only families with 5 or fewer members may obtain a family passport. Persons requesting passports must present an identity card, obtain a certificate from the police, and pay a tax. The decree authorizes the Civil Registry to issue travel documents to foreigners whose country of nationality has no diplomatic relations with Chile or who are unable to provide their own passports. The documents can be used only to leave the country. The Civil Registry is also authorized to issue travel documents to stateless persons and refugees resident in Chile and to the children of foreigners temporarily in the country and the foreign-born children of Chilean nationals. These documents are valid for 2 years to enter and leave the country.

  19. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Natalia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available English as a second language (ESL teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary school students need to know in terms of language to process academic textbooks cannot avoiding deal with a dilemma. It needs to be decided which way it is most appropriate to analyse the texts in question. Handbooks of English applied linguistics are not immensely helpful with regard to this problem as they tend not to give recommendation as to which major text analytical approaches are advisable to follow in a pre-college setting. The present theoretical research aims to address this lacuna. Respectively, the purpose of this pedagogically motivated theoretical paper is to investigate two major approaches of ESP text analysis, the register and the genre analysis, in order to find the more suitable one for exploring the language use of secondary school subject texts from the point of view of an English as a second language teacher. Comparing and contrasting the merits and limitations of the two contrastive approaches allows for a better understanding of the nature of the two different perspectives of text analysis. The study examines the goals, the scope of analysis, and the achievements of the register perspective and those of the genre approach alike. The paper also investigates and reviews in detail the starkly different methods of ESP text analysis applied by the two perspectives. Discovering text analysis from a theoretical and methodological angle supports a practical aspect of English teaching, namely making an informed choice when setting out to analyse

  20. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  1. Língua de sinais e escola: considerações a partir do texto de regulamentação da língua brasileira de sinais/Sign language and school: considerations on the brazilian sign language regulatory decree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é produto parcial de um conjunto de reflexões realizadas pela autora a partir do texto de regulamentação da Libras. Considerando a responsabilidade de ser revisto o currículo dos cursos de formação de professores a fim de se criar, na escola, um contexto bilíngüe de aprendizagem e ensino, a autora discute a necessidade de se propor um conjunto de princípios éticos para nortear a formulação da política lingüística a ser adotada, por esses mesmos cursos, na elaboração de medidas que atendam aos termos do Decreto N. 5626. Para demonstrar que seu cumprimento só poderá trazer novidades se romperem com as estratégias históricas de assimilação do outro, revisita a história da alfabetização no Brasil aproximando-a da situação dos surdos sinalizadores. A partir de Foucault, Rancière e Derrida finaliza considerando que o Decreto pode abrir rotas que rompam com estratégias fagocitárias se, de um lado, o outro for mirado e respeitado em sua radical diferença conosco, e se, de outro, seja convidado a fazer parte conosco das medidas a serem tomadas para ele. The present paper is the partial result of a set of reflections the author has made on the Brazilian Sign Language regulatory decree. By considering the responsibilities involved in the revision of teachers’ course curricula so that a bilingual environment can be created for teaching and learning at schools, the author discusses the need to propose a set of ethical principles that would lead to the formulation of linguistic policies to be adopted by those courses, when elaborating the guidelines to meet the requirements of Decree N.5626. In order to demonstrate that the decree will only actually bring changes if the historical assimilation strategies of “the other one” are brought down, the author re-visits the history of literacy in Brazil, drawing a parallel with the situation of deaf sign-language users. In accordance with Foucault, Ranci

  2. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  3. TEXT CLASSIFICATION TOWARD A SCIENTIFIC FORUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Text mining, also known as discovering knowledge from the text, which has emerged as a possible solution for the current information explosion, refers to the process of extracting non-trivial and useful patterns from unstructured text. Among the general tasks of text mining such as text clustering,summarization, etc, text classification is a subtask of intelligent information processing, which employs unsupervised learning to construct a classifier from training text by which to predict the class of unlabeled text. Because of its simplicity and objectivity in performance evaluation, text classification was usually used as a standard tool to determine the advantage or weakness of a text processing method, such as text representation, text feature selection, etc. In this paper, text classification is carried out to classify the Web documents collected from XSSC Website (http://www. xssc.ac.cn). The performance of support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) is compared on this task. Specifically, binary text classification and multi-class text classification were conducted on the XSSC documents. Moreover, the classification results of both methods are combined to improve the accuracy of classification. An experiment is conducted to show that BPNN can compete with SVM in binary text classification; but for multi-class text classification, SVM performs much better. Furthermore, the classification is improved in both binary and multi-class with the combined method.

  4. Decision of the General Administration of Customs concerning Amending the Measures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China for the Supervision of Processing Trade Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For the purpose of adapting to the changes in processing trade and regularizing the relevant business of processing trade,the General Administration of Customs has decided to make the following amendments to the Measures of the Customs of the People's Republic of China for the Supervision of Processing Trade Goods (Decree No.13 of the General Administration of Customs,hereinafter referred to as the Measures):

  5. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  6. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  7. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  8. Expertise, following the 5.7.1977 decree: assessment of the procedure; Expertise, arrete du 5.7.77 - bilan de la procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, M. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The French Government decree concerning the periodical inspection and extensive examination procedure for plants and buildings where thermal energy is consumed, is presented. The inspection procedure is intended to control the thermal and electrical equipment, the regulation systems, the pollutant emission control systems and the waste heat recovery systems. Design recommendations, fuel substitution, pollution abatement, waste heat up-grading, etc. may be proposed by the expert

  9. Application of the zoning decree in the medical sector: external radiotherapy and curietherapy; Application de l'arrete zonage dans le domaine medical: Radiotherapie externe et curietherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierrat, N. [Service de physique medicale, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The author presents some requirements about access to external radiotherapy rooms and curietherapy rooms according the application of a decree requiring zoning for radiotherapy practices. She also indicates some technical characteristics (radioactive sources, authorized radioactivity level). As far as curietherapy is concerned, she makes a distinction between treatments with or without a source projector, and also (in the case with a source projector) between low dose rate with caesium 137, pulsed radiation with indium 192 and high dose rate with indium 192

  10. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  11. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  12. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  13. Generalized periodic and generalized Boolean rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard E. Bell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a generalized periodic, as well as a generalized Boolean, ring is either commutative or periodic. We also prove that a generalized Boolean ring with central idempotents must be nil or commutative. We further consider conditions which imply the commutativity of a generalized periodic, or a generalized Boolean, ring.

  14. Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text…

  15. Temporal Adverbials in Text Structuring: On Temporal Text Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Tuija

    This paper discusses clause-initial adverbials of time functioning as signals of the temporal text strategy. A chain of such markers creates cohesion and coherence by forming continuity in the text and also signals textual boundaries that occur on different hierarchic levels. The temporal text strategy is closely associated with narrative text.…

  16. Engagement of the ATEE in the elaboration of regulation texts; L`action de l`atee lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacubowiez, I. [ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French technical association for energy savings (ATEE) has been involved in the elaboration of regulations concerning efficiency and pollution of medium-power combustion equipment (boilers, engines, dryers, furnaces...), with the aim of promoting energy efficiency and rational utilization of energy. It has thus been involved in the development of a new classification of these equipment with regard to their fuel and energy sources (decree 2910), and decrees on boiler (lower than 50 MW) efficiency, technical inspections, and classification of heat networks

  17. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  18. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00537113

    2016-01-01

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  19. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gronefeld, Julius

    2016-09-21

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  20. Handwritten text line segmentation by spectral clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuecheng; Yao, Hui; Zhong, Guoqiang

    2017-02-01

    Since handwritten text lines are generally skewed and not obviously separated, text line segmentation of handwritten document images is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel text line segmentation algorithm based on the spectral clustering. Given a handwritten document image, we convert it to a binary image first, and then compute the adjacent matrix of the pixel points. We apply spectral clustering on this similarity metric and use the orthogonal kmeans clustering algorithm to group the text lines. Experiments on Chinese handwritten documents database (HIT-MW) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  2. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  3. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  4. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  5. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.

  6. Algunas reflexiones acerca del Real Decreto-ley 3/2012: sobre el desempleo y más allá || Some Thoughts On Royal Decree-Law 3/2012: Unemployment And Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Centenera Sanchez Seco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo se desarrolla en el ámbito de la racionalidad normativa, y centra la atención en el Real Decreto-ley 3/2012, de 10 de febrero, de medidas urgentes para la reforma del mercado laboral. Comienza con el estudio de la definición del problema que se pretende solucionar, considera las medidas de flexibilización relativas a la salida del mercado laboral, y los resultados obtenidos. Estos últimos dan lugar a pensar que podría haberse recurrido a otras medidas más apropiadas para solucionar problema expuesto, y también a cuestionar el diagnóstico inicial del problema. Abstract: This paper is located within the field of normative rationality, and focuses on Royal Decree-Law 3/2012, of 10 February, on urgent measures to reform the labour market. It starts with a study of the definition of the problem to be solved, followed by an examination of flexibility measures aimed at labour market withdrawal and the results obtained. These latter suggest that other, more appropriate measures should have been deployed to solve the problem identified, and call the initial diagnosis of the problem into question.

  7. Text Classification using Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms for classifying text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using artificial intelligence technique that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of na\\"ive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of genetic algorithm has been added for final classification. A syste...

  8. Text Classification using Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Hasan, Ahmed Ryadh

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using data mining that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. A system based on the...

  9. 38 CFR 3.400 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award is not in the surviving spouse's custody, except that where payments to the surviving spouse have... payable unless the provisions of § 3.55(b) of this part are met. (4) Divorce. Date the decree became final... are met. (4) Divorce. Date the decree became final if claim is filed within 1 year after that...

  10. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  11. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  12. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Networks for Scene Text Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-03-28

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  13. Contrastive Study of Coherence in Chinese Text and English Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the text-linguistic concepts on which the analysis of textual structure is based including text and discourse, coherence and cohesive. In addition we try to discover different manifestations of text between ET and CT, including different coherent structures.

