WorldWideScience

Sample records for general purpose polystyrene

  1. Towards quantification of butadiene content in styrene-butadiene block copolymers and their blends with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and the relation between mechanical properties and NMR relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Nikolaus [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, GKP/P-G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)], E-mail: nikolaus.nestle@basf.com; Heckmann, Walter; Steininger, Helmut; Knoll, Konrad [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, GKP/P-G 201, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2007-11-26

    The properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymers do not only depend on the butadiene content and the degree of polymerisation but also on their chain architecture. In this contribution we present the results of a low-field time domain (TD) NMR study in which the transverse relaxation behaviour of different SBS block copolymers was analysed and correlated with findings from mechanical testing on pure and blended materials and transmission electron microscopy data which provide information on the microphase separation. The results indicate that while a straightforward determination of the butadiene content as in blended materials like ABS is not possible for these materials, the TD-NMR results correlate quite well with the mechanical performance of blends from SBS block copolymers with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS), i.e. industrial grade homopolymer polystyrene. Temperature-dependent experiments on pure and blended materials revealed a slight reduction in the softening temperature of the GPPS fraction in the blends.

  2. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Lopez, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    . These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original...

  3. Worst case prediction of additives migration from polystyrene for food safety purposes: a model update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Brais; Gontard, Nathalie; Peyron, Stéphane

    2018-03-01

    A reliable prediction of migration levels of plastic additives into food requires a robust estimation of diffusivity. Predictive modelling of diffusivity as recommended by the EU commission is carried out using a semi-empirical equation that relies on two polymer-dependent parameters. These parameters were determined for the polymers most used by packaging industry (LLDPE, HDPE, PP, PET, PS, HIPS) from the diffusivity data available at that time. In the specific case of general purpose polystyrene, the diffusivity data published since then shows that the use of the equation with the original parameters results in systematic underestimation of diffusivity. The goal of this study was therefore, to propose an update of the aforementioned parameters for PS on the basis of up to date diffusivity data, so the equation can be used for a reasoned overestimation of diffusivity.

  4. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  5. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  6. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  7. 10 CFR 205.350 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose. 205.350 Section 205.350 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and Reports....350 General purpose. The purpose of this rule is to establish a procedure for the Office of...

  8. 12 CFR 1703.31 - General purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purposes. 1703.31 Section 1703.31 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN... Legal Proceedings in Which OFHEO Is Not a Named Party § 1703.31 General purposes. The purposes of this...

  9. 7 CFR 254.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose. 254.1 Section 254.1 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR INDIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN OKLAHOMA § 254.1 General purpose. This part sets the requirement under which...

  10. 22 CFR 309.1 - General purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General purpose. 309.1 Section 309.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 309.1 General purpose. This part prescribes the procedures to be used by the United States Peace Corps (Peace Corps) in the collection and/or disposal of non...

  11. Development of a General Purpose Gamification Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a general purpose gamification framework developed in JavaScript on the Metor platform. Gamification is described as the use of game elements in none-game contexts. The purpose is to encourage and change user behaviour. Examples of existing gamification use cases and frameworks are described. A demo game shows how a general purpose framework can be used.

  12. General purpose code for Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    A general-purpose computer called MONTHY has been written to perform Monte Carlo simulations of physical systems. To achieve a high degree of flexibility the code is organized like a general purpose computer, operating on a vector describing the time dependent state of the system under simulation. The instruction set of the computer is defined by the user and is therefore adaptable to the particular problem studied. The organization of MONTHY allows iterative and conditional execution of operations

  13. General-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Noritaka

    1982-01-01

    A new series of diagnostic tables, Model DT-KEL, was developed for general-purpose radiographic and fluoroscopic systems. Through several investigations, the table was so constructed that the basic techniques be general radiography and GI examination, and other techniques be optionally added. The diagnostic tables involve the full series of the type for various purposes and are systematized with the surrounding equipment. A retractable mechanism of grids was adopted first for general use. The fine grids with a density of 57 lines per cm, which was adopted in KEL-2, reduced the X-ray doses by 16 percent. (author)

