Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.
1988-01-01
The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)
Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium
Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.
2006-01-01
In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In
BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium
Mars, M.
2009-08-01
Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting
General Relativistic Calculations for White Dwarf Stars
Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.
2014-01-01
The mass-radius relations for white dwarf stars are investigated by solving the Newtonian as well as Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for hydrostatic equilibrium assuming the electron gas to be non-interacting. We find that the Newtonian limiting mass of $1.4562M_\\odot$ is modified to $1.4166M_\\odot$ in the general relativistic case for $^4_2$He (and $^{12}_{\\ 6}$C) white dwarf stars. Using the same general relativistic treatment, the critical mass for $^{56}_{26}$Fe white dwarf is ...
Thermal equilibrium properties of an intense relativistic electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, R.C.; Uhm, H.S.
1979-01-01
The thermal equilibrium properties of an intense relativistic electron beam with distribution function f 0 /sub b/=Z -1 /sub b/exp[-(H-β/sub b/cP/sub z/-ω/sub b/P/sub theta/) /T] are investigated. This choice of f 0 /sub b/ allows for a mean azimuthal rotation of the beam electrons (when ω/sub b/not =0), and corresponds to an important generalization of the distribution function first analyzed by Bennett. Beam equilibrium properties, including axial velocity profile V 0 /sub z/b(r), azimuthal velocity profile V 0 /sub thetab/(r), beam temperature profile T 0 /sub b/(r), beam density profile n 0 /sub b/(r), and equilibrium self-field profiles, are calculated for a broad range of system parameters. For appropriate choice of beam rotation velocity ω/sub b/, it is found that radially confined equilibrium solutions [with n 0 /sub b/(r→infinity) =0] exist even in the absence of a partially neutralizing ion background that weakens the repulsive space-charge force. The necessary and sufficient conditions for radially confined equilibria are ω - /sub b/ + /sub b/ for 0 2 /sub b/p /ω 2 /sub b/c) (1-f-β 2 /sub b/) 2 /sub b/p/ω 2 /sub b/c) (1-f-β 2 /sub b/) <0
General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics
Moortgat, J.B.
2006-01-01
In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast
Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium
Romatschke, Paul
2018-01-01
Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.
Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.
1982-01-01
Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt
Essays in general equilibrium theory
Konovalov, A.
2001-01-01
The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with
Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.
2004-01-01
Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit
Statistical equilibrium and symplectic geometry in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglesias, P.
1981-09-01
A geometrical construction is given of the statistical equilibrium states of a system of particles in the gravitational field in general relativity. By a method of localization variables, the expression of thermodynamic values is given and the compatibility of this description is shown with a macroscopic model of a relativistic continuous medium for a given value of the free-energy function [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Anantua
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.
Rapidly rotating general relativistic stars. Pt. 2. Differentially rotating polytropes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komatsu, Hidemi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Eriguchi, Yoshiharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Astronomy; Hachisu, Izumi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering
1989-07-01
We have applied the numerical method which was developed for Newtonian gravity to general relativistic, differentially rotating bodies including ring-like structures. A number of equilibrium structures are obtained for two different polytropic indices N=1/2 and N=3/2, because the various proposed equations of state for the nuclear density region fall into the range N=1/2 to 3/2 from the viewpoint of its softness. (author).
Linear relativistic gyrokinetic equation in general magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Chen, L.
1983-08-01
The gyrokinetic formalism for linear electromagnetic waves of arbitrary frequency in general magnetic-field configurations is extended to include full relativistic effects. The derivation employs the small adiabaticity parameter rho/L 0 where rho is the Larmor radius and L 0 the equilibrium scale length. The effects of the plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and finite Larmor-radii effects are also contained
Chemical equilibrium relations used in the fireball model of relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, S.D.
1978-01-01
The fireball model of relativistic heavy-ion collision uses chemical equilibrium relations to predict cross sections for particle and composite productions. These relations are examined in a canonical ensemble model where chemical equilibrium is not explicitly invoked
On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems
Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu
2008-09-01
In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.
Properties of general relativistic kink solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodama, T.; Oliveira, L.C.S. de; Santos, F.C.
1978-12-01
Properties of the general relativistic kink solution of a nonlinear scalar field recently obtained, are discussed. It has been shown that the kink solution is stable against radical perturbations. Possible applications to Hadron physics from the geometrodynamic point of view are suggested [pt
Risk premia in general equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Posch, Olaf
This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explici......'s effective risk aversion.......This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explicit...... solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual...
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations. (author)
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrow, J D [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics
1982-06-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations.
New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.
1984-01-01
A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
General-relativistic pulsar magnetospheric emission
Pétri, J.
2018-06-01
Most current pulsar emission models assume photon production and emission within the magnetosphere. Low-frequency radiation is preferentially produced in the vicinity of the polar caps, whereas the high-energy tail is shifted to regions closer but still inside the light cylinder. We conducted a systematic study of the merit of several popular radiation sites like the polar cap, the outer gap, and the slot gap. We computed sky maps emanating from each emission site according to a prescribed distribution function for the emitting particles made of an electron/positron mixture. Calculations are performed using a three-dimensional integration of the plasma emissivity in the vacuum electromagnetic field of a rotating and centred general-relativistic dipole. We compare Newtonian electromagnetic fields to their general-relativistic counterpart. In the latter case, light bending is also taken into account. As a typical example, light curves and sky maps are plotted for several power-law indices of the particle distribution function. The detailed pulse profiles strongly depend on the underlying assumption about the fluid motion subject to strong electromagnetic fields. This electromagnetic topology enforces the photon propagation direction directly, or indirectly, from aberration effects. We also discuss the implication of a net stellar electric charge on to sky maps. Taking into account, the electric field strongly affects the light curves originating close to the light cylinder, where the electric field strength becomes comparable to the magnetic field strength.
Degree of mapping for general relativistic kinks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harriot, Tina A.; Williams, J.G.
2005-01-01
The Finkelstein-Misner metrical kinks of general relativity are homo topically nontrivial light cone configurations that can occur on space-time hypersurfaces. The number of kinks corresponds to the winding number of a timelike vector field that that is determined from the metric. This paper uses the usual Euclidean integral formula for degree of mapping as a starting point and so produces a covariant formula that can be applied to counting general relativistic kinks in any dimension. The kink number is calculated for some simple-to-visualize examples in 2 + 1 dimensions. These include hypersurfaces of differing topologies and so have relevance to mechanisms of topology change in semi-classical theories of quantum gravity
Canonical formulation of general-relativistic theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergmann, P.G.
1987-01-01
With the birth of quantum field theory in the late twenties physicists decided that nature could not be half classical and half quantum, and that the gravitational field ought to be quanticized, just as the electromagnetic field had been. One could accept the group of differomorphisms as a fundamental characteristic of general relativity (and indeed of all general-relativistic theories), and proceed to construct a quantum field-theory that was adapted to that group. Quantization would be attempted by way of a Hamiltonian formulation of the (classical) theory, and quantum commutation relations be patterned after the Poisson brackets arising in that formulation. This program is usually called the canonical quantization program, whereas the weak-field approach is known as covariant quantization. The first steps, conceived entirely within the framework of the classical theory, turned out to be beset with technical and conceptual difficulties, which today are essentially resolved. In this paper the author traces out these initial steps
General relativistic effects in the structure of massive white dwarfs
Carvalho, G. A.; Marinho, R. M.; Malheiro, M.
2018-04-01
In this work we investigate the structure of white dwarfs using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and compare our results with those obtained from Newtonian equations of gravitation in order to put in evidence the importance of general relativity (GR) for the structure of such stars. We consider in this work for the matter inside white dwarfs two equations of state, frequently found in the literature, namely, the Chandrasekhar and Salpeter equations of state. We find that using Newtonian equilibrium equations, the radii of massive white dwarfs (M>1.3M_{⊙ }) are overestimated in comparison with GR outcomes. For a mass of 1.415M_{⊙ } the white dwarf radius predicted by GR is about 33% smaller than the Newtonian one. Hence, in this case, for the surface gravity the difference between the general relativistic and Newtonian outcomes is about 65%. We depict the general relativistic mass-radius diagrams as M/M_{⊙ }=R/(a+bR+cR^2+dR^3+kR^4), where a, b, c and d are parameters obtained from a fitting procedure of the numerical results and k=(2.08× 10^{-6}R_{⊙ })^{-1}, being R_{⊙ } the radius of the Sun in km. Lastly, we point out that GR plays an important role to determine any physical quantity that depends, simultaneously, on the mass and radius of massive white dwarfs.
General-relativistic celestial mechanics. II. Translational equations of motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, T.; Soffel, M.; Xu, C.
1992-01-01
The translational laws of motion for gravitationally interacting systems of N arbitrarily composed and shaped, weakly self-gravitating, rotating, deformable bodies are obtained at the first post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. The derivation uses our recently introduced multi-reference-system method and obtains the translational laws of motion by writing that, in the local center-of-mass frame of each body, relativistic inertial effects combine with post-Newtonian self- and externally generated gravitational forces to produce a global equilibrium (relativistic generalization of d'Alembert's principle). Within the first post-Newtonian approximation [i.e., neglecting terms of order (v/c) 4 in the equations of motion], our work is the first to obtain complete and explicit results, in the form of infinite series, for the laws of motion of arbitrarily composed and shaped bodies. We first obtain the laws of motion of each body as an infinite series exhibiting the coupling of all the (Blanchet-Damour) post-Newtonian multipole moments of this body to the post-Newtonian tidal moments (recently defined by us) felt by this body. We then give the explicit expression of these tidal moments in terms of post-Newtonian multipole moments of the other bodies
Transition in the equilibrium distribution function of relativistic particles.
Mendoza, M; Araújo, N A M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2012-01-01
We analyze a transition from single peaked to bimodal velocity distribution in a relativistic fluid under increasing temperature, in contrast with a non-relativistic gas, where only a monotonic broadening of the bell-shaped distribution is observed. Such transition results from the interplay between the raise in thermal energy and the constraint of maximum velocity imposed by the speed of light. We study the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac, and the Maxwell-Jüttner distributions, and show that they all exhibit the same qualitative behavior. We characterize the nature of the transition in the framework of critical phenomena and show that it is either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the group velocity. We analyze the transition in one, two, and three dimensions, with special emphasis on twodimensions, for which a possible experiment in graphene, based on the measurement of the Johnson-Nyquist noise, is proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsas, George E. A.
2003-01-01
We investigate and solve in the context of general relativity the apparent paradox which appears when bodies floating in a background fluid are set in relativistic motion. Suppose some macroscopic body, say, a submarine designed to lie just in equilibrium when it rests (totally) immersed in a certain background fluid. The puzzle arises when different observers are asked to describe what is expected to happen when the submarine is given some high velocity parallel to the direction of the fluid surface. On the one hand, according to observers at rest with the fluid, the submarine would contract and, thus, sink as a consequence of the density increase. On the other hand, mariners at rest with the submarine using an analogous reasoning for the fluid elements would reach the opposite conclusion. The general relativistic extension of the Archimedes law for moving bodies shows that the submarine sinks. As an extra bonus, this problem suggests a new gedankenexperiment for the generalized second law of thermodynamics
Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Matt; Molina-ParIs, Carmen
2010-01-01
'Acoustic spacetimes', in which techniques of differential geometry are used to investigate sound propagation in moving fluids, have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades. Most of the models currently considered in the literature are based on non-relativistic barotropic irrotational fluids, defined in a flat Newtonian background. The extension, first to special relativistic barotropic fluid flow and then to general relativistic barotropic fluid flow in an arbitrary background, is less straightforward than it might at first appear. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical and simple derivation of the general relativistic 'acoustic spacetime' in an arbitrary (d+1)-dimensional curved-space background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louis-Martinez, Domingo J
2011-01-01
A classical (non-quantum-mechanical) relativistic ideal gas in thermodynamic equilibrium in a uniformly accelerated frame of reference is studied using Gibbs's microcanonical and grand canonical formulations of statistical mechanics. Using these methods explicit expressions for the particle, energy and entropy density distributions are obtained, which are found to be in agreement with the well-known results of the relativistic formulation of Boltzmann's kinetic theory. Explicit expressions for the total entropy, total energy and rest mass of the gas are obtained. The position of the center of mass of the gas in equilibrium is found. The non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic approximations are also considered. The phase space volume of the system is calculated explicitly in the ultrarelativistic approximation.
Status of chemical equilibrium in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chemical equilibrium; particle multiplicities. PACS Nos 24.10.Pa; 25.75.Dw; 25.75.-q. 1. Introduction. In hydrodynamic models [1] the freeze-out surface is very sensitive on the initial condi- tions and is therefore ... not agree with a recent similar analysis of Pb–Pb data [12] imposing full strangeness equi- librium. The main ...
Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Peter; Heckman, James J.
1999-01-01
Dynamic general equilibrium models are required to evaluate policies applied at the national level. To use these models to make quantitative forecasts requires knowledge of an extensive array of parameter values for the economy at large. This essay describes the parameters required for different...... economic models, assesses the discordance between the macromodels used in policy evaluation and the microeconomic models used to generate the empirical evidence. For concreteness, we focus on two general equilibrium models: the stochastic growth model extended to include some forms of heterogeneity...
General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom
Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank
2009-01-01
General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…
Two point function for a simple general relativistic quantum model
Colosi, Daniele
2007-01-01
We study the quantum theory of a simple general relativistic quantum model of two coupled harmonic oscillators and compute the two-point function following a proposal first introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng
2012-01-01
We formulate the equations of equilibrium of neutron stars taking into account strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions within the framework of general relativity. The nuclear interactions are described by the exchange of the σ, ω, and ρ virtual mesons. The equilibrium conditions are given by our recently developed theoretical framework based on the Einstein–Maxwell–Thomas–Fermi equations along with the constancy of the general relativistic Fermi energies of particles, the “Klein potentials”, throughout the configuration. The equations are solved numerically in the case of zero temperatures and for selected parameterizations of the nuclear models. The solutions lead to a new structure of the star: a positively charged core at supranuclear densities surrounded by an electronic distribution of thickness ∼ℏ/(m e c)∼10 2 ℏ/(m π c) of opposite charge, as well as a neutral crust at lower densities. Inside the core there is a Coulomb potential well of depth ∼m π c 2 /e. The constancy of the Klein potentials in the transition from the core to the crust, imposes the presence of an overcritical electric field ∼(m π /m e ) 2 E c , the critical field being E c =m e 2 c 3 /(eℏ). The electron chemical potential and the density decrease, in the boundary interface, until values μ e crust e core and ρ crust core . For each central density, an entire family of core–crust interface boundaries and, correspondingly, an entire family of crusts with different mass and thickness, exist. The configuration with ρ crust =ρ drip ∼4.3×10 11 gcm −3 separates neutron stars with and without inner crust. We present here the novel neutron star mass–radius for the especial case ρ crust =ρ drip and compare and contrast it with the one obtained from the traditional Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff treatment.
Radiatively-driven general relativistic jets
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mukesh K. Vyas
2018-02-10
Feb 10, 2018 ... relativistic jets and shocks induced by non radial nature of the cross section. Isothermal assumption does not contain the effect of the thermal gradient term which is a significant accelerating agent and is very effec- tive close to the BH. It is also the same region where one needs to consider the effects of ...
Relativistic generalization of the Newtonian force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Quamar, J.
1982-06-01
Whereas there is no denying the essential contribution of geometrodynamics, it must be admitted that our physical intuition is still firmly based in the Newtonian concept of force. Here we extend some earlier work re-introducing the Newtonian force concept into relativity theory. Some fundamentally new insights into the relativistic effects due to charge and rotation are presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliva, L; Plumari, S; Scardina, F; Greco, V; Ruggieri, M
2017-01-01
In this study we discuss our results on the spectrum of photons emitted from the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Simulating the space-time evolution of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann transport equation and including two-particle scattering processes with photon emission allows us to make a first step in the description of thermal photons from the QGP as well as of those produced in the pre-equilibrium stage. Indeed, we consider not only a standard Glauber initial condition but also a model in which quarks and gluons are produced in the very early stage through the Schwinger mechanism by the decay of an initial color-electric field. In the latter approach relativistic kinetic equations are coupled in a self-consistent way to field equations. We aim at spotting the impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on the photon production. (paper)
Cosmological measurements with general relativistic galaxy correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raccanelli, Alvise; Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier
2016-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called ''relativistic effects'', and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms, especially lensing convergence, introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. The analysis suggests a possible substantial systematic error in cosmological parameter constraints. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.
General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
1998-03-01
The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)
Equilibrium and stability properties of relativistic electron rings and E-layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, H.
1976-01-01
Equilibrium and stability properties of magnetically confined partially-neutralized thin electron ring and E-layer are investigated using the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the context of the assumption that the minor dimensions (a,b) of the system are much less than the collisionless skin depth (c/antiω/sub p/). The equilibrium configuration of the E-layer is assumed to be an infinitely long, azimuthally symmetric hollow electron beam which is aligned parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field. On the other hand, the electron ring is located at the midplane of an externally imposed mirror field which acts to confine the ring both axially and radially. The equilibrium properties of the E-layer and electron ring are obtained self-consistently for several choices of equilibrium electron distribution function. The negative-mass instability analysis is carried out for the relativistic E-layer equilibrium in which all of the electrons have the same transverse energy and a spread in canonical angular momentum, assuming a fixed ion background. The ion resonance instability properties are investigated for a relativistic nonneutral E-layer aligned parallel to a uniform magnetic field and located between two ground coaxial cylindrical conductors. The stability properties of a nonrelativistic electron ring is investigated within the framework of the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The dispersion relation is obtained for the self-consistent electron distribution function in which all electrons have the same value of energy an the same value of canonical angular momentum. The positive ions in the electron ring are assumed to form an immobile partially neutralizing background. The stability criteria as well as the instability growth rates are derived and discussed including the effect of geometrical configuration of the system. Equilibrium space-charge effects play a significant role in stability behavior
Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.
2003-01-01
General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons
A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, R.; Pena, L.; Zamorano, N.
1991-08-01
The existence of huge amounts of mass laying at the center of some galaxies has been inferred by data gathered at different wavelengths. It seems reasonable then, to incorporate general relativity in the study of these objects. A general relativistic hydrostatic model for a galaxy is studied. We assume that the galaxy is dominated by the dark mass except at the nucleus, where the luminous matter prevails. It considers four different concentric spherically symmetric regions, properly matched and with a specific equation of state for each of them. It yields a slowly raising orbital velocity for a test particle moving in the background gravitational field of the dark matter region. In this sense we think of this model as representing a spiral galaxy. The dependence of the mass on the radius in cluster and field spiral galaxies published recently, can be used to fix the size of the inner luminous core. A vanishing pressure at the edge of the galaxy and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium everywhere generates a jump in the density and the orbital velocity at the shell enclosing the galaxy. This is a prediction of this model. The ratio between the size core and the shells introduced here are proportional to their densities. In this sense the model is scale invariant. It can be used to reproduce a galaxy or the central region of a galaxy. We have also compared our results with those obtained with the Newtonian isothermal sphere. The luminosity is not included in our model as an extra variable in the determination of the orbital velocity. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs
Yang-Mills analogs of general-relativistic solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singlton, D.
1998-01-01
Some solutions of Yang-Mills equations, which can be found with the use of the general relativistic theory and Yang-Mills theory, are discussed. Some notes concerning possible physical sense of these solutions are made. Arguments showing that some of such solutions in the Yang-Mills theory (similar to the general relativistic ones) may be connected with the confinement phenomenon are given in particular. The motion of probe particles located into the phonon potential similar to the Schwarz-Child one is briefly discussed for this purpose [ru
Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves.
Chesler, Paul M; Loeb, Abraham
2017-07-21
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.
Generalized dilatation operator method for non-relativistic holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chemissany, Wissam, E-mail: wissam@stanford.edu [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Papadimitriou, Ioannis, E-mail: ioannis.papadimitriou@csic.es [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain)
2014-10-07
We present a general algorithm for constructing the holographic dictionary for Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds for any value of the dynamical exponent z and any value of the hyperscaling violation parameter θ compatible with the null energy condition. The objective of the algorithm is the construction of the general asymptotic solution of the radial Hamilton–Jacobi equation subject to the desired boundary conditions, from which the full dictionary can be subsequently derived. Contrary to the relativistic case, we find that a fully covariant construction of the asymptotic solution for running non-relativistic theories necessitates an expansion in the eigenfunctions of two commuting operators instead of one. This provides a covariant but non-relativistic grading of the expansion, according to the number of time derivatives.
New General Relativistic Contribution to Mercury's Perihelion Advance
Will, Clifford M.
2018-05-01
We point out the existence of a new general relativistic contribution to the perihelion advance of Mercury that, while smaller than the contributions arising from the solar quadrupole moment and angular momentum, is 100 times larger than the second-post-Newtonian contribution. It arises in part from relativistic "crossterms" in the post-Newtonian equations of motion between Mercury's interaction with the Sun and with the other planets, and in part from an interaction between Mercury's motion and the gravitomagnetic field of the moving planets. At a few parts in 1 06 of the leading general relativistic precession of 42.98 arcseconds per century, these effects are likely to be detectable by the BepiColombo mission to place and track two orbiters around Mercury, scheduled for launch around 2018.
New General Relativistic Contribution to Mercury's Perihelion Advance.
Will, Clifford M
2018-05-11
We point out the existence of a new general relativistic contribution to the perihelion advance of Mercury that, while smaller than the contributions arising from the solar quadrupole moment and angular momentum, is 100 times larger than the second-post-Newtonian contribution. It arises in part from relativistic "crossterms" in the post-Newtonian equations of motion between Mercury's interaction with the Sun and with the other planets, and in part from an interaction between Mercury's motion and the gravitomagnetic field of the moving planets. At a few parts in 10^{6} of the leading general relativistic precession of 42.98 arcseconds per century, these effects are likely to be detectable by the BepiColombo mission to place and track two orbiters around Mercury, scheduled for launch around 2018.
General relativistic Boltzmann equation, II: Manifestly covariant treatment
Debbasch, F.; van Leeuwen, W.A.
2009-01-01
In a preceding article we presented a general relativistic treatment of the derivation of the Boltzmann equation. The four-momenta occurring in this formalism were all on-shell four-momenta, verifying the mass-shell restriction p(2) = m(2)c(2). Due to this restriction, the resulting Boltzmann
New models of general relativistic static thick disks
Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.
2005-01-01
New families of exact general relativistic thick disks are constructed using the "displace, cut, fill, and reflect" method. A class of functions used to fill the disks is derived imposing conditions on the first and second derivatives to generate physically acceptable disks. The analysis of the
Lagrangian formulation of the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect
De Falco, Vittorio; Battista, Emmanuele; Falanga, Maurizio
2018-04-01
We propose the Lagrangian formulation for describing the motion of a test particle in a general relativistic, stationary, and axially symmetric spacetime. The test particle is also affected by a radiation field, modeled as a coherent flux of photons traveling along the null geodesics of the background spacetime, including the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect. The innovative part of this work is to prove the existence of the potential linked to the dissipative action caused by the Poynting-Robertson effect in general relativity through the help of an integrating factor, depending on the energy of the system. Generally, such kinds of inverse problems involving dissipative effects might not admit a Lagrangian formulation; especially, in general relativity, there are no examples of such attempts in the literature so far. We reduce this general relativistic Lagrangian formulation to the classic case in the weak-field limit. This approach facilitates further studies in improving the treatment of the radiation field, and it contains, for example, some implications for a deeper comprehension of the gravitational waves.
Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2010-01-01
Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)
Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, L.C.S. de.
1980-01-01
The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt
Entropy Production and Equilibrium Conditions of General-Covariant Spin Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolfgang Muschik
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In generalizing the special-relativistic one-component version of Eckart’s continuum thermodynamics to general-relativistic space-times with Riemannian or post-Riemannian geometry as presented by Schouten (Schouten, J.A. Ricci-Calculus, 1954 and Blagojevic (Blagojevic, M. Gauge Theories of Gravitation, 2013 we consider the entropy production and other thermodynamical quantities, such as the entropy flux and the Gibbs fundamental equation. We discuss equilibrium conditions in gravitational theories, which are based on such geometries. In particular, thermodynamic implications of the non-symmetry of the energy-momentum tensor and the related spin balance equations are investigated, also for the special case of general relativity.
Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Fang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
2002-01-01
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of non-linear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Evolution system study of a generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahjoub, Bechir.
1977-01-01
A generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is studied with a thermodynamical differential relation proposed by Fokker; this scheme takes account of interaction between the fluid and the magnetic field. Taking account of an integrability condition of this relation, the evolution system corresponding to this scheme is identical to the one corresponding to the usual scheme; it has the same characteristics; it is non-strictly hyperbolic with the same hypothesis of compressibility and it has, with respect to the Cauchy problem, an unique solution in a Gevrey class of index α=3/2 [fr
Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander
2016-03-01
We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.
Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model
Pham, Ngoc-Sang
2017-01-01
We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.
Equilibrium and stability of relativistic stars in extended theories of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojnar, Aneta [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Institute of Physics, Lublin (Poland); Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Universita' di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Velten, Hermano [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria (Brazil)
2016-12-15
We study static, spherically symmetric equilibrium configurations in extended theories of gravity (ETG) following the notation introduced by Capozziello et al. We calculate the differential equations for the stellar structure in such theories in a very generic form i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff generalization for any ETG is introduced. Stability analysis is also investigated with special focus on the particular example of scalar-tensor gravity. (orig.)