  14. Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

  15. Test of Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David Edey

    Designed to assess how people read and comprehend information presented in picture-text amalgams in procedural texts, this instrument presents various combinations of text information and illustrative information on slides. Subjects are assigned to one of four conditions and directed to follow the instructions presented on the slides. Videotapes…

  16. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... CONTACT: Geoffrey L. Wilcox, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S...; fax number (202) 564-5601; e-mail address: wilcox.geoffrey@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  17. Text mining from ontology learning to automated text processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises a set of articles that specify the methodology of text mining, describe the creation of lexical resources in the framework of text mining and use text mining for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The analysis of large amounts of textual data is a prerequisite to build lexical resources such as dictionaries and ontologies and also has direct applications in automated text processing in fields such as history, healthcare and mobile applications, just to name a few. This volume gives an update in terms of the recent gains in text mining methods and reflects

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  19. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4B on Microbiological Examination of nonsterile products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4B: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Tests for Specified Microorganisms General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  20. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

    CERN Document Server

    Tourte, Gregory J L

    2016-01-01

    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  1. The Research of Chinese Text Proofreading Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Generally, text proofreading consists of two procedures, finding the wrongly used words and then presenting the correct forms. At present, most of the Chinese text proofreading focuses on finding the wrongly used words, but pays less attention to correcting these errors. In this paper, the Chinese text features are interpreted first and then a Chinese text proofreading method and its algorithm are introduced. In this algorithm, text features, including text statistical feature and language structure feature, are properly used. Here, correcting errors goes on at the same time with finding errors. Experimental results show that this method has a performance of detecting 75% of wrongly used Chinese words and correcting about 60% of them with the first candidates.

  2. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  3. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  4. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  5. Multilingual Text Analysis for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sproat, R

    1996-01-01

    We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis based on (weighted) finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral-expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been applied to eight languages: Spanish, Italian, Romanian, French, German, Russian, Mandarin and Japanese.

  6. Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2012-01-01

    Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.

  7. A Survey on Web Text Information Retrieval in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapaswini Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed different techniques for information retrieval in text mining. The aim of the study is to identify web text information retrieval. Text mining almost alike to analytics, which is a process of deriving high quality information from text. High quality information is typically derived in the course of the devising of patterns and trends through means such as statistical pattern learning. Typical text mining tasks include text categorization, text clustering, concept/entity extraction, creation of coarse taxonomies, sentiment analysis, document summarization and entity relation modeling. It is used to mine hidden information from not-structured or semi-structured data. This feature is necessary because a large amount of the Web information is semi-structured due to the nested structure of HTML code, is linked and is redundant. Web content categorization with a content database is the most important tool to the efficient use of search engines. A customer requesting information on a particular subject or item would otherwise have to search through hundred of results to find the most relevant information to his query. Hundreds of results through use of mining text are reduced by this step. This eliminates the aggravation and improves the navigation of information on the Web.

  8. Text comprehension practice in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, José Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the study is the existence of relations between the two dimensions of text compression: the instrumental dimension and the cognitive dimension. The first one includes the system of actions, the second one the system of knowledge. A description of identifying, describing, inferring apprising and creating actions are suggested for each type of text. Likewise, the importance of implementing text comprehension is outlined on the basis of the assumption that the text is a tool for preserving and communicating culture, that allows human beings to wide their respective cultural horizons and develop cognitive and affective process that allow them to get universal morals.

  9. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  10. Text mining: A Brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni N. Patel , Neha R. Soni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The unstructured texts which contain massive amount of information cannot simply be used for further processing by computers. Therefore, specific processing methods and algorithms are required in order to extract useful patterns. The process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text completed by using Text mining. In this paper, we have discussed text mining, as a recent and interesting field with the detail of steps involved in the overall process. We have also discussed different technologies that teach computers with natural language so that they may analyze, understand, and even generate text. In addition, we briefly discuss a number of successful applications of text mining which are used currently and in future.

  11. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  12. 78 FR 68476 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Nemours and Company, Exxon Mobil Corporation/ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, General Electric Company, Glaxo... Corporation, Pan Technology, Inc., Permacel, Pfizer Inc, Pharmacia LLC, Revlon Consumer Products Corporation... Lambert Co., LLC, 3M Company, Trane U.S., Inc., Union Carbide Corporation, United Technologies...

  13. 78 FR 42547 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Maryland in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Holcim (US) Inc. and St. Lawrence Cement Company, LLC... ``Permits, Approvals, and Registration--Title V Permits'', at Holcim's portland cement plant in Hagerstown... General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and should refer to United States v. Holcim (US)...

  14. 77 FR 24981 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. In this action, the United States sought on... Crescent Plating Works Superfund Site in Chicago, Illinois, pursuant to Section 107 of the Comprehensive.... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources...

  15. 76 FR 9052 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... or e-mailing a request to Tonia Fleetwood ( tonia.fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax number (202)...

  16. 75 FR 4106 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    .... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 1410-15-P ... ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from...

  17. 75 FR 16840 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, P.O. Box 7611, U.S..., Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... ( tonia.fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547....

  18. 76 FR 59425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    .... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division... Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410.... (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent...

  19. 77 FR 20419 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either emailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ....gov ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-5271. If requesting a copy from...

  20. 75 FR 35087 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed..., Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... ( tonia.fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547....

  1. 75 FR 32503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    .... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P .... (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from the Consent...

  2. 76 FR 28459 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    .... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division..., Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from...

  3. 76 FR 43346 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... the Assistant Attorney General, Environmental and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. In requesting a copy from...

  4. 76 FR 76762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, P.O. Box 7611, U.S..., Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... Fleetwood ( tonia.fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax no. (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202)...

  5. 76 FR 46842 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and..., Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE....fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax number (202) 514-0097, phone confirmation number (202) 514-1547. If requesting...

  6. 76 FR 51398 - Notice of Proposed Partial Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to pubcomment-ees.enrd... Natural Resources Division. BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ... request to Tonia Fleetwood ( tonia.fleetwood@usdoj.gov ), fax number (202) 514-0097, phone...

  7. 77 FR 73496 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...) conduct operation and maintenance (``O&M'') of the remedy at the Site (3) implement institutional controls...' implementation of the O&M and ICs. The publication of this notice starts a period for public comment on the... e-mail pubcomment-ees.enrd@usdoj.gov . By mail Assistant Attorney General, U.S. DOJ--ENRD, P.O. Box...

  8. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  9. Integrating Text Plans for Conciseness and Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, T; Harvey, Terrence; Carberry, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Our experience with a critiquing system shows that when the system detects problems with the user's performance, multiple critiques are often produced. Analysis of a corpus of actual critiques revealed that even though each individual critique is concise and coherent, the set of critiques as a whole may exhibit several problems that detract from conciseness and coherence, and consequently assimilation. Thus a text planner was needed that could integrate the text plans for individual communicative goals to produce an overall text plan representing a concise, coherent message. This paper presents our general rule-based system for accomplishing this task. The system takes as input a \\emph{set} of individual text plans represented as RST-style trees, and produces a smaller set of more complex trees representing integrated messages that still achieve the multiple communicative goals of the individual text plans. Domain-independent rules are used to capture strategies across domains, while the facility for addition...

  10. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration.

  11. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  12. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  13. Survey of Text Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaraa Abuobieda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to review and list the advantages and limitations of the significant effective techniques employed or developed in text plagiarism detection.  It was found that many of the proposed methods for plagiarism detection have a weakness and lacking for detecting some types of plagiarized text. This paper discussed several important issues in plagiarism detection such as; plagiarism detection Tasks, plagiarism detection process and some of the current plagiarism detection techniques.

  14. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  15. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  16. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science.

  17. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules

  18. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/distracted-driving . Print Out Texting While Driving Guide (pdf) File a Complaint with the FCC ... Office: Consumer and Governmental Affairs Tags: Consumers - Distracted Driving - Health and Safety - Texting Federal Communications Commission 445 12th Street SW, Washington, ...

  19. Text analysis for knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Roel

    2007-01-01

    The concept of knowledge graphs is introduced as a method to represent the state of the art in a specific scientific discipline. Next the text analysis part in the construction of such graphs is considered. Here the 'translation' from text to graph takes place. The method that is used here is compar

  20. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases th...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  1. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  2. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  3. Text Genres in Information Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  4. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  5. Text mining for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future.

  6. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence.

  7. Text Analytics to Data Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalli Srinivasa Nageswara Prasad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information hidden or stored in unstructured data can play a critical role in making decisions, understanding and conducting other business functions. Integrating data stored in both structured and unstructured formats can add significant value to an organization. With the extent of development happening in Text Mining and technologies to deal with unstructured and semi structured data like XML and MML(Mining Markup Language to extract and analyze data, textanalytics has evolved to handle unstructured data to helps unlock and predict business results via Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing. Text mining involves dealing with texts in documents and discovering hidden patterns, but Text Analytics enhances InformationRetrieval in form of search and enabling clustering of results and more over Text Analytics is text mining and visualization. In this paper we would discuss on handling unstructured data that are in documents so that they fit into business applications like Data Warehouses for further analysis and it helps in the framework we have used for the solution.

  8. GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Florenzano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available General equilibrium is a central concept of economic theory. Unlike partial equilibrium analysis which study the equilibrium of a particular market under the clause “ceteris paribus” that revenues and prices on the other markets stay approximately unaffected, the ambition of a general equilibrium model is to analyze the simultaneous equilibrium in all markets of a competitive economy. Definition of the abstract model, some of its basic results and insights are presented. The important issues of uniqueness and local uniqueness of equilibrium are sketched; they are the condition for a predictive power of the theory and its ability to allow for statics comparisons. Finally, we review the main extensions of the general equilibrium model. Besides the natural extensions to infinitely many commodities and to a continuum of agents, some examples show how economic theory can accommodate the main ideas in order to study some contexts which were not thought of by the initial model

  9. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  10. Anomaly Detection with Text Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. The...

  11. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  12. Adaptive Personality Recogntion from Text

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of domain adaptation for automatic Personality Recognition from Text (PRT). The PRT task consists in the classification of the personality traits of some authors, given some pieces of text they wrote. The purpose of our work is to improve current approaches to PRT in order to extract personality information from social network sites, which is a really challenging task. We argue that current approaches, based on supervised learning, have several limitations for th...

  13. Functional Stylistics and Peripeteic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame for the ...... for the use of a functional linguistic description apparatus on literary texts. As an extension of this suggestion I present a model for describing a specific type of literary texts....

  14. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL NATURE OF TEXT COMPREHENSION IN TERMS OF TEXT LEARNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ENSAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Texts are important tools for learning. Thus, the attempt to make texts more understandable is a reflection of a purpose-function related necessity for learning from text. On the other hand, the idea of development and recovery of informative texts via corrective teaching materials is frequently explored by contemporary researchers. Thus, it is evident that more advanced proficiency is needed for the illustrated aspect of the structure of texts in the learning process and to make the efforts to prepare educational materials at more scientific ground. Therefore, in this study textual organization and a general theory of learning from texts are outlined and later language processing in working memory and related phenomena about learning from texts and individual differences including information about texts development, texts comprehension, and inferences from texts are discussed. The reason for this is the idea that working memory is responsible for not only recalling the stored information but also for storing the results of partial processes such as successive processes like language comprehension as explained in the related literature for modern memory theories. The other reason is the generalizations about the interaction between the processes of physical representation and pattern of a text manifested in accordance with these ideas. Additionally, not only the different procedures used to develop informative texts, at the same time, differences of these procedures including a learner’s view of world and process styles and measurement of text comprehension and the complex relations among them are the current and available information in the literature. As a result, due to the nature of factors, which affect a learner’s level of recalling and his understanding from text, this study aims to discuss this assumptions.