  14. General purpose computers in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs

  15. Summary of JENDL-2 general purpose file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1984-06-15

    The general purpose file of the second version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) was released in December 1982. Recently, descriptive data were added to JENDL-2 and at the same time the first revision of numerical data was performed. JENDL-2 (Rev.1) consists of the data for 89 nuclides and about 211,000 records in the ENDF/B-IV format. In this report, full listings of presently added descriptive data are given to summarize the JENDL-2 general purpose file. The 2200-m/sec and 14-MeV cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian and fission spectrum averaged cross sections are given in a table. Average cross sections were also calculated in suitable energy intervals.

  16. Summary of JENDL-2 general purpose file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1984-06-01

    The general purpose file of the second version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-2) was released in December 1982. Recently, descriptive data were added to JENDL-2 and at the same time the first revision of numerical data was performed. JENDL-2 (Rev1) consists of the data for 89 nuclides and about 211,000 records in the ENDF/B-IV format. In this report, full listings of presently added descriptive data are given to summarize the JENDL-2 general purpose file. The 2200-m/sec and 14-MeV cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian and fission spectrum averaged cross sections are given in a table. Average cross sections were also calculated in suitable energy intervals. (author)

  17. General-purpose RFQ design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We have written a general-purpose, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) design program that allows maximum flexibility in picking design algorithms. This program optimizes the RFQ on any combination of design parameters while simultaneously satisfying mutually compatible, physically required constraint equations. It can be very useful for deriving various scaling laws for RFQs. This program has a friendly user interface in addition to checking the consistency of the user-defined requirements and is written to minimize the effort needed to incorporate additional constraint equations. We describe the program and present some examples

  18. Report of the general purpose detector group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Cool, R.; Hanson, G.; Koetz, U.; Kottahaus, R.; Loken, S.; Luke, D.; Rothenberg, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general purpose detector for PEP is described. The main components of this detector are a l meter radius, 15 kilogauss superconducting solenoidal magnet with drift chambers to detect and measure the momentum of charged particles, a liquid argon neutral detector and hadron calorimeter, and a system of Cherenkov and time-of-flight counters for identification of charged hadrons. A major consideration in the design of this detector was that it be flexible: the magnet coil and drift chambers form a core around which various apparatus for specialized detection can be placed

  19. General Purpose Crate (GPC) for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kundan; Munda, Deepak K.; Jain, Mamta; Archunan, M.; Barua, P.; Ajith Kumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    A General Purpose Crate (GPC) capable of handling digital and analog Inputs/Outputs signals has been developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, for accelerator control system applications. The system includes back-plane bus with on board plugged-in single board computer with PC104 and Ethernet interface, running Linux operating system. The bus control logic is designed on the back-plane pcb itself, making the system more rugged. The various types of digital and analog input/output modules can be plugged into the back plane bus randomly with standard euro connectors, which provides highly reliable and dust free contacts. Maximum eight modules can be inserted into the crate. The total power consumption for various types of modules and back-plane controller is approximately 50 watts. The multi-output DC power supply from COSEL has been used in the crate. The general purpose crate is software compatible with the CAMAC crates used in the accelerator control system. (author)

  20. General-Purpose Software For Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) is general-purpose computer-graphics package for computer-based engineering and management applications which gives opportunity to translate data into effective graphical displays for presentation. Features include two- and three-dimensional plotting, spline and polynomial interpolation, control of blanking of areas, multiple log and/or linear axes, control of legends and text, control of thicknesses of curves, and multiple text fonts. Included are subroutines for definition of areas and axes of plots; setup and display of text; blanking of areas; setup of style, interpolation, and plotting of lines; control of patterns and of shading of colors; control of legends, blocks of text, and characters; initialization of devices; and setting of mixed alphabets. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  1. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author)

  2. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author).

  3. Can Universities Profit from General Purpose Inventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barirani, Ahmad; Beaudry, Catherine; Agard, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The lack of control over downstream assets can hinder universities’ ability to extract rents from their inventive activities. We explore this possibility by assessing the relationship between invention generality and renewal decisions for a sample of Canadian nanotechnology patents. Our results s...