The DART general equilibrium model: A technical description
Springer, Katrin
1998-01-01
This paper provides a technical description of the Dynamic Applied Regional Trade (DART) General Equilibrium Model. The DART model is a recursive dynamic, multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model. All regions are fully specified and linked by bilateral trade flows. The DART model can be used to project economic activities, energy use and trade flows for each of the specified regions to simulate various trade policy as well as environmental policy scenarios, and to analy...
General equilibrium second-order hydrodynamic coefficients for free quantum fields
Buzzegoli, M.; Grossi, E.; Becattini, F.
2017-10-01
We present a systematic calculation of the corrections of the stress-energy tensor and currents of the free boson and Dirac fields up to second order in thermal vorticity, which is relevant for relativistic hydrodynamics. These corrections are non-dissipative because they survive at general thermodynamic equilibrium with non vanishing mean values of the conserved generators of the Lorentz group, i.e. angular momenta and boosts. Their equilibrium nature makes it possible to express the relevant coefficients by means of correlators of the angular-momentum and boost operators with stress-energy tensor and current, thus making simpler to determine their so-called "Kubo formulae". We show that, at least for free fields, the corrections are of quantum origin and we study several limiting cases and compare our results with previous calculations. We find that the axial current of the free Dirac field receives corrections proportional to the vorticity independently of the anomalous term.
bhlight: GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH MONTE CARLO TRANSPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, B. R.; Gammie, C. F.; Dolence, J. C.
2015-01-01
We present bhlight, a numerical scheme for solving the equations of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics using a direct Monte Carlo solution of the frequency-dependent radiative transport equation. bhlight is designed to evolve black hole accretion flows at intermediate accretion rate, in the regime between the classical radiatively efficient disk and the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF), in which global radiative effects play a sub-dominant but non-negligible role in disk dynamics. We describe the governing equations, numerical method, idiosyncrasies of our implementation, and a suite of test and convergence results. We also describe example applications to radiative Bondi accretion and to a slowly accreting Kerr black hole in axisymmetry
Magnetotail equilibrium theory - The general three-dimensional solution
Birn, J.
1987-01-01
The general magnetostatic equilibrium problem for the geomagnetic tail is reduced to the solution of ordinary differential equations and ordinary integrals. The theory allows the integration of the self-consistent magnetotail equilibrium field from the knowledge of four functions of two space variables: the neutral sheet location, the total pressure, the magnetic field strength, and the z component of the magnetic field at the neutral sheet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vacaru, Olivia [National College of Iasi (Romania); Vacaru, Sergiu I. [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States); University ' ' Al.I. Cuza' ' Iasi, Project IDEI, Iasi (Romania); Werner-Heisenberg-Institute, Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Leibniz University of Hannover, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Germany); Ruchin, Vyacheslav
2017-03-15
Using double 2 + 2 and 3 + 1 nonholonomic fibrations on Lorentz manifolds, we extend the concept of W-entropy for gravitational fields in general relativity (GR). Such F- and W-functionals were introduced in the Ricci flow theory of three dimensional (3-d) Riemannian metrics by Perelman (the entropy formula for the Ricci flow and its geometric applications. arXiv:math.DG/0211159). Non-relativistic 3-d Ricci flows are characterized by associated statistical thermodynamical values determined by W-entropy. Generalizations for geometric flows of 4-d pseudo-Riemannian metrics are considered for models with local thermodynamical equilibrium and separation of dissipative and non-dissipative processes in relativistic hydrodynamics. The approach is elaborated in the framework of classical field theories (relativistic continuum and hydrodynamic models) without an underlying kinetic description, which will be elaborated in other work. The 3 + 1 splitting allows us to provide a general relativistic definition of gravitational entropy in the Lyapunov-Perelman sense. It increases monotonically as structure forms in the Universe. We can formulate a thermodynamic description of exact solutions in GR depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates. A corresponding 2 + 2 splitting with nonholonomic deformation of linear connection and frame structures is necessary for generating in very general form various classes of exact solutions of the Einstein and general relativistic geometric flow equations. Finally, we speculate on physical macrostates and microstate interpretations of the W-entropy in GR, geometric flow theories and possible connections to string theory (a second unsolved problem also contained in Perelman's work) in Polyakov's approach. (orig.)
Transport infrastructure and technology: Investment, externalities, and general equilibrium effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.; Nijkamp, P. [Faculty of Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
1993-04-01
The paper addresses the use of general equilibrium models to analyze transportation policies. After a discussion of possible approaches, a representative set of static and dynamic models is developed and investigated, which focus on the interaction between general equilibrium, transport, infrastructure and environment. It is shown that each of these allows one to deal with specific types of policy questions. More technical modelling issues are dealt with as well, e.g. returns to scale, production functions, and disaggregation. Finally, attention is devoted to freight transport in a multisectoral production setting. 5 figs., 8 refs.
Pricing decisions in an experimental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium economy
Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.
We construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with a structure based on a nonlinear version of the New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model. We analyze the behavior of firms’ pricing decisions in four different experimental economies. We consider how
An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis
Peerlings, J.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of
Financial Intermediation, Competition, and Risk : A General Equilibrium Exposition
Di Nicolo, G.; Lucchetta, M.
2010-01-01
We study a simple general equilibrium model in which investment in a risky technology is subject to moral hazard and banks can extract market power rents. We show that more bank competition results in lower economy-wide risk, lower bank capital ratios, more efficient production plans and
Municipal solid waste management problems: an applied general equilibrium analysis
Bartelings, H.
2003-01-01
Keywords: Environmental policy; General equilibrium modeling; Negishi format; Waste management policies; Market distortions.
About 40% of the entire budget spent on environmental problems in the
ADER discontinuous Galerkin schemes for general-relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Fambri, F.; Dumbser, M.; Köppel, S.; Rezzolla, L.; Zanotti, O.
2018-03-01
We present a new class of high-order accurate numerical algorithms for solving the equations of general-relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics in curved spacetimes. In this paper we assume the background spacetime to be given and static, i.e. we make use of the Cowling approximation. The governing partial differential equations are solved via a new family of fully-discrete and arbitrary high-order accurate path-conservative discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite-element methods combined with adaptive mesh refinement and time accurate local timestepping. In order to deal with shock waves and other discontinuities, the high-order DG schemes are supplemented with a novel a-posteriori subcell finite-volume limiter, which makes the new algorithms as robust as classical second-order total-variation diminishing finite-volume methods at shocks and discontinuities, but also as accurate as unlimited high-order DG schemes in smooth regions of the flow. We show the advantages of this new approach by means of various classical two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems on fixed spacetimes. Finally, we present a performance and accuracy comparisons between Runge-Kutta DG schemes and ADER high-order finite-volume schemes, showing the higher efficiency of DG schemes.
Relativistic configuration interaction treatment of generalized oscillator strength for krypton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Huangchun; Qu Yizhi; Liu Chunhua
2007-01-01
A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717 eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions (K 2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s 2 4p 6 →4s 2 4p 5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97. (authors)
Relativistic Configuration Interaction Treatment of Generalized Oscillator Strength for Krypton
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Huang-Chun; QU Yi-Zhi; LIU Chun-Hua
2007-01-01
A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions ( K2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s24p6 → 4s24p5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97 [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 062708].
Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellmann, Frank; Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo
2007-01-01
We discuss the definition of quantum probability in the context of 'timeless' general-relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we study the probability of sequences of events, or multievent probability. In conventional quantum mechanics this can be obtained by means of the 'wave function collapse' algorithm. We first point out certain difficulties of some natural definitions of multievent probability, including the conditional probability widely considered in the literature. We then observe that multievent probability can be reduced to single-event probability, by taking into account the quantum nature of the measuring apparatus. In fact, by exploiting the von-Neumann freedom of moving the quantum/classical boundary, one can always trade a sequence of noncommuting quantum measurements at different times, with an ensemble of simultaneous commuting measurements on the joint system+apparatus system. This observation permits a formulation of quantum theory based only on single-event probability, where the results of the wave function collapse algorithm can nevertheless be recovered. The discussion also bears on the nature of the quantum collapse
Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FitzRoy, F.R.
1993-01-01
In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)
World Oil Price and Biofuels : A General Equilibrium Analysis
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish
2011-01-01
The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels. However, this issue has not been fully investigated yet in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65 percent increase in oil price in 2020 from the 20...
Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach
Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda
2009-01-01
This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...
Differential topology and general equilibrium with complete and incomplete markets
Villanacci, Antonio; Benevieri, Pierluigi; Battinelli, Andrea
2002-01-01
General equilibrium In this book we try to cope with the challenging task of reviewing the so called general equilibrium model and of discussing one specific aspect of the approach underlying it, namely, market completeness. With the denomination "general equilibrium" (from now on in short GE) we shall mainly refer to two different things. On one hand, in particular when using the expression "GE approach", we shall refer to a long established methodolog ical tradition in building and developing economic models, which includes, as of today, an enormous amount of contributions, ranging in number by several 1 thousands • On the other hand, in particular when using the expression "stan dard differentiable GE model", we refer to a very specific version of economic model of exchange and production, to be presented in Chapters 8 and 9, and to be modified in Chapters 10 to 15. Such a version is certainly formulated within the GE approach, but it is generated by making several quite restrictive 2 assumptions •...
Relativistic dynamical reduction models: General framework and examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.
1990-04-01
The formulation of a relativistic theory of statevector reduction is proposed and analyzed, and its conceptual consequences are elucidated. In particular, a detailed discussion of stochastic invariance and of local and nonlocal aspects at the level of individual systems is presented. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umeh, Obinna; Jolicoeur, Sheean; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Clarkson, Chris, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: beautifulheart369@gmail.com, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com, E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2017-03-01
Next-generation galaxy surveys will increasingly rely on the galaxy bispectrum to improve cosmological constraints, especially on primordial non-Gaussianity. A key theoretical requirement that remains to be developed is the analysis of general relativistic effects on the bispectrum, which arise from observing galaxies on the past lightcone, as well as from relativistic corrections to the dynamics. As an initial step towards a fully relativistic analysis of the galaxy bispectrum, we compute for the first time the local relativistic lightcone effects on the bispectrum, which come from Doppler and gravitational potential contributions. For the galaxy bispectrum, the problem is much more complex than for the power spectrum, since we need the lightcone corrections at second order. Mode-coupling contributions at second order mean that relativistic corrections can be non-negligible at smaller scales than in the case of the power spectrum. In a primordial Gaussian universe, we show that the local lightcone projection effects for squeezed shapes at z ∼ 1 mean that the bispectrum can differ from the Newtonian prediction by ∼> 10% when the short modes are k ∼< (50 Mpc){sup −1}. These relativistic projection effects, if ignored in the analysis of observations, could be mistaken for primordial non-Gaussianity. For upcoming surveys which probe equality scales and beyond, all relativistic lightcone effects and relativistic dynamical corrections should be included for an accurate measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity.
Generalizations of the Nash Equilibrium Theorem in the KKM Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sehie Park
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The partial KKM principle for an abstract convex space is an abstract form of the classical KKM theorem. In this paper, we derive generalized forms of the Ky Fan minimax inequality, the von Neumann-Sion minimax theorem, the von Neumann-Fan intersection theorem, the Fan-type analytic alternative, and the Nash equilibrium theorem for abstract convex spaces satisfying the partial KKM principle. These results are compared with previously known cases for G-convex spaces. Consequently, our results unify and generalize most of previously known particular cases of the same nature. Finally, we add some detailed historical remarks on related topics.
Generalized Nash equilibrium problems, bilevel programming and mpec
Lalitha, CS
2017-01-01
The book discusses three classes of problems: the generalized Nash equilibrium problems, the bilevel problems and the mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). These problems interact through their mathematical analysis as well as their applications. The primary aim of the book is to present the modern tool of variational analysis and optimization, which are used to analyze these three classes of problems. All contributing authors are respected academicians, scientists and researchers from around the globe. These contributions are based on the lectures delivered by experts at CIMPA School, held at the University of Delhi, India, from 25 November–6 December 2013, and peer-reviewed by international experts. The book contains five chapters. Chapter 1 deals with nonsmooth, nonconvex bilevel optimization problems whose feasible set is described by using the graph of the solution set mapping of a parametric optimization problem. Chapter 2 describes a constraint qualification to MPECs considere...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serva, M.
1986-01-01
In this paper we give probabilistic solutions to the equations describing non-relativistic quantum electrodynamical systems. These solutions involve, besides the usual diffusion processes, also birth and death processes corresponding to the 'photons number' variables. We state some inequalities and in particular we establish bounds to the ground state energy of systems composed by a non relativistic particle interacting with a field. The result is general and it is applied as an example to the polaron problem. (orig.)
Abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems in noncompact Hadamard manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haishu Lu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problem in noncompact Hadamard manifolds. We prove the existence of solutions to the abstract generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problem under suitable conditions and provide applications to an abstract vector quasi-equilibrium problem, a generalized scalar equilibrium problem, a scalar equilibrium problem, and a perturbed saddle point problem. Finally, as an application of the existence of solutions to the generalized scalar equilibrium problem, we obtain a weakly mixed variational inequality and two mixed variational inequalities. The results presented in this paper unify and generalize many known results in the literature.
Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.
Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa
2012-01-01
Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csernai, L.P.; Lukacs, B.
1984-04-01
In a fluid-dynamical model the extra entropy production is calculated which arises from a non-equilibrium phase transition from nuclear to quark matter. The dynamics of processes producing extra entropy are treated in linear approximation. It is shown that there is a considerable extra entropy production provided the transition is not too fast. In measuring the entropy at the break-up, an excess entropy might signalize the phase transition to a transient quark-gluon plasma. (D.Gy.)
Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...
Is there a relativistic nonlinear generalization of quantum mechanics?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elze, Hans-Thomas [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)
2007-05-15
Yes, there is. - A new kind of gauge theory is introduced, where the minimal coupling and corresponding covariant derivatives are defined in the space of functions pertaining to the functional Schroedinger picture of a given field theory. While, for simplicity, we study the example of a U(1) symmetry, this kind of gauge theory can accommodate other symmetries as well. We consider the resulting relativistic nonlinear extension of quantum mechanics and show that it incorporates gravity in the (0+1)-dimensional limit, where it leads to the Schroedinger-Newton equations. Gravity is encoded here into a universal nonlinear extension of quantum theory. The probabilistic interpretation, i.e. Born's rule, holds provided the underlying model has only dimensionless parameters.
Relativistic generalizations of simple pion-nucleon models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1981-01-01
A relativistic, partial wave N/D dispersion theory is developed for low energy pion-nucleon elastic scattering. The theory is simplified by treating crossing symmetry only to lowest order in the inverse nucleon mass. The coupling of elastic scattering to inelastic channels is included by taking the necessary inelasticity from experimental data. Three models are examined: pseudoscalar coupling of pions and nucleons, pseudovector coupling, and a model in which all intermediate antinucleons are projected out of the amplitude. The phase shifts in the dominant P 33 channel are quantitatively reproduced for P/sub lab/ 33 phase shifts. Thus a model of the pion-nucleon interaction which does not include antinucleon degrees of freedom is found to be unphysical
Interaction of relativistic elementary atoms with matter. I. General formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczyn'ski, S.
1987-01-01
The problem of the interaction of relativistic elementary atoms (Coulomb bound states of elementary particles such as positronium, pionium, etc.) with matter is studied in the reference frame where the atom is initially at rest. An atom of matter is treated as a spinless structureless fast particle. The amplitudes of elementary-atom interaction are derived in the Born approximation under the assumption that a momentum transfer to the atom does not significantly exceed an inverse Bohr radius of the atom. The elementary-atom excitation and ionization processes are considered. The transitions where the spin projection of the atom component is reversed are also studied. In particular the matrix elements for para-ortho and ortho-para transitions are given. The spin structure of the amplitudes is discussed in detail. The sum rules, which allow the calculation of the cross sections summed over atom final states are found. Finally the formulas of the atom interaction cross sections are presented
Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise
Bindel, Thomas H.
2012-01-01
A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…
Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd Zorick
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.
Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.
Townsend, Robert
2010-09-01
This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.
General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.
1997-01-01
Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs
Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Andreas; Jacoby, Henry D.
2006-01-01
A study is presented of the rates of penetration of different transport technologies under policy constraints on CO 2 emissions. The response of this sector is analyzed within an overall national level of restriction, with a focus on automobiles, light trucks, and heavy freight trucks. Using the US as an example, a linked set of three models is used to carry out the analysis: a multi-sector computable general equilibrium model of the economy, a MARKAL-type model of vehicle and fuel supply technology, and a model simulating the split of personal and freight transport among modes. Results highlight the importance of incremental improvements in conventional internal combustion engine technology, and, in the absence of policies to overcome observed consumer discount rates, the very long time horizons before radical alternatives like the internal combustion engine hybrid drive train vehicle are likely to take substantial market share
Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics
Townsend, Robert
2010-01-01
This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939
General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrison, G W [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics
1997-09-01
Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirukkanesh, S. [Eastern University, Department of Mathematics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Ragel, F.C. [Eastern University, Department of Physics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam [P.D. Women' s College, Department of Physics, Jalpaiguri (India)
2018-01-15
We present an algorithm to generalize a plethora of well-known solutions to Einstein field equations describing spherically symmetric relativistic fluid spheres by relaxing the pressure isotropy condition on the system. By suitably fixing the model parameters in our formulation, we generate closed-form solutions which may be treated as an anisotropic generalization of a large class of solutions describing isotropic fluid spheres. From the resultant solutions, a particular solution is taken up to show its physical acceptability. Making use of the current estimate of mass and radius of a known pulsar, the effects of anisotropic stress on the gross physical behaviour of a relativistic compact star is also highlighted. (orig.)
General relativistic study of astrophysical jets with internal shocks
Vyas, Mukesh K.; Chattopadhyay, Indranil
2017-08-01
We explore the possibility of the formation of steady internal shocks in jets around black holes. We consider a fluid described by a relativistic equation of state, flowing about the axis of symmetry (θ = 0) in a Schwarzschild metric. We use two models for the jet geometry: (I) a conical geometry and (II) a geometry with non-conical cross-section. A jet with conical geometry has a smooth flow, while the jet with non-conical cross-section undergoes multiple sonic points and even standing shock. The jet shock becomes stronger, as the shock location is situated farther from the central black hole. Jets with very high energy and very low energy do not harbour shocks, but jets with intermediate energies do harbour shocks. One advantage of these shocks, as opposed to shocks mediated by external medium, is that these shocks have no effect on the jet terminal speed, but may act as possible sites for particle acceleration. Typically, a jet with specific energy 1.8c2 will achieve a terminal speed of v∞ = 0.813c for jet with any geometry, where, c is the speed of light in vacuum. But for a jet of non-conical cross-section for which the length scale of the inner torus of the accretion disc is 40rg, then, in addition, a steady shock will form at rsh ˜ 7.5rg and compression ratio of R ˜ 2.7. Moreover, electron-proton jet seems to harbour the strongest shock. We will discuss possible consequences of such a scenario.
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes.
Banerjee, Anil C.
1995-01-01
Discusses some of the conceptual difficulties encountered by undergraduate students in learning certain aspects of chemical equilibrium and thermodynamics. Discusses teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties. (JRH)
Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.
2005-01-01
An exact but simple general relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei is constructed, based on the superposition in Weyl coordinates of a black hole, a Chazy-Curzon disk and two rods, which represent matter jets. The influence of the rods on the matter properties of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanimura, Shogo
1992-01-01
R. P. Feynman showed F. J. Dyson a proof of the Lorentz force law and the homogeneous Maxwell equations, which he obtained starting from Newton's law of motion and the commutation relations between position and velocity for a single nonrelativistic particle. The author formulate both a special relativistic and a general relativistic version of Feynman's derivation. Especially in the general relativistic version they prove that the only possible fields that can consistently act on a quantum mechanical particle are scalar, gauge, and gravitational fields. They also extend Feynman's scheme to the case of non-Abelian gauge theory in the special relativistic context. 8 refs
General Relativistic Theory of the VLBI Time Delay in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
Kopeikin, Sergei
2003-01-01
The general relativistic theory of the gravitational VLBI experiment conducted on September 8, 2002 by Fomalont and Kopeikin is explained. Equations of radio waves (light) propagating from the quasar to the observer are integrated in the time-dependent gravitational field of the solar system by making use of either retarded or advanced solutions of the Einstein field equations. This mathematical technique separates explicitly the effects associated with the propagation of gravity from those associated with light in the integral expression for the relativistic VLBI time delay of light. We prove that the relativistic correction to the Shapiro time delay, discovered by Kopeikin (ApJ, 556, L1, 2001), changes sign if one retains direction of the light propagation but replaces the retarded for the advanced solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, this correction is associated with the propagation of gravity. The VLBI observation measured its speed, and that the retarded solution is the correct one.
Donmez, Orhan
We present a general procedure to solve the General Relativistic Hydrodynamical (GRH) equations with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement (AMR) and model of an accretion disk around a black hole. To do this, the GRH equations are written in a conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character. The numerical solutions of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations is done by High Resolution Shock Capturing schemes (HRSC), specifically designed to solve non-linear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These schemes depend on the characteristic information of the system. We use Marquina fluxes with MUSCL left and right states to solve GRH equations. First, we carry out different test problems with uniform and AMR grids on the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations to verify the second order convergence of the code in 1D, 2 D and 3D. Second, we solve the GRH equations and use the general relativistic test problems to compare the numerical solutions with analytic ones. In order to this, we couple the flux part of general relativistic hydrodynamic equation with a source part using Strang splitting. The coupling of the GRH equations is carried out in a treatment which gives second order accurate solutions in space and time. The test problems examined include shock tubes, geodesic flows, and circular motion of particle around the black hole. Finally, we apply this code to the accretion disk problems around the black hole using the Schwarzschild metric at the background of the computational domain. We find spiral shocks on the accretion disk. They are observationally expected results. We also examine the star-disk interaction near a massive black hole. We find that when stars are grounded down or a hole is punched on the accretion disk, they create shock waves which destroy the accretion disk.
Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-05-17
This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.
CoCoNuT: General relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution
Dimmelmeier, Harald; Novak, Jérôme; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo
2012-02-01
CoCoNuT is a general relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution. The main aim of this numerical code is the study of several astrophysical scenarios in which general relativity can play an important role, namely the collapse of rapidly rotating stellar cores and the evolution of isolated neutron stars. The code has two flavors: CoCoA, the axisymmetric (2D) magnetized version, and CoCoNuT, the 3D non-magnetized version.
Quantum mechanics in general relativity and its special - relativistic limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagirov, Eh.A.
1998-01-01
Quantum mechanics of a neutral point-like particle in the general Riemannian space-time is constructed starting with the general Fock representation of the quantum scalar field. The known ambiguity of the representation is removed by the requirement that the quasi-one-particle wave functions in configurational space should admit the Born probabilistic interpretation after a transformation, generally nonlocal, and therefore may be considered as the one-particle wave functions. Operators of momentum and spatial position of a particle acting in the space of these transformed wave functions are deduced consecutively from basic naturally defined operators of the observables in the Fock space. They coincide with the canonical ones only in the case of the infinite velocity of light. In particular, even in the Minkowski space-time and inertial frames of reference , the operators of curvilinear coordinates do not commute
The Hamiltonian structure of general relativistic perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, D.; Houston Univ., TX; Marsden, J.; Walton, R.
1985-01-01
We show that the evolution equations for a perfect fluid coupled to general relativity in a general lapse and shift, are Hamiltonian relative to a certain Poisson structure. For the fluid variables, a Lie-Poisson structure associated to the dual of a semi-direct product Lie algebra is used, while the bracket for the gravitational variables has the usual canonical symplectic structure. The evolution is governed by a Hamiltonian which is equivalent to that obtained from a canonical analysis. The relationship of our Hamiltonian structure with other approaches in the literature, such as Clebsch potentials, Lagrangian to Eulerian transformations, and its use in clarifying linearization stability, are discussed. (orig.)
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Heavy meson mass spectra by general relativistic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Italiano, A.; Lattuada, M.; Maccarrone, G.D.; Recami, E.; Riggi, F.; Vinciguerra, D.
1984-01-01
By applying the classical methods of general relativity to elementary particles one can get, in a natural way, the observed confinement of their constituents, avoiding any recourse to phenome-nological models such as bag model and allowing the deduction of the heavy meson (i.e. charmonium (J/psi) and bottomium (UPSILON)) mass spectra
Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmie Topxhiu; Donat Rexha
2016-01-01
Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by J...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vahid Dadashi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper is dedicated to the introduction a new class of equilibrium problems named generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems which includes the classes of hemiequilibrium problems, equilibrium-like problems, equilibrium problems, hemivariational inequalities, and variational inequalities as special cases. By utilizing the auxiliary principle technique, some new predictor-corrector iterative algorithms for solving them are suggested and analyzed. The convergence analysis of the proposed iterative methods requires either partially relaxed monotonicity or jointly pseudomonotonicity of the bifunctions involved in generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problem. Results obtained in this paper include several new and known results as special cases.
General relativistic model of a spinning cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, B.; Soleng, H.H.
1991-11-01
The authors investigate the infinite, straight, rotating cosmic string within the framework of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. A class of exact interior solutions is derived for which the source satisfies the weak and the dominant energy conditions. The interior metric is matched smoothly to the exterior vacuum. A subclass of these solutions has closed time-like curves both in the interior and the exterior geometry. 39 refs., 2 figs
General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmedov, B.J.