  15. Text messaging during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A; Yazdani, Hina; Godfrey, Celeste N; Cooper, Joel M; Strayer, David L

    2009-10-01

    This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Forty participants engaged in both a single task (driving) and a dual task (driving and text messaging) in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Analysis of driving performance revealed that participants in the dual-task condition responded more slowly to the onset of braking lights and showed impairments in forward and lateral control compared with a driving-only condition. Moreover, text-messaging drivers were involved in more crashes than drivers not engaged in text messaging. Text messaging while driving has a negative impact on simulated driving performance. This negative impact appears to exceed the impact of conversing on a cell phone while driving. The results increase our understanding of driver distraction and have potential implications for public safety and device development.

  16. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP) in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to…

  17. Princess Brambilla - images/text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Read the illustrated literary text is simultaneously think pictures and words. This articulation between the written text and pictures adds potential, expands and becomes complex. Coincides with nowadays discussions on Giorgio Agamben's "contemporary" that add to what adheres to respectively time the displacement and the distance needed to understand it, shakes linear notions of historical chronology. Somehow the coincidence is related to the current interest in the concept of "Nachleben" (survival, which assumes the images of the past ransom, postulated by the art historian Aby Warburg in a research on ancient art of motion characteristics in Renaissance pictures Botticelli's. For the translation of the Princesa Brambilla – um capriccio segundo Jakob Callot, de E. T. A. Hoffmann, com 8 gravuras cunhadas a partir de moldes originais de Callot (1820 to Portuguese such discussions were fundamental, as I try to present in this article.

  18. Text Recognition from an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath Janvalkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high speed in data processing it is necessary to convert the analog data into digital data. Storage of hard copy of any document occupies large space and retrieving of information from that document is time consuming. Optical character recognition system is an effective way in recognition of printed character. It provides an easy way to recognize and convert the printed text on image into the editable text. It also increases the speed of data retrieval from the image. The image which contains characters can be scanned through scanner and then recognition engine of the OCR system interpret the images and convert images of printed characters into machine-readable characters [8].It improving the interface between man and machine in many applications

  19. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Inspecting the quality of printed texts has its own importance in many industrial applications. To do so, this paper proposes a grading system which evaluates the performance of the printing task using some quality measures for each character and symbols. The purpose of these grading system is two......-folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...

  20. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  1. A Guide Text or Many Texts? "That is the Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Valencia Sonia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of supplementary materials in the classroom has always been an essential part of the teaching and learning process. To restrict our teaching to the scope of one single textbook means to stand behind the advances of knowledge, in any area and context. Young learners appreciate any new and varied support that expands their knowledge of the world: diaries, letters, panels, free texts, magazines, short stories, poems or literary excerpts, and articles taken from Internet are materials that will allow learnersto share more and work more collaboratively. In this article we are going to deal with some of these materials, with the criteria to select, adapt, and create them that may be of interest to the learner and that may promote reading and writing processes. Since no text can entirely satisfy the needs of students and teachers, the creativity of both parties will be necessary to improve the quality of teaching through the adequate use and adaptation of supplementary materials.

  2. Analysing ESP Texts, but How?

    OpenAIRE

    Borza Natalia

    2015-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) teachers instructing general English and English for specific purposes (ESP) in bilingual secondary schools face various challenges when it comes to choosing the main linguistic foci of language preparatory courses enabling non-native students to study academic subjects in English. ESL teachers intending to analyse English language subject textbooks written for secondary school students with the aim of gaining information about what bilingual secondary schoo...

  3. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  4. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  5. The Return of the Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikis, Peter

    2002-01-01

    In celebration of the work of Claire Kramsch, this article affirms her promotion of the literary text "to enrich and enliven the classroom, making the act of reading reflective and self-reflective, and creating a common culture of interpretation and debate within each classroom." (Author/VWL)

  6. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level...

  7. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  8. Seductive Texts with Serious Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    1995-01-01

    Debates whether a text claiming to have scientific value is using seduction irresponsibly at the expense of the truth, and discusses who is the subject and who is the object of such seduction. It argues that, rather than being an assault against scientific ethics, seduction is a necessary premise for a sensible conversation to take place. (GR)

  9. Comparison of Text Categorization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yong-feng; ZHAO Yan-ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes several automatic text categorization algorithms in common use recently, analyzes and compares their advantages and disadvantages.It provides clues for making use of appropriate automatic classifying algorithms in different fields.Finally some evaluations and summaries of these algorithms are discussed, and directions to further research have been pointed out.

  10. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  11. COMPENDEX/TEXT-PAC: CIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standera, Oldrich

    This report evaluates the engineering information services provided by the University of Calgary since implementation of the COMPENDEX (tape service of Engineering Index, Inc.) service using the IBM TEXT-PAC system. Evaluation was made by a survey of the users of the Current Information Selection (CIS) service, the interaction between the system…

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... through the blood vessels. top of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you ...

  13. «Indispensable for the Work in Terms of the Decree of Separation of Church and State»: documentary portrait of M.V. Galkin (1885–1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Yu. Krapivin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to reconstruct the life journey of one of the most prominent functionaries of the "Union of Soviet Atheists" M.V. Galkin (1885-1948. He was the author of the working draft of the decree on the separation of church and state and school, published in December 1917 within the pages of the party semi-official newspaper ‘Pravda’. Being employed as a full-time «expert» of VIII («Church» department of the People's Commissariat of Justice, Galkin (member of the Bolshevik Party since 1919 took a distinct position of militant atheism. He was among the most active participants in the campaign of the opening of graves with the remains of Orthodox Saints (1919-1920s and of the confiscation of church values from churches and monasteries (1921-1922s. The State Political Directorate engaged Galkin in the preparation and organization of the split in the Orthodox Church. The authorities made extensive use of pre-revolutionary publishing experience of Galkin when editing antireligious periodicals: magazines ‘Revolyutsiya I Tserkov’ ("Revolution and the Church", ‘Nauka I Religiya’ ("Science and Religion", ‘Bezbozhnik’ ("Atheist". Until 1926 Galkin was a member of management of the so-called "atheistic" movement. But after the conflict with Em. Yaroslavsky he lost all his administrative posts (at the national level and all his political clout (in the governing party and government circles. Under these conditions, Galkin decided to shift his permanent residence for Ukraine. His residency away from the capital seems to be so invisibly that Moscow and Leningrad аntireligionists wrongly believed that the life of the former priest passed away, aged 45. In 1930 he supposedly went to Ukraine to give a set of atheistic lectures and disappeared there under mysterious circumstances without a trace.

  14. Functional Stylistics and Peripeteic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame for the ...... for the use of a functional linguistic description apparatus on literary texts. As an extension of this suggestion I present a model for describing a specific type of literary texts.......Using a pragmatically based linguistic description apparatus on literary use of language is not unproblematic. Observations show that literary use of language violates the norms contained by this apparatus. With this paper I suggest how we can deal with this problem by setting up a frame...

  15. Text Segmentation Using Exponential Models

    CERN Document Server

    Beeferman, D; Lafferty, G D; Beeferman, Doug; Berger, Adam; Lafferty, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new statistical approach to partitioning text automatically into coherent segments. Our approach enlists both short-range and long-range language models to help it sniff out likely sites of topic changes in text. To aid its search, the system consults a set of simple lexical hints it has learned to associate with the presence of boundaries through inspection of a large corpus of annotated data. We also propose a new probabilistically motivated error metric for use by the natural language processing and information retrieval communities, intended to supersede precision and recall for appraising segmentation algorithms. Qualitative assessment of our algorithm as well as evaluation using this new metric demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in two very different domains, Wall Street Journal articles and the TDT Corpus, a collection of newswire articles and broadcast news transcripts.

  16. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  17. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level. Th....... By comparing the biological with the textual account of autopoietic agency, the end conclusion is that a newly derived concept of sociopoiesis might be better suited for discussing the architecture of textual systems....

  18. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  19. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    implemented using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) [3], and n–gram language models were used to extract features to train Support Vector Machine (SVM... extraversion , agreeableness, and neuroticism. 3 Methods, Assumptions and Procedures 3.1 Data and Preprocessing The text provided proved to be quite clean and...assess the affect of various features a 10-fold cross validation was performed on the training data. 3 n–gram language model Throughout early experiments

  20. Learning Context for Text Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Haribhakta, Y V

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes our work which is based on discovering context for text document categorization. The document categorization approach is derived from a combination of a learning paradigm known as relation extraction and an technique known as context discovery. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our categorization approach using reuters 21578 dataset and synthetic real world data from sports domain. Our experimental results indicate that the learned context greatly improves the categorization performance as compared to traditional categorization approaches.

  1. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  2. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu. The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  3. The Balinese Unicode Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In principal, the computer only recognizes numbers as the representation of a character. Therefore, there are many encoding systems to allocate these numbers although not all characters are covered. In Europe, every single language even needs more than one encoding system. Hence, a new encoding system known as Unicode has been established to overcome this problem. Unicode provides unique id for each different characters which does not depend on platform, program, and language. Unicode standard has been applied in a number of industries, such as Apple, HP, IBM, JustSystem, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, and Unisys. In addition, language standards and modern information exchanges such as XML, Java, ECMA Script (JavaScript, LDAP, CORBA 3.0, and WML make use of Unicode as an official tool for implementing ISO/IEC 10646. There are four things to do according to Balinese script: the algorithm of transliteration, searching, sorting, and word boundary analysis (spell checking. To verify the truth of algorithm, some applications are made. These applications can run on Linux/Windows OS platform using J2SDK 1.5 and J2ME WTK2 library. The input and output of the algorithm/application are character sequence that is obtained from keyboard punch and external file. This research produces a module or a library which is able to process the Balinese text based on Unicode standard. The output of this research is the ability, skill, and mastering of 1. Unicode standard (21-bit as a substitution to ASCII (7-bit and ISO8859-1 (8-bit as the former default character set in many applications. 2. The Balinese Unicode text processing algorithm. 3. An experience of working with and learning from an international team that consists of the foremost experts in the area: Michael Everson (Ireland, Peter Constable (Microsoft US, I Made Suatjana, and Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa.