  4. 7 CFR 225.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 225.1 Section 225.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM General § 225.1 General purpose and scope... primary purpose of the Program is to provide food service to children from needy areas during periods when...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.37 - General purpose de-icers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose de-icers. 2902.37 Section 2902.37... Items § 2902.37 General purpose de-icers. (a) Definition. Chemical products (e.g., salt, fluids) that... preference for qualifying biobased general purpose de-icers. By that date, Federal agencies that have the...

  7. 7 CFR 285.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 285.1 Section 285.1... COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO § 285.1 General purpose and scope. This part describes the general terms and... government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the purpose of designing and conducting a nutrition...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6124 - General purpose computers expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose computers expense. 32.6124... General purpose computers expense. This account shall include the costs of personnel whose principal job is the physical operation of general purpose computers and the maintenance of operating systems. This...

  9. 7 CFR 246.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 246.1 Section 246.1... General § 246.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of... health by reason of inadequate nutrition or health care, or both. The purpose of the Program is to...

  10. 7 CFR 250.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 250.1 Section 250.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.1 General purpose and...

  11. 7 CFR 277.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 277.1 Section 277.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... AGENCIES § 277.1 General purpose and scope. (a) Purpose. This part establishes uniform requirements for the...

  12. 7 CFR 253.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 253.1 Section 253.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.1 General purpose and scope. This part describes the terms...

  13. 7 CFR 1485.10 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 1485.10 Section 1485.10... FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.10 General purpose and scope. (a.../Market Access Program (EIP/MAP). It also establishes the general terms and conditions applicable to MAP...

  14. 7 CFR 215.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 215.1 Section 215.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces the policies and prescribes the general regulations with respect to the Special Milk...

  15. 7 CFR 248.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 248.1 Section 248.1... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) General § 248.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces regulations under which the Secretary of Agriculture shall carry...

  16. 46 CFR 7.1 - General purpose of boundary lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose of boundary lines. 7.1 Section 7.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES General § 7.1 General purpose of boundary lines. The lines in this part delineate the application of the...

  17. 7 CFR 251.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 251.1 Section 251.1... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.1 General purpose and scope. This part announces the policies and prescribes the regulations necessary to...

  18. 7 CFR 226.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 226.1 Section 226.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM General § 226.1 General purpose and...

  19. 7 CFR 245.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 245.1 Section 245.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... SCHOOLS § 245.1 General purpose and scope. (a) This part established the responsibilities of State...

  20. 7 CFR 220.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 220.1 Section 220.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.1 General purpose and scope. This part...

  1. 7 CFR 281.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 281.1 Section 281.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... RESERVATIONS § 281.1 General purpose and scope. (a) These regulations govern the operation of the Food Stamp...

  2. 7 CFR 1728.10 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 1728.10 Section 1728.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1728.10 General purpose and...

  3. 7 CFR 235.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose and scope. 235.1 Section 235.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.1 General purpose and scope...

  4. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2124 - General purpose computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General purpose computers. 32.2124 Section 32... General purpose computers. (a) This account shall include the original cost of computers and peripheral... financial, statistical, or other business analytical reports; preparation of payroll, customer bills, and...

  6. Standalone General Purpose Data Logger Design and Implementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design of a general purpose data logger that is compatible with a variety of transducers, potentially permitting the measurement and recording of a wide range of phenomena. The recorded data can be retrieved to a PC via an RS-232 serial port. The standalone general purpose data logger ...