1998-11-01
The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim
2005-01-01
We consider a general relativistic zero-pressure irrotational cosmological medium perturbed to the third order. We assume a flat Friedmann background but include the cosmological constant. We ignore the rotational perturbation which decays in expanding phase. In our previous studies we discovered that, to the second-order perturbation, except for the gravitational wave contributions, the relativistic equations coincide exactly with the previously known Newtonian ones. Since the Newtonian second-order equations are fully nonlinear, any nonvanishing third- and higher-order terms in the relativistic analyses are supposed to be pure relativistic corrections. In this work, we derive such correction terms appearing in the third order. Continuing our success in the second-order perturbations, we take the comoving gauge. We discover that the third-order correction terms are of φ v order higher than the second-order terms where φ v is a gauge-invariant combination related to the three-space curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge; compared with the Newtonian potential, we have δΦ∼(3/5)φ v to the linear order. Therefore, the pure general relativistic effects are of φ v order higher than the Newtonian ones. The corrections terms are independent of the horizon scale and depend only on the linear-order gravitational potential (curvature) perturbation strength. From the temperature anisotropy of cosmic microwave background, we have (δT/T)∼(1/3)δΦ∼(1/5)φ v ∼10 -5 . Therefore, our present result reinforces our previous important practical implication that near the current era one can use the large-scale Newtonian numerical simulation more reliably even as the simulation scale approaches near (and goes beyond) the horizon
Testing General Relativistic Predictions with the LAGEOS Satellites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peron, Roberto
2014-01-01
The spacetime around Earth is a good environment in order to perform tests of gravitational theories. According to Einstein’s view of gravitational phenomena, the Earth mass-energy content curves the surrounding spacetime in a peculiar way. This (relatively) quiet dynamical environment enables a good reconstruction of geodetic satellites (test masses) orbit, provided that high-quality tracking data are available. This is the case of the LAGEOS satellites, built and launched mainly for geodetic and geodynamical purposes, but equally good for fundamental physics studies. A review of these studies is presented, focusing on data, models, and analysis strategies. Some recent and less recent results are presented. All of them indicate general relativity theory as a very good description of gravitational phenomena, at least in the studied environment.
General relativistic razor-thin disks with magnetically polarized matter
Navarro-Noguera, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.
2018-06-01
The origin of magnetic fields in the universe still remains unknown and constitutes one of the most intriguing questions in astronomy and astrophysics. Their significance is enormous since they have a strong influence on many astrophysical phenomena. In regards of this motivation, theoretical models of galactic disks with sources of magnetic field may contribute to understand the physics behind them. Inspired by this, we present a new family of analytical models for thin disks composed by magnetized material. The solutions are axially symmetric, conformastatic and are obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell Field Equations for continuum media without the test field approximation, and assuming that the sources are razor-thin disk of magnetically polarized matter. We find analytical expressions for the surface energy density, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields, the mass and the rotational velocity for circular orbits, for two particular solutions. In each case, the energy-momentum tensor agrees with the energy conditions and also the convergence of the mass for all the solutions is proved. Since the solutions are well-behaved, they may be used to model astrophysical thin disks, and also may contribute as initial data in numerical simulations. In addition, the process to obtain the solutions is described in detail, which may be used as a guide to find solutions with magnetized material in General Relativity.
Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited
Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.
2013-09-01
We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.
General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas Around Merging Supermassive Black Holes
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; van Meter, James R.
2012-01-01
Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this paper we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular we observe, total amplification of the magnetic field of approx 2 orders of magnitude which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to stronger electromagnetic signals than in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.
Confinement and hadron-hadron interactions by general relativistic methods
Recami, Erasmo
By postulating covariance of physical laws under global dilations, one can describe gravitational and strong interactions in a unified way. Namely, in terms of the new discrete dilational degree of freedom, our cosmos and hadrons can be regarded as finite, similar systems. And a discrete hierarchy of finite ``universes'' may be defined, which are governed by fields with strengths inversally proportional to their radii; in each universe an Equivalence Principle holds, so that the relevant field can be there geometrized. Scaled-down Einstein equations -with cosmological term- are assumed to hold inside hadrons (= strong micro-cosmoses); and they yield in a natural way classical confinement, as well as ``asymptotic freedom'', of the hadron constituents. In other words, the association of strong micro-universes of Friedmann type with hadrons (i.e., applying the methods of General Relativity to subnuclear particle physics) allows avoiding recourse to phenomenological models such as the Bag Model. Inside hadrons we have to deal with a tensorial field (= strong gravity), and hadron constituents are supposed to exchange spin-2 ``gluons''. Our approach allows us also to write down a tensorial, bi-scale field theory of hadron-hadron interactions, based on modified Einstein-type equations here proposed for strong interactions in our space. We obtain in particular: (i) the correct Yukawa behaviour of the strong scalar potential at the static limit and for r>~l fm; (ii) the value of hadron radii. As a byproduct, we derive a whole ``numerology'', connecting our gravitational cosmos with the strong micro-cosmoses (hadrons), such that it does imply no variation of G with the epoch. Finally, since a structute of the ``micro-universe'' type seems to be characteristic even of leptons, a hope for the future is including also weak interactions in our classical unification of the fundamental forces.
A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)
2016-06-15
We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.
Non equilibrium relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.
1982-01-01
A certain systematization through the discussion of results already known on cosmology and the presentation of new ones is given. In section 2 a brief review of the necessary mathematical background is also given. The theory of perturbation of Friedmann-like Universes is presented in section 3. The reduction of Einstein's equations for homogeneous Universes to an autonomous planar system of differential equations is done in section 4. Finally in section 5 the alternative gravitational non-minimal coupling and its consequences to cosmology are discussed. (Author) [pt
General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST
Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki
2017-02-01
We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.
Axisymmetric general relativistic simulations of the accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdikamalov, E. B.; Ott, C. D.; Rezzolla, L.; Dessart, L.; Dimmelmeier, H.; Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.
2010-01-01
The accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of a white dwarf may lead to the formation of a protoneutron star and a collapse-driven supernova explosion. This process represents a path alternative to thermonuclear disruption of accreting white dwarfs in type Ia supernovae. In the AIC scenario, the supernova explosion energy is expected to be small and the resulting transient short-lived, making it hard to detect by electromagnetic means alone. Neutrino and gravitational-wave (GW) observations may provide crucial information necessary to reveal a potential AIC. Motivated by the need for systematic predictions of the GW signature of AIC, we present results from an extensive set of general-relativistic AIC simulations using a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state and an approximate treatment of deleptonization during collapse. Investigating a set of 114 progenitor models in axisymmetric rotational equilibrium, with a wide range of rotational configurations, temperatures and central densities, and resulting white dwarf masses, we extend previous Newtonian studies and find that the GW signal has a generic shape akin to what is known as a 'type III' signal in the literature. Despite this reduction to a single type of waveform, we show that the emitted GWs carry information that can be used to constrain the progenitor and the postbounce rotation. We discuss the detectability of the emitted GWs, showing that the signal-to-noise ratio for current or next-generation interferometer detectors could be high enough to detect such events in our Galaxy. Furthermore, we contrast the GW signals of AIC and rotating massive star iron core collapse and find that they can be distinguished, but only if the distance to the source is known and a detailed reconstruction of the GW time series from detector data is possible. Some of our AIC models form massive quasi-Keplerian accretion disks after bounce. The disk mass is very sensitive to progenitor mass and angular momentum
Dogville or an illustration of some properties of general equilibrium
Harmgart, H.; Huck, S.
2008-01-01
In this note we argue that Lars von Trier’s movie Dogville can be viewed as an illustration of a simple economy where one agent has only her body as initial endowment. The movie illustrates some interesting comparative statics of equilibrium allocations. It shows how life would be like in a world where, in the absence of constitutional or legal constraints, economic forces reign freely and raises some fundamental issues of voluntary exchange versus force that apply to a number ...
Multiple-event probability in general-relativistic quantum mechanics. II. A discrete model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondragon, Mauricio; Perez, Alejandro; Rovelli, Carlo
2007-01-01
We introduce a simple quantum mechanical model in which time and space are discrete and periodic. These features avoid the complications related to continuous-spectrum operators and infinite-norm states. The model provides a tool for discussing the probabilistic interpretation of generally covariant quantum systems, without the confusion generated by spurious infinities. We use the model to illustrate the formalism of general-relativistic quantum mechanics, and to test the definition of multiple-event probability introduced in a companion paper [Phys. Rev. D 75, 084033 (2007)]. We consider a version of the model with unitary time evolution and a version without unitary time evolution
Jaeger, Johannes; Irons, David; Monk, Nick
2008-10-01
Positional specification by morphogen gradients is traditionally viewed as a two-step process. A gradient is formed and then interpreted, providing a spatial metric independent of the target tissue, similar to the concept of space in classical mechanics. However, the formation and interpretation of gradients are coupled, dynamic processes. We introduce a conceptual framework for positional specification in which cellular activity feeds back on positional information encoded by gradients, analogous to the feedback between mass-energy distribution and the geometry of space-time in Einstein's general theory of relativity. We discuss how such general relativistic positional information (GRPI) can guide systems-level approaches to pattern formation.
The truthful signalling hypothesis: an explicit general equilibrium model.
Hausken, Kjell; Hirshleifer, Jack
2004-06-21
In mating competition, the truthful signalling hypothesis (TSH), sometimes known as the handicap principle, asserts that higher-quality males signal while lower-quality males do not (or else emit smaller signals). Also, the signals are "believed", that is, females mate preferentially with higher-signalling males. Our analysis employs specific functional forms to generate analytic solutions and numerical simulations that illuminate the conditions needed to validate the TSH. Analytic innovations include: (1) A Mating Success Function indicates how female mating choices respond to higher and lower signalling levels. (2) A congestion function rules out corner solutions in which females would mate exclusively with higher-quality males. (3) A Malthusian condition determines equilibrium population size as related to per-capita resource availability. Equilibria validating the TSH are achieved over a wide range of parameters, though not universally. For TSH equilibria it is not strictly necessary that the high-quality males have an advantage in terms of lower per-unit signalling costs, but a cost difference in favor of the low-quality males cannot be too great if a TSH equilibrium is to persist. And although the literature has paid less attention to these points, TSH equilibria may also fail if: the quality disparity among males is too great, or the proportion of high-quality males in the population is too large, or if the congestion effect is too weak. Signalling being unprofitable in aggregate, it can take off from a no-signalling equilibrium only if the trait used for signalling is not initially a handicap, but instead is functionally useful at low levels. Selection for this trait sets in motion a bandwagon, whereby the initially useful indicator is pushed by male-male competition into the domain where it does indeed become a handicap.
All-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum
Yoo, Jaiyul; Desjacques, Vincent
2013-07-01
We perform an all-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum using the well-developed spherical Fourier decomposition. Spherical Fourier analysis expresses the observed galaxy fluctuation in terms of the spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions that are angular and radial eigenfunctions of the Helmholtz equation, providing a natural orthogonal basis for all-sky analysis of the large-scale mode measurements. Accounting for all the relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, we compute the spherical power spectrum and its covariance matrix and compare it to the standard three-dimensional power spectrum to establish a connection. The spherical power spectrum recovers the three-dimensional power spectrum at each wave number k with its angular dependence μk encoded in angular multipole l, and the contributions of the line-of-sight projection to galaxy clustering such as the gravitational lensing effect can be readily accommodated in the spherical Fourier analysis. A complete list of formulas for computing the relativistic spherical galaxy power spectrum is also presented.
GRHydro: a new open-source general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code for the Einstein toolkit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mösta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian D; Reisswig, Christian; Mundim, Bruno C; Faber, Joshua A; Noble, Scott C; Bode, Tanja; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik
2014-01-01
We present the new general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) capabilities of the Einstein toolkit, an open-source community-driven numerical relativity and computational relativistic astrophysics code. The GRMHD extension of the toolkit builds upon previous releases and implements the evolution of relativistic magnetized fluids in the ideal MHD limit in fully dynamical spacetimes using the same shock-capturing techniques previously applied to hydrodynamical evolution. In order to maintain the divergence-free character of the magnetic field, the code implements both constrained transport and hyperbolic divergence cleaning schemes. We present test results for a number of MHD tests in Minkowski and curved spacetimes. Minkowski tests include aligned and oblique planar shocks, cylindrical explosions, magnetic rotors, Alfvén waves and advected loops, as well as a set of tests designed to study the response of the divergence cleaning scheme to numerically generated monopoles. We study the code’s performance in curved spacetimes with spherical accretion onto a black hole on a fixed background spacetime and in fully dynamical spacetimes by evolutions of a magnetized polytropic neutron star and of the collapse of a magnetized stellar core. Our results agree well with exact solutions where these are available and we demonstrate convergence. All code and input files used to generate the results are available on http://einsteintoolkit.org. This makes our work fully reproducible and provides new users with an introduction to applications of the code. (paper)
Barbagallo, Annamaria; Di Meglio, Guglielmo; Mauro, Paolo
2017-07-01
The aim of the paper is to study, in a Hilbert space setting, a general random oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses and to characterize the random Cournot-Nash equilibrium principle by means of a stochastic variational inequality. Some existence results are presented.
Numerical study on general dispersion relation of anisotropic and weakly relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ke Fujiu; Chen Yanping
1987-01-01
The key problem in heating and instability studies in plasma physics is to obtain dispersive equation and its solution. This paper presents the general dispersive equation and corresponding procedure for electromagnetic wave which nearly poloidally impinges on anisotropic, weakly relativistic Maxwellian plasma with inhomogeneous density in nonuniform magnetic field (such as plasma in TOKAMAK). The double index function F ij , significant in plasma physics, was expanded as single index function F 1 , and then the values were calculated by means of dispersive function. It was also pointed out that the severe error would be involved in the calculation of F ij from recurrence relation of F 11
Relativistic theory of gravitation and nonuniqueness of the predictions of general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Loskutov, Yu.M.
1986-01-01
It is shown that while the predictions of relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) for the gravitational effects are unique and consistent with the experimental data available, the relevant predictions of general relativity theory are not unique. Therewith the above nonuniqueness manifests itself in some effects in the first order in the gravitational interaction constant in others in the second one. The absence in GRT of the energy-momentum and angular momentum conservation laws for the matter and gravitational field taken together and its inapplicability to give uniquely determined predictions for the gravitational phenomena compel to reject GRT as a physical theory
Bose-Einstein condensation of a relativistic Bose gas trapped in a general external potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su Guozhen; Chen Jincan; Chen Lixuan
2006-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal relativistic Bose gas trapped in a generic power-law potential is investigated. The analytical expressions for some important parameters such as the critical temperature, ground-state fraction and heat capacity are derived. The general criteria on the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation and the discontinuity of heat capacity at the critical temperature are obtained. The results obtained here present a unified description for the Bose-Einstein condensation of a class of ideal Bose systems so that many important conclusions in the literature are included in this paper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by John R. Hicks (1939, Kenneth J.Arrow (1951 and Gerard Debreu (1954 and second frames of general equilibrium belongs to Paul A. Samuelson (1958. To highlight the contributions of these Nobel laureates in the development of the theory of general equilibrium have been selected and are presented in the paper some views, estimates and assumptions that have contributed not only in solving concrete problems, but also to the development of economic science in general. Their works represent a synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects of treatment of general equilibrium which are the starting point for further research in this field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominique Brun-Battistini
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman’s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by explicitly describing the single particle orbits as geodesics in Boltzmann’s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux in this type of system. The calculation is devoted solely to the gravitational field contribution to this heat flux in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The corresponding transport coefficient, which is obtained within a relaxation approximation, corresponds to the dilute fluid in a weak gravitational field. The effect is negligible in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zuonong
2007-01-01
In this paper, we will concentrate on the topic of integrable discrete hierarchies in 2+1 dimensions, and their connection with discrete Painleve hierarchies. By considering a (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral discrete linear problem, two new (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies-the 2+1 nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the 2+1 nonisospectral negative relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy-are constructed. It is shown that the reductions of the two new 2+1 nonisospectral lattice hierarchies lead to the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral Volterra lattice hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral negative Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain two new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies and two new ordinary difference hierarchies which are direct reductions of the two 2+1 nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies. One of the two difference hierarchies yields our previously obtained generalized discrete first Painleve (dP I ) hierarchy and another one yields a generalized alternative discrete second Painleve (alt-dP II ) hierarchy
General relativistic continuum mechanics and the post-Newtonian equations of motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrill, T.H.
1991-01-01
Aspects are examined of general relativistic continuum mechanics. Perfectly elastic materials are dealt with but not exclusively. The derivation of their equations of motion is emphasized, in the post-Newtonian approximation. A reformulation is presented based on the tetrad formalism, of Carter and Quintana's theory of general relativistic elastic continua. A field Lagrangian is derived describing perfect material media; show that the usual covariant conservations law for perfectly elastic media is fully equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange equations describing these same media; and further show that the equations of motion for such materials follow directly from Einstein's field equations. In addition, a version of this principle shows that the local mass density in curved space-time partially depends on the amount and distribution of mass energy in the entire universe and is related to the mass density that would occur if space-time were flat. The total Lagrangian was also expanded in an EIH (Einstein, Infeld, Hoffmann) series to obtain a total post-Newtonian Lagrangian. The results agree with those found by solving Einstein's equations for the metric coefficients and by deriving the post-Newtonian equations of motion from the covariant conservation law
Foucart, Francois
2018-04-01
General relativistic radiation hydrodynamic simulations are necessary to accurately model a number of astrophysical systems involving black holes and neutron stars. Photon transport plays a crucial role in radiatively dominated accretion discs, while neutrino transport is critical to core-collapse supernovae and to the modelling of electromagnetic transients and nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. However, evolving the full Boltzmann equations of radiative transport is extremely expensive. Here, we describe the implementation in the general relativistic SPEC code of a cheaper radiation hydrodynamic method that theoretically converges to a solution of Boltzmann's equation in the limit of infinite numerical resources. The algorithm is based on a grey two-moment scheme, in which we evolve the energy density and momentum density of the radiation. Two-moment schemes require a closure that fills in missing information about the energy spectrum and higher order moments of the radiation. Instead of the approximate analytical closure currently used in core-collapse and merger simulations, we complement the two-moment scheme with a low-accuracy Monte Carlo evolution. The Monte Carlo results can provide any or all of the missing information in the evolution of the moments, as desired by the user. As a first test of our methods, we study a set of idealized problems demonstrating that our algorithm performs significantly better than existing analytical closures. We also discuss the current limitations of our method, in particular open questions regarding the stability of the fully coupled scheme.
A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Taoyuan
2010-01-01
How do energy efficiency gains affect energy consumption? The effects are generally called 'rebound effects' in the literature. Previous studies have extensively focused on only part of the global economy to study rebound effects, e.g. energy consumption by households, one industry, or one country. However, since the global economy is highly connected among countries, these studies may lead to misleading conclusions if the rebound effects in the rest of the economy are significant. Recently Saunders (2008) analyzes the demand side by taking the global economy as a whole. Wei (2007) also provides a general analysis by using Cobb-Douglas production functions for the global economy. The present article expands Wei (2007) general analysis to explore the rebound effects from an economist's viewpoint by taking the global economy as a whole and applying general forms of production functions. The analysis provides new insights related to rebound effects: we highlight the role of energy supply as a determinant of rebound. We show that the substitution between energy resources and other productive resources is more relevant to long term rebound. We predict that long term rebound may be lower than short term rebound. And we also discover that super-conservation can happen in both the short term and the long term.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gago-Alonso, A; Santiago-Moreno, L; Piñeiro-Díaz, L R
2008-01-01
We study finite nonlinear dynamical systems that are somehow more general and complex than the relativistic Toda lattice. Our dynamical systems have a matrix representation very similar to the ones that were previously studied. It is defined in terms of a one-parameter family (D(x), M(x)) of matrices, where D(x) is a Hessenberg matrix and M(x) is a lower triangular matrix. The Jordan matrix associated with M −1 (x)D(x) is a constant of motion and the auxiliary spectral data have explicit time evolution. Using the connection between Hessenberg matrices and general orthogonal polynomials we associated to our system a one-parameter family of scalar products that we use to prove the integrability of the system. In particular the inverse transform is given by an orthogonalization process on a given scalar product
General relativistic dynamics of an extreme mass-ratio binary interacting with an external body
Yang, Huan; Casals, Marc
2017-10-01
We study the dynamics of a hierarchical three-body system in the general relativistic regime: an extreme mass-ratio inner binary under the tidal influence of an external body. The inner binary consists of a central Schwarzschild black hole and a test body moving around it. We discuss three types of tidal effects on the orbit of the test body. First, the angular momentum of the inner binary precesses around the angular momentum of the outer binary. Second, the tidal field drives a "transient resonance" when the radial and azimuthal frequencies are commensurable. In contrast with resonances driven by the gravitational self-force, this tidal-driven resonance may boost the orbital angular momentum and eccentricity (a relativistic version of the Kozai-Lidov effect). Finally, for an orbit-dynamical effect during the nonresonant phase, we calculate the correction to the innermost stable circular (mean) orbit due to the tidal interaction. Hierarchical three-body systems are potential sources for future space-based gravitational wave missions, and the tidal effects that we find could contribute significantly to their waveform.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C.
2012-01-01
Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 × 96 × 64 to 384 × 384 × 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma β; (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma β decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ( s hearing box ) calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geemert, R. van E-mail: rene.vangeemert@psi.ch; Hoogenboom, J.E. E-mail: j.e.hoogenboom@iri.tudelft.nl
2001-09-01
As nuclear fuel economy is basically a multi-cycle issue, a fair way of evaluating reload patterns is to consider their performance in the case of an equilibrium cycle. The equilibrium cycle associated with a reload pattern is defined as the limit fuel cycle that eventually emerges after multiple successive periodic refueling, each time implementing the same reload scheme. Since the equilibrium cycle is the solution of a reload operation invariance equation, it can in principle be found with sufficient accuracy only by applying an iterative procedure, simulating the emergence of the limit cycle. For a design purpose such as the optimization of reload patterns, in which many different equilibrium cycle perturbations (resulting from many different limited changes in the reload operator) must be evaluated, this requires far too much computational effort. However, for very fast calculation of these many different equilibrium cycle perturbations it is also possible to set up a generalized variational approach. This approach results in an iterative scheme that yields the exact perturbation in the equilibrium cycle solution as well, in an accelerated way. Furthermore, both the solution of the adjoint equations occurring in the perturbation theory formalism and the implementation of the optimization algorithm have been parallellized and executed on a massively parallel machine. The combination of parallellism and generalized perturbation theory offers the opportunity to perform very exhaustive, fast and accurate sampling of the solution space for the equilibrium cycle reload pattern optimization problem.
A general theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid-protein fluid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, L.
2005-01-01
We present a general and systematic theory of non-equilibrium dynamics of multi-component fluid membranes, in general, and membranes containing transmembrane proteins, in particular. Developed based on a minimal number of principles of statistical physics and designed to be a meso...
Self-gravitating axially symmetric disks in general-relativistic rotation
Karkowski, Janusz; Kulczycki, Wojciech; Mach, Patryk; Malec, Edward; Odrzywołek, Andrzej; Piróg, Michał
2018-05-01
We integrate numerically axially symmetric stationary Einstein equations describing self-gravitating disks around spinless black holes. The numerical scheme is based on a method developed by Shibata, but contains important new ingredients. We derive a new general-relativistic Keplerian rotation law for self-gravitating disks around spinning black holes. Former results concerning rotation around spinless black holes emerge in the limit of a vanishing spin parameter. These rotation curves might be used for the description of rotating stars, after appropriate modification around the symmetry axis. They can be applied to the description of compact torus-black hole configurations, including active galactic nuclei or products of coalescences of two neutron stars.
Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.
2009-01-01
The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parr, D.M.
2000-04-01
This thesis studies the propagation and stability of ultraintense laser light in plasma. A new method is devised, both general and inclusive yet requiring only modest computational effort. The exact anharmonic waveforms for laser light are established. An examination of their stability extends the theory of electron parametric instabilities to relativistic regimes in plasmas of any density including classically overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. Such instabilities can rapidly degrade intense pulses, but can also be harnessed, for example in the self-resonant laser wakefield accelerator. Understanding both the new and established regimes is thus basic to the success of many applications arising in high-field science, including novel x-ray sources and ignition of laser fusion targets, as well as plasma-based accelerator schemes. A covariant formulation of a cold electron fluid plasma is Lorentz transformed to the laser group velocity frame; this is the essence of the method and produces a very simple final model. Then, first, the zero-order laser 'driver' model is developed, in this frame representing a spatially homogeneous environment and thus soluble numerically as ordinary differential equations. The linearised first-order system leads to a further set of differential equations, whose solution defines the growth and other characteristics of an instability. The method is exact, rugged and flexible, avoiding the many approximations and restrictions previously necessary. This approach unifies all theory on purely electronic parametric instabilities over the last 30 years and, for the first time in generality, extends it into the ultrahigh relativistic regime. Besides extensions to familiar parametric instabilities, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Plasmon Decay, strong stimulated harmonic generation emerges across a wide range of harmonics with high growth rates, presenting a varied and complex physical entity
GENERAL-RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Moesta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Drasco, Steve; O' Connor, Evan P.; Reisswig, Christian [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meakin, Casey A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2013-05-10
We study the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of the post-core-bounce phase of the collapse of a 27 M{sub Sun} star and pay special attention to the development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and neutrino-driven convection. To this end, we perform 3D general-relativistic simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage scheme. The leakage scheme captures the essential aspects of neutrino cooling, heating, and lepton number exchange as predicted by radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor was studied in 2D by Mueller et al., who observed strong growth of the SASI while neutrino-driven convection was suppressed. In our 3D simulations, neutrino-driven convection grows from numerical perturbations imposed by our Cartesian grid. It becomes the dominant instability and leads to large-scale non-oscillatory deformations of the shock front. These will result in strongly aspherical explosions without the need for large-scale SASI shock oscillations. Low-l-mode SASI oscillations are present in our models, but saturate at small amplitudes that decrease with increasing neutrino heating and vigor of convection. Our results, in agreement with simpler 3D Newtonian simulations, suggest that once neutrino-driven convection is started, it is likely to become the dominant instability in 3D. Whether it is the primary instability after bounce will ultimately depend on the physical seed perturbations present in the cores of massive stars. The gravitational wave signal, which we extract and analyze for the first time from 3D general-relativistic models, will serve as an observational probe of the postbounce dynamics and, in combination with neutrinos, may allow us to determine the primary hydrodynamic instability.