  4. Text Mining the Biomedical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-05

    FORECASTING AND SOCIAL CHANGE 72 (7): 798-814. Kostoff, RN; del Rio, JA; Humenik, JA; Garcia , EO; Ramirez , AM. 2001. Citation mining: Integrating text...Author, verify your references - or, the accuracy of references in Israeli medical journals. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 27 (2): 109-112...0.3352% DEY, L 3 0.3352% 252 DIAZ, I 3 0.3352% FELDMAN, R 3 0.3352% FREEMAN, RT 3 0.3352% FRIEDMAN, C 3 0.3352% GAO, W 3 0.3352% GARCIA

  5. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections). Occasionally, an ultrasound exam may be temporarily uncomfortable, ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × Image Gallery General ...

  7. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  8. Efficient Index for Handwritten Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ibrahim

    This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

  9. Succincter Text Indexing with Wildcards

    CERN Document Server

    Thachuk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of indexing text with wildcard positions, motivated by the challenge of aligning sequencing data to large genomes that contain millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)---positions known to differ between individuals. SNPs modeled as wildcards can lead to more informed and biologically relevant alignments. We improve the space complexity of previous approaches by giving a succinct index requiring $(2 + o(1))n \\log \\sigma + O(n) + O(d \\log n) + O(k \\log k)$ bits for a text of length $n$ over an alphabet of size $\\sigma$ containing $d$ groups of $k$ wildcards. A key to the space reduction is a result we give showing how any compressed suffix array can be supplemented with auxiliary data structures occupying $O(n) + O(d \\log \\frac{n}{d})$ bits to also support efficient dictionary matching queries. The query algorithm for our wildcard index is faster than previous approaches using reasonable working space. More importantly our new algorithm greatly reduces the query working space to ...

  10. Everyday Life as a Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lahey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how audience data are utilized in the tentative partnerships created between television and social media companies. Specially, it looks at the mutually beneficial relationship formed between the social media platform Twitter and television. It calls attention to how audience data are utilized as a way for the television industry to map itself onto the everyday lives of digital media audiences. I argue that the data-intensive monitoring of everyday life offers some measure of soft control over audiences in a digital media landscape. To do this, I explore “Social TV”—the relationships created between social media technologies and television—before explaining how Twitter leverages user data into partnerships with various television companies. Finally, the article explains what is fruitful about understanding the Twitter–television relationship as a form of soft control.

  11. Segmental Rescoring in Text Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    ttm № tes/m, m* tmvr mowm* a Smyrna Of l δrtA£ACf02S’ A w m - y i p m AmiKSiS € f № ) C № № m .. sg6#?«rA fiθN ; Atφ h Sft№’·’Spxn mm m fim f№b t&m&mm...applying a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognition approach. Generating the plurality text hypotheses for the image forming includes generating a first...image. Applying segmental analysis to a segmentation determined by a first OCR engine, such as a segmentation determined by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM

  12. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    and diglossia and textual criticism (Chapters 7, 13), and the significance of extra-biblical sources, including Amarna Canaanite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Hebrew inscriptions of the monarchic period, Qumran and Mishnaic Hebrew, the Hebrew language of Ben Sira and Bar Kochba, and also Egyptian, Akkadian, Persian....... This is followed by an detailed synthesis of the topics introduced in the first volume, a series of detailed case studies on various linguistic issues, extensive tables of grammatical and lexical features, and a comprehensive bibliography. The authors argue that the scholarly use of language in dating biblical...... texts, and even the traditional standpoint on the chronological development of biblical Hebrew, require a thorough re-evaluation, and propose a new perspective on linguistic variety in biblical Hebrew. Early Biblical Hebrew and Late Biblical Hebrew do not represent different chronological periods...

  13. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... in the history of biblical Hebrew, but instead represent co-existing styles of literary Hebrew throughout the biblical period....... and diglossia and textual criticism (Chapters 7, 13), and the significance of extra-biblical sources, including Amarna Canaanite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Hebrew inscriptions of the monarchic period, Qumran and Mishnaic Hebrew, the Hebrew language of Ben Sira and Bar Kochba, and also Egyptian, Akkadian, Persian....... This is followed by an detailed synthesis of the topics introduced in the first volume, a series of detailed case studies on various linguistic issues, extensive tables of grammatical and lexical features, and a comprehensive bibliography. The authors argue that the scholarly use of language in dating biblical...

  14. Online Visual Analytics of Text Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shixia; Yin, Jialun; Wang, Xiting; Cui, Weiwei; Cao, Kelei; Pei, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We present an online visual analytics approach to helping users explore and understand hierarchical topic evolution in high-volume text streams. The key idea behind this approach is to identify representative topics in incoming documents and align them with the existing representative topics that they immediately follow (in time). To this end, we learn a set of streaming tree cuts from topic trees based on user-selected focus nodes. A dynamic Bayesian network model has been developed to derive the tree cuts in the incoming topic trees to balance the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts. By connecting the corresponding topics at different times, we are able to provide an overview of the evolving hierarchical topics. A sedimentation-based visualization has been designed to enable the interactive analysis of streaming text data from global patterns to local details. We evaluated our method on real-world datasets and the results are generally favorable.

  15. Audio Steganography with Embedded Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.

    2017-08-01

    Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.

  16. A programmed text in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, J

    1975-01-01

    Exercises for Section 2 42 Physical sciences and engineering 42 43 Biological sciences 45 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 1 47 Physical sciences and engineering 47 49 Biological sciences 49 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 2 51 51 PhYSical sciences and engineering 55 Biological sciences 58 Social sciences 62 Tables 2 62 x - tests involving variances 2 63,64 x - one tailed tests 2 65 x - two tailed tests F-distribution 66-69 Preface This project started some years ago when the Nuffield Foundation kindly gave a grant for writing a pro­ grammed text to use with service courses in statistics. The work carried out by Mrs. Joan Hine and Professor G. B. Wetherill at Bath University, together with some other help from time to time by colleagues at Bath University and elsewhere. Testing was done at various colleges and universities, and some helpful comments were received, but we particularly mention King Edwards School, Bath, who provided some sixth formers as 'guinea pigs' for the fir...

  17. The decree 2910 and a plan for atmosphere protection; L`arrete 2910 et plan de protection de l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.Ph. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Direction de la Prevention des Pollutions et des Risques

    1997-12-31

    The French decree 2910 (March 11, 1996) is introducing a new classification, in order to simplify and harmonize the administrative procedures, for commercial-type fuels. For the conventional ones, the accentuation of environmental protection and risk prevention dispositions led to the modification of the classification thresholds for all commercial fuels (2 MW for a declaration, 20 MW for an authorization): for non conventional fuels, the utilization of fuels requires an authorization above 0.1 MW. The classification is concerning boilers, and also every equipment (dryer, turbine, oven or engine) where combustion is operating. The French and international laws and protocols on air pollution are then reviewed, followed by the European Commission actions on air quality and industrial pollution

  18. Resolution No. 633/89-DNM of 10 May 1989, explanatory rules for Article 15 of Decree No. 1434/87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Resolution sets forth the following categories of persons who under Article 15 of Decree No. 1434/87 may be given temporary or permanent residence in Argentina: 1) professionals, technicians, or specialized persons whose admission is required for businesses or persons established in the country; 2) managers and businessmen; 3) artists and athletes contracted by a person of known solvency; 4) scientists, professors, or writers or persons of special relevance to the cultural, social, or political order; 5) religious personnel belonging to an officially recognized religion; 6) persons who are of special interest to the country because of their personal conditions or circumstances; 7) migrants with enough capital to develop their commercial activities; and 8) fathers, mothers, spouses, and children of permanent or temporary residents or persons in the above-mentioned categories. Annexed to the Resolution are procedural rules for applying for residency including instructions on proof of status.

  19. Does the Dutch Building Decree 2012 guarantee air quality? Quality is essential for productivity and health; Bouwbesluit 2012 garantie voor luchtkwaliteit? Kwaliteit essentieel voor productiviteit en gezondheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2011-10-15

    Poor indoor air quality in new buildings is a common problem. According to the Health Council scientific evidence is lacking that it is necessary to tighten ventilation requirements in the Building Decree . GGD Netherlands are advocates for stricter rules. Several studies show that the productivity in offices and the academic performance of children will benefit. [Dutch] Slechte kwaliteit van de binnenlucht in nieuwe gebouwen is een veel voorkomend probleem. Volgens de Gezondheidsraad ontbreken echter wetenschappelijke aanwijzingen dat het noodzakelijk is de ventilatie-eisen in het Bouwbesluit aan te scherpen. GGD Nederland pleit wel voor strengere regels. Diverse onderzoeken laten zien dat de productiviteit op kantoor en de leerprestaties van kinderen daarbij gebaat zijn.

  20. [Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law.

  1. Automatic Induction of Rule Based Text Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Maghesh Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The automated categorization of texts into predefined categories has witnessed a booming interest in the last 10 years, due to the increased availability of documents in digital form and the ensuingneed to organize them. In the research community the dominant approach to this problem is based on machine learning techniques: a general inductive process automatically builds a classifier by learning, from a set of preclassified documents, the characteristics of the categories. This paper describes, a novel method for the automatic induction of rule-based text classifiers. This method supports a hypothesis language of the form "if T1, … or Tn occurs in document d, and none of T1+n,... Tn+m occurs in d, then classify d under category c," where each Ti is a conjunction of terms. This survey discusses the main approaches to text categorization that fall within the machine learning paradigm. Issues pertaining tothree different problems, namely, document representation, classifier construction, and classifier evaluation were discussed in detail.