  7. Effect of molecular weight distribution on e-beam exposure properties of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Ripon Kumar; Cui Bo

    2013-01-01

    Polystyrene is a negative electron beam resist whose exposure properties can be tuned simply by using different molecular weights (Mw). Most previous studies have used monodisperse polystyrene with a polydispersity index (PDI) of less than 1.1 in order to avoid any uncertainties. Here we show that despite the fact that polystyrene’s sensitivity is inversely proportional to its Mw, no noticeable effect of very broad molecular weight distribution on sensitivity, contrast and achievable resolution is observed. It is thus unnecessary to use the costly monodisperse polystyrene for electron beam lithography. Since the polydispersity is unknown for general purpose polystyrene, we simulated a high PDI polystyrene by mixing in a 1:1 weight ratio two polystyrene samples with Mw of 170 and 900 kg mol −1 for the high Mw range, and 2.5 and 13 kg mol −1 for the low Mw range. The exposure property of the mixture resembles that of a monodisperse polystyrene with similar number averaged molecular weight (Mn)-bar, which indicates that it is (Mn)-bar rather than (Mw)-bar (weight averaged molecular weight) that dominates the exposure properties of polystyrene resist. This also implies that polystyrene of a certain molecular weight can be simulated by a mixture of two polystyrenes having different molecular weights. (paper)

  8. A general purpose code for Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.; Rochester Univ., NY

    1984-01-01

    A general-purpose computer code MONTHY has been written to perform Monte Carlo simulations of physical systems. To achieve a high degree of flexibility the code is organized like a general purpose computer, operating on a vector describing the time dependent state of the system under simulation. The instruction set of the 'computer' is defined by the user and is therefore adaptable to the particular problem studied. The organization of MONTHY allows iterative and conditional execution of operations. (orig.)

  9. Efficient probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnacki, D.; Edelkamp, S.; Sulewski, D.; Pasareanu, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    We present algorithms for parallel probabilistic model checking on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs). For this purpose we exploit the fact that some of the basic algorithms for probabilistic model checking rely on matrix vector multiplication. Since this kind of linear algebraic

  10. 7 CFR 227.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management training of school foodservice personnel, and (c) the conduct of nutrition education activities in... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.1 General purpose...

  11. 24 CFR 902.1 - Purpose and general description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assessments. The Real Estate Assessment Center (REAC) is responsible for assessing and scoring the performance... uniform and objective protocols for the physical inspection of properties and the financial assessment of... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 902.1 Purpose and general...

  12. Development of General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell (GPDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kim, K.

    1995-01-01

    This note is intended as an abbreviated introduction to the concept and the structure of General Purpose Data Acquisitions Shell (GPDAS) and assumes the reader has a certain level of familiarity with programming in general. The structure of the following sections consists of brief explanations of the concepts and commands of GPDAS, followed by several examples. Some of these are tabulated in the appendices at the end of this note

  13. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. On the System and Engineering Design of the General Purpose Electronic Digital Computer at TIFR. Rangaswamy Narasimhan. Classics Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 490-501 ...

  14. Geographical parthenogenesis: General purpose genotypes and frozen niche variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijenhoek, Robert C.; Parker, Dave

    2009-01-01

    hypotheses concerning the evolution of niche breadth in asexual species - the "general-purpose genotype" (GPG) and "frozen niche-variation" (FNV) models. The two models are often portrayed as mutually exclusive, respectively viewing clonal lineages as generalists versus specialists. Nonetheless...

  15. Sense and purpose of bilateral agreements - a general survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, O.

    1999-01-01

    Switzerland has concluded with its neighbouring States several bilateral agreements on nuclear information and on mutual help in case of catastrophes. The following general survey explains the sense and purpose of these agreements which complement the IAEA-Conventions referring to the same matters. (orig.) [de

  16. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured

  17. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  18. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Michael L; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-04-29

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed.

  19. General-Purpose Data Containers for Science and Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the SG38 international committee was formed to develop a modern structure to replace the ENDF-6 format for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data on a computer system. This committee divided the project into seven tasks. One of these tasks, the design of General-Purpose Data Containers (GPDCs), is described in this article. What type of data does SG38 need to store and why is the task called General-Purpose Data Containers? The most common types of data in an evaluated nuclear reaction database are representations of physical functions in tabulated forms. There is also a need to store 1-dimensional functions using truncated Legendre or polynomial (or others) expansions. The phrase General-Purpose implies that the containers are to be designed to store generic forms of tabulated data rather than one for each physical function. Also, where possible, it would be beneficial to design containers that can store data forms not currently used in evaluated nuclear database or at least be easily extended. In addition to containers for storing physical functions as tabulated data, other types of containers are needed. There exists a desire within SG38 to support the storage of documentation at various levels within an evaluated file. Containers for storing non-functional data (e.g., a list of numbers) as well as units and labels for axes are also needed. Herein, containers for storing physical functions are called functional containers. One of the goals for the general-purpose data containers task is to design containers that will be useful to other scientific and engineering applications. To meet this goal, task members should think outside of the immediate needs of evaluated nuclear data to ensure that the containers are general- purpose rather than simply repackaged versions of existing containers. While the examples in this article may be specific to nuclear reaction data, it is hoped that the end product will be useful for other applications. To this end, some