GENERAL-RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Mösta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Drasco, Steve; O'Connor, Evan P.; Reisswig, Christian; Meakin, Casey A.; Schnetter, Erik
2013-01-01
We study the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of the post-core-bounce phase of the collapse of a 27 M ☉ star and pay special attention to the development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and neutrino-driven convection. To this end, we perform 3D general-relativistic simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage scheme. The leakage scheme captures the essential aspects of neutrino cooling, heating, and lepton number exchange as predicted by radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The 27 M ☉ progenitor was studied in 2D by Müller et al., who observed strong growth of the SASI while neutrino-driven convection was suppressed. In our 3D simulations, neutrino-driven convection grows from numerical perturbations imposed by our Cartesian grid. It becomes the dominant instability and leads to large-scale non-oscillatory deformations of the shock front. These will result in strongly aspherical explosions without the need for large-scale SASI shock oscillations. Low-l-mode SASI oscillations are present in our models, but saturate at small amplitudes that decrease with increasing neutrino heating and vigor of convection. Our results, in agreement with simpler 3D Newtonian simulations, suggest that once neutrino-driven convection is started, it is likely to become the dominant instability in 3D. Whether it is the primary instability after bounce will ultimately depend on the physical seed perturbations present in the cores of massive stars. The gravitational wave signal, which we extract and analyze for the first time from 3D general-relativistic models, will serve as an observational probe of the postbounce dynamics and, in combination with neutrinos, may allow us to determine the primary hydrodynamic instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.
2012-04-26
Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is
Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy
2016-01-01
We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between
Gauy, Henrique Matheus; Ramos-Caro, Javier
2018-03-01
By considering the Einstein-Vlasov system for static spherically symmetric distributions of matter, we show that configurations with constant anisotropy parameter β , leading to asymptotically flat spacetimes, have necessarily a distribution function (DF) of the form F =l-2 βξ (ɛ ) , where ɛ =E /m and l =L /m are the relativistic energy and angular momentum per unit rest mass, respectively. We exploit this result to obtain DFs for the general relativistic extension of the hypervirial family introduced by Nguyen and Lingam [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 436, 2014 (2013), 10.1093/mnras/stt1719], which Newtonian potential is given by ϕ (r )=-ϕo/[1 +(r /a )n]1 /n (a and ϕo are positive free parameters, n =1 ,2 ,… ). Such DFs can be written in the form Fn=ln -2ξn(ɛ ) . For odd n , we find that ξn is a polynomial of order 2 n +1 in ɛ , as in the case of the Hernquist model (n =1 ), for which F1∝l-1(2 ɛ -1 ) (ɛ-1 ) 2 . For even n , we can write ξn in terms of incomplete beta functions (Plummer model, n =2 , is an example). Since we demand that F ≥0 throughout the phase space, the particular form of each ξn leads to restrictions for the values of ϕo. For example, for the Hernquist model we find that 0 ≤ϕo≤2 /3 , i.e., an upper bounding value less than the one obtained for Nguyen and Lingam (0 ≤ϕo≤1 ), based on energy conditions.
On general features of warm dark matter with reduced relativistic gas
Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; vom Marttens, R. F.; Fabris, J. C.; Shapiro, I. L.; Casarini, L.
2018-05-01
Reduced relativistic gas (RRG) is a useful approach to describe the warm dark matter (WDM) or the warmness of baryonic matter in the approximation when the interaction between the particles is irrelevant. The use of Maxwell distribution leads to the complicated equation of state of the Jüttner model of relativistic ideal gas. The RRG enables one to reproduce the same physical situation but in a much simpler form. For this reason RRG can be a useful tool for the theories with some sort of a "new Physics". On the other hand, even without the qualitatively new physical implementations, the RRG can be useful to describe the general features of WDM in a model-independent way. In this sense one can see, in particular, to which extent the cosmological manifestations of WDM may be dependent on its Particle Physics background. In the present work RRG is used as a complementary approach to derive the main observational features for the WDM in a model-independent way. The only assumption concerns a non-negligible velocity v for dark matter particles which is parameterized by the warmness parameter b. The relatively high values of b ( b^2˜ 10^{-6}) erase the radiation (photons and neutrinos) dominated epoch and cause an early warm matter domination after inflation. Furthermore, RRG approach enables one to quantify the lack of power in linear matter spectrum at small scales and in particular, reproduces the relative transfer function commonly used in context of WDM with accuracy of ≲ 1%. A warmness with b^2≲ 10^{-6} (equivalent to v≲ 300 km/s) does not alter significantly the CMB power spectrum and is in agreement with the background observational tests.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo
2008-01-01
We present a parallel implementation of a string-driven general active space configuration interaction program for nonrelativistic and scalar-relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The code has been modularly incorporated in the DIRAC quantum chemistry program package. The implementation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.
1987-01-01
The dynamical behavior of nonspherical systems in general relativity is analyzed, allowing for rotation and the emission of gravitational waves. An axisymmetric code for solving the Vlasov equation in the Newtonian limit based on a mean-field particle simulation scheme is constructed and tested by reproducing the known evolution of homogeneous spheroids with and without rotation, including the Lin-Kestel-Shu instability. Results for the collapse of homogeneous, nonequilbrium spheroids are described, and stability studies of homogeneous, equilibrium spheroids are summarized. Finally, the code is used to follow the evolution of inhomogeneous, centrally condensed spheroids, and the results are compared with those for homogeneous collapse. 22 references
Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.
2011-01-01
New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are the principal paradigm currently employed for central bank policymaking. In this paper, we construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with the structure of a New Keynesian DSGE model. We give individuals monetary
Energy taxes and wages in a general equilibrium model of production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, H.
2000-01-01
Energy taxes are responsible for a good deal of observed differences in energy prices across states and countries. They alter patterns of production and income distribution. The present paper examines the potential of energy taxes to lower wages in a general equilibrium model of production with capital, labour and energy inputs. (Author)
R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth
Verbic, M.; Majcen, B.; Ivanova, O.; Cok, M.
2011-01-01
In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of
Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models
Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.
2016-01-01
A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of
Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium
Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.
2003-01-01
We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and
A general equilibrium model of ecosystem services in a river basin
Travis Warziniack
2014-01-01
This study builds a general equilibrium model of ecosystem services, with sectors of the economy competing for use of the environment. The model recognizes that production processes in the real world require a combination of natural and human inputs, and understanding the value of these inputs and their competing uses is necessary when considering policies of resource...
Pension Fund Restoration Policy in General Equilibrium : Tinbergen Institute MPhil Thesis
Kastelein, P.
2016-01-01
This paper quantifies the business cycle effects and distributional implications of pension fund restoration policy after the economy has been hit by a financial shock. We extend a canonical New-Keynesian dynamic general equilibrium model with a tractable demographic structure and a pension fund.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2012-09-01
We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M{sub Sun} progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulyabov, D.S.
2010-01-01
Full text: (author)In the construction of physical theories are several paradigms (according to Vladimirov Yu. S.). Depending on the number of entities are used paradigms include trialist (3 entities), dualist (2 entities) and monistic (1 entity). In trialist paradigm uses the following entities: geometry (G), particle (P) and field (F). Go to the dualist paradigms performed in the following ways: two entities take over the functions of the third, two entities merged into a single synthesis. Is also possible to limit the dualistic theory, which summarized the essence in addition assume the functions of a third. In turn, by way of grouping the entities dualistic theory can be divided into geometric (unification of geometry and field), relational (unification of geometry and particles) and field (unification of fields and particles). For the connection of the two theories should be to go to the common denominator: to trialist or monistic theories. Since the monistic theory at the moment completely unknown, may be used only trialist theory. General relativity is a typical representative of the geometric dualistic paradigm. However geometrized only gravity. Other fields non-geometrized. In turn, the relativistic theory of gravitation is a typical trialist theory. To establish a correspondence between theories should to geometrize material field in the general theory of relativity. It is proposed to implement this on the basis of a multi-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima
2014-01-01
This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...
Arzeliès, Henri
1972-01-01
Relativistic Point Dynamics focuses on the principles of relativistic dynamics. The book first discusses fundamental equations. The impulse postulate and its consequences and the kinetic energy theorem are then explained. The text also touches on the transformation of main quantities and relativistic decomposition of force, and then discusses fields of force derivable from scalar potentials; fields of force derivable from a scalar potential and a vector potential; and equations of motion. Other concerns include equations for fields; transfer of the equations obtained by variational methods int
The relativistic virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1989-11-01
The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)
General Relativistic Simulations of Low-Mass Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers
Giacomazzo, Bruno
2017-01-01
We will present general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of binary neutron star (BNS) systems that produce long-lived neutron stars (NSs) after merger. While the standard scenario for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) requires the formation after merger of a spinning black hole surrounded by an accretion disk, other theoretical models, such as the time-reversal scenario, predict the formation of a long-lived magnetar. The formation of a long-lived magnetar could in particular explain the X-ray plateaus that have been observed in some SGRBs. Moreover, observations of NSs with masses of 2 solar masses indicate that the equation of state of NS matter should support masses larger than that. Therefore a significant fraction of BNS mergers will produce long-lived NSs. This has important consequences both on the emission of gravitational wave signals and on their electromagnetic counterparts. We will discuss GRMHD simulations of ``low-mass'' magnetized BNS systems with different equations of state and mass ratios. We will describe the properties of their post-merger remnants and of their gravitational and electromagnetic emission.
Relation of gauge formalisms for pulsations of general-relativistic stellar models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, R.H.; Ipser, J.R.
1991-01-01
There have been two recent reformulations of the equations for even-parity perturbations of general-relativistic stellar models, in both of which fluid perturbation variables are absent in the final set of equations. The recent reformulation by Chandrasekhar and Ferrari uses the diagonal coordinate gauge and leads to a fifth-order system of differential equations; we have recently presented a reformulation, based on the Regge-Wheeler coordinate gauge, which leads to a fourth-order system. The difference in the orders is similar to that for perturbations of Schwarzschild and of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes; in both cases the diagonal-gauge formulation led to a system one degree higher than that for equations based on the Regge-Wheeler gauge. For perturbations of holes, however, the equations could be reduced by one degree. We show that this is the case also for the Chandrasekhar-Ferrari equations for stellar perturbations. More important, we show that the extra degree of freedom, in all descriptions based on the diagonal gauge, is due to the fact that the diagonal gauge is an incomplete constraint on coordinates; a one degree of freedom set of gauge transformations can be made within the diagonal gauge. This previously unnoticed degree of freedom is responsible for the extra degree of freedom in the Chandrasekhar-Ferrari equations, and the related black-hole equations. It also provides an a priori solution with which those equations can be reduced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toms, D.J.
1994-01-01
It is shown how the effective action formalism and ζ-function regularization can be used to study Bose-Einstein condensation for a relativistic charged scalar field in a general homogeneous magnetic field in a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. In the special case where the magnetic field has only one component, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs at high temperature only for D≥5 where D is the spatial dimension. When Bose-Einstein condensation does occur the ground-state expectation value of the scalar field is not constant and we determine its value. If the magnetic field has p independent nonzero components we show that the condition for Bose-Einstein condensation is D≥3+2p. In particular, Bose-Einstein condensation can never occur if the magnetic field has all of its independent components nonzero. The problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in a cylindrical box in D spatial dimensions with a uniform magnetic field directed along the axis of the cylinder is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troxel, M.A.; Peel, Austin; Ishak, Mustapha, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75083 (United States)
2013-12-01
We study the effects and implications of anisotropies at the scale of galaxy clusters by building an exact general relativistic model of a cluster using the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric. The model is built from a modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. We compare this to a corresponding spherically symmetric structure in the Lemaȋtre-Tolman (LT) model and quantify the impact of introducing varying levels of anisotropy. We examine two physical measures of gravitational infall — the growth rate of density and the velocity of the source dust in the model. We introduce a generalization of the LT dust velocity profile for the Szekeres metric and demonstrate its consistency with the growth rate of density. We find that the growth rate of density in one substructure increases by 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.75% for 5%, 10%, and 15% levels of introduced anisotropy, which is measured as the fractional displaced mass relative to the spherically symmetric case. The infall velocity of the dust is found to increase by 2.5, 10, and 20 km s{sup −1} (0.5%, 2%, and 4.5%), respectively, for the same three levels of anisotropy. This response to the anisotropy in a structure is found to be strongly nonlinear with respect to the strength of anisotropy. These relative velocities correspond to an equivalent increase in the total mass of the spherically symmetric structure of 1%, 3.8%, and 8.4%, indicating that not accounting for the presence of anisotropic mass distributions in cluster models can strongly bias the determination of physical properties like the total mass.
Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach
Blazquez, J; Hunt, Lester; Manzano, B
2017-01-01
In 2016, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) announced its Vision 2030 strategic plan incorporating major changes to the economic structure of the country, including an intention to deploy 9.5 GW of renewable energy in an effort to reduce the penetration of oil in the electricity generation system. This paper assesses the macroeconomic impact of such changes in the KSA, coupled with reductions in implicit energy subsidies. Based on a dynamic general equilibrium model, our analysis suggests that...
Why Enforcing its UNCAC Commitments Would be Good for Russia: A Computable General Equilibrium Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael P. BARRY
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Russia has ratified the UN Convention Against Corruption but has not successfully enforced it. This paper uses updated GTAP data to reconstruct a computable general equilibrium (CGE model to quantify the macroeconomic effects of corruption in Russia. Corruption is found to cost the Russian economy billions of dollars a year. A conclusion of the paper is that implementing and enforcing the UNCAC would be of significant economic benefit to Russia and its people.
Reforming the Canadian Sales Tax System: A Regional General Equilibrium Analysis
CHUN-YAN KUO; BOB HAMILTON
1991-01-01
The paper develops a regional general equilibrium model of the Canadian economy to analyze the sectoral and regional impacts of the major changes to the Canadian sales tax system. The results indicate that replacing the federal sales tax with the goods and service tax increases real output in Canada in the long run by 1.4 percent. If the provincial sales taxes are also integrated, real output increases by a further 0.8 percent.
Gillman, Max; Otto, Glen
2006-01-01
The paper presents and tests a theory of the demand for money that is derived from a general equilibrium, endogenous growth economy, which in effect combines a special case of the shopping time exchange economy with the cash-in-advance framework. The model predicts that both higher inflation and financial innovation - that reduces the cost of credit - induce agents to substitute away from money towards exchange credit. The implied interest elasticity of money demand rises with the inflation r...
Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market
Mansur, Erin; Quigley, John M.; Raphael, Steven; Smolensky, Eugene
2003-01-01
In this paper, we use a general equilibrium simulation model to assess the potential impacts on homelessness of various housing-market policy interventions. We calibrate the model to the four largest metropolitan areas in California. We explore the welfare con- sequences and the effects on homelessness of three housing-market policy interventions: extending housing vouchers to all low-income households, subsidizing all landlords, and subsidizing those landlords who supply low-income housing. ...
Impacts of climate change for Swiss winter and summer tourism: a general equilibrium analysis
Thurm, Boris; Vielle, Marc; Vöhringer, Frank
2017-01-01
Tourism could be greatly affected by climate change due to its strong dependence on weather. In Switzerland, the sector represents an appreciable share of the economy. Thus, studying climate effects on tourism is necessary for developing adequate adaptation strategies. While most of the studies focused on winter tourism, we investigate the climate change impacts on both winter and summer tourism in Switzerland. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the impacts of tem...
Willem H. Buiter
1987-01-01
Excess volatility tests for financial market efficiency maintain the hypothesis of risk-neutrality. This permits the specification of the benchmark efficient market price as the present discounted value of expected future dividends. By departing from the risk-neutrality assumption in a stripped-down version of Lucas's general equilibrium asset pricing model, I show that asset prices determined in a competitive asset market and efficient by construction can nevertheless violate the variance bo...
Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu
2016-01-01
To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...
Can Migrants Save Greece From Ageing? A Computable General Equilibrium Approach Using G-AMOS.
Nikos Pappas
2008-01-01
The population of Greece is projected to age in the course of the next three decades. This paper combines demographic projections with a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework to assess the macroeconomic impact of these future demographic trends. The simulation strategy adopted in Lisenkova et. al. (2008) is also employed here. The size and age composition of the population in the future depends on current and future values of demographic parameters suc...
Analyzing the Effects of Technological Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach
1988-09-01
present important simplifying assumptions about the nature of consumer preferences and production possibility sets. If a general equilibrium model...important assumptions are in such areas as consumer preferences , the actions of the government, and the financial structure of the model. Each of these is...back in the future. 4.3.2 Consumer demand Consumer preferences are a second important modeling assumption affecting the results of the study. The PILOT
Domestic Environmental Policy and International Factor Mobility: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Stefan Felder; Reto Schleiniger
1995-01-01
This paper studies the conditions under which a green tax reform not only benefits the environment but also enhances the efficiency of the tax system. The focus is on the consequences of international factor mobility for the scope of a double dividend. The investigation of the double-dividend claim is based on a general equilibrium model of a stylised small open economy. The simulations of equal-yield tax reform scenarios indicate that an environmental tax on consumption yields a double divid...
Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...
Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville
2011-01-01
Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...
Ciolfi, Riccardo; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Endrizzi, Andrea; Siegel, Daniel M.; Perna, Rosalba
2017-03-01
Merging binary neutron stars (BNSs) represent the ultimate targets for multimessenger astronomy, being among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), and, at the same time, likely accompanied by a variety of electromagnetic counterparts across the entire spectrum, possibly including short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and kilonova/macronova transients. Numerical relativity simulations play a central role in the study of these events. In particular, given the importance of magnetic fields, various aspects of this investigation require general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). So far, most GRMHD simulations focused the attention on BNS mergers leading to the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (NS), which, in turn, collapses within few tens of ms into a black hole surrounded by an accretion disk. However, recent observations suggest that a significant fraction of these systems could form a long-lived NS remnant, which will either collapse on much longer time scales or remain indefinitely stable. Despite the profound implications for the evolution and the emission properties of the system, a detailed investigation of this alternative evolution channel is still missing. Here, we follow this direction and present a first detailed GRMHD study of BNS mergers forming a long-lived NS. We consider magnetized binaries with different mass ratios and equations of state and analyze the structure of the NS remnants, the rotation profiles, the accretion disks, the evolution and amplification of magnetic fields, and the ejection of matter. Moreover, we discuss the connection with the central engine of SGRBs and provide order-of-magnitude estimates for the kilonova/macronova signal. Finally, we study the GW emission, with particular attention to the post-merger phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2012-08-10
We present results from the first generation of multi-dimensional hydrodynamic core-collapse simulations in full general relativity (GR) that include an approximate treatment of neutrino transport. Using an M1 closure scheme with an analytic variable Eddington factor, we solve the energy-independent set of radiation energy and momentum based on the Thorne's momentum formalism. Our newly developed code is designed to evolve the Einstein field equation together with the GR radiation hydrodynamic equations. We follow the dynamics starting from the onset of gravitational core collapse of a 15 M{sub Sun} star, through bounce, up to about 100 ms postbounce in this study. By computing four models that differ according to 1D to 3D and by switching from special relativistic (SR) to GR hydrodynamics, we study how the spacial multi-dimensionality and GR would affect the dynamics in the early postbounce phase. Our 3D results support the anticipation in previous 1D results that the neutrino luminosity and average neutrino energy of any neutrino flavor in the postbounce phase increase when switching from SR to GR hydrodynamics. This is because the deeper gravitational well of GR produces more compact core structures, and thus hotter neutrino spheres at smaller radii. By analyzing the residency timescale to the neutrino-heating timescale in the gain region, we show that the criterion to initiate neutrino-driven explosions can be most easily satisfied in 3D models, irrespective of SR or GR hydrodynamics. Our results suggest that the combination of GR and 3D hydrodynamics provides the most favorable condition to drive a robust neutrino-driven explosion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broderick, Avery E.; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2010-01-01
It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to ∼10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.c, E-mail: jmckinne@stanford.ed [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2010-12-10
It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to {approx}10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.
Properties of general relativistic irrotational binary neutron stars at the innermost orbit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uryu, K.; Shibata, M.
2001-01-01
We investigate properties of binary neutron stars around innermost orbits, assuming that the binary is equal mass and in quasiequilibrium. The quasiequilibrium configurations are numerically computed assuming the existence of a helicoidal Killing vector, conformal flatness for spatial components of the metric, and irrotational velocity field for the neutron stars. The computation is performed for the polytropic equation of state with a wide range of the polytropic index n (= 0.5, 0.66667, 0.8, 1, 1.25), and compactness of neutron stars (M/R) ∞ (= 0.03-0.3). Quasiequilibrium sequences of constant rest mass are appropriate models for the final evolution phase of binary neutron stars. It is found that these sequences are always terminated at the innermost orbit where a cusp (inner Lagrange point) appears at the inner edges of the stellar surface. We apply a turning point method to determine the stability of the innermost orbits and found that the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) exists for stiff equations of state (n = 0.5 with any (M/R) ∞ and n = 0.66667 with (M/R) ∞ > or ∼ 0.17). The ISCO for n = 0.5 is carefully analyzed. It is clarified that the ISCO are mainly determined by a hydrodynamic instability for realistic compactness of the neutron stars as 0.14 ∞ < or ∼ 0.2. These configurations at the innermost orbits can be used as initial conditions for fully general relativistic simulation for the binary neutron star merger. (author)
General relativistic modelling of the negative reverberation X-ray time delays in AGN(star)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I.E.; Dovčiak, Michal; McHardy, I.M.
2014-01-01
Roč. 439, č. 4 (2014), s. 3931-3950 ISSN 0035-8711 Grant - others:STFC(GB) ST/G003084/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black hole physics * relativistic processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingraham, R.L.
1985-01-01
The well-known relativistic transformation law of quantum fields satisfies the relativity principle, which asserts the complete equivalence of all Lorentz (inertial) frames as far as physical measurements go. We point out a slight generalization which is allowed by the relativity principle, but violates a further, tacit assumption usually made in connection with it but which is actually logically independent of it and subject to a feasible experimental test. The interest of the generalization is that it permits the incorporation of an ultraviolet cutoff in a simple, direct way which avoids the usual difficulties
Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klepper, Gernot; Peterson, Sonja
2006-01-01
Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)
Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proost, S.; Regemorter, D. Van
1992-01-01
The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO 2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO 2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO 2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)
A general nonlinear evolution equation for irreversible conservative approach to stable equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beretta, G.P.
1986-01-01
This paper addresses a mathematical problem relevant to the question of nonequilibrium and irreversibility, namely, that of ''designing'' a general evolution equation capable of describing irreversible but conservative relaxtion towards equilibrium. The objective is to present an interesting mathematical solution to this design problem, namely, a new nonlinear evolution equation that satisfies a set of very stringent relevant requirements. Three different frameworks are defined from which the new equation could be adopted, with entirely different interpretations. Some useful well-known mathematics involving Gram determinants are presented and a nonlinear evolution equation is given which meets the stringent design specifications
Stabilization of emission of CO2: A computable general equilibrium assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glomsroed, S.; Vennemo, H.; Johnsen, T.
1992-01-01
A multisector computable general equilibrium model is used to study economic development perspectives in Norway if CO 2 emissions were stabilized. The effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic indicators and economic growth, sectoral allocation of production, and effects on the market for energy. The impact of other pollutants than CO 2 on emissions is assessed along with the related impact on noneconomic welfare. The results indicate that CO 2 emissions might be stabilized in Norway without dramatically reducing economic growth. Sectoral allocation effects are much larger. A substantial reduction in emissions to air other than CO 2 is found, yielding considerable gains in noneconomic welfare. 25 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs
Change in General Relativistic precession rates due to Lidov-Kozai oscillations in the Solar System
Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David J.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie
2017-04-01
Introduction: Two well known phenomena associated with low perihelion distance bodies in orbital dynamics are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations. The accurate prediction of the perihelion shift of Mercury in accord with real observations is one of the significant triumphs of the general theory of relativity developed by Einstein. The Lidov-Kozai mechanism was first proposed and derived by Kozai and independently by Lidov explaining the periodic exchange between eccentricities e and inclinations i thereby increasing or decreasing the perihelion distance q secularly in the orbiting body. Co-existence of GR Precession and LK Oscillations: In this work, we were interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK oscillations and being GR active at the same time. Of all the bodies we checked from the IAU-Minor Planet Center, and Marsden plus Kracht families from the comet catalogue, 96P/Machholz 1 stands out because it shows all these trends in the near future. LK leads to secular lowering of q which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of argument of pericentre. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the e,i and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show the continuum nature between GR precession domi-nant and LK mechanism dominant regimes. Results and Discussion: We have shown that there are bodies in the solar system in which both GR precession and LK mechanism can co-exist at the same time and for which these effects can be measured and identified using analytical and numerical techniques. Thus there is a continuum of bodies encompassing, firstly GR precession dominant, secondly GR precession plus LK mechanism co-existing and finally LK mechanism dominant states which are all
Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M
2006-09-01
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.