  2. Native Language Processing using Exegy Text Miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, J

    2007-10-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Architectures Testbed recently evaluated Exegy's Text Miner appliance to assess its applicability to high-performance, automated native language analysis. The evaluation was performed with support from the Computing Applications and Research Department in close collaboration with Global Security programs, and institutional activities in native language analysis. The Exegy Text Miner is a special-purpose device for detecting and flagging user-supplied patterns of characters, whether in streaming text or in collections of documents at very high rates. Patterns may consist of simple lists of words or complex expressions with sub-patterns linked by logical operators. These searches are accomplished through a combination of specialized hardware (i.e., one or more field-programmable gates arrays in addition to general-purpose processors) and proprietary software that exploits these individual components in an optimal manner (through parallelism and pipelining). For this application the Text Miner has performed accurately and reproducibly at high speeds approaching those documented by Exegy in its technical specifications. The Exegy Text Miner is primarily intended for the single-byte ASCII characters used in English, but at a technical level its capabilities are language-neutral and can be applied to multi-byte character sets such as those found in Arabic and Chinese. The system is used for searching databases or tracking streaming text with respect to one or more lexicons. In a real operational environment it is likely that data would need to be processed separately for each lexicon or search technique. However, the searches would be so fast that multiple passes should not be considered as a limitation a priori. Indeed, it is conceivable that large databases could be searched as often as necessary if new queries were deemed worthwhile. This project is concerned with evaluating the Exegy Text Miner installed in the

  3. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  4. Orientalist discourse in media texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Mora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available By placing itself at the center of the world with a Eurocentric point of view, the West exploits other countries and communities through inflicting cultural change and transformation on them either from within via colonialist movements or from outside via “Orientalist” discourses in line with its imperialist objectives.The West has fictionalized the “image of the Orient” in terms of science by making use of social sciences like anthropology, history and philology and launched an intensive propaganda which covers literature, painting, cinema and other fields of art in order to actualize this fiction. Accordingly, the image of the Orient – which has been built firstly in terms of science then socially – has been engraved into the collective memory of both the Westerner and the Easterner.The internalized “Orientalist” point of view and discourse cause the Westerner to see and perceive the Easterner with the image formed in his/her memory while looking at them. The Easterner represents and expresses himself/herself from the eyes of the Westerner and with the image which the Westerner fictionalized for him/her. Hence, in order to gain acceptance from the West, the East tries to shape itself into the “Orientalist” mold which the Westerner fictionalized for it.Artists, intellectuals, writers and media professionals, who embrace and internalize the stereotypical hegemonic-driven “Orientalist” discourse of the Westerner and who rank among the elite group, reflect their internalized “Orientalist” discourse on their own actions. This condition causes the “Orientalist” clichés to be engraved in the memory of the society; causes the society to view itself with an “Orientalist” point of view and perceive itself with the clichés of the Westerner. Consequently, the second ring of the hegemony is reproduced by the symbolic elites who represent the power/authority within the country.The “Orientalist” discourse, which is

  5. A New Method to Extract Text from Natural Scenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for text detection, location and binarization fron natural scenes. Several morphological steps are used to detect the general positian of the text, including English, Chinese and Japanese characters. Next bounding boxes are processed by a new "Expand, Break and Merge" (EBM) method to get the precise text areas. Finally, text is binarized by a hybrid method based on Otsu and Niblack. This new approach can extract different kinds of text from complicated natural scenes. It is insensitive to noise, distortedness, and text orientation. It also has good performance on extracting texts in various sizes.

  6. Towards text simplification for poor readers with intellectual disability: when do connectives enhance text cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Tavares, Gema; Ávila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Cohesive elements of texts such as connectives (e.g., but, in contrast) are expected to facilitate inferential comprehension in poor readers. Two experiments tested this prediction in poor readers with intellectual disability (ID) by: (a) comparing literal and inferential text comprehension of texts with and without connectives and/or high frequency content words (Experiment 1) and (b) exploring the effects of type and familiarity of connectives on two-clause text comprehension by means of a cloze task (Experiment 2). Neither the addition of high frequency content words nor connectives in general produced inferential comprehension improvements. However, although readers with ID were less likely to select the target connective in the cloze task than chronologically age-matched readers (mean age=21 years) in general, their performance was affected by the type of connective and its familiarity. Familiarity had a facilitative effect for additive and contrastive connectives, but interfered in the case of temporal and causal connectives. The average performance of a reading level-matched control group (typically developing children) was similar to the group of readers with ID although the pattern of interaction between familiarity and type of connectives varied between groups. The implications of these findings for the adaptation of texts in special education contexts are discussed.

  7. Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution Through Text Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randazzese, Lucien [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This proof-of-concept project focused on developing, testing, and validating a range of bibliometric, text analytic, and machine-learning based methods to explore the evolution of three photovoltaic (PV) technologies: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSC), and Multi-junction solar cells. The analytical approach to the work was inspired by previous work by the same team to measure and predict the scientific prominence of terms and entities within specific research domains. The goal was to create tools that could assist domain-knowledgeable analysts in investigating the history and path of technological developments in general, with a focus on analyzing step-function changes in performance, or “breakthroughs,” in particular. The text-analytics platform developed during this project was dubbed Helios. The project relied on computational methods for analyzing large corpora of technical documents. For this project we ingested technical documents from the following sources into Helios: Thomson Scientific Web of Science (papers), the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (patents), the U.S. Department of Energy (technical documents), the U.S. National Science Foundation (project funding summaries), and a hand curated set of full-text documents from Thomson Scientific and other sources.

  8. General Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some general dentists work in government health services, research programs, higher education, corporations and even the military. ?xml:namespace> What kind of procedures do general dentists provide? ?xml:namespace> Many general dentists are ...

  9. Algorithmic Detection of Computer Generated Text

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoie, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Computer generated academic papers have been used to expose a lack of thorough human review at several computer science conferences. We assess the problem of classifying such documents. After identifying and evaluating several quantifiable features of academic papers, we apply methods from machine learning to build a binary classifier. In tests with two hundred papers, the resulting classifier correctly labeled papers either as human written or as computer generated with no false classifications of computer generated papers as human and a 2% false classification rate for human papers as computer generated. We believe generalizations of these features are applicable to similar classification problems. While most current text-based spam detection techniques focus on the keyword-based classification of email messages, a new generation of unsolicited computer-generated advertisements masquerade as legitimate postings in online groups, message boards and social news sites. Our results show that taking the formatti...

  10. Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights discussed and passed at the executive meeting of the General Administration of Customs (GAC) on Feb.17,2009 is hereby promulgated,which take effects on July 1,2009.The Measures of the General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China for Implementing the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights promulgated by No.114 Decree of the GAC on May 25,2004 shall be repealed simultaneously.

  11. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elkafrawy, T; Mahrous, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Arleo, F; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

  12. The socio-demographics of texting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Who texts, and with whom do they text? This article examines the use of texting using metered traffic data from a large dataset (nearly 400 million anonymous text messages). We ask 1) How much do different age groups use mobile phone based texting (SMS)? 2) How wide is the circle of texting partn...

  13. What's so Simple about Simplified Texts? A Computational and Psycholinguistic Investigation of Text Comprehension and Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to ... type of examination you will have. For some scans your doctor may instruct you not to eat ...

  17. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  19. Expansores tisulares: Conceptos generales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelein Centeno-Rodríguez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a review of general concepts regarding tissue expansion, history, operative technique, clinical applications, principal complications as well as advantages and disadvantages presented with the use of this alternative in reconstructive surgery.

  20. Ainda a educação politécnica: o novo decreto da educação profissional e a permanência da dualidade estrutural Still polytechnic education: the new decree on professional education and the permanence of structural dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio analisa o recente decreto sobre educação profissional, nº 5.154/04, considerando os limites estruturais impostos pelo modo de produção capitalista à educação, que se manifestam no fenômeno da dualidade estrutural escolar. A partir daí, retoma a concepção de educação politécnica, como um (ainda novo horizonte de debate teórico, político e pedagógico para o campo da educação profissional.This article analyses the recently promulgated 5.154/04 decree on professional education, taking into account the structural limitations imposed by capitalism on education, manifested in the structural dualism of the school system. From there on, the article brings back the idea of polytechnic education as (still a new perspective for the theoretical, political and pedagogical debate on professional education.

  1. On Generalized Bell Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. Corcino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the sequence of the generalized Bell polynomials Sn(x is convex under some restrictions of the parameters involved. A kind of recurrence relation for Sn(x is established, and some numbers related to the generalized Bell numbers and their properties are investigated.

  2. Dialogical surface text features in abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid García-Østbye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A sample driven description of Research Article-Comment-Reply (RA-C-R abstracts in terms of abstract sentence length, reference, possessive structures, modal verbs and word range was carried out to find out whether their surface text features showed some trace of a dialogical construction of knowledge within the psychology discourse community. The study served an exploratory purpose. A Boolean search was conducted in the PsycLIT database yielding a sample of 149 PsycLIT RA-C-R abstracts (13,978 words. Relative frequency percent distributions were calculated for all variables, including reported speech verbs. Specific comparisons with a Medline corpus were conducted and variations were accounted for in terms of scientific discourse characteristics, field, database policies, and dialogical nature; that is, in the framework provided by the strands of research of quantitative applied linguistics, social concerns in genre analysis and the model monopoly theory developed in the implementation in sociology of the systems theory. The results suggest: (i a word range affected by both psychology as a discipline and the dialogical content on which PsycLIT RA-C-R abstracts report; (ii a complementarity of reference and possessive structures characterised by features of scientific discourse, feedback genres and dialogical dimensions; (iii the presence of both deontic and epistemic modality in the modal verbs of our sample; (iv and also that abstract length, sentence length and number of sentences per paragraph in our sample may not vary greatly in general terms from those of the social sciences.

  3. [Right of access to healthcare in the context of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012: the perspective of civil society organizations and professional associations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles

    2014-01-01

    The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the legal aspects in public tender electronic made by PETROBRAS through the system Petronect under Decree no. 2.745/98; Analise da juridicidade das licitacoes eletronicas feitas pela PETROBRAS atraves do sistema Petronect nos termos do decreto 2.745/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestes, Madelon Rocha Ribeiro [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A. (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work examines the question of possible of use an electronic tool through internet, the Petronect, to facilitate the completion of procedures to carry through licitations for the PETROBRAS Group that is being debated in diverse instances in the Brazilian present time. This analysis should take into account the existing law on licitations, the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98, as well as economic facts. Due to the understanding of TCU - expressed on several occasions - in the sense that PETROBRAS would be required to use the Law 8.666/93 in its bids, is being challenged the constitutionality of Decree 2.745/98 and their use for licitations procedures. They will be examined the conceptual and legal aspects of the decree, and the relationship and the importance of the function for the Group Purchases damage. Thus, the analysis will cover the new issues raised by EC 19/98, the constitutionality of the decree, the position of the Court of Auditors of the Union and the Federal Supreme Court (STF) and the legislation published on this subject. The existing conclusion in this work shows how right - under the optical legal and constitutional - the use of the portal Petronect to carry out the licitations of PETROBRAS under Decree 2.745/98 and non-use of Law 8.666/93, for this is not appropriate to the specific activity of company. (author)

  5. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  6. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  7. General surgery training in Spain: core curriculum and specific areas of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena Bobadilla, José Ma; Morales-García, Dieter; Iturburu Belmonte, Ignacio; Alcázar Montero, José Antonio; Serra Aracil, Xabier; Docobo Durantez, Fernando; López de Cenarruzabeitia, Ignacio; Sanz Sánchez, Mercedes; Hernández Hernández, Juan Ramón

    2015-03-01

    The royal decree RD 639/2014 has been published, regulating among others, the core curriculum, and specific areas of training (SAT). It is of great interest for the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery (GS and DS). The aim is to expose and clarify the main provisions and reflect on their implications for the practical application of the core curriculum and SAT in the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery, to promote initiatives and regulations. This RD will be a milestone in our specialty that will test the strength of the specialty, if it does not finally culminate in its degradation against the emergence of new surgical specialties. A new stage begins in which the Spanish Association of Surgeons should be involved to define the conceptual basis of GS and DS in the XXI century, and the creation of new SAT to continue to maintain the "essence of our specialty".