  20. How General-Purpose can a GPU be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Machanick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of graphics processing units (GPUs in general-purpose computation (GPGPU is a growing field. GPU instruction sets, while implementing a graphics pipeline, draw from a range of single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD architectures characteristic of the heyday of supercomputers. Yet only one of these SIMD instruction sets has been of application on a wide enough range of problems to survive the era when the full range of supercomputer design variants was being explored: vector instructions. This paper proposes a reconceptualization of the GPU as a multicore design with minimal exotic modes of parallelism so as to make GPGPU truly general.

  1. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  2. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares Delgado, Ademar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units Type: Talk Abstract: We present the ATLAS Trigger algorithms developed to exploit General­ Purpose Graphics Processor Units. ATLAS is a particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system has two levels, hardware-­based Level 1 and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. Performing the trigger event selection within the available farm resources presents a significant challenge that will increase future LHC upgrades. are being evaluated as a potential solution for trigger algorithms acceleration. Key factors determining the potential benefit of this new technology are the relative execution speedup, the number of GPUs required and the relative financial cost of the selected GPU. We have developed a trigger demonstrator which includes algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Cal...

  3. Space shuttle general purpose computers (GPCs) (current and future versions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Current and future versions of general purpose computers (GPCs) for space shuttle orbiters are represented in this frame. The two boxes on the left (AP101B) represent the current GPC configuration, with the input-output processor at far left and the central processing unit (CPU) at its side. The upgraded version combines both elements in a single unit (far right, AP101S).

  4. New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer. The new IBM unit is documented in table top views alone (S91-26867, S91-26868), with the onboard equipment it supports including the flight deck CRT screen and keypad (S91-26866), and next to the two earlier versions it replaces (S91-26869).

  5. Survey of advanced general-purpose software for robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latombe, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-controlled sensor-based robots will more and more common in industry. This paper attempts to survey the main trends of the development of advanced general-purpose software for robot manipulators. It is intended to make clear that robots are not only mechanical devices. They are truly programmable machines, and their programming, which occurs in an imperfectly modelled world,is somewhat different from conventional computer programming. (orig.)

  6. General Purpose Multimedia Dataset - GarageBand 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    This document describes a general purpose multimedia data-set to be used in cross-media machine learning problems. In more detail we describe the genre taxonomy applied at http://www.garageband.com, from where the data-set was collected, and how the taxonomy have been fused into a more human...... understandable taxonomy. Finally, a description of various features extracted from both the audio and text are presented....

  7. ENDF/B-4 General Purpose File 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.

    1980-04-01

    This document summarizes contents and documentation of the 1974 version of the General Purpose File of the ENDF/B Library maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. The Library contains numerical neutron reaction data for 90 isotopes or elements. The entire Library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  8. Incremental and developmental perspectives for general-purpose learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Plumed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stupefying success of Articial Intelligence (AI for specic problems, from recommender systems to self-driving cars, has not yet been matched with a similar progress in general AI systems, coping with a variety of (dierent problems. This dissertation deals with the long-standing problem of creating more general AI systems, through the analysis of their development and the evaluation of their cognitive abilities. It presents a declarative general-purpose learning system and a developmental and lifelong approach for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and forgetting. It also analyses the use of the use of more ability-oriented evaluation techniques for AI evaluation and provides further insight for the understanding of the concepts of development and incremental learning in AI systems.

  9. The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James

    1989-01-01

    The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.