A dynamic general equilibrium analysis on fostering a hydrogen economy in Korea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Gyeong-Lyeob
2010-01-01
Hydrogen is anticipated to become one of the major alternative energy technologies for a sustainable energy system. This study analyzes the dynamic economic impacts of building a hydrogen economy in Korea employing a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. As a frontier technology, hydrogen is featured as having a slow diffusion rate due to option value, positive externality, resistance of old technology, and complementary vintages. Without government intervention, hydrogen-derived energy will supply up to 6.5% of final energy demand by 2040. Simulation outcomes show that as price subsidy rates increase by 10%, 20%, and 30%, hydrogen demand will increase by 9.2%, 15.2%, and 37.7%, respectively, of final energy demand by 2040. The output of the transportation sector will increase significantly, while demands for oil and electricity will decline. Demands for coal and LNG will experience little change. Household consumption will decline because of the increase of income taxes. Overall GDP will increase because of the increase in exports and investments. CO 2 emission will decline for medium and high subsidy rate cases, but increase for low subsidy cases. Ultimately, subsidy policy on hydrogen will not be an effective measure for mitigating CO 2 emission in Korea when considering dynamic general equilibrium effects. (author)
Peak Oil profiles through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Sassi, Olivier; Hourcade, Jean-Charles
2012-01-01
This paper disentangles the interactions between oil production profiles, the dynamics of oil prices and growth trends. We do so through a general equilibrium model in which Peak Oil endogenously emerges from the interplay between the geological, technical, macroeconomic and geopolitical determinants of supply and demand under non-perfect expectations. We analyze the macroeconomic effects of oil production profiles and demonstrate that Peak Oil dates that differ only slightly may lead to very different time profiles of oil prices, exportation flows and economic activity. We investigate Middle-East's trade-off between different pricing trajectories in function of two alternative objectives (maximisation of oil revenues or households’ welfare) and assess its impact on OECD growth trajectories. A sensitivity analysis highlights the respective roles of the amount of resources, inertia on the deployment of non conventional oil and short-term oil price dynamics on Peak Oil dates and long-term oil prices. It also examines the effects of these assumptions on OECD growth and Middle-East strategic tradeoffs. - Highlights: ► Geological determinants behind Hubbert curves in a general equilibrium framework. ► We endogenize the interactions between Peak Oil dates, oil prices and growth trends. ► Close Peak Oil dates lead to different trends of oil prices, exportation and growth. ► Low short-term prices benefit to the long-term macroeconomy of oil exporters. ► High short-term prices hedge oil importers against economic tensions after Peak Oil.
Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naqvi, Farzana
1997-01-01
In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)
Vícha, Jan; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal
2018-05-10
The importance of relativistic effects on the NMR parameters in heavy-atom (HA) compounds, particularly the SO-HALA (Spin-Orbit Heavy Atom on the Light Atom) effect on NMR chemical shifts, has been known for about 40 years. Yet, a general correlation between the electronic structure and SO-HALA effect has been missing. By analyzing 1 H NMR chemical shifts of the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At), we discovered general electronic-structure principles and mechanisms that dictate the size and sign of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts. In brief, partially occupied HA valence shells induce relativistic shielding at the light atom (LA) nuclei, while empty HA valence shells induce relativistic deshielding. In particular, the LA nucleus is relativistically shielded in 5d 2 -5d 8 and 6p 4 HA hydrides and deshielded in 4f 0 , 5d 0 , 6s 0 , and 6p 0 HA hydrides. This general and intuitive concept explains periodic trends in the 1 H NMR chemical shifts along the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At) studied in this work. We present substantial evidence that the introduced principles have a general validity across the periodic table and can be extended to nonhydride LAs. The decades-old question of why compounds with occupied frontier π molecular orbitals (MOs) cause SO-HALA shielding at the LA nuclei, while the frontier σ MOs cause deshielding is answered. We further derive connection between the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts and Spin-Orbit-induced Electron Deformation Density (SO-EDD), a property that can be obtained easily from differential electron densities and can be represented graphically. SO-EDD provides an intuitive understanding of the SO-HALA effect in terms of the depletion/concentration of the electron density at LA nuclei caused by spin-orbit coupling due to HA in the presence of a magnetic field. Using an analogy between the SO-EDD concept and arguments from classic NMR theory, the complex question of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts becomes easily understandable for a wide
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.
2011-01-01
Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ian Sue Wing
2006-04-18
The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal
THE GENERALIZED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD METHOD APPLIED TO HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lúcio CARDOZO-FILHO
1997-12-01
Full Text Available The generalized maximum likelihood method was used to determine binary interaction parameters between carbon dioxide and components of orange essential oil. Vapor-liquid equilibrium was modeled with Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong equations, using a methodology proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data on binary mixtures formed with carbon dioxide and compounds usually found in orange essential oil were used to test the model. These systems were chosen to demonstrate that the maximum likelihood method produces binary interaction parameters for cubic equations of state capable of satisfactorily describing phase equilibrium, even for a binary such as ethanol/CO2. Results corroborate that the Peng-Robinson, as well as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong, equation can be used to describe phase equilibrium for the following systems: components of essential oil of orange/CO2.Foi empregado o método da máxima verossimilhança generalizado para determinação de parâmetros de interação binária entre os componentes do óleo essencial de laranja e dióxido de carbono. Foram usados dados experimentais de equilíbrio líquido-vapor de misturas binárias de dióxido de carbono e componentes do óleo essencial de laranja. O equilíbrio líquido-vapor foi modelado com as equações de Peng-Robinson e de Soave-Redlich-Kwong usando a metodologia proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. A escolha destes sistemas teve como objetivo demonstrar que o método da máxima verosimilhança produz parâmetros de interação binária, para equações cúbicas de estado capazes de descrever satisfatoriamente até mesmo o equilíbrio para o binário etanol/CO2. Os resultados comprovam que tanto a equação de Peng-Robinson quanto a de Soave-Redlich-Kwong podem ser empregadas para descrever o equilíbrio de fases para o sistemas: componentes do óleo essencial de laranja/CO2.
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yen, E-mail: yen.liu@nasa.gov; Vinokur, Marcel [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures.
Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal; Vinokur, Marcel
2015-04-07
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model's accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
General multi-group macroscopic modeling for thermo-chemical non-equilibrium gas mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Panesi, Marco; Sahai, Amal
2015-01-01
This paper opens a new door to macroscopic modeling for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. In a game-changing approach, we discard conventional theories and practices stemming from the separation of internal energy modes and the Landau-Teller relaxation equation. Instead, we solve the fundamental microscopic equations in their moment forms but seek only optimum representations for the microscopic state distribution function that provides converged and time accurate solutions for certain macroscopic quantities at all times. The modeling makes no ad hoc assumptions or simplifications at the microscopic level and includes all possible collisional and radiative processes; it therefore retains all non-equilibrium fluid physics. We formulate the thermal and chemical non-equilibrium macroscopic equations and rate coefficients in a coupled and unified fashion for gases undergoing completely general transitions. All collisional partners can have internal structures and can change their internal energy states after transitions. The model is based on the reconstruction of the state distribution function. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe non-equilibrium state distributions. The logarithm of the distribution function in each group is expressed as a power series in internal energy based on the maximum entropy principle. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients succinctly to any order. The model’s accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used and can be self-checked for accuracy and convergence. We show that the macroscopic internal energy transfer, similar to mass and momentum transfers, occurs through nonlinear collisional processes and is not a simple relaxation process described by, e.g., the Landau-Teller equation. Unlike the classical vibrational energy
Sørensen, Lasse K; Olsen, Jeppe; Fleig, Timo
2011-06-07
A string-based coupled-cluster method of general excitation rank and with optimal scaling which accounts for special relativity within the four-component framework is presented. The method opens the way for the treatment of multi-reference problems through an active-space inspired single-reference based state-selective expansion of the model space. The evaluation of the coupled-cluster vector function is implemented by considering contractions of elementary second-quantized operators without setting up the amplitude equations explicitly. The capabilities of the new method are demonstrated in application to the electronic ground state of the bismuth monohydride molecule. In these calculations simulated multi-reference expansions with both doubles and triples excitations into the external space as well as the regular coupled-cluster hierarchy up to full quadruples excitations are compared. The importance of atomic outer core-correlation for obtaining accurate results is shown. Comparison to the non-relativistic framework is performed throughout to illustrate the additional work of the transition to the four-component relativistic framework both in implementation and application. Furthermore, an evaluation of the highest order scaling for general-order expansions is presented. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)
2007-05-15
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A
2007-01-01
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure
Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu
2017-01-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor. PMID:29595836
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephan, G.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.; Wiedmer, T. (Institute for Applied Microeconomics, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))
1992-01-01
Both distributional and allocational effects of limiting carbon dioxide emissions in a small and open economy are discussed. It starts from the assumption that Switzerland attempts to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions over the next 25 years, and evaluates costs and benefits of the respective reduction programme. From a methodological viewpoint, it is illustrated how a computable general equilibrium approach can be adopted for identifying economic effects of cutting greenhouse gas emissions on the national level. From a political economy point of view it considers the social incidence of a greenhouse policy. It shows in particular that public acceptance can be increased and economic costs of greenhouse policies can be reduced, if carbon taxes are accompanied by revenue redistribution. 8 tabs., 1 app., 17 refs.
Zero-rating food in South Africa: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Kearney
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-rating food is considered to alleviate poverty of poor households who spend the largest proportion of their income on food. However, this will result in a loss of revenue for government. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is used to analyze the combined effects on zero-rating food and using alternative revenue sources to compensate for the loss in revenue. To prohibit excessively high increases in the statutory VAT rates of business and financial services, increasing direct taxes or increasing VAT to 16 per cent, is investigated. Increasing direct taxes is the most successful option when creating a more progressive tax structure, and still generating a positive impact on GDP. The results indicate that zero-rating food combined with a proportional percentage increase in direct taxes can improve the welfare of poor households.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-08-07
Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nwaobi, Godwin Chukwudum
2004-01-01
Recently, there has been growing concern that human activities may be affecting the global climate through growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Such warming could have major impacts on economic activity and society. For the Nigerian case, the study uses multisector dynamic applied general equilibrium model to quantify the economy-wide, distributional and environmental costs of policies to curb GHG emissions. The simulation results indicate effectiveness of carbon tax, tradable permit and backstop technology policies in curbing GHG emissions but with distorted economy-wide income distributional effects. However, the model was found to be sensitive to three key exogenous variable and parameters tested: lower GDP growth rate, changed interfuel substitution elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency factor. Unlike the first test, the last two tests only had improved environmental effect but stable economy wide effect. This then suggest that domestic energy conservation measures could be a second best alternative
National CO2 policy and externalities. Some general equilibrium results for Switzerland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felder, Stefan; Schleiniger, Reto
2002-01-01
Switzerland, following the Kyoto agreement, plans to reduce CO 2 emissions by 10% over the next decade with a tax on the use of fossil fuels. This policy, while having a marginal effect on global CO 2 emission levels, will have a positive effect on local environmental quality. However, since different sources of energy produce different local external effects, a uniform CO 2 tax is ill targeted. This paper shows that a policy setting tax rates equal to the lower bounds of the estimated local marginal external effects would reduce the national CO 2 level by 30%. Using a computable general equilibrium model of the Swiss economy, it also finds substantial efficiency gains of Pigovian taxes as compared to a uniform CO 2 tax
R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verbič Miroslav
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of government spending on R&D turned out to be the most effective suggested policy measures. While the former policy measure is still followed in part by an undesired transfer of the tax relief to dividends, a moderate increase of government spending on R&D boosts long-run productivity in the economy, thus increasing the future value of firms, which is reflected in a desired dividend increase. The households that would gain more utility from such policy scenarios are those with more skilled and highly skilled labour, but not the very top earners in the economy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Changbo; Jia Yangwen; Wang Hao; Bressers, Hans T A; Su, Z
2011-01-01
In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.
General Equilibrium Analysis of Electricity Market Liberalization in Singapore: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fenglong XIAO
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The liberalization in electricity market in Singapore has being undertaken for more than 15 years. This paper evaluates the influence of competition policies by computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Instead of the direct measurement of the impact of competition policy, the benefit of liberalization is reflected by the simulation of a hypothetical regulatory condition. Comparing to the regulatory scenario, simulation result implies the current liberalization raises GDP and exchange rate significantly, but also leaves the tradeoff between higher national income and lower consumer welfare to government. If such choice of economic policy is necessary for political demand, a formal legal framework is required to enforce the restoration of the economy from regulatory restrictions.
Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu
2018-04-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perroni, C.; Rutherford, T.F.
1993-01-01
Restrictions on CO 2 emissions affect international trade and the pattern of comparative advantage. This paper, based on calculations with a static general equilibrium model, suggests that international trade in carbon rights is a substitute for trade in energy-intensive goods, and thus international trading in carbon rights reduces sectoral effects of emission reductions. In our model, we surprisingly find that free riding by non-signatory countries may not render unilateral action ineffective. If the OECD unilaterally cuts global emissions by 5 per cent from 1990 levels by the year 2020, emission by non-OECD regions increase but offset less than 15 per cent of this cutback. Moreover, carbon taxes depress international oil prices and create incentives for increased trade in natural gas. 14 refs, 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manne, A.S.; Rutherford, T.F.
1994-01-01
This paper employs a five-region intertemporal model to examine three issues related to carbon emission restrictions. First, we investigate the possible impact of such limits upon future oil prices. We show that carbon limits are likely to differ in their near- and long-term impact. Second, we analyze the problem of open-quotes leakageclose quotes which could arise if the OECD countries were to adopt unilateral limits upon carbon emissions. Third, we quantify some of the gains from trade in carbon emission rights. Each of these issues have been studied before, but to our knowledge this is the first study based on a multi-regional, forward-looking model. We show that sequential joint maximization can be an effective way to compute equilibria for intertemporal general equilibrium models of international trade. 18 refs., 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scaramuzzino, F.
2009-01-01
This paper considers a qualitative analysis of the solution of a pure exchange general economic equilibrium problem according to two independent parameters. Some recently results obtained by the author in the static and the dynamic case have been collected. Such results have been applied in a particular parametric case: it has been focused the attention on a numerical application for which the existence of the solution of time-depending parametric variational inequality that describes the equilibrium conditions has been proved by means of the direct method. By using MatLab computation after a linear interpolation, the curves of equilibrium have been visualized.
Starr, Ross M.
2002-01-01
This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kailiang [School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, Huazhong, E-mail: wukl@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hztang@math.pku.edu.cn [HEDPS, CAPT and LMAM, School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-01-01
The ideal gas equation of state (EOS) with a constant adiabatic index is a poor approximation for most relativistic astrophysical flows, although it is commonly used in relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD). This paper develops high-order accurate, physical-constraints-preserving (PCP), central, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the one- and two-dimensional special RHD equations with a general EOS. It is built on our theoretical analysis of the admissible states for RHD and the PCP limiting procedure that enforce the admissibility of central DG solutions. The convexity, scaling invariance, orthogonal invariance, and Lax–Friedrichs splitting property of the admissible state set are first proved with the aid of its equivalent form. Then, the high-order central DG methods with the PCP limiting procedure and strong stability-preserving time discretization are proved, to preserve the positivity of the density, pressure, specific internal energy, and the bound of the fluid velocity, maintain high-order accuracy, and be L {sup 1}-stable. The accuracy, robustness, and effectiveness of the proposed methods are demonstrated by several 1D and 2D numerical examples involving large Lorentz factor, strong discontinuities, or low density/pressure, etc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy
Schu, Kathryn L.
Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements
High-energy gravitational scattering and the general relativistic two-body problem
Damour, Thibault
2018-02-01
A technique for translating the classical scattering function of two gravitationally interacting bodies into a corresponding (effective one-body) Hamiltonian description has been recently introduced [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104015]. Using this technique, we derive, for the first time, to second-order in Newton's constant (i.e. one classical loop) the Hamiltonian of two point masses having an arbitrary (possibly relativistic) relative velocity. The resulting (second post-Minkowskian) Hamiltonian is found to have a tame high-energy structure which we relate both to gravitational self-force studies of large mass-ratio binary systems, and to the ultra high-energy quantum scattering results of Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano. We derive several consequences of our second post-Minkowskian Hamiltonian: (i) the need to use special phase-space gauges to get a tame high-energy limit; and (ii) predictions about a (rest-mass independent) linear Regge trajectory behavior of high-angular-momenta, high-energy circular orbits. Ways of testing these predictions by dedicated numerical simulations are indicated. We finally indicate a way to connect our classical results to the quantum gravitational scattering amplitude of two particles, and we urge amplitude experts to use their novel techniques to compute the two-loop scattering amplitude of scalar masses, from which one could deduce the third post-Minkowskian effective one-body Hamiltonian.
Klotz, Elsbeth; Doyle, Robert; Gross, Erin; Mattson, Bruce
2011-01-01
A simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly undergraduate laboratory experiment is described in which students use visible spectroscopy to determine a numerical value for an equilibrium constant, K[subscript c]. The experiment correlates well with the lecture topic of equilibrium even though the subject of the study is an acid-base…
GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)
2000-01-01
The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve
GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahn, O.; Frei, C.
2000-01-01
The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO 2 emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO 2 emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve the reduction target, and use the tax
Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E.; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu
2016-01-01
Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.
Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koesler, Simon Tobias
2014-10-14
This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.
Environmental impacts of coal subsidies in Turkey: A general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acar, Sevil; Yeldan, A. Erinc
2016-01-01
In this study we aim at providing an analytical framework for Turkey to study the macroeconomics and environmental impacts of the existing coal subsidization scheme. To this end we develop a regionally differentiated applied general equilibrium model spanning over 2015–2030. Our analytical apparatus focuses exclusively on the fiscal implications as well as the environmental repercussions of the removal of the subsidies on greenhouse gas emissions. With the aid of a set of alternative policy scenarios against a “business as usual” path, we study the regional and sectorial performances of growth, employment, investment and capital accumulation, consumption/welfare and trade balance. Our results indicate that by simple elimination of the coal subsidization scheme, Turkey can reduce its aggregate gaseous emissions by as much as 5% without a significant loss in its GDP. - Highlights: • Turkey supports the coal sector providing both production and investment subsidies. • Eliminating production subsidies leads to a 2.5% decline in total CO2(eq) by 2030. • Additionally, removal of regional investment subsidies reduces CO2(eq) by 5.4%. • The macro-effects of both scenarios are found to be quite small. • Coal subsidies could be transferred to the financing of green policy alternatives.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.
2006-01-01
In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)
Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas
2006-01-01
Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by governmental policies has become a central requirement for policy design. The three dimensions of SIA are inherently intertwined and subject to trade-offs. Quantification of trade-offs for policy decision support requires numerical models in order to assess systematically the interference of complex interacting forces that affect economic performance, environmental quality, and social conditions. This paper investigates the use of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for measuring the impacts of policy interference on policy-relevant economic, environmental, and social (institutional) indicators. We find that operational CGE models used for energy-economy-environment (E3) analyses have a good coverage of central economic indicators. Environmental indicators such as energy-related emissions with direct links to economic activities are widely covered, whereas indicators with complex natural science background such as water stress or biodiversity loss are hardly represented. Social indicators stand out for very weak coverage, mainly because they are vaguely defined or incommensurable. Our analysis identifies prospects for future modeling in the field of integrated assessment that link standard E3-CGE-models to themespecific complementary models with environmental and social focus. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guohua Fang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.
Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koesler, Simon Tobias
2014-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.
Computable General Equilibrium Model Fiscal Year 2013 Capability Development Report - April 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Rivera, Michael K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC)
2014-04-01
This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.
Economic impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico: A general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizondo, Alejandra; Boyd, Roy
2017-01-01
In this paper we analyze the economic impact of a decision to produce ethanol in Mexico, comparing the effect of a subsidy to initiate ethanol production with that of alternative public policies. Public support of biofuels has been a public policy goal since 2008, and the promotion of ethanol remains an active part of the government agenda. The evidence used to encourage or alter the policy is (by necessity) chiefly based on international experience. In this study we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) to estimate the impact of ethanol production on the Mexican economy. Using cost data from Brazil we introduce ethanol into a Mexican social accounting matrix, and insert a latent sector into the model to analyze ethanol promotion. Our results show that subsidies to ethanol would increase agriculture production but at the expense of aggregate welfare. By contrast, alternative 'clean energy' policies appear to advance economic growth to a greater extent. - Highlights: • A CGE model is used to estimate the impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico. • The benefits of a policy designed to promote the use of ethanol are rather small. • The rural sector benefits modestly, but production in other sectors decrease. • Alternative policies advance economic growth and welfare to a greater extent.
Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, M.
2001-01-01
This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework
Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abul Quasem Al-Amin
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.
Transition towards a low carbon economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Poland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.
2013-01-01
In the transition to sustainable economic structures the European Union assumes a leading role with its climate and energy package which sets ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by 2020. Among EU Member States, Poland with its heavy energy system reliance on coal is particularly worried on the pending trade-offs between emission regulation and economic growth. In our computable general equilibrium analysis of the EU climate and energy package we show that economic adjustment cost for Poland hinge crucially on restrictions to where-flexibility of emission abatement, revenue recycling, and technological options in the power system. We conclude that more comprehensive flexibility provisions at the EU level and a diligent policy implementation at the national level could achieve the transition towards a low carbon economy at little cost thereby broadening societal support. - Highlights: ► Economic impact assessment of the EU climate and energy package for Poland. ► Sensitivity analysis on where-flexibility, revenue recycling and technology choice. ► Application of a hybrid bottom-up, top-down CGE model
Shao, Zhiqiang
2018-04-01
The relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation is studied. The Riemann problem is solved constructively. The delta shock wave arises in the Riemann solutions, provided that the initial data satisfy some certain conditions, although the system is strictly hyperbolic and the first and third characteristic fields are genuinely nonlinear, while the second one is linearly degenerate. There are five kinds of Riemann solutions, in which four only consist of a shock wave and a centered rarefaction wave or two shock waves or two centered rarefaction waves, and a contact discontinuity between the constant states (precisely speaking, the solutions consist in general of three waves), and the other involves delta shocks on which both the rest mass density and the proper energy density simultaneously contain the Dirac delta function. It is quite different from the previous ones on which only one state variable contains the Dirac delta function. The formation mechanism, generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition are clarified for this type of delta shock wave. Under the generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions involving delta shocks for the Riemann problem.
Heller, René
2017-09-01
As new concepts of sending interstellar spacecraft to the nearest stars are now being investigated by various research teams, crucial questions about the timing of such a vast financial and labour investment arise. If humanity could build high-speed interstellar lightsails and reach α Centauri 20 yr after launch, would it be better to wait a few years, then take advantage of further technology improvements and arrive earlier despite waiting? The risk of being overtaken by a future, faster probe has been described earlier as the incentive trap. Based on 211 yr of historical data, we find that the speed growth of artificial vehicles, from steam-driven locomotives to Voyager 1, is much faster than previously believed, about 4.72 per cent annually or a doubling every 15 yr. We derive the mathematical framework to calculate the minimum of the wait time to launch t plus travel time τ(t) and extend it into the relativistic regime. We show that the t + τ(t) minimum disappears for nearby targets. There is no use of waiting once we can reach an object within about 20 yr of travel, irrespective of the actual speed. In terms of speed, the t + τ(t) minimum for a travel to α Centauri occurs at 19.6 per cent the speed of light (c), in agreement with the 20 per cent c proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative. If interstellar travel at 20 per cent c could be achieved within 45 yr from today and the kinetic energy be increased at a rate consistent with the historical record, then humans can reach the 10 most nearby stars within 100 yr from today.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang
2017-01-01
This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.
The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Addy, Samuel N.
A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Detailed energy end-use technology information is considered within a CGE model. • Aggregated macro results of the detailed model are similar to traditional model. • The detailed model shows unique characteristics in the household sector. - Abstract: A global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model integrating detailed energy end-use technologies is developed in this paper. The paper (1) presents how energy end-use technologies are treated within the model and (2) analyzes the characteristics of the model’s behavior. Energy service demand and end-use technologies are explicitly considered, and the share of technologies is determined by a discrete probabilistic function, namely a Logit function, to meet the energy service demand. Coupling with detailed technology information enables the CGE model to have more realistic representation in the energy consumption. The proposed model in this paper is compared with the aggregated traditional model under the same assumptions in scenarios with and without mitigation roughly consistent with the two degree climate mitigation target. Although the results of aggregated energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions are similar, there are three main differences between the aggregated and the detailed technologies models. First, GDP losses in mitigation scenarios are lower in the detailed technology model (2.8% in 2050) as compared with the aggregated model (3.2%). Second, price elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency improvement are heterogeneous across regions and sectors in the detailed technology model, whereas the traditional aggregated model generally utilizes a single value for each of these variables. Third, the magnitude of emissions reduction and factors (energy intensity and carbon factor reduction) related to climate mitigation also varies among sectors in the detailed technology model. The household sector in the detailed technology model has a relatively higher reduction for both energy
Siegel, Daniel M; Metzger, Brian D
2017-12-08
The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme. After initial magnetic field amplification by magnetic winding, we witness the vigorous onset of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The disk quickly reaches a balance between heating from MRI-driven turbulence and neutrino cooling, which regulates the midplane electron fraction to a low equilibrium value Y_{e}≈0.1. Over the 380-ms duration of the simulation, we find that a fraction ≈20% of the initial torus mass is unbound in powerful outflows with asymptotic velocities v≈0.1c and electron fractions Y_{e}≈0.1-0.25. Postprocessing the outflows through a nuclear reaction network shows the production of a robust second- and third-peak r process. Though broadly consistent with the results of previous axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations, extrapolation of our results to late times suggests that the total ejecta mass from GRMHD disks is significantly higher. Our results provide strong evidence that postmerger disk outflows are an important site for the r process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Sukanya [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)
2018-01-15
The thermodynamics and covariant kinetic theory are elaborately investigated in a non-extensive environment considering the non-extensive generalization of Bose-Einstein (BE) and Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. Starting with Tsallis' entropy formula, the fundamental principles of thermostatistics are established for a grand canonical system having q-generalized BE/FD degrees of freedom. Many particle kinetic theory is set up in terms of the relativistic transport equation with q-generalized Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term. The conservation laws are realized in terms of appropriate moments of the transport equation. The thermodynamic quantities are obtained in a weak non-extensive environment for a massive pion-nucleon and a massless quark-gluon system with non-zero baryon chemical potential. In order to get an estimate of the impact of non-extensivity on the system dynamics, the q-modified Debye mass and hence the q-modified effective coupling are estimated for a quark-gluon system. (orig.)