  8. Text Anomalies Detection Using Histograms of Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahed Faraj Almarimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of written texts mainly can be characterized by some collection of attributes obtained from texts. Texts of the same author are very similar from the style point of view. We can consider that attributes of a full text are very similar to attributes of parts in the same text. In the same thoughts can be compared different parts of the same text. In the paper, we describe an algorithm based on histograms of a mapped text to interval. In the mapping, it is kipped the word order as in the text. Histograms are analyzed from a cluster point of view. If a cluster dispersion is not large, the text is probably written by the same author. If the cluster dispersion is large, the text will be split in two or more parts and the same analysis will be done for the text parts.  The experiments were done on English and Arabic texts. For combined English texts our algorithm covers that texts were not written by one author. We have got the similar results for combined Arabic texts. Our algorithm can be used to basic text analysis if the text was written by one author.       

  9. Los intérpretes generales de Yucatán: hombres entre dos mundos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lentz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en un tipo importante de intermediarios en el Yucatán colonial, los intérpretes generales del Juzgado Privado de Indios de Yucatán. Desde la época de Gaspar Antonio Chi en 1580 hasta la desaparición de esta corte en la década de 1820, estos hombres mediaron directamente en disputas de propiedades, quejas contra las autoridades, y tradujeron decretos inicialmente publicados en español para la mayoría maya hablante de la provincia. Sus actividades demuestran que Yucatán poseyó un alto número de individuos que dominaron tanto el maya como el español hasta finales del periodo colonial. Además, la cantidad de individuos calificados sirviendo extra oficial mente como intérpretes durante finales del siglo dieciocho, y el sorprendente número de no-mayas que necesitaron sus servicios, muestran también que el periodo colonial fue una época en la que el maya se extendió como lenguaje predominante en Yucatán, en lugar de una época de declive para ese idioma.This paper focuses one type of important intermediaries of colonial Yucatan, the general interpreters of Yucatan's Juzgado Privado de Indios. From the time of Gaspar Antonio Chi in 1580 until the demise of this court in the 1820s, these men mediated directly in land disputes, complaints against priests and other officials, and translated decrees initially published in Spanish for the province's Maya-speaking majority. The activities of the interpreters demonstrate that Yucatan had a high number of individuals literate and fluent in both Maya and Spanish until the close of the colonial period. Furthermore, the quantity of qualified individuals serving unofficially as interpreters during the late eighteenth century and the surprising number of non-Mayas in need of their services also shows that the colonial period was a time in which Maya spread as the predominant language of Yucatan rather than a time of decline for the region's native language.

  10. Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. F. MEYER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategyinterventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure.

  11. Open architecture for multilingual parallel texts

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, M T Carrasco

    2008-01-01

    Multilingual parallel texts (abbreviated to parallel texts) are linguistic versions of the same content ("translations"); e.g., the Maastricht Treaty in English and Spanish are parallel texts. This document is about creating an open architecture for the whole Authoring, Translation and Publishing Chain (ATP-chain) for the processing of parallel texts.

  12. Noticeable Focuses in Reading a Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between commanding those basic information contained in a text and the final p urpose of comprehending in a text-reading process. By using the main topic and the central meaning that all texts have as two main examples, the author mainly illustrates what a reader should pay attention to in reading a text.

  13. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  14. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  15. Theoretical simulation of CO2 capture by an \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}_{11}}\\text{Mg}_{3}^{-} cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Xuefang; Hamid, Ilyar; Chen, Chu; Duan, Haiming

    2017-04-01

    In order to have an impact on carbon emissions, new stable materials for carbon capture should be able to adsorb CO2 from a mixture of other gases efficiently. Based on density functional theory calculations, we showed that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster has an excellent capture capacity of CO2 and high CO2 selectivity under ambient conditions. \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- has an O2-resist property because this cluster is similar to \\text{Al}13- which contains 40 electrons with a larger energy gap. The \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster prefers to adsorb CO2 compared with CH4, H2 and N2, and the CO2 molecule can be chemically adsorbed on the cluster by overcoming a lower barrier, which originates from the introduction of the Mg atom. When seven CO2 molecules are chemically adsorbed on the cluster, the capture capacity of CO2 can reach up to 18.99 mol kg-1 this means that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster can be viewed as a potential candidate material for CO2 capture.

  16. On the generalized lifting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bolondi

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct curves for which the generalized lifting property does not hold, with high degree. We discuss the behaviour of the Hilbert function of the general plane section of these curves.

  17. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    OpenAIRE

    Siva kumar, M; E. Prakash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS).In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text proc...

  18. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  19. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can......The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...

  20. Comparative Discourse Analysis of Parallel Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Eijk, P

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative representation of discourse structure can be computed by measuring lexical cohesion relations among adjacent blocks of text. These representations have been proposed to deal with sub-topic text segmentation. In a parallel corpus, similar representations can be derived for versions of a text in various languages. These can be used for parallel segmentation and as an alternative measure of text-translation similarity.

  1. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  2. Decree number 1.246 of September 16, 1994; Decreto no. 1.246 de 16 de setembro de 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-16

    Promulgates the Treaty for Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean - Tlatelolco Treaty, held in Mexico City in February 14, 1967 an the Resolutions numbers 267(E-V), of July 3, 1990, 268 (XII), of May 10, 1991 and 290 (VII), of August 26, 1992, all of them adopted by the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean (OPANAL) in Mexico City.

  3. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  4. Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossanova, Altynay Zh.; Ismakova, Bibissara S.; Tapanova, Saule E.; Ayupova, Gulbagira K.; Gotting, Valentina V.; Kaltayeva, Gulnar K.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose is the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach to understanding and the construction of integrative models of understanding literary texts. The interdisciplinary methodological paradigm of studying text understanding, based on the principles of various sciences facilitating the identification of the text understanding…

  5. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an explorato

  6. Applying statistical methods to text steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Nechta, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of text steganography methods used for hid- ing secret information inside some covertext. Widely known hiding techniques (such as translation based steganography, text generating and syntactic embed- ding) and detection are considered. It is shown that statistical analysis has an important role in text steganalysis.

  7. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  8. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  9. Refutation Texts for Effective Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Rehmat, Abeera P.

    2017-01-01

    Refutation texts, which are texts that rebut scientific misconceptions and explain the normative concept, can be effective devices for addressing misconceptions and affecting conceptual change. However, few, if any, refutation texts specifically related to climate change have been validated for effectiveness. In this project, we developed and…

  10. About Reformulation in Full-Text IRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debili, Fathi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes different kinds of reformulations used in information retrieval systems where full text databases are accessed through natural language queries. Tests of these reformulations on large full text databases managed by the Syntactic and Probabilistic Indexing and Retrieval of Information in Texts (SPIRIT) system are described, and an expert…

  11. The Ecological Approach to Text Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents both theoretical and technical bases on which to build a "science of text visualization." The Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration (SPIRE) text-visualization system, which images information from free-text documents as natural terrains, serves as an example of the "ecological approach" in its visual metaphor, its…

  12. Teacher Modeling Using Complex Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Modeling in complex texts requires that teachers analyze the text for factors of qualitative complexity and then design lessons that introduce students to that complexity. In addition, teachers can model the disciplinary nature of content area texts as well as word solving and comprehension strategies. Included is a planning guide for think aloud.

  13. Creating and Using Culturally Sustaining Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Kganetso, Lynne M.

    2017-01-01

    Current standards and assessments emphasize the importance of a variety of genres in students' literacy diets, which has placed increased attention on informational texts. Unfortunately, young students' current exposure to and experiences with informational texts are often limited by the texts' availability, quality, and relevance to children's…

  14. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  15. Role of Terms in Popular Science Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabbarova F. U.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and determines the specifics of terminological vocabulary used in a popular science text. It differentiates the notions of cohesion and coherence. The article reveals the main terminological means realizing cohesion in the text of a popular science article.

  16. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. METHODOLOGY: We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36

  17. [The Health Department of Sicily "Regional recommendations for hospital discharge and communication with patients after admission due to a cardiologic event" decree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe; De Luca, Giovanni; Gabriele, Michele; Tourkmani, Nidal

    2014-06-01

    Mortality and rehospitalizations still remain high after discharge for an acute cardiologic event. In this context, hospital discharge represents a potential pitfall for heart disease patients. In the setting of care transitions, the discharge letter is the main instrument of communication between hospital and primary care. Communication, besides, is an integral part of high-quality, patient-centered interventions aimed at improving the discharge process. Inadequate information at discharge significantly affects the quality of treatment compliance and the adoption of lifestyle modifications for an effective secondary prevention. The Health Department of Sicily, in 2013, established a task force with the aim to elaborate "Regional recommendations for hospital discharge and communication with patients after admission due to a cardiologic event", inviting to participate GICR-IACPR and many other scientific societies of cardiology and primary care, as discharge letter and communication are fundamental junctions of care transitions in cardiology. These recommendations have been published as a specific decree and contain: a structured model of discharge letter, which includes all of the parameters characterizing patients at high clinical risk, high thrombotic risk and low risk according to the Consensus document ANMCO/GICR-IACPR/GISE; is thus possible to identify these patients, choosing consequently the most appropriate follow-up pathways. A particular attention has been given to the "Medication Reconciliation" and to the identification of therapeutic targets; an educational Kit, with different forms on cardiac diseases, risk factors, drugs and lifestyle; a check-list about information given to the patient and caregivers. The "Recommendations" represent, in conclusion, the practical realization of the fruitful cooperation between scientific societies and political-administrative institutions that has been realized in Sicily in the last years.