  10. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  11. Installation of new Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) high bay 2, Spacecraft Electronics technician Ed Carter (right), wearing clean suit, prepares for (26864) and installs (26865) the new Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck avionics bay as Orbiter Systems Quality Control technician Doug Snider looks on. Both men work for NASA contractor Lockheed Space Operations Company. All three orbiters are being outfitted with the compact IBM unit, which replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer.

  12. Foam: A general purpose Monte Carlo cellular algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.

    2003-01-01

    A general-purpose, self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm implemented in the program Foam is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be n-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles cells. The next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyperplane is chosen by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution

  13. Using general-purpose compression algorithms for music analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louboutin, Corentin; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose compression algorithms encode files as dictionaries of substrings with the positions of these strings’ occurrences. We hypothesized that such algorithms could be used for pattern discovery in music. We compared LZ77, LZ78, Burrows–Wheeler and COSIATEC on classifying folk song...... in the input data, COSIATEC outperformed LZ77 with a mean F1 score of 0.123, compared with 0.053 for LZ77. However, when the music was processed a voice at a time, the F1 score for LZ77 more than doubled to 0.124. We also discovered a significant correlation between compression factor and F1 score for all...

  14. Using the general-purpose reactivity indicator: challenging examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James S M; Melin, Junia; Ayers, Paul W

    2016-03-01

    We elucidate the regioselectivity of nucleophilic attack on substituted benzenesulfonates, quinolines, and pyridines using a general-purpose reactivity indicator (GPRI) for electrophiles. We observe that the GPRI is most accurate when the incoming nucleophile resembles a point charge. We further observe that the GPRI often chooses reactive "dead ends" as the most reactive sites as well as sterically hindered reactive sites. This means that care must be taken to remove sites that are inherently unreactive. Generally, among sites where reactions actually occur, the GPRI identifies the sites in the molecule that lead to the kinetically favored product(s). Furthermore, the GPRI can discern which sites react with hard reagents and which sites react with soft reagents. Because it is currently impossible to use the mathematical framework of conceptual DFT to identify sterically inaccessible sites and reactive dead ends, the GPRI is primarily useful as an interpretative, not a predictive, tool.

  15. Applications for a general purpose optical beam propagation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Wallace, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Real world beam propagation and diffraction problems can rarely be solved by the analytical expressions commonly found in optics and lasers textbooks. These equations are typically valid only for paraxial geometries, for specific boundary conditions (e.g., infinite apertures), or for special assumptions (e.g., at focus). Numerical techniques must be used to solve the equations for the general case. LOTS, a public domain numerical beam propagation software package developed for this purpose, is a widely used and proven tool. The graphical presentation of results combined with a well designed command language make LOTS particularly user-friendly, and the recent implementation of LOTS on the IBM PC/XT family of desktop computes will make this capability available to a much larger group of users. This paper surveys several applications demonstrating the need for such a capability

  16. High vacuum general purpose scattering chamber for nuclear reaction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar; Ojha, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    To study the nuclear reactions induced by beam from medium energy accelerators, one of the most common facility required is a scattering chamber. In the scattering chamber, projectile collides with the target nucleus and the scattered reaction products are detected with various type of nuclear detector at different angles with respect to the beam. The experiments are performed under high vacuum to minimize the background reaction and the energy losses of the charged particles. To make the chamber general purpose various requirement of the experiments are incorporated into it. Changing of targets, changing angle of various detectors while in vacuum are the most desired features. The other features like ascertaining the beam spot size and position on the target, minimizing the background counts by proper beam dump, accurate positioning of the detector as per plan etc. are some of the important requirements

  17. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Andy; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Hoche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Lonnblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators ...