Mitra, Sukanya
2018-01-01
The thermodynamics and covariant kinetic theory are elaborately investigated in a non-extensive environment considering the non-extensive generalization of Bose-Einstein (BE) and Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. Starting with Tsallis' entropy formula, the fundamental principles of thermostatistics are established for a grand canonical system having q-generalized BE/FD degrees of freedom. Many particle kinetic theory is set up in terms of the relativistic transport equation with q-generalized Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term. The conservation laws are realized in terms of appropriate moments of the transport equation. The thermodynamic quantities are obtained in a weak non-extensive environment for a massive pion-nucleon and a massless quark-gluon system with non-zero baryon chemical potential. In order to get an estimate of the impact of non-extensivity on the system dynamics, the q-modified Debye mass and hence the q-modified effective coupling are estimated for a quark-gluon system.
Kahsay, T.N.; Kuik, O.J.; Brouwer, R.; van der Zaag, P.
2015-01-01
Employing a multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling framework, this study estimates the direct and indirect economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Eastern Nile economies. The study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the
Ding, Weili; Lu, Ming
2007-01-01
Lacking guidance of general equilibrium (GE) theories in public economics and the corresponding proper mechanisms, China has not surprisingly witnessed an inequality in educational expenditures across regions as well as insufficiency of funds for education in poor areas. It is wrongly thought that what happens is due to the decentralized financing…
Wigner expansions for partition functions of nonrelativistic and relativistic oscillator systems
Zylka, Christian; Vojta, Guenter
1993-01-01
The equilibrium quantum statistics of various anharmonic oscillator systems including relativistic systems is considered within the Wigner phase space formalism. For this purpose the Wigner series expansion for the partition function is generalized to include relativistic corrections. The new series for partition functions and all thermodynamic potentials yield quantum corrections in terms of powers of h(sup 2) and relativistic corrections given by Kelvin functions (modified Hankel functions) K(sub nu)(mc(sup 2)/kT). As applications, the symmetric Toda oscillator, isotonic and singular anharmonic oscillators, and hindered rotators, i.e. oscillators with cosine potential, are addressed.
Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective
Evans, Samuel Garner
The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy
Economic evaluation of increased ethanol use from a 'general equilibrium' aspect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daruvala, D.
1997-12-01
It has been recognized that a contribution to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved within the transport sector by the increased use of motor alcohols such as ethanol. The production of ethanol using renewable lignocellulosic materials such as softwood rather than a starch based process is of interest as these raw materials are cheaper and available in large quantities in Sweden. However the large quantities of wood raw material required has raised the question of how an increase in demand for wood material would affect production and profitability in other sectors, particularly the forest related industries. This study contains a broad outline over the flow of wood raw material through such sectors that can be affected if a large increased production of ethanol would occur. These sectors are the forest sector, sawmill sector, pulp sector, the district heating sector and the ethanol sector were chosen because of their production or use of wood raw material. A theoretical model that could estimate these effects was developed. The model in this study is not a general equilibrium model in the traditional sense, but has been designed to measure the net welfare effects caused by an introduction of a single distortion where other sectors in the economy, where in this case the district heating and forest related industries are assumed to be the only other sectors altered as a result. The idea behind this is that a change in the price of ethanol, caused for example by a subsidy will affect not only the market for ethanol but will even have consequences on the other markets, which are interlinked through their production and consumption of wood raw material 17 refs, 4 figs, 9 tabs
Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.
2014-04-01
Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Wei
2012-01-01
This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.
Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.
2010-04-01
SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.
Carbon Taxes and Joint Implementation. An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis for Germany and India
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehringer, C.; Loeschel, A. [Centre for European Economic Research ZEW, Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Department of Economics, Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany)
2003-01-01
Germany has committed itself to reducing its carbon emissions by 25% in 2005 as compared to 1990 emission levels. To achieve this goal, the government has recently launched an environmental tax reform which entails a continuous increase in energy taxes in conjunction with a revenue-neutral cut in non-wage labor costs. This policy is supposed to yield a double dividend, reducing both, the problem of global warming and high unemployment rates. In addition to domestic actions, international treaties on climate protection allow for the supplementary use of flexible instruments to exploit cheaper emission reduction possibilities elsewhere. One concrete option for Germany would be to enter joint implementation (JI) with developing countries such as India where Germany pays emission reduction abroad rather than meeting its reduction target solely by domestic action. In this paper, we investigate whether an environmental tax reform cum JI provides employment and overall efficiency gains as compared to an environmental tax reform stand-alone. We address this question in the framework of a large-scale general equilibrium model for Germany and India where Germany may undertake JI with the Indian electricity sector. Our main finding is that JI offsets largely the adverse effects of carbon emission constraints on the German economy. JI significantly lowers the level of carbon taxes and thus reduces the total costs of abatement as well as negative effects on labor demand. In addition, JI triggers direct investment demand for energy efficient power plants produced in Germany. This provides positive employment effects and additional income for Germany. For India, joint implementation equips its electricity industry with scarce capital goods leading to a more efficient power production with lower electricity prices for the economy and substantial welfare gains.
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wenjian
2017-01-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowland, D R
2006-01-01
Introductory courses covering modern physics sometimes introduce some elementary ideas from general relativity, though the idea of a geodesic is generally limited to shortest Euclidean length on a curved surface of two spatial dimensions rather than extremal aging in spacetime. It is shown that Epstein charts provide a simple geometric picture of geodesics in one space and one time dimension and that for a hypothetical uniform gravitational field, geodesics are straight lines on a planar diagram. This means that the properties of geodesics in a uniform field can be calculated with only a knowledge of elementary geometry and trigonometry, thus making the calculation of some basic results of general relativity accessible to students even in an algebra-based survey course on physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1981-01-01
Invariant varieties of suitable semisimple groups of transformations can serve as models of the space-time of the universe. The metric is expressible in terms of the basis vectors of the group. The symmetry of the group is broken by introducing a gauge formalism in the space of the basis vectors with the adjoint group as gauge group. The gauge potentials are expressible in terms of the basis vectors for the case of the De Sitter group. The resulting gauge theory is equivalent to De Sitter covariant general relativity. Group covariant generalizations of gravitational theory are discussed. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1986-01-01
Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs
Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.
Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood
2009-03-01
In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strange, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho
1999-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil
Kang, Yoonyoung
While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With
A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring effect.
Ciufolini, I; Pavlis, E C
2004-10-21
An important early prediction of Einstein's general relativity was the advance of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, whose measurement provided one of the classical tests of Einstein's theory. The advance of the orbital point-of-closest-approach also applies to a binary pulsar system and to an Earth-orbiting satellite. General relativity also predicts that the rotation of a body like Earth will drag the local inertial frames of reference around it, which will affect the orbit of a satellite. This Lense-Thirring effect has hitherto not been detected with high accuracy, but its detection with an error of about 1 per cent is the main goal of Gravity Probe B--an ongoing space mission using orbiting gyroscopes. Here we report a measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect on two Earth satellites: it is 99 +/- 5 per cent of the value predicted by general relativity; the uncertainty of this measurement includes all known random and systematic errors, but we allow for a total +/- 10 per cent uncertainty to include underestimated and unknown sources of error.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah
2008-01-01
We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleinsmith, P E [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)
1976-04-01
Multiple spatial scaling is incorporated in a modified form of the Bogoliubov plasma cluster expansion; then this proposed reformulation of the plasma weak-coupling approximation is used to derive, from the BBGKY Hierarchy, a decoupled set of equations for the one-and two-particle distribution functions in the limit as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Because the reformulated cluster expansion permits retention of essential two-particle collisional information in the limiting equations, while simultaneously retaining the well-established Debye-scale relative ordering of the correlation functions, decoupling of the Hierarchy is accomplished without introduction of the divergence problems encountered in the Bogoliubov theory, as is indicated by an exact solution of the limiting equations for the equilibrium case. To establish additional links with existing plasma equilibrium theories, the two-particle equilibrium correlation function is used to calculate the interaction energy and the equation of state. The limiting equation for the equilibrium three-particle correlation function is then developed, and a formal solution is obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumaker, B.L.
1985-01-01
This thesis is a collection of six papers. The first four constitute the heart of the thesis; they are concerned with quantum-mechanical properties of certain harmonic-oscillator states. The first paper is a discourse on single-mode and two-mode Gaussian pure states (GPS), states produced when harmonic oscillators in their ground states are exposed to potentials that are linear or quadratic in oscillator position and momentum variables (creation and annihilation operators). The second and third papers develop a formalism for analyzing two photon devices (e.g., parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors), in which photons in the output modes arise from two-proton transitions, i.e., are created or destroyed two at a time. The fourth paper is an analysis of the noise in homodyne detection, a phase-sensitive detection scheme in which the special properties of (single-mode) squeezed states are revealed. The fifth paper considers the validity of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for measurements that monitor the position of a free mass. The sixth paper develops the mathematical theory of torsional (toroidal) oscillations in fully general relativistic, nonrotating, spherical stellar models and of the gravitational waves they emit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chefranov, S.G.
2004-01-01
Relativistic generalization of the Landau criterion is obtained which, in contrast to the classical Tamm-Frank and Ginzburg theories, determines the primary energy mechanism of emission of nonbremsstrahlung Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that Cherenkov radiation may correspond to a threshold energetically favorable conversion of the condensate (ultimately long-wavelength) elementary Bose perturbations of a medium into transverse Cherenkov photons emitted by the medium proper during its interaction with a sufficiently fast charged particle. The threshold conditions of emission are determined for a medium with an arbitrary refractive index n, including the case of isotropic plasma with n < 1 for which the classical theory of Cherenkov radiation prohibits such direct and effective nonbremsstrahlung emission of these particular transverse high-frequency electromagnetic waves. It is established that these conditions of emission agree with the data of well-known experiments on the threshold for observation of Cherenkov radiation, whereas the classical theory only corresponds to the conditions of observation of the interference maximum of this radiation. The possibility of direct effective emission of nonbremsstrahlung Cherenkov radiation, not taken into account in the classical theory, is considered for many observed astrophysical phenomena (type III solar radio bursts, particle acceleration by radiation, etc.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2017-08-10
By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troxel, M. A.; Ishak, Mustapha; Peel, Austin, E-mail: troxel@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mishak@utdallas.edu, E-mail: austin.peel@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)
2014-03-01
The study of relativistic, higher order, and nonlinear effects has become necessary in recent years in the pursuit of precision cosmology. We develop and apply here a framework to study gravitational lensing in exact models in general relativity that are not restricted to homogeneity and isotropy, and where full nonlinearity and relativistic effects are thus naturally included. We apply the framework to a specific, anisotropic galaxy cluster model which is based on a modified NFW halo density profile and described by the Szekeres metric. We examine the effects of increasing levels of anisotropy in the galaxy cluster on lensing observables like the convergence and shear for various lensing geometries, finding a strong nonlinear response in both the convergence and shear for rays passing through anisotropic regions of the cluster. Deviation from the expected values in a spherically symmetric structure are asymmetric with respect to path direction and thus will persist as a statistical effect when averaged over some ensemble of such clusters. The resulting relative difference in various geometries can be as large as approximately 2%, 8%, and 24% in the measure of convergence (1−κ) for levels of anisotropy of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, as a fraction of total cluster mass. For the total magnitude of shear, the relative difference can grow near the center of the structure to be as large as 15%, 32%, and 44% for the same levels of anisotropy, averaged over the two extreme geometries. The convergence is impacted most strongly for rays which pass in directions along the axis of maximum dipole anisotropy in the structure, while the shear is most strongly impacted for rays which pass in directions orthogonal to this axis, as expected. The rich features found in the lensing signal due to anisotropic substructure are nearly entirely lost when one treats the cluster in the traditional FLRW lensing framework. These effects due to anisotropic structures are thus likely to
Relativistic two-fermion problem with the most general electric and magnetic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmazer, A.U.
1986-01-01
The energy equation of two spin-1/2 particles interacting with their charges and anomalous magnetic moments is examined. Starting with the most general Hamiltonian already obtained by other authors, the relevant wave equation has been written in terms of the generators of the de Sitter group. The radial equations for four different two-fermion systems are derived and the positronium case is studied in detail. Their bound state solutions are discussed and the similarity to the sixteen radial equations arrived at by other authors in completely different manner is pointed out. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenyan Zhang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract An existence result for the solution set of a system of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems (for short, (SSGVQEP is obtained, which improves Theorem 3.1 of the work of Ansari et al. (J. Optim. Theory Appl. 127:27-44, 2005. Moreover, a definition of Hadamard-type well-posedness for (SSGVQEP is introduced and sufficient conditions for Hadamard well-posedness of (SSGVQEP are established.
Transport theory for relativistic ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgiou, A.
1985-01-01
The phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics is adapted to the description of relativistic multicomponent plasmas. The general and special forms of matter energy-momentum tensor are given and the physical meaning of the different terms are discussed. A delicate problem of such theories, the contribution of ionized components of plasmas to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor is analyzed and illustrated by special examples. The relativistic form of Gibbs equation leads to the balance equation of entropy density. The theory is compared to the nonrelativistic one. The linear transport equations are derived by assuming the linear dependence of currents on deviations. The thermodynamical fluxes and forces are identified and the interference of cross phenomena is discussed. (D.Gy.)
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.
2003-01-01
Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.
Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P.
2015-12-01
The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc2, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Masaru
2003-01-01
We report a new implementation for axisymmetric simulation in full general relativity. In this implementation, the Einstein equations are solved using the Nakamura-Shibata formulation with the so-called cartoon method to impose an axisymmetric boundary condition, and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme based on an approximate Riemann solver. As tests, we performed the following simulations: (i) long-term evolution of nonrotating and rapidly rotating neutron stars, (ii) long-term evolution of neutron stars of a high-amplitude damping oscillation accompanied with shock formation, (iii) collapse of unstable neutron stars to black holes, and (iv) stellar collapses to neutron stars. Tests (i)-(iii) were carried out with the Γ-law equation of state, and test (iv) with a more realistic parametric equation of state for high-density matter. We found that this new implementation works very well: It is possible to perform the simulations for stable neutron stars for more than 10 dynamical time scales, to capture strong shocks formed at stellar core collapses, and to accurately compute the mass of black holes formed after the collapse and subsequent accretion. In conclusion, this implementation is robust enough to apply to astrophysical problems such as stellar core collapse of massive stars to a neutron star, and black hole, phase transition of a neutron star to a high-density star, and accretion-induced collapse of a neutron star to a black hole. The result for the first simulation of stellar core collapse to a neutron star started from a realistic initial condition is also presented
Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: general-relativistic vacuum solutions
Pétri, J.
2017-12-01
Magnetic fields inside and around neutron stars are at the heart of pulsar magnetospheric activity. Strong magnetic fields are responsible for quantum effects, an essential ingredient to produce leptonic pairs and the subsequent broad-band radiation. The variety of electromagnetic field topologies could lead to the observed diversity of neutron star classes. Thus, it is important to include multipolar components to a presumably dominant dipolar magnetic field. Exact analytical solutions for these multipoles in Newtonian gravity have been computed in recent literature. However, flat space-time is not adequate to describe physics in the immediate surroundings of neutron stars. We generalize the multipole expressions to the strong gravity regime by using a slowly rotating metric approximation such as the one expected around neutron stars. Approximate formulae for the electromagnetic field including frame dragging are computed from which we estimate the Poynting flux and the braking index. Corrections to leading order in compactness and spin parameter are presented. As far as spin-down luminosity is concerned, it is shown that frame dragging remains irrelevant. For high-order multipoles starting from the quadrupole, the electric part can radiate more efficiently than the magnetic part. Both analytical and numerical tools are employed.
Mitra, Abhas
2013-04-01
It is widely believed that though pressure resists gravitational collapse in Newtonian gravity, it aids the same in general relativity (GR) so that GR collapse should eventually be similar to the monotonous free fall case. But we show that, even in the context of radiationless adiabatic collapse of a perfect fluid, pressure tends to resist GR collapse in a manner which is more pronounced than the corresponding Newtonian case and formation of trapped surfaces is inhibited. In fact there are many works which show such collapse to rebound or become oscillatory implying a tug of war between attractive gravity and repulsive pressure gradient. Furthermore, for an imperfect fluid, the resistive effect of pressure could be significant due to likely dramatic increase of tangential pressure beyond the "photon sphere." Indeed, with inclusion of tangential pressure, in principle, there can be static objects with surface gravitational redshift z → ∞. Therefore, pressure can certainly oppose gravitational contraction in GR in a significant manner in contradiction to the idea of Roger Penrose that GR continued collapse must be unstoppable.
General-relativistic Large-eddy Simulations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radice, David, E-mail: dradice@astro.princeton.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2017-03-20
The flow inside remnants of binary neutron star (NS) mergers is expected to be turbulent, because of magnetohydrodynamics instability activated at scales too small to be resolved in simulations. To study the large-scale impact of these instabilities, we develop a new formalism, based on the large-eddy simulation technique, for the modeling of subgrid-scale turbulent transport in general relativity. We apply it, for the first time, to the simulation of the late-inspiral and merger of two NSs. We find that turbulence can significantly affect the structure and survival time of the merger remnant, as well as its gravitational-wave (GW) and neutrino emissions. The former will be relevant for GW observation of merging NSs. The latter will affect the composition of the outflow driven by the merger and might influence its nucleosynthetic yields. The accretion rate after black hole formation is also affected. Nevertheless, we find that, for the most likely values of the turbulence mixing efficiency, these effects are relatively small and the GW signal will be affected only weakly by the turbulence. Thus, our simulations provide a first validation of all existing post-merger GW models.
Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García Benavente, José Miguel
2016-01-01
In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity
Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.
1989-01-01
Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, Bernhard [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Building 28, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Janka, Hans-Thomas, E-mail: bernhard.mueller@monash.edu, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-06-10
Considering six general relativistic, two-dimensional (2D) supernova (SN) explosion models of progenitor stars between 8.1 and 27 M {sub ☉}, we systematically analyze the properties of the neutrino emission from core collapse and bounce to the post-explosion phase. The models were computed with the VERTEX-COCONUT code, using three-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport in the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. Our results confirm the close similarity of the mean energies, (E), of ν-bar {sub e} and heavy-lepton neutrinos and even their crossing during the accretion phase for stars with M ≳ 10 M {sub ☉} as observed in previous 1D and 2D simulations with state-of-the-art neutrino transport. We establish a roughly linear scaling of 〈E{sub ν-bar{sub e}}〉 with the proto-neutron star (PNS) mass, which holds in time as well as for different progenitors. Convection inside the PNS affects the neutrino emission on the 10%-20% level, and accretion continuing beyond the onset of the explosion prevents the abrupt drop of the neutrino luminosities seen in artificially exploded 1D models. We demonstrate that a wavelet-based time-frequency analysis of SN neutrino signals in IceCube will offer sensitive diagnostics for the SN core dynamics up to at least ∼10 kpc distance. Strong, narrow-band signal modulations indicate quasi-periodic shock sloshing motions due to the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and the frequency evolution of such 'SASI neutrino chirps' reveals shock expansion or contraction. The onset of the explosion is accompanied by a shift of the modulation frequency below 40-50 Hz, and post-explosion, episodic accretion downflows will be signaled by activity intervals stretching over an extended frequency range in the wavelet spectrogram.
A general equilibrium model of guest-worker migration: the source-country perspective.
Djajic, S; Milbourne, R
1988-11-01
"This paper examines the problem of guest-worker migration from an economy populated by identical, utility-maximizing individuals with finite working lives. The decision to migrate, the rate of saving while abroad, as well as the length of a migrant's stay in the foreign country, are all viewed as part of a solution to an intertemporal optimization problem. In addition to studying the microeconomic aspects of temporary migration, the paper analyses the determinants of the equilibrium flow of migrants, the corresponding domestic wage, and the level of welfare enjoyed by a typical worker. Effects of an emigration tax are also investigated." excerpt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phayap Katchang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding a common element of the set of solutions for mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of the variational inclusions with set-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely nonexpansive mappings in the setting of Hilbert spaces. We propose a new iterative scheme for finding the common element of the above three sets. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results of the works by Zhang et al. (2008, Peng et al. (2008, Peng and Yao (2009, as well as Plubtieng and Sriprad (2009 and some well-known results in the literature.
Prechl, József
2017-11-01
The homeostasis of antibodies can be characterized as a balanced production, target-binding and receptor-mediated elimination regulated by an interaction network, which controls B-cell development and selection. Recently, we proposed a quantitative model to describe how the concentration and affinity of interacting partners generates a network. Here we argue that this physical, quantitative approach can be extended for the interpretation of effector functions of antibodies. We define global antibody equilibrium as the zone of molar equivalence of free antibody, free antigen and immune complex concentrations and of dissociation constant of apparent affinity: [Ab]=[Ag]=[AbAg]= K D . This zone corresponds to the biologically relevant K D range of reversible interactions. We show that thermodynamic and kinetic properties of antibody-antigen interactions correlate with immunological functions. The formation of stable, long-lived immune complexes correspond to a decrease of entropy and is a prerequisite for the generation of higher-order complexes. As the energy of formation of complexes increases, we observe a gradual shift from silent clearance to inflammatory reactions. These rules can also be applied to complement activation-related immune effector processes, linking the physicochemical principles of innate and adaptive humoral responses. Affinity of the receptors mediating effector functions shows a wide range of affinities, allowing the continuous sampling of antibody-bound antigen over the complete range of concentrations. The generation of multivalent, multicomponent complexes triggers effector functions by crosslinking these receptors on effector cells with increasing enzymatic degradation potential. Thus, antibody homeostasis is a thermodynamic system with complex network properties, nested into the host organism by proper immunoregulatory and effector pathways. Maintenance of global antibody equilibrium is achieved by innate qualitative signals modulating a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welsch, H.
1996-01-01
A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs
Michael K. Salemi
2007-01-01
Prior to the late 1990s, low unemployment was a standard feature of macroeconomic life in Hong Kong. Between 1985 and 1997, the unemployment rate averaged 2.5 percent. But the picture changed dramatically thereafter with the unemployment rate rising to 6.2 percent by 1999 and remaining above 5 percent through 2005. What caused the large and sustained increase? This paper provides some answers with an analysis based on a dynamic, general equilibrium model of a small, open economy in which wage...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.
1994-01-01
The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. STRAGEVITCH
1997-03-01
Full Text Available The equations of the method based on the maximum likelihood principle have been rewritten in a suitable generalized form to allow the use of any number of implicit constraints in the determination of model parameters from experimental data and from the associated experimental uncertainties. In addition to the use of any number of constraints, this method also allows data, with different numbers of constraints, to be reduced simultaneously. Application of the method is illustrated in the reduction of liquid-liquid equilibrium data of binary, ternary and quaternary systems simultaneously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Jong-Hwan.
1993-01-01
Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de
Generalized lower-hybrid drift instabilities in current-sheet equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Peter H.; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Sitnov, Mikhail I.
2002-01-01
A class of drift instabilities in one-dimensional current-sheet configuration, i.e., classical Harris equilibrium, with frequency ranging from low ion-cyclotron to intermediate lower-hybrid frequencies, are investigated with an emphasis placed on perturbations propagating along the direction of cross-field current flow. Nonlocal two-fluid stability analysis is carried out, and a class of unstable modes with multiple eigenstates, similar to that of the familiar quantum mechanical potential-well problem, are found by numerical means. It is found that the most unstable modes correspond to quasi-electrostatic, short-wavelength perturbations in the lower-hybrid frequency range, with wave functions localized at the edge of the current sheet where the density gradient is maximum. It is also found that there exist quasi-electromagnetic modes located near the center of the current sheet where the current density is maximum, with both kink- and sausage-type polarizations. These modes are low-frequency, long-wavelength perturbations. It turns out that the current-driven modes are low-order eigensolutions while the lower-hybrid-type modes are higher-order states, and there are intermediate solutions between the two extreme cases. Attempts are made to interpret the available simulation results in light of the present eigenmode analysis
China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianping Ge
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
Papasotiriou, P. J.; Geroyannis, V. S.
We implement Hartle's perturbation method to the computation of relativistic rigidly rotating neutron star models. The program has been written in SCILAB (© INRIA ENPC), a matrix-oriented high-level programming language. The numerical method is described in very detail and is applied to many models in slow or fast rotation. We show that, although the method is perturbative, it gives accurate results for all practical purposes and it should prove an efficient tool for computing rapidly rotating pulsars.
Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects
Coll Bartolomé
2013-11-01
Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).