  18. How general is general information construct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Zarevski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a small number of constructs in the field of differential psychology that have raised so much debate between psychologists and professionals in related disciplines as is the case of general (verbal information construct. It seemed reasonable to test the validity of this construct measured with general information test in comparison with other measures of knowledge (cultural knowledge, vocabulary, knowledge of the most recent events, foreign language knowledge, and a standard verbal type g test. A sample of 376 candidates for state services was tested in a selection situation. Three analyses were conducted to determine the position of general information test in the space of other verbal competency measures. The first analysis questioned latent structure of the space of four tests having the same format and asking about the knowledge of international terms, general culture, knowledge of most recent events, and general information. The second analysis included the g-factor intelligence test so to see how the above described structure changes when this new test is introduced. The third analysis introduced an English language test. In all of the three component analyses only one eigenvalue was larger than 1 and it explained between 52 and 64% of variance. In all analyses general information test had the highest projection on the only significant latent dimension of these cognitive spaces. In other words, it can be concluded that the construct of general information is in the center of this hyperconus. That is why we consider measurement of general information knowledge, as well as the construct itself, to be an important question in psychological diagnostics. Thus, it is important to go further with the investigation of this construct because it does not seem that it is named general information by accident.

  19. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  20. Text line Segmentation of Curved Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Document image analysis has been widely used in historical and heritage studies, education and digital library. Document image analytical techniques are mainly used for improving the human readability and the OCR quality of the document. During the digitization, camera captured images contain warped document due perspective and geometric distortions. The main difficulty is text line detection in the document. Many algorithms had been proposed to address the problem of printed document text line detection, but they failed to extract text lines in curved document. This paper describes a segmentation technique that detects the curled text line in camera captured document images.

  1. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  2. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  3. General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unconscious and unable to feel pain during medical procedures. General anesthesia usually uses a combination of intravenous drugs ... 1998-2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  4. Creating texts an introduction to the study of composition

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Creating Texts emphasises a practical approach to composition and enables students to understand what is involved in the creation of a text and to learn from the practice of other writers. Extensively rewritten and updated from Walter Nash's earlier volume, Designs in Prose, attention is paid to the general theory of composition, in both traditional and original terms, so that students are made familiar with the basic resources of composition, in grammar and in the lexicon.The essence of every chapter is the discussion of examples of text, sometimes devised by the authors

  5. Researcher’s Perspective of Substitution Method on Text Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir Mansor, Fawwaz; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2017-08-01

    The linguistic steganography studies are still in the stage of development and empowerment practices. This paper will present several text steganography on substitution methods based on the researcher’s perspective, all scholar paper will analyse and compared. The objective of this paper is to give basic information in the substitution method of text domain steganography that has been applied by previous researchers. The typical ways of this method also will be identified in this paper to reveal the most effective method in text domain steganography. Finally, the advantage of the characteristic and drawback on these techniques in generally also presented in this paper.

  6. TEXT WRITING IN SMALL CHILDREN: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSCRIPTION AND COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ DIUK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the relationship between word writing and text production skills in children of 1st year of BasicGeneral Education. In the frame of the cognitive psychology, the differences observed between performance inthese tasks are attributed to the difficulties in both the composition and the transcription processes. These processeswere assessed by oral and written retelling of a story test. The results showed that children performance was worsein the text production task than in the word- writing task. This difference can no be attributed to the compositionprocess, since the children evidenced good discursive skills in the oral task. The transcription skills could explain thedifferent performance in these tasks.

  7. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.

  8. The translated text as re-textualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All texts seem to be, in one way or another, dependent upon other texts, but a translated text is dependent upon one particular text in a very peculiar way. When writing a normal text the writer is in principle free to organise a set of words, clauses and paragraphs, according to his or her intentions and abilities. Yet we all know that this liberty is more apparent than real, since our memory of previous texts, as well as the cultural norms we have internalised, restrict, as a rule, many of our textual movements. The translator, however, works under different conditions. The text he or she writes will be based on a message that already exists in a textual form in another language. The original text constrains the new text in a number of ways. The most inmediate one is that in order to be recognised as a translation, the translator’s text must have a great degree of similarity with its original counterpart. In translation studies this similarity is currently labelled equivalence.

  9. Text segmentation in degraded historical document images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kavitha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Text segmentation from degraded Historical Indus script images helps Optical Character Recognizer (OCR to achieve good recognition rates for Hindus scripts; however, it is challenging due to complex background in such images. In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting text and non-text in Indus documents based on the fact that text components are less cursive compared to non-text ones. To achieve this, we propose a new combination of Sobel and Laplacian for enhancing degraded low contrast pixels. Then the proposed method generates skeletons for text components in enhanced images to reduce computational burdens, which in turn helps in studying component structures efficiently. We propose to study the cursiveness of components based on branch information to remove false text components. The proposed method introduces the nearest neighbor criterion for grouping components in the same line, which results in clusters. Furthermore, the proposed method classifies these clusters into text and non-text cluster based on characteristics of text components. We evaluate the proposed method on a large dataset containing varieties of images. The results are compared with the existing methods to show that the proposed method is effective in terms of recall and precision.

  10. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  11. Text mining with R a tidy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silge, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Much of the data available today is unstructured and text-heavy, making it challenging for analysts to apply their usual data wrangling and visualization tools. With this practical book, you'll explore text-mining techniques with tidytext, a package that authors Julia Silge and David Robinson developed using the tidy principles behind R packages like ggraph and dplyr. You'll learn how tidytext and other tidy tools in R can make text analysis easier and more effective. The authors demonstrate how treating text as data frames enables you to manipulate, summarize, and visualize characteristics of text. You'll also learn how to integrate natural language processing (NLP) into effective workflows. Practical code examples and data explorations will help you generate real insights from literature, news, and social media. Learn how to apply the tidy text format to NLP Use sentiment analysis to mine the emotional content of text Identify a document's most important terms with frequency measurements E...

  12. Signal Detection Framework Using Semantic Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, Sithu D.

    2009-01-01

    Signal detection is a challenging task for regulatory and intelligence agencies. Subject matter experts in those agencies analyze documents, generally containing narrative text in a time bound manner for signals by identification, evaluation and confirmation, leading to follow-up action e.g., recalling a defective product or public advisory for…

  13. Authoritative Texts of the Published Works of Mark Twain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, John C.

    This report describes a long-range project designed to make available to the general public all the printed works authored by Mark Twain in "authoritative texts" that correspond as closely as possible with his last known or discoverable intent. Briefly outlined are the project's methodology for selection of 13 editors working under a four-man…

  14. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  15. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; zhao

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved.You must use what knowledge you can gain from the text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information.This paper will puts forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  16. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved. You must use what knowledge you can gain fromthe text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information. This paper willputs forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  17. Alternatives to Mobile Keypad Design: Improved Text Feed

    CERN Document Server

    Srirama, Satish Narayana; Munni, M A S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we tried to focus on some of the problems with the mobile keypad and text entering in these devices, and tried to give some possible suggestions. We mainly took some of the basic Human Computer Interaction principles and some general issues into consideration.

  18. Signal Detection Framework Using Semantic Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, Sithu D.

    2009-01-01

    Signal detection is a challenging task for regulatory and intelligence agencies. Subject matter experts in those agencies analyze documents, generally containing narrative text in a time bound manner for signals by identification, evaluation and confirmation, leading to follow-up action e.g., recalling a defective product or public advisory for…

  19. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  20. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  1. -Metric Space: A Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.

  2. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siva Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS.In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text processing and speech generation are two main components of a text to speech system. To build a natural sounding speech synthesis system, it is essential that text processing component produce an appropriate sequence of phonemic units. Generation of sequence of phonetic units for a given standard word is referred to as letter to phoneme rule or text to phoneme rule. The complexity of these rules and their derivation depends upon the nature of the language. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its closeness to the natural human voice and understandability. In this paper we described an approach to build a Telugu TTS system using concatenative synthesis method with syllable as a basic unit of concatenation.

  3. Lectures in general algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the

  4. NEW TECHNIQUES USED IN AUTOMATED TEXT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I strate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated analysis of natural language texts is one of the most important knowledge discovery tasks for any organization. According to Gartner Group, almost 90% of knowledge available at an organization today is dispersed throughout piles of documents buried within unstructured text. Analyzing huge volumes of textual information is often involved in making informed and correct business decisions. Traditional analysis methods based on statistics fail to help processing unstructured texts and the society is in search of new technologies for text analysis. There exist a variety of approaches to the analysis of natural language texts, but most of them do not provide results that could be successfully applied in practice. This article concentrates on recent ideas and practical implementations in this area.

  5. Biomechanical patterns of text-message distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction.

  6. Algorithm for Generating Train Calendar Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Greiner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of generating train calendar text for the needs of compiling the annual timetable in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of the types of texts of calendars that appear in various print outputs, a heuristic algorithm was designed to generate a text from a set of calendar days. The algorithm is a part of an application that also provides a tool to define the text of the calendar by using a mask of sub-periods and calendars to be displayed in them. The algorithm was tested on real data of the timetable. In most cases, the algorithm shows the same or better results than the previously used tools. In several cases, however, a better result can be obtained by the user. The described algorithm to generate the text of the calendar is a part of a program that is used for compiling the timetable for trains in the Czech Republic.

  7. Colored-sketch of Text Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomjin Kim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an information visualization method, which transforms text into abstracted visual representations. The proposed color-coding algorithm converts text into a sequence of colored icons that inform users about the distributional patterns of given queries, as well as the structural overview of a document simultaneously. By presenting the compact, but instructive visual abstraction of texts concurrently, users can compare multiple documents intuitively while alleviating the need to reference the underlying text. The system provides interactive navigation tools to support users' decision-making processes - including multi-level viewing, a tree hierarchy recording previous search activities, and suggestive words for refinement of the search scope. An experimental study evaluating this visual approach for delivering search results has been conducted on text corpora in comparison with a traditional information retrieval system. By informing search results to clientele in a perceptive form, the users' performance in obtaining desired information has been improved, while maintaining the accuracy.

  8. Legal English and Adapted Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the significance of authentic legal English text and adapted legal texts in ESP classes. The authors point out the advantages and disadvantages of legal texts and analyse the possibilities of their efficient application in the teaching process. At the initial stage of teaching English legalese, materials prepared specially for teaching purposes in textbooks seem to be more appropriate as they are adapted for a particular level for law students whereas in more advanced levels, authentic texts in a legal English classroom can more considerably contribute to the learning experience. The usage of both legal authentic materials and adapted legal texts have tangible impact on mastering legal English.

  9. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  10. Mining free-text medical records.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, D. T.; Morsch, M. L.; Holbrook, J.

    2001-01-01

    Text mining projects can be characterized along four parameters: 1) the demands of the market in terms of target domain and specificity and depth of queries; 2) the volume and quality of text in the target domain; 3) the text mining process requirements; and 4) the quality assurance process that validates the extracted data. In this paper, we provide lessons learned and results from a large-scale commercial project using Natural Language Processing (NLP) for mining the transcriptions of dicta...