  18. General purpose heat source task group. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of thermal analyses and impact tests on a modified design of a 238 Pu-fueled general purpose heat source (GPHS) for spacecraft power supplies are presented. This work was performed to establish the safety of a heat source with pyrolytic graphite insulator shells located either inside or outside the graphite impact shell. This safety is dependent on the degree of aerodynamic heating of the heat source during reentry and on the ability of the heat source capsule to withstand impact after reentry. Analysis of wind tunnel and impact test data result in a recommended GPHS design which should meet all temperature and safety requirements. Further wind tunnel tests, drop tests, and impact tests are recommended to verify the safety of this design

  19. General-purpose parallel simulator for quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Jumpei; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    With current technologies, it seems to be very difficult to implement quantum computers with many qubits. It is therefore of importance to simulate quantum algorithms and circuits on the existing computers. However, for a large-size problem, the simulation often requires more computational power than is available from sequential processing. Therefore, simulation methods for parallel processors are required. We have developed a general-purpose simulator for quantum algorithms/circuits on the parallel computer (Sun Enterprise4500). It can simulate algorithms/circuits with up to 30 qubits. In order to test efficiency of our proposed methods, we have simulated Shor's factorization algorithm and Grover's database search, and we have analyzed robustness of the corresponding quantum circuits in the presence of both decoherence and operational errors. The corresponding results, statistics, and analyses are presented in this paper

  20. The RHIC general purpose multiplexed analog to digital converter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, R.

    1995-01-01

    A general purpose multiplexed analog to digital converter system is currently under development to support acquisition of analog signals for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system consists of a custom intelligent VME based controller module (V113) and a 14-bit 64 channel multiplexed A/D converter module (V114). The design features two independent scan groups, where one scan group is capable of acquiring 64 channels at 60 Hz, concurrently with the second scan group acquiring data at an aggregate rate of up to 80 k samples/second. An interface to the RHIC serially encoded event line is used to synchronize acquisition. Data is stored in a circular static RAM buffer on the controller module, then transferred to a commercial VMEbus CPU board and higher level workstations for plotting, report Generation, analysis and storage

  1. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  2. Foam: A general purpose Monte Carlo cellular algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.

    2002-01-01

    A general-purpose, self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm implemented in the program Foam is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be n-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or a Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called 'foam', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyperplane is driven by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution. (author)

  3. Foam A General purpose Monte Carlo Cellular Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    A general-purpose, self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm implemented in the program {\\tt Foam} is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be $n$-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or a Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, ``foam'', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyperplane is chosen by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution.

  4. General-purpose software for science technology calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    We have developed many general-purpose softwares for parallel processing of science technology calculation. This paper reported six softwares such as STA (Seamless Thinking Aid) basic soft, parallel numerical computation library, grid formation software for parallel computer, real-time visualizing system, parallel benchmark test system and object-oriented parallel programing method. STA is a user interface software to perform a total environment for parallel programing, a network computing environment for various parallel computers and a desktop computing environment via Web. Some examples using the above softwares are explained. One of them is a simultaneous parallel calculation of both analysis of flow and structure of supersonic transport to design of them. The other is various kinds of computer parallel calculations for nuclear fusion reaction such as a molecular dynamic calculation and a calculation of reactor structure and fluid. These softs are opened to the public by the home page {http://guide.tokai.jaeri.go.jp/ccse/}. (S.Y.)

  5. The Efficiency of Linda for General Purpose Scientific Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Mattson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Linda (Linda is a registered trademark of Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. is a programming language for coordinating the execution and interaction of processes. When combined with a language for computation (such as C or Fortran, the resulting hybrid language can be used to write portable programs for parallel and distributed multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD computers. The Linda programming model is based on operations that read, write, and erase a virtual shared memory. It is easy to use, and lets the programmer code in a very expressive, uncoupled programming style. These benefits, however, are of little value unless Linda programs execute efficiently. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that Linda programs are efficient making Linda an effective general purpose tool for programming MIMD parallel computers. Two arguments for Linda's efficiency are given; the first is based on Linda's implementation and the second on a range of case studies spanning a complete set of parallel algorithm classes.