Equilibrium arrival times to queues with general service times and non-linear utility functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinbjerg, Jesper
2017-01-01
by a general utility function which is decreasing in the waiting time and service completion time of each customer. Applications of such queueing games range from people choosing when to arrive at a grand opening sale to travellers choosing when to line up at the gate when boarding an airplane. We develop...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.
1991-01-01
Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongxiu He
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen
2007-01-01
The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy
Two carrier temperatures non-equilibrium generalized Planck law for semiconductors
Gibelli, François; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François
2016-10-01
Planck's law of radiation describes the light emitted by a blackbody. This law has been generalized in the past for the case of a non-blackbody material having a quasi Fermi-level splitting: the lattice of the material and the carriers are then considered in an isothermal regime. Hot carrier spectroscopy deals with carriers out of the isothermal regime, as their respective temperatures (THe ≠ THh) are considered to be different than that of the lattice (TL). Here we show that Fermi-Dirac distribution temperature for each type of carrier still determine an effective radiation temperature: an explicit relationship is given involving the effective masses. Moreover, we show how to determine, in principle with an additional approximation, the carrier temperatures (THe, THh) and the corresponding absolute electrochemical potentials from photoluminescence measurements.
Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory
Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity.
Carballo-Rubio, Raúl
2018-02-09
The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.
Non-relativistic supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1984-01-01
The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2010-01-01
Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.
Relativistic solitons and pulsars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N
1975-05-01
A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, J.T.
1999-01-01
Using a lowest-order approximation, the field equations of a general relativistic spinor-connection theory are solved semi-analytically for the fields of a stable, spin-half changed particle near the spin axis. With the exception of the atomic fine-structure constant, all parameters arising in the solution, including the rest mass of the source particle, are found by imposing the standard junction conditions of general relativity and electromagnetism. Using the empirical value for the fine-structure constant, the value derived for the rest mass gives some reason to identify the source particle with the electron. Moreover, since the rest mass is independent of the sign of the electron charge carried by the source, the solution is equally applicable to the positron
Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D.
1980-01-01
Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)
Price, R H
1993-01-01
Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two speciﬁc areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font, J. A.
2015-01-01
The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
On the local equilibrium condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hessling, H.
1994-11-01
A physical system is in local equilibrium if it cannot be distinguished from a global equilibrium by ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. This should be a natural characterization of local equilibrium, but the problem is to give a precise meaning to the qualitative phrase ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. A solution is suggested in form of a Local Equilibrium Condition (LEC), which can be applied to linear relativistic quantum field theories but not directly to selfinteracting quantum fields. The concept of local temperature resulting from LEC is compared to an old approach to local temperature based on the principle of maximal entropy. It is shown that the principle of maximal entropy does not always lead to physical states if it is applied to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)
Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko
2005-01-01
At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandelaars, P.A.A.H.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
1997-12-31
Optimal environmental taxation and subsidies in a materials-product (M-P) chain are examined. This incorporates the main economic activities extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste treatment. A static general equilibrium model of this M-P chain is constructed, with environmental impacts represented as negative externalities generated by natural resource extraction and final dumping of waste. The model includes various environmental taxes and subsidies on products and materials to pay for these externalities. The originality of this analytical exercise is twofold: in all stages of the M-P chain materials balance conditions are satisfied; furthermore, recycling is explicitly included as a separate activity with inputs, outputs and objectives. Thus, the paper combines physical-environmental and welfare economic perspectives on materials flows. The results show that the externalities generated by extraction and harmful waste can only be optimized by imposing a direct tax on the new materials. In a second-best world the externalities may be sub-optimized by taxing the generation of harmful waste or by subsidizing the use of recycled materials. Changes in some variables causes a shift between the optimal taxes on new materials at the beginning and harmful waste at the end of the M-P chain. This linkage is interesting because it shows that the whole M-P chain needs to be considered instead of parts of this chain. 16 refs.
Wen, Xing-Chun; He, Ling-Yun
2015-08-01
There is a bitter controversy over what drives the housing price in China in the existing literature. In this paper, we investigate the underlying driving force behind housing price fluctuations in China, especially focusing on the role of housing demand shock with that of money supply shock in explaining housing price movements, by a new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. Empirical results suggest that it is housing demand, instead of money supply, that mainly drives China's housing price movements. Relevant policy implication is further discussed, namely, whether to consider the housing price fluctuations in the conduct of monetary policy. By means of the policy simulations, we find that a real house price-augmented money supply rule is a better monetary policy for China's economy stabilization. 1. Investment refers to fixed capital investment. 2. Housing price refers to national average housing price. Quarterly data on housing price during the period of our work are not directly available. However, monthly data of the value of sales on housing and sale volume on housing can be directly obtained from National Bureau of Statistics of China. We add up the monthly data and calculate one quarter's housing price by dividing the value of housing sales by its sale volume in one quarter. 3. M2 means the broad money supply in China.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Wu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. The Gompertz function is estimated using historical data on vehicle development trends in North America, Pacific Rim and Europe to overcome the problem of insufficient long-running data on Chinese vehicle ownership. Results indicate that the number of projected vehicle stocks for 2050 is 300, 455 and 463 million for low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios respectively. Furthermore, the growth in China’s vehicle stock will increase beyond the inflection point of Gompertz curve by 2020, but will not reach saturation point during the period 2014–2050. Of major road vehicle categories, cars are the largest energy consumers, followed by trucks and buses. Growth in Chinese vehicle demand is primarily determined by per capita GDP. Vehicle saturation levels solely influence the shape of the Gompertz curve and population growth weakly affects vehicle demand. Projected total energy consumption of road vehicles in 2050 is 380, 575 and 586 million tonnes of oil equivalent for each scenario.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.durand@uclouvain.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel, E-mail: axel.pierru@ifp.f [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Smeers, Yves, E-mail: yves.smeers@uclouvain.ac.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
2010-09-15
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a 'hard cap' or a 'soft cap'. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories-with two branches after 2020-for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)
2010-09-15
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois
2013-01-01
The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Y.X.; Liu, Y.Y.; Du, M.; Zhang, J.X.; Pang, Y.X.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Energy policy is defined as a complication of energy price, tax and subsidy policies. • The maximisation of total social benefit is the optimised objective. • A more rational carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton under the current situation. • The optimal coefficient pricing is more conducive to maximise total social benefit. - Abstract: Under the condition of increasingly serious environmental pollution, rational energy policy plays an important role in the practical significance of energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper defines energy policies as the compilation of energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies. Moreover, it establishes the optimisation model of China’s energy policy based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which maximises the total social benefit, in order to explore the comprehensive influences of a carbon tax, the sales pricing mechanism and the renewable energy fund policy. The results show that when the change rates of gross domestic product and consumer price index are ±2%, ±5% and the renewable energy supply structure ratio is 7%, the more reasonable carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton, and the optimal coefficient pricing mechanism is more conducive to the objective of maximising the total social benefit. From the perspective of optimising the overall energy policies, if the upper limit of change rate in consumer price index is 2.2%, the existing renewable energy fund should be improved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves; Pierru, Axel
2010-01-01
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO 2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO 2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO 2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO 2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO 2 emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO 2 emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi
2009-01-01
The Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) is a widely used computable general equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Purdue University. Although the GTAP-E, an energy environmental version of the GTAP model, is useful for surveying the energy-economy-environment-trade linkage is economic policy analysis, it does not have the decomposed model of the electricity sector and its analyses are comparatively static. In this study, a recursive dynamic CGE model with a detailed electricity technology bundle with nuclear power generation including FR was developed based on the GTAP-E to evaluate the long-term socioeconomic effects of FR deployment. The capital stock changes caused by international investments and some dynamic constraints of the FR deployment and operation (e.g., load following capability and plutonium mass balance) were incorporated in the analyses. The long-term socioeconomic effects resulting from the deployment of economic competitive FR with innovative technologies can be assessed; the cumulative effects of the FR deployment on GDP calculated using this model costed over 40 trillion yen in Japan and 400 trillion yen worldwide, which were several times more than the cost of the effects calculated using the conventional cost-benefit analysis tool, because of ripple effects and energy substitutions among others. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.
1989-03-01
Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2007-11-15
We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.
Qin, Changbo; Qin, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Jia, Y.; Wang, H.
2013-01-01
This paper describes a multi-region computable general equilibrium model for analyzing the effectiveness of measures and policies for mitigating North China’s water scarcity with respect to three different groups of scenarios. The findings suggest that a reduction in groundwater use would negatively
Rutten, M.M.; Reed, G.
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health
Extended quasiparticle approximation for relativistic electrons in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.G.Morozov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Starting with Dyson equations for the path-ordered Green's function, it is shown that the correlation functions for relativistic electrons (positrons in a weakly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas can be decomposed into sharply peaked quasiparticle parts and off-shell parts in a rather general form. To leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant, this decomposition yields the extended quasiparticle approximation for the correlation functions, which can be used for the first principle calculation of the radiation scattering rates in QED plasmas.
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, R.
1985-09-01
Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs
Relativistic few body calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)
2016-07-05
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
Relativistic heavy-ion physics
Herrera Corral, G
2010-01-01
The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-01
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression.
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-26
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Barnett, Tony; Tait, Joyce
2009-11-19
To estimate the potential economic impact of pandemic influenza, associated behavioural responses, school closures, and vaccination on the United Kingdom. A computable general equilibrium model of the UK economy was specified for various combinations of mortality and morbidity from pandemic influenza, vaccine efficacy, school closures, and prophylactic absenteeism using published data. The 2004 UK economy (the most up to date available with suitable economic data). The economic impact of various scenarios with different pandemic severity, vaccination, school closure, and prophylactic absenteeism specified in terms of gross domestic product, output from different economic sectors, and equivalent variation. The costs related to illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product ( pound8.4bn to pound16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% ( pound55.5bn to pound72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. School closure increases the economic impact, particularly for mild pandemics. If widespread behavioural change takes place and there is large scale prophylactic absence from work, the economic impact would be notably increased with few health benefits. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product ( pound2.2bn to pound38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% ( pound5.0bn to pound72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios. Balancing school closure against "business as usual" and obtaining sufficient stocks of effective vaccine are more important factors in determining the economic impact of an influenza pandemic than is the disease itself. Prophylactic absence from work in response to fear of infection can add considerably to the economic impact.
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M. partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M. species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions
Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly N; Kim, Young-Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B
2007-06-16
This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing N(E) equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-N(E) kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.
Observational and theoretical aspects of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, J.L.; Goicoechea, L.J.
1985-01-01
The studies of relativistic astrophysics and cosmology in these proceedings include primordial nucleosynthesis, nonluminous matter, star and galaxy evolution, cosmic microwave background, and general relativistic models of the universe
Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.
2016-01-01
The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.
Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.-M.
1977-05-01
The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maris, Th.A.J.
1976-01-01
The renormalization group theory has a natural place in a general framework of symmetries in quantum field theories. Seen in this way, a 'renormalization group' is a one-parametric subset of the direct product of dilatation and renormalization groups. This subset of spontaneously broken symmetry transformations connects the inequivalent solutions generated by a parameter-dependent regularization procedure, as occurs in renormalized perturbation theory. By considering the global, rather than the infinitesimal, transformations, an expression for general vertices is directly obtained, which is the formal solution of exact renormalization group equations [pt
Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xuguang; Sedrakian, Armen; Rischke, Dirk H.
2011-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: → Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. → Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. → We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.
Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin
2008-01-01
"This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...
Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
2018-06-01
We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavour multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero-metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modelling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70 M⊙ star.
Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
2018-04-01
We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavor multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modeling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70M⊙ star.
Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir
2015-07-01
In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central
Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang
2018-02-01
The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)
2017-05-02
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
Stolzberg, Richard J.
1999-05-01
Students are challenged to investigate the hypothesis that an equilibrium constant, Kc, measured as a product and quotient of molar concentrations, is constant at constant temperature. Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hehl, F.W.; McCrea, J.D.
1986-01-01
Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article
Hehl, Friedrich W.; McCrea, J. Dermott
1986-03-01
Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article.
Thermal equilibrium and statistical thermometers in special relativity.
Cubero, David; Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Dunkel, Jörn; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
2007-10-26
There is an intense debate in the recent literature about the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity. The most frequently discussed candidate distributions include the Jüttner function as well as modifications thereof. Here we report results from fully relativistic one-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations that resolve the ambiguity. The numerical evidence unequivocally favors the Jüttner distribution. Moreover, our simulations illustrate that the concept of "thermal equilibrium" extends naturally to special relativity only if a many-particle system is spatially confined. They make evident that "temperature" can be statistically defined and measured in an observer frame independent way.
SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-20
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavens, A.F.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)
Hyperbolic theory of relativistic conformal dissipative fluids
Lehner, Luis; Reula, Oscar A.; Rubio, Marcelo E.
2018-01-01
We develop a complete description of the class of conformal relativistic dissipative fluids of divergence form, following the formalism described in [R. Geroch and L. Lindblom, Phys. Rev. D 41, 1855 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevD.41.1855, S. Pennisi, Some considerations on a non linear approach to extended thermodynamics and in Proceedings of Symposium of Kinetic Theory and Extended Thermodynamics, Bologna, 1987.]. This type of theory is fully described in terms of evolution variables whose dynamics are governed by total divergence-type conservation laws. Specifically, we give a characterization of the whole family of conformal fluids in terms of a single master scalar function defined up to second-order corrections in dissipative effects, which we explicitly find in general form. This allows us to identify the equilibrium states of the theory and derive constitutive relations and a Fourier-like law for the corresponding first-order theory heat flux. Finally, we show that among this class of theories—and near equilibrium configurations—there exist symmetric hyperbolic ones, implying that for them one can define well-posed initial value problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Derek
1971-09-15
The illustration of thermodynamic data on aqueous systems is discussed and diagrams are described that are useful for bringing together the large numbers of data that are relevant to technological problems such as corrosion, mass-transport and deposition. Two kinds of logarithmic equilibrium diagram are particularly useful, namely, diagrams depicting the variation with pH or pe of the concentrations of ionic species relative to that of a chosen reference ion and diagrams depicting the fields of conditions of pH and pe in which the various species in any given system predominate or are stable. Such diagrams clearly and concisely illustrate the data and greatly simplify the comparison of the states of a system at different temperatures. Estimates of the equilibrium constants for the redox and the acid-base dissociation of water up to 375 C are reported and some general features of aqueous systems at elevated temperatures are discussed
Elliptic flow from non-equilibrium initial condition with a saturation scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggieri, M.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.
2013-01-01
A current goal of relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate (CGC) as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate 4πη/s∼1, while employing the Kharzeev–Levin–Nardi (KLN) modeling of the glasma leads to at least a factor of 2 larger η/s. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, our main result is that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. At RHIC energy we find the available data on v 2 are in agreement with a 4πη/s∼1 also for KLN initial conditions. More generally, our study shows that the initial non-equilibrium in p-space can have a significant impact on the build-up of anisotropic flow
Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bievre, S.
1986-01-01
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed
Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach
Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2001-01-01
In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates
BINARY NEUTRON STARS IN QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniguchi, Keisuke; Shibata, Masaru
2010-01-01
Quasi-equilibrium sequences of binary neutron stars are constructed for a variety of equations of state in general relativity. Einstein's constraint equations in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews approximation are solved together with the relativistic equations of hydrostationary equilibrium under the assumption of irrotational flow. We focus on unequal-mass sequences as well as equal-mass sequences, and compare those results. We investigate the behavior of the binding energy and total angular momentum along a quasi-equilibrium sequence, the endpoint of sequences, and the orbital angular velocity as a function of time, changing the mass ratio, the total mass of the binary system, and the equation of state of a neutron star. It is found that the orbital angular velocity at the mass-shedding limit can be determined by an empirical formula derived from an analytic estimation. We also provide tables for 160 sequences, which will be useful as a guideline of numerical simulations for the inspiral and merger performed in the near future.
A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions
Penna, Robert F.; Kulkarni, Akshay; Narayan, Ramesh
2013-11-01
Context. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. Aims: In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. Methods: We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum distribution and solve the relativistic Euler equations in the Kerr metric. Results: The Bernoulli parameter, rotation rate, and geometrical thickness of the torus can be adjusted independently. Our torus tends to be more bound and have a larger radial extent than earlier torus solutions. Conclusions: While this paper was in preparation, several GRMHD simulations appeared based on our equilibrium torus. We believe it will continue to provide a more realistic starting point for future simulations.
Relativistic quarkonium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1985-06-01
We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters
Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs
Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2001-04-01
Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.
Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics
2014-01-01
Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.
Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, Gilberto M
2013-01-01
A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)
A unified treatment of the non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogen atom: Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swainson, R.A.; Drake, G.W.F.
1991-01-01
This is the second in a series of three papers in which it is shown how the radial part of non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogenic bound-state calculations involving the Green functions can be presented in a unified manner. In this paper the non-relativistic Green function is examined in detail; new functional forms are presented and a clear mathematical progression is show to link these and most other known forms. A linear transformation of the four radial parts of the relativistic Green function is given which allows for the presentation of this function as a simple generalization of the non-relativistic Green function. Thus, many properties of the non-relativistic Green function are shown to have simple relativistic generalizations. In particular, new recursion relations of the radial parts of both the non-relativistic and relativistic Green functions are presented, along with new expressions for the double Laplace transforms and recursion relations between the radial matrix elements. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)
2000-12-01
In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scrieciu, S. Serban
2007-01-01
The search for methods of assessment that best evaluate and integrate the trade-offs and interactions between the economic, environmental and social components of development has been receiving a new impetus due to the requirement that sustainability concerns be incorporated into the policy formulation process. A paper forthcoming in Ecological Economics (Boehringer, C., Loeschel, A., in press. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: status quo and prospects, Ecological Economics.) claims that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models may potentially represent the much needed 'back-bone' tool to carry out reliable integrated quantitative Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs). While acknowledging the usefulness of CGE models for some dimensions of SIA, this commentary questions the legitimacy of employing this particular economic modelling tool as a single integrating modelling framework for a comprehensive evaluation of the multi-dimensional, dynamic and complex interactions between policy and sustainability. It discusses several inherent dangers associated with the advocated prospects for the CGE modelling approach to contribute to comprehensive and reliable sustainability impact assessments. The paper warns that this reductionist viewpoint may seriously infringe upon the basic values underpinning the SIA process, namely a transparent, heterogeneous, balanced, inter-disciplinary, consultative and participatory take to policy evaluation and building of the evidence-base. (author)
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
BOULANGER PIERRE; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE
2013-01-01
This JRC report presents methodological development of the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, for representing the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Using original data on European Union (EU) domestic support, it examines some likely macroeconomic effects of the expected CAP budget over the period 2014-2020. Results suggest that agreed budget cuts, in constant price, have limited impacts on EU and world markets, given the br...
Relativistic stars with purely toroidal magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiuchi, Kenta; Yoshida, Shijun
2008-01-01
We investigate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic field on the equilibrium structures of the relativistic stars. The basic equations for obtaining equilibrium solutions of relativistic rotating stars containing purely toroidal magnetic fields are derived for the first time. To solve these basic equations numerically, we extend the Cook-Shapiro-Teukolsky scheme for calculating relativistic rotating stars containing no magnetic field to incorporate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic fields. By using the numerical scheme, we then calculate a large number of the equilibrium configurations for a particular distribution of the magnetic field in order to explore the equilibrium properties. We also construct the equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and/or the constant magnetic flux, which model the evolution of an isolated neutron star as it loses angular momentum via the gravitational waves. Important properties of the equilibrium configurations of the magnetized stars obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) For the nonrotating stars, the matter distribution of the stars is prolately distorted due to the toroidal magnetic fields. (2) For the rapidly rotating stars, the shape of the stellar surface becomes oblate because of the centrifugal force. But, the matter distribution deep inside the star is sufficiently prolate for the mean matter distribution of the star to be prolate. (3) The stronger toroidal magnetic fields lead to the mass shedding of the stars at the lower angular velocity. (4) For some equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and magnetic flux, the stars can spin up as they lose angular momentum.
Balance equations for a relativistic plasma. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebenstreit, H.
1983-01-01
Relativistic power moments of the four-momentum are decomposed according to a macroscopic four-velocity. The thus obtained quantities are identified as relativistic generalization of the nonrelativistic orthogonal moments, e.g. diffusion flow, heat flow, pressure, etc. From the relativistic Boltzmann equation we then derive balance equations for these quantities. Explicit expressions for the relativistic mass conservation, energy balance, pressure balance, heat flow balance are presented. The weak relativistic limit is discussed. The derivation of higher order balance equations is sketched. (orig.)
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chanyong Park
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.
The de Sitter relativistic top theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenta, J.; Nieto, J.A.
2005-01-01
We discuss the relativistic top theory from the point of view of the de Sitter (or anti-de Sitter) group. Our treatment rests on the Hanson-Regge spherical relativistic top Lagrangian formulation. We propose an alternative method for studying spinning objects via Kaluza-Klein theory. In particular, we derive the relativistic top equations of motion starting with the geodesic equation for a point particle in 4+N dimensions. We compare our approach with Fukuyama's formulation of spinning objects, which is also based on Kaluza-Klein theory. We also report a generalization of our approach to a 4+N+D dimensional theory
Noureen, S.; Abbas, G.; Sarfraz, M.
2018-01-01
The study of relativistic degenerate plasmas is important in many astrophysical and laboratory environments. Using linearized relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations, a generalized expression for the plasma conductivity tensor is derived. Employing Fermi-Dirac distribution at zero temperature, the dispersion relation of the extraordinary mode in a relativistic degenerate electron plasma is investigated. The propagation characteristics are examined in different relativistic density ranges. The shifting of cutoff points due to relativistic effects is observed analytically and graphically. Non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limiting cases are also presented.
Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca
2013-01-01
A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ali Nasir
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This study derives an optimal macroeconomic policy combination for financial sector stability in the United Kingdom by employing a New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (NK-DSGE framework. The empirical results obtained show that disciplined fiscal and accommodative monetary policies stance is optimal for financial sector stability. Furthermore, fiscal indiscipline countered by contractionary monetary stance adversely affects financial sector stability. Financial markets, e.g. stocks and Gilts show a short-term asymmetric response to macroeconomic policy interaction and to each other. The asymmetry is a reflection of portfolio adjustment. However in the long-run, the responses to suggested optimal policy combination had homogenous effects and there was evidence of co-movement in the stock and Gilt markets.
Relativistic plasma dispersion functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1986-01-01
The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived
Ruder, Hanns; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Hehl, Friedrich
1998-01-01
This book summarizes the lectures given at the 162. WE-Heraeus Seminar which took place in the house of the German Physical Society in Bad Honnefin August 1996. Already the number 162 shows the activity and effectiveness of the WE-Heraeus Foundation. We would like to express our thanks to Jutta Adam and Dr. Volker Schafer for the almost incredibly simple and unbureaucratical procedure of funding, organization and realization, and, of course, to the founders. Similar to the 152. WE-Heraeus Seminar Relativity and Scientific Computing (Springer Verlag 1996), this seminar was a joint venture of the Astronomical Society (AG) and of the Section 'Gravitation und Relativity Theory' of the German Physical Society (DPG). Since Einstein has developed his Theory of General Relativity more than 80 years ago, the situation has changed dramatically. In the first decades main efforts were untertaken for a better understanding and for the experimental verification of the theory. Mean while General Relativity (GR) is one of ...
Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.
Classical and relativistic dynamics of supersolids: variational principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peletminskii, A S
2009-01-01
We present a phenomenological Lagrangian and Poisson brackets for obtaining nondissipative hydrodynamic theory of supersolids. A Lagrangian is constructed on the basis of unification of the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and classical field theory. The Poisson brackets, governing the dynamics of supersolids, are uniquely determined by the invariance requirement of the kinematic part of the found Lagrangian. The generalization of Lagrangian is discussed to include the dynamics of vortices. The obtained equations of motion do not account for any dynamic symmetry associated with Galilean or Lorentz invariance. They can be reduced to the original Andreev-Lifshitz equations to require Galilean invariance. We also present a relativistic-invariant supersolid hydrodynamics, which might be useful in astrophysical applications
Nonextensive kinetic theory and H-theorem in general relativity
Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Lima, J. A. S.
2017-11-01
The nonextensive kinetic theory for degenerate quantum gases is discussed in the general relativistic framework. By incorporating nonadditive modifications in the collisional term of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and entropy current, it is shown that Tsallis entropic framework satisfies a H-theorem in the presence of gravitational fields. Consistency with the 2nd law of thermodynamics is obtained only whether the entropic q-parameter lies in the interval q ∈ [ 0 , 2 ] . As occurs in the absence of gravitational fields, it is also proved that the local collisional equilibrium is described by the extended Bose-Einstein (Fermi-Dirac) q-distributions.
Mishchenko, Michael I
2017-10-01
The majority of previous studies of the interaction of individual particles and multi-particle groups with electromagnetic field have focused on either elastic scattering in the presence of an external field or self-emission of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper we apply semi-classical fluctuational electrodynamics to address the ubiquitous scenario wherein a fixed particle or a fixed multi-particle group is exposed to an external quasi-polychromatic electromagnetic field as well as thermally emits its own electromagnetic radiation. We summarize the main relevant axioms of fluctuational electrodynamics, formulate in maximally rigorous mathematical terms the general scattering-emission problem for a fixed object, and derive such fundamental corollaries as the scattering-emission volume integral equation, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the dyadic transition operator, the multi-particle scattering-emission equations, and the far-field limit. We show that in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, the computation of the self-emitted component of the total field is completely separated from that of the elastically scattered field. The same is true of the computation of the emitted and elastically scattered components of quadratic/bilinear forms in the total electromagnetic field. These results pave the way to the practical computation of relevant optical observables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, M.