  11. Beyond Text Theory: Understanding Literary Response

    OpenAIRE

    Miall, David S.; Kuiken, Don

    1994-01-01

    Approaches to text comprehension that focus on propositional, inferential, and elaborative processes have often been considered capable of extension in principle to literary texts, such as stories or poems. However, we argue that literary response is influenced by stylistic features that result in defamiliarization; that defamiliarization invokes feeling which calls on personal perspectives and meanings; and that these aspects of literary response are not addressed by current text theories. T...

  12. Colored-sketch of Text Information

    OpenAIRE

    Beomjin Kim; Philip Johnson; Adam S. Huarng

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an information visualization method, which transforms text into abstracted visual representations. The proposed color-coding algorithm converts text into a sequence of colored icons that inform users about the distributional patterns of given queries, as well as the structural overview of a document simultaneously. By presenting the compact, but instructive visual abstraction of texts concurrently, users can compare multiple documents intuitively while alleviating the need...

  13. Supported eText: Effects of Text-to-Speech on Access and Achievement for High School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Margo Vreeburg; Yurick, Amanda; McArrell, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities often lack the skills required to access the general education curriculum and achieve success in school and postschool environments. Evidence suggests that using assistive technologies such as digital texts and translational supports enhances outcomes for these students (Anderson-Inman & Horney, 2007). The purpose of the…

  14. Multilingual Text Detection with Nonlinear Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual text detection in natural scenes is still a challenging task in computer vision. In this paper, we apply an unsupervised learning algorithm to learn language-independent stroke feature and combine unsupervised stroke feature learning and automatically multilayer feature extraction to improve the representational power of text feature. We also develop a novel nonlinear network based on traditional Convolutional Neural Network that is able to detect multilingual text regions in the images. The proposed method is evaluated on standard benchmarks and multilingual dataset and demonstrates improvement over the previous work.

  15. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement fraud by analyzing the hidden clues in the qualitative information (text present in financial statements.

  16. An approach for NL text interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol Popescu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For modeling the interpretation process of NL sentences we use the mechanisms implying semantic networks that assure syntactic - semantic text interpretation (SSI, including an understanding axiomatic model, interpretation model and denotation model to represent the result of SSI. These models estimate the correctness and the consistency of texts too. Also it implements an information extraction from texts in NL. Our approach based, mainly, upon semantic networks grammars has an extraordinary interpretation potential implying a system of completely new concepts and processing methods.

  17. Reading of Foreign Language Technical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Brkan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient foreign language reader is one who has approached the reading flexibility of a native speaker as he reads different texts presented in his environment: newspaper articles, magazins, personal letters, business correspondence, official documents, academic textbooks and scientific and technical texts. Flexibility in reading means increased speed as well as enhanced comprehension: an efficient re­ ader should read fast with needed comprehension. A poor reader is one who reacts everything slowly without getting much meaning from reading. The article focuses on techniques for developing foreign language reading skills of university students to cape with the reading of English technical texts.

  18. The Social Structure of Oikonyms. The Territorial and Administrative Reorganisation of the Romanian state by Decree no. 799/1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OVIDIU-CONSTANTIN CRAIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparative approach, from a psycho-social perspective,of the change of locality names. Two long periods were analysed: the Communistdictatorship period and the period following the 1989 events. By using the case studyand social document review methods, we proved that oikonyms have a polymorphicsocial structure. In the last part of the article, we showed the current social trends withrespect to the renaming of human settlements. From a theoretical point of view, thestudy is founded on the social memory theories.

  19. Generalized derivations and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M; Pysiak, L; Sasin, W

    2013-01-01

    We construct differential geometry (connection, curvature, etc.) based on generalized derivations of an algebra A. Such a derivation, introduced by Bresar in 1991, is given by a linear mapping u: A -> A such that there exists a usual derivation d of A satisfying the generalized Leibniz rule u(a b) = u(a) b + a d(b) for all a,b in A. The generalized geometry "is tested" in the case of the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold. We then apply this machinery to study the generalized general relativity. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action and deduce from it Einstein's field equations. We show that for a special class of metrics containing, besides the usual metric components, only one non-zero term, the action reduces to O'Hanlon action that is a Brans-Dicke action with potential and with the parameter \\omega equal to zero. We also show that the generalized Einstein equations (with zero energy-stress tensor) are equivalent to those of the Kaluza-Klein theory satisfying a "modified cylinder condition" and hav...

  20. Absolute frequency measurement of the {{}^{1}}{{\\text{S}}_{0}} – {{}^{3}}{{\\text{P}}_{0}} transition of 171Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Marco; Thoumany, Pierre; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Milani, Gianmaria; Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2017-02-01

    We report the absolute frequency measurement of the unperturbed transition {{}1}{{\\text{S}}0} – {{}3}{{\\text{P}}0} at 578 nm in 171Yb realized in an optical lattice frequency standard relative to a cryogenic caesium fountain. The measurement result is 518 295 836 590 863.59(31) Hz with a relative standard uncertainty of 5.9× {{10}-16} . This value is in agreement with the ytterbium frequency recommended as a secondary representation of the second in the International System of Units.

  1. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  2. Geoinformation Generalization by Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geoinformation generalization can be divided into model generalization and cartographic generalization. Model generalization is the supervised reduction of data in a model, while cartographic generalization is the reduction of the complexity of map content adapted to the map scale, and/or use by various generalization operators (procedures. The topic of this paper is the aggregation of geoinformation. Generally, aggregation is the joining of nearby, congenial objects, when the distance between them is smaller than the minimum sizes. Most researchers in geoinformation generalization have focused on line features. However, the appearance of web-maps with point features and choropleth maps has led to the development of concepts and algorithms for the generalization of point and polygonal features. This paper considers some previous theoretical premises and actual examples of aggregation for point, line and polygonal features. The algorithms for aggregation implemented in commercial and free GIS software were tested. In the conclusion, unresolved challenges that occur in dynamic cartographic visualizations and cases of unusual geometrical features are highlighted.

  3. [Text comprehension, cognitive resources and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, Sophie; Jbabdi, Saad; Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Giroux, Francine; Ska, Bernadette

    2007-03-01

    Aging brings cognitive changes. Language is not immune to these changes. The use of compensation strategies may permit older adults to achieve a performance level identical to the one obtained by younger adults. This research aims to study text comprehension in aging and the reading strategies used for by older and younger adults. Kintsch's cognitive model (1988) allows the identification of different levels of representation within text treatment (linguistic form, macrostructure, microstructure and situation model) and predicts the underlying cognitive components. Eye-tracking analyses during reading permit inference about the moments of reading treatment and detection of reading strategies. Sixty highly educated participants were assessed. They were divided in two age groups (20-40 and 60-80 years old). Participants were asked to read and understand three texts constructed to highlight the features of text comprehension within each one of the different levels of text representation. The amount of detail and the necessity of updating the situation model varied for each text. Eye movements were registered by an eye-tracker (Cambridge research) during the reading process. Specific complementary tasks were administered to evaluate working memory, long-term memory, and executive functions. Variances analyses showed significantly lower performance by older adults regarding: 1) recall of the microstructure of the two texts with a high degree of detail, 2) macrostructure of the text with fewer details, and 3) performance on all tasks that evaluated cognitive components. Aging influenced treatment of levels of text representation depending on text characteristics. However, cluster analysis of the text comprehension and eye-tracker data revealed a group of older adults whose performance in reading comprehension was identical to the performance of younger adults, with the same reading profile. This result seems to show that use of compensation strategies by older adults at

  4. ψ-Contraction and [Formula: see text]-contraction in Menger probabilistic metric space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Guan, Jinyu; Tang, Yanxia; Xu, Yongchun; Su, Yongfu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the definition of [Formula: see text]-contractive mapping and to discuss the relation of [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings and [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings. Furthermore, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been proved without the uniqueness condition. Meanwhile, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been obtained by using an ingenious method.

  5. Searches for ttH and tH with $\\text{H}\\rightarrow\\text{b}\\bar{\\text{b}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The associated production of a Higgs boson with a top quark-antiquark pair (ttH production) or with a single top quark (tH production) allows a direct measurement of the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling with minimal model dependence. In this article, recent results of searches for ttH and tH production in the $\\text{H}\\rightarrow\\text{b}\\bar{\\text{b}}$ channel performed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments are reviewed. The analyses use pp collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\,$TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 13.2$\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$.

  6. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic featu

  7. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliani, L.; Brinkman, H.; Lernout, G.; Mathijsen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced

  8. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  9. Touchstone Texts: Fertile Ground for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgell, Irma

    2008-01-01

    When state and local standards drive instruction, teachers often worry about compromising their creativity for a prescriptive curriculum with predictable outcomes. It is possible for creative teaching to flourish by using touchstone texts, or mentor texts, that engage both teacher and student in exploratory yet purposeful learning. (Contains 1…

  10. A text in Romani from 1622

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Peter

    2015-01-01

    this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212.......this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212....

  11. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  12. Texts, Transmissions, Receptions. Modern Approaches to Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardinois, A.P.M.H.; Levie, S.A.; Hoeken, H.; Lüthy, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume study the function and meaning of narrative texts from a variety of perspectives. The word 'text' is used here in the broadest sense of the term: it denotes literary books, but also oral tales, speeches, newspaper articles and comics. One of the purposes of this v

  13. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and

  14. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    . The teaching of literature has a double bind. On the one hand, there is a subject (Danish) and a curriculum with a certain type of texts with cultural and even national connotations, and the limits of the choice of texts and curriculum are decided by the state. On the other hand, there are some concrete...

  15. On the Techniques of Journalistic Text Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy globalization,the translation of journalistic text has become increasingly important to cultural exchanges or economy communication among different countries. This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of news text and provides some feasible techniques for translation from English to Chinese or Chinese to English based on the case study.

  16. The Managed Text: Prose and Qualms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Managed texts are written and designed by a team of writers and researchers under the direction and control of a publishing house. How these books got started, what needs they meet, their advantages and disadvantages, and the consequences they are having on college text publishing are addressed. (JMD)

  17. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  18. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Giuliani; H. Brinkman; G. Lernout; M. Mathijsen

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced alon

  19. Opening Mathematics Texts: Resisting the Seduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David

    2012-01-01

    This analysis of the writing in a grade 7 mathematics textbook distinguishes between closed texts and open texts, which acknowledge multiple possibilities. I use tools that have recently been applied in mathematics contexts, focussing on grammatical features that include personal pronouns, modality, and types of imperatives, as well as on…

  20. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation, summa