2017-08-01
The approach to equilibrium of a quantum mechanical system in interaction with a bath is studied from a practical as well as a conceptual point of view. Explicit memory functions are derived for given models of bath couplings. If the system is a harmonic oscillator representing a molecule in interaction with a reservoir, the generalized master equation derived becomes an extension into the coherent domain of the well-known Montroll-Shuler equation for vibrational relaxation and unimolecular dissociation. A generalization of the Bethe-Teller result regarding energy relaxation is found for short times. The theory has obvious applications to relaxation dynamics at ultra-short times as in observations on the femtosecond time scale and to the investigation of quantum coherence at those short times. While vibrational relaxation in chemical physics is a primary target of the study, another system of interest in condensed matter physics, an electron or hole in a lattice subjected to a strong DC electric field that gives rise to well-known Wannier-Stark ladders, is naturally addressed with the theory. Specific system-bath interactions are explored to obtain explicit details of the dynamics. General phenomenological descriptions of the reservoir are considered rather than specific microscopic realizations.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1984-01-01
The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field
Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories
Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2018-04-01
We study relativistic star solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories characterized by a U (1 )-breaking vector field with derivative couplings. In the models with cubic and quartic derivative coupling, the mass and radius of stars become larger than those in general relativity for negative derivative coupling constants. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increase of star radius induced by a slower decrease of the matter pressure compared to general relativity. There is a tendency that the relativistic star with a smaller mass is not gravitationally bound for a low central density and hence is dynamically unstable, but that with a larger mass is gravitationally bound. On the other hand, we show that the intrinsic vector-mode couplings give rise to general relativistic solutions with a trivial field profile, so the mass and radius are not modified from those in general relativity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1984-12-15
From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.
van Damme, E.E.C.
2000-01-01
An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of
Ismail, M.S.
2014-01-01
We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that
Rotating relativistic neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.
1991-07-21
Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.
Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Khorasani, Sina
2017-07-01
It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.
Relativistic Shock Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)
Thermal equilibrium in Einstein's elevator.
Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Cubero, David
2013-05-01
We report fully relativistic molecular-dynamics simulations that verify the appearance of thermal equilibrium of a classical gas inside a uniformly accelerated container. The numerical experiments confirm that the local momentum distribution in this system is very well approximated by the Jüttner function-originally derived for a flat spacetime-via the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. Moreover, it is shown that when the acceleration or the container size is large enough, the global momentum distribution can be described by the so-called modified Jüttner function, which was initially proposed as an alternative to the Jüttner function.
General equilibrium without utility functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
2010-01-01
not to require transitivity and completeness of consumers' preferences. We show in this paper that if consumers' non-ordered preferences satisfy a mild version of convexity already considered in the literature, then the following properties are also satisfied: (1) the smooth manifold structure...
The relativistic electron wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dirac, P.A.M.
1977-08-01
The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas
2013-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.
Chau, Nancy H.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...
Relativistic quantum kinetic analysis of a pion--nucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, J.D.
1985-01-01
A relativistic plasma of nucleons interacting through pions via the usual isospin-invariant Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the framework of the covariant Wigner function technique. The method is manifestly covariant and the temperature effects are considered. The relativistic quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the pion--nucleon system is derived. By generalizing the Bogolioubov analysis of the classical BBGKY hierarchy a non-perturbative renormalizable method is elaborated which allows the solution of the kinetic problem in form of power series of two cluster parameters which measure the importance of correlations. In the lowest order of the cluster expansion (Hartree approximation of zero-order approximation) the quasi-nucleon Fock space is introduced, the fermion Wigner function in the thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained and the vacuum effects are renormalized. In this approximation the plasma behaves as a perfect Fermi gas of nucleons and antinucleons, but there exists an abnormal configuration with a uniform pion condensate which is unstable. In the next approximation (quadratic in the small parameters) the quasi-pion dispersion relation is obtained and the vacuum polarization tensor is renormalized. The quasi-pion rest-mass spectra (''plasma frequency'') and the effective-coupling behaviour as functions of the thermodynamic state are given. By estimating the size of the cluster parameters the self-consistency of the approximation scheme is proved. The quasi-pion Fock space is introduced and the quasi-pion equilibrium Wigner function is obtained. From these results the problem of the higher-order corrections to the Hartree thermodynamics is outlined
Relativistic phenomenological equations and transformation laws of relative coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrizia Rogolino
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to derive the phenomenological equations in the context of special relativistic non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables. In particular, after introducing some results developed in our previous paper, by means of classical non-equilibrium thermodynamic procedure and under suitable assumptions on the entropy density production, the phenomenological equations and transformation laws of phenomenological coefficients are derived. Finally, some symmetries of aforementioned coefficients are obtained.
Han, Shurong; Huang, Yeqing
2017-07-07
The study analysed the medical imaging technology business cycle from 1981 to 2009 and found that the volatility of consumption in Chinese medical imaging business was higher than that of the developed countries. The volatility of gross domestic product (GDP) and the correlation between consumption and GDP is also higher than that of the developed countries. Prior to the early 1990s the volatility of consumption is even higher than GDP. This fact makes it difficult to explain the volatile market using the standard one sector real economic cycle (REC) model. Contrary to the other domestic studies, this study considers a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model. In this model there are two consumption sectors, whereby one is labour intensive and another is capital intensive. The more capital intensive investment sector only introduces technology shocks in the medical imaging market. Our response functions and Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the model can explain 90% of the volatility of consummation relative to GDP, and explain the correlation between consumption and GDP. The results demonstrated the significant correlation between the technological reform in medical imaging and volatility in the labour market on Chinese macro economy development.
Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R
2013-11-01
Previous research has demonstrated the value of macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. A single-country whole-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun
2016-12-01
Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Zhou
2006-03-01
Full Text Available It is shown that there exists an exact paraxial cold-fluid equilibrium of a high-intensity, space-charge-dominated charged-particle beam with a periodically twisted elliptic cross section in a nonaxisymmetric periodic magnetic field. Generalized envelope equations, which determine the beam envelopes, ellipse orientation, density, and internal flow velocity profiles, are derived. Nonrelativistic and relativistic examples of such beam equilibria are presented. The equilibrium and stability of such beams are demonstrated by self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC simulations.
Equilibrium configurations of fluids and their stability in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2006-01-01
We study equilibrium shapes, stability and possible bifurcation diagrams of fluids in higher dimensions, held together by either surface tension or self-gravity. We consider the equilibrium shape and stability problem of self-gravitating spheroids, establishing the formalism to generalize the MacLaurin sequence to higher dimensions. We show that such simple models, of interest on their own, also provide accurate descriptions of their general relativistic relatives with event horizons. The examples worked out here hint at some model-independent dynamics, and thus at some universality: smooth objects seem always to be well described by both 'replicas' (either self-gravity or surface tension). As an example, we exhibit an instability afflicting self-gravitating (Newtonian) fluid cylinders. This instability is the exact analogue, within Newtonian gravity, of the Gregory-Laflamme instability in general relativity. Another example considered is a self-gravitating Newtonian torus made of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. We recover the features of the black ring in general relativity
Extended Galilean symmetries of non-relativistic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batlle, Carles [Departament de Matemàtiques and IOC, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG,Av. V. Balaguer 1, E-08808 Vilanova i la Geltrú (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim; Not, Daniel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2017-02-09
We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.
Lagrangian formulation of a consistent relativistic guiding center theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1983-02-01
A new relativistic guiding center mechanics is presented that conserves energy (in time-independent fields) and satisfies a Liouville's theorem. The theory reduces to Littlejohn's theory in the non-relativistic limit and agrees to leading orders in epsilon identical rsub(g)/L with the relativistic theory by Morozov and Solov'ev (which generally lacks a Liouville's theorem). The new theory is developed from an appropriate Lagrangian and is supplemented by a collisionless relativistic kinetic equation for the guiding centers. Moment equations for guiding center density and energy density are also derived. (orig.)
Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese
2009-01-01
We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...
Relativistic tunneling through two successive barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunardi, Jose T.; Manzoni, Luiz A.
2007-01-01
We study the relativistic quantum mechanical problem of a Dirac particle tunneling through two successive electrostatic barriers. Our aim is to study the emergence of the so-called generalized Hartman effect, an effect observed in the context of nonrelativistic tunneling as well as in its counterparts and which is often associated with the possibility of superluminal velocities in the tunneling process. We discuss the behavior of both the phase (or group) tunneling time and the dwell time, and show that in the limit of opaque barriers the relativistic theory also allows the emergence of the generalized Hartman effect. We compare our results with the nonrelativistic ones and discuss their interpretation
The relativistic invariant and the Galilean mass of bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapuscik, E.
1992-02-01
We generalize the concept of the Galilean mass to the relativistic case. In the case of inequality of Galilean and inertial masses we calculate the relativistic invariant being constant along the trajectory of the moving body. It enables us to define an invariant measure of inertia of bodies. 4 refs. (author)
Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat, M.
1980-01-01
Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)
Plasma relativistic microwave electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
2001-01-01
One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru
Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.
2001-01-01
Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)
Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect
Raff, Lionel M.
2014-01-01
The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…
Para-equilibrium phase diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelton, Arthur D.; Koukkari, Pertti; Pajarre, Risto; Eriksson, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)
2009-05-15
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
MAGNETIC ENERGY BUILDUP FOR RELATIVISTIC MAGNETAR GIANT FLARES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Cong
2011-01-01
Motivated by coronal mass ejection studies, we construct general relativistic models of a magnetar magnetosphere endowed with strong magnetic fields. The equilibrium states of the stationary, axisymmetric magnetic fields in the magnetar magnetosphere are obtained as solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation in a Schwarzschild spacetime. To understand the magnetic energy buildup in the magnetar magnetosphere, a generalized magnetic virial theorem in the Schwarzschild metric is newly derived. We carefully address the question whether the magnetar magnetospheric magnetic field can build up sufficient magnetic energy to account for the work required to open up the magnetic field during magnetar giant flares. We point out the importance of the Aly-Sturrock constraint, which has been widely studied in solar corona mass ejections, as a reference state in understanding magnetar energy storage processes. We examine how the magnetic field can possess enough energy to overcome the Aly-Sturrock energy constraint and open up. In particular, general relativistic (GR) effects on the Aly-Sturrock energy constraint in the Schwarzschild spacetime are carefully investigated. It is found that, for magnetar outbursts, the Aly-Sturrock constraint is more stringent, i.e., the Aly-Sturrock energy threshold is enhanced due to the GR effects. In addition, neutron stars with greater mass have a higher Aly-Sturrock energy threshold and are more difficult to erupt. This indicates that magnetars are probably not neutron stars with extreme mass. For a typical neutron star with mass of 1-2 M sun , we further explore the cross-field current effects, caused by the mass loading, on the possibility of stored magnetic field energy exceeding the Aly-Sturrock threshold.
Electroweak interactions in a relativistic Fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.
2006-01-01
We present a relativistic model for computing the neutrino mean free path in neutron matter. In this model, neutron matter is described as a noninteracting Fermi gas in β equilibrium. We present results for the neutrino mean free path for temperatures of 0 to 50 MeV and a broad range of neutrino energies. We show that relativistic effects cause a considerable enhancement of neutrino-scattering cross sections in neutron matter. The influence of the Q 2 dependence in the electroweak form factors and the inclusion of a weak-magnetic term in the hadron current is discussed. The weak-magnetic term in the hadron current is at the origin of some selective spin dependence for the nucleons that are subject to neutrino interactions
Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.M.
1985-01-01
Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented
Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.
1990-09-01
We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.
Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea
2008-07-04
The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.
Relativistic viscous hydrodynamics for heavy-ion collisions with ECHO-QGP
Del Zanna, L; Inghirami, G; Rolando, V; Beraudo, A; De Pace, A; Pagliara, G; Drago, A; Becattini, F
2013-01-01
We present ECHO-QGP, a numerical code for $(3+1)$-dimensional relativistic viscous hydrodynamics designed for the modeling of the space-time evolution of the matter created in high energy nuclear collisions. The code has been built on top of the \\emph{Eulerian Conservative High-Order} astrophysical code for general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics [\\emph{Del Zanna et al., Astron. Astrophys. 473, 11, 2007}] and here it has been upgraded to handle the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. ECHO-QGP features second-order treatment of causal relativistic viscosity effects in both Minkowskian or Bjorken coordinates; partial or complete chemical equilibrium of hadronic species before kinetic freeze-out; initial conditions based on the optical Glauber model, including a Monte-Carlo routine for event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions; a freeze-out procedure based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is extensively validated against several test problems and results always appear accurate, as guaranteed by th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraser, D.W.H.; Abdelmessih, A.H.
1995-01-01
A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280 degrees C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R. A.
2006-06-01
Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krakowski, R. A
2006-06-15
Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraser, D.W.H. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada); Abdelmessih, A.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
1995-09-01
A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.
de Oliveira, Mário J
2017-01-01
This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De Lombaerde Philippe
1996-12-01
Full Text Available Los autores investigan la causalidad entre inversión directa y las exportaciones en el caso de Tailandia, un país caracterizado por un rapido crecimiento económico y de exportaciones, y por sus entradas de capital extranjero relativamente importantes. Sus resultados en prueba de causalidad de Granger contradicen los resultados de un estudio de equilibrio general, utilizando datos sobre la inversión japonesa en Tailandia. Los autores apuntan al riesgo de utilizar una sola metodología y sugieren razones por ambigüedad de los resultados.The authors investigate the FDI -export causality in the case of
Thailand, a country characterized by rapid economic and exports growth, and relatively important incoming FDI flows , Their results from Granger causality tests contradict with those from a general-equilibrium study using data on Japanese FDI in Thailand. The authors indicate the risk of using single methodologies and suggest reasons for the ambiguous
results.
Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, L.S.
1986-05-01
A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs
Support of the extremal measure in a vector equilibrium problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapik, M A
2006-01-01
A generalization of the Mhaskar-Saff functional is obtained for a vector equilibrium problem with an external field. As an application, the supports of the equilibrium measures are found in a special vector equilibrium problem with Nikishin matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, T.S.; Hiscock, W.A.
1990-01-01
Stability and causality are studied for linear perturbations about equilibrium in Carter's ''regular'' theory of relativistic heat-conducting fluids. The ''regular'' theory, when linearized around an equilibrium state having vanishing expansion and shear, is shown to be equivalent to the inviscid limit of the linearized Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic dissipative fluids for a particular choice of the second-order coefficients β 1 and γ 2 . A set of stability conditions is determined for linear perturbations of a general inviscid Israel-Stewart fluid using a monotonically decreasing energy functional. It is shown that, as in the viscous case, stability implies that the characteristic velocities are subluminal and that perturbations obey hyperbolic equations. The converse theorem is also true. We then apply this analysis to a nonrelativistic Boltzmann gas and to a strongly degenerate free Fermi gas in the ''regular'' theory. Carter's ''regular'' theory is shown to be incapable of correctly describing the nonrelativistic Boltzmann gas and the degenerate Fermi gas (at all temperatures)
Problems in equilibrium theory
Aliprantis, Charalambos D
1996-01-01
In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Jackson, E Atlee
2000-01-01
Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t
Molecular equilibrium with condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharp, C.M.; Huebner, W.F.
1990-01-01
Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated. 18 refs
Self-acceleration of relativistic modulated beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajzatskij, N.I.
1989-01-01
Unlike the case of self-acceleration of continuous beams, the self-acceleration of relativistic modulated beams requires the energy redistribution between the particles not at the period of excited oscillations but rather between the bunches. This may occur only in the case when the electron beam creates a multifrequency equilibrium state in the passive structure. In this case, there is a possibility for some bunches to be captured in the accelerating phase of the field without any external action. The authors have analyzed this possibility both theoretically and experimentally. 12 refs., 2 figs
Relativistic equations of state at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, A.M.S.; Menezes, D.P.
2004-01-01
In this work we study the effects of temperature on the equations of state obtained within a relativistic model with and without β equilibrium, over a wide range of densities. We integrate the TOV equations. We also compare the results of the equation of state, effective mass and strangeness fraction from the TM1, NL3 and GL sets of parameters, as well as investigating the importance of antiparticles in the treatment. The have checked that TM1 and NL3 are not appropriate for the description of neutron and protoneutron stars. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roh, Heui-Seol
2015-01-01
Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms
Relativistic effects in a rotating coordinate system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chugreev, Y.V.
1989-01-01
The general approach to calculating various physical effects in a rotating, noninertial reference frame based on the tetrad formalism for observables is discussed. It is shown that the method based on the search for the ''true'' coordinate transformation from an inertial to the rotating frame is ill-founded. Most special relativistic effects in a rotating frame have been calculated without any nonrelativistic restrictions. It is shown how simple physical experiments can be used to determine whether a circle is at rest in the equatorial plane of a Kerr--Newman gravitational source in the relativistic theory of gravity or is rotating about an axis through its center
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Kaplan, George
2011-01-01
This authoritative book presents the theoretical development of gravitational physics as it applies to the dynamics of celestial bodies and the analysis of precise astronomical observations. In so doing, it fills the need for a textbook that teaches modern dynamical astronomy with a strong emphasis on the relativistic aspects of the subject produced by the curved geometry of four-dimensional spacetime. The first three chapters review the fundamental principles of celestial mechanics and of special and general relativity. This background material forms the basis for understanding relativistic r
Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Horwitz
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.
Srisamran, Supree
This dissertation examines the potential impacts of three electricity policies on the economy of Thailand in terms of macroeconomic performance, income distribution, and unemployment rate. The three considered policies feature responses to potential disruption of imported natural gas used in electricity generation, alternative combinations (portfolios) of fuel feedstock for electricity generation, and increases in investment and local electricity consumption. The evaluation employs Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) approach with the extension of electricity generation and transmission module to simulate the counterfactual scenario for each policy. The dissertation consists of five chapters. Chapter one begins with a discussion of Thailand's economic condition and is followed by a discussion of the current state of electricity generation and consumption and current issues in power generation. The security of imported natural gas in power generation is then briefly discussed. The persistence of imported natural gas disruption has always caused trouble to the country, however, the economic consequences of this disruption have not yet been evaluated. The current portfolio of power generation and the concerns it raises are then presented. The current portfolio of power generation is heavily reliant upon natural gas and so needs to be diversified. Lastly, the anticipated increase in investment and electricity consumption as a consequence of regional integration is discussed. Chapter two introduces the CGE model, its background and limitations. Chapter three reviews relevant literature of the CGE method and its application in electricity policies. In addition, the submodule characterizing the network of electricity generation and distribution and the method of its integration with the CGE model are explained. Chapter four presents the findings of the policy simulations. The first simulation illustrates the consequences of responses to disruptions in natural gas imports
Spinning relativistic particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B
2000-01-01
The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter
Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA
2002-01-01
We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalvová, Anděla; Velický, B.; Špička, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2017), s. 807-811 ISSN 1557-1939 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * initial conditions * transient currents * molecular islands Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.180, year: 2016
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Relativistic continuum physics for the description of heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, Bela
1986-01-01
The application of relativistic continuum physics to the description of the nuclear fireball evolution from the start of expansion to the breaking is discussed. The basic formalism and basic assumptions of relativistic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics are analyzed in detail. The four basic assumptions are not valid in the case of nuclear fireball produced in heavy ion collisions, but thermodynamics can be extended in different ways to incorporate anisotropy, fluctuations, gradients and the lack of the local equilibrium. The extended continuum formalism is applicable to the description of the nuclear fireball dynamics, including the nuclear - quark matter phase transition. (D.Gy.)
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
Relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.
1984-12-01
An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)
On the short periods oscillation in relativistic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aquilano, R.; Morales, S.; Navone, H.; Sevilla, D.; Zorzi, A.
2009-01-01
We expand the study of neutron and strange matter stars with general relativistic formalism. We analyze the correlation with the observational data short periods oscillations in these stars, and we intend to discriminate between them.
The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.
1989-01-01
The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated
Relativistic particle in a box
Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor
1996-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús Botero Garcia
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Mediante un modelo de equilibrio general computable, calibrado para Colombia, se analiza el impacto de diversas políticas económicas, que afectan el precio relativo de los factores productivos. Se concluye que los estímulos a la inversión, que pueden interpretarse como acciones que disminuyen el precio del capital, propician sin embargo la acumulación de capital, y por esa vía, incrementan la productividad del trabajo, generando efectos positivos netos sobre el empleo. La eliminación de los aportes parafiscales, por su parte, genera una reducción en el costo del trabajo, pero su efecto global sobre el empleo es compensado parcialmente por las acciones fiscales tendientes a generar rentas alternativas que permitan mantener los beneficios asociados a esos aportes. Se sugiere que el esquema ideal sería aquel que establece estímulos a la inversión, focalizados hacia sectores intensivos en empleo, al tiempo que crea redes de protección social adecuadas, para enfrentar los problemas asociados a la pobreza. Abstract Using a computable general equilibrium model, calibrated for Colombia, it is analyze the impact of various economic policies, which affect the relative price of production factors. The results concluded that the incentives for investment, which can be interpreted as actions that decrease the cost of capital, however lead to the accumulation of capital, and thereby increase the productivity of labour, generating net positive effects on employment. The Elimination of the payroll taxes, for its part, generates a reduction in the cost of labour, but their overall effect on employment is partially offset by the tax measures designed to generate alternative income to keep the benefits associated with these contributions. Finally the suggestion is that the ideal scheme would be one that provides incentives for investment, focused towards employment-intensive sectors, at the time that creates networks of social protection appropriate
Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.
1985-02-01
An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob
2017-01-01
Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...
Relativistic length agony continued
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Fundamental Relativistic Rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staruszkiewicz, A.
2008-01-01
Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Kiwata, Takahiro; Kimura, Shigeo
2010-01-01
To clarify the nonequilibrium processes of self-gravitating systems, we examine a system enclosed in a spherical container with reflecting walls, by N-body simulations. To simulate nonequilibrium processes, we consider loss of energy through the reflecting wall, i.e., a particle reflected at a non-adiabatic wall is cooled to mimic energy loss. We also consider quasi-equilibrium structures of stellar polytropes to compare with the nonequilibrium process, where the quasi-equilibrium structure is obtained from an extremum-state of Tsallis' entropy. Consequently, we numerically show that, with increasing cooling rates, the dependence of the temperature on energy, i.e., the ε-T curve, varies from that of microcanonical ensembles (or isothermal spheres) to a common curve. The common curve appearing in the nonequilibrium process agrees well with an ε-T curve for a quasi-equilibrium structure of the stellar polytrope, especially for the polytrope index n ∼ 5. In fact, for n > 5, the stellar polytrope within an adiabatic wall exhibits gravothermal instability [Taruya, Sakagami, Physica A, 322 (2003) 285]. The present study indicates that the stellar polytrope with n ∼ 5 likely plays an important role in quasi-attractors of the nonequilibrium process in self-gravitating systems with non-adiabatic walls.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoine, J-P
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Lucchesi, David M; Peron, Roberto
2010-12-03
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein's theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α| ≲ 1 × 10(-11), a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent
2003-01-01
The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the
How to deal with relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagedorn, R.
1981-01-01
A qualitative review is given of the theoretical problems and possibilities arising when one tries to understand what happens in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The striking similarity between these and pp collisions suggests the use of techniques similar to those used five to twelve years ago in pp collisions to disentangle collective motions from thermodynamics. A very heuristic and qualitative sketch of statistical bootstrap thermodynamics concludes an idealized picture in which a relativistic heavy ion collision appears as a superposition of moving 'fireballs' with equilibrium thermodynamics in the rest frames of these fireballs. The interesting problems arise where this theoretician's picture deviates from reality: non-equilibrium, more complicated motion (shock waves, turbulence, spin) and the collision history. Only if these problems have been solved or shown to be irrelevant can we safely identify signatures of unusual states of hadronic matter as, for example, a quark-gluon plasma or density isomers. (orig.)
The relativistic gravity train
Seel, Max
2018-05-01
The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Relativistic studies in actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.
1987-01-01
In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.
1979-01-01
The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brink, D M
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Bratek, Łukasz
2015-01-01
Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs
Relativistic rotation and the anholonomic object
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corum, J.F.
1977-01-01
The purpose of this communication is to call attention to the conceptual economy provided by the object of anholonomity for the theory of relativity. This geometric object expresses certain consequences of relativity theory and provides a single, simple framework for discussing a variety of phenomena. It particularly clarifies the description of relativistic rotation. The relativistic rotational transformation of the four coordinate differentials of flat space--time generates a set of anholonomic, or inexact differentials, whose duals are an orthogonal set of basis vectors. How should a rotating observer interpret physical events referred to such orthogonal, but anholonomic frames The answer to this question rests upon the origin and physical significance of the object of anholonomity. It is demonstrated that not only is the rotational Lorentz transformation an anholonomic transformation, but that the intrinsic anholonomic effects are essential to interpreting rotational phenomena. In particular, the Sagnac effect may be interpreted as the physical manifestation of temporal anholonomity under rotation. The Thomas precession of a reference axis may be interpreted as a consequence of the spatial anholonomity of the rotating frame. Further, the full four-dimensional covariance of Maxwellian electrodynamics, under a relativistic Lorentz rotation, is possible only with the inclusion of anholonomic effects. The anholonomic approach clarifies the distinction between the physically different operations of source rotation and observer rotation in a flat space--time. It is finally concluded that a consistant theory of relativistic rotation, satisfying the principle of general covariance, inherently requires the presence of the object of anholonomity