  6. Selecting a general-purpose data compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Gary Jason

    1995-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center's Common Data Formate (CDF) is capable of storing many types of data such as scalar data items, vectors, and multidimensional arrays of bytes, integers, or floating point values. However, regardless of the dimensionality and data type, the data break down into a sequence of bytes that can be fed into a data compression function to reduce the amount of data without losing data integrity and thus remaining fully reconstructible. Because of the diversity of data types and high performance speed requirements, a general-purpose, fast, simple data compression algorithm is required to incorporate data compression into CDF. The questions to ask are how to evaluate and compare compression algorithms, and what compression algorithm meets all requirements. The object of this paper is to address these questions and determine the most appropriate compression algorithm to use within the CDF data management package that would be applicable to other software packages with similar data compression needs.

  7. General Purpose Technologies and their Implications for International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petsas Iordanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a simple model of trade and “quality-ladders” growth without scale effects to study the implications of general purpose technologies (GPTs for international trade. GPTs refer to a certain type of drastic innovations, such as electrification, the transistor, and the Internet, that are characterized by the pervasiveness in use, innovational complementarities, and technological dynamism. The model presents a two-country (Home and Foreign dynamic general equilibrium framework and incorporates GPT diffusion within Home that exhibits endogenous Schumpeterian growth. The model analyzes the long-run and transitional dynamic effects of a new GPT on the pattern of trade and relative wages. The main findings of the paper are: 1 when the GPT diffusion across industries is governed by S-curve dynamics, there are two steady-state equilibria: the initial steadystate arises before the adoption of the new GPT and the final one is reached after the GPT diffusion process has been completed, 2 when all industries at Home have adopted the new GPT, Home enjoys comparative advantage in a greater range of industries compared to Foreign, 3 during the transitional dynamics, Foreign gains back its competitiveness in some of the industries that lost its comparative advantage to Home.

  8. Use of general purpose graphics processing units with MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; White, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) to improve the performance of MODFLOW, an unstructured preconditioned conjugate gradient (UPCG) solver has been developed. The UPCG solver uses a compressed sparse row storage scheme and includes Jacobi, zero fill-in incomplete, and modified-incomplete lower-upper (LU) factorization, and generalized least-squares polynomial preconditioners. The UPCG solver also includes options for sequential and parallel solution on the central processing unit (CPU) using OpenMP. For simulations utilizing the GPGPU, all basic linear algebra operations are performed on the GPGPU; memory copies between the central processing unit CPU and GPCPU occur prior to the first iteration of the UPCG solver and after satisfying head and flow criteria or exceeding a maximum number of iterations. The efficiency of the UPCG solver for GPGPU and CPU solutions is benchmarked using simulations of a synthetic, heterogeneous unconfined aquifer with tens of thousands to millions of active grid cells. Testing indicates GPGPU speedups on the order of 2 to 8, relative to the standard MODFLOW preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solver, can be achieved when (1) memory copies between the CPU and GPGPU are optimized, (2) the percentage of time performing memory copies between the CPU and GPGPU is small relative to the calculation time, (3) high-performance GPGPU cards are utilized, and (4) CPU-GPGPU combinations are used to execute sequential operations that are difficult to parallelize. Furthermore, UPCG solver testing indicates GPGPU speedups exceed parallel CPU speedups achieved using OpenMP on multicore CPUs for preconditioners that can be easily parallelized.

  9. The purpose of the general practice consultation from the patients perspective - theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Hanne; Witt, Klaus; Malterud, Kirsti

    2001-01-01

    Consultation purposes, general practice, patients´expectations, patients satosfaction, patientcenteredness......Consultation purposes, general practice, patients´expectations, patients satosfaction, patientcenteredness...

  10. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy [PPE Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH25 9PN (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gieseke, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grellscheid, David [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Loennblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nurse, Emily [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Richardson, Peter [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seymour, Michael H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sjoestrand, Torbjoern [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Skands, Peter [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Webber, Bryan, E-mail: webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  11. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Loennblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjoestrand, Torbjoern; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  12. A VMEbus general-purpose data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninane, A.; Nemry, M.; Martou, J.L.; Somers, F.

    1992-01-01

    We present a general-purpose, VMEbus based, multiprocessor data acquisition and monitoring system. Events, handled by a master CPU, are kept at the disposal of data storage and monitoring processes which can run on distinct processors. They access either the complete set of data or a fraction of them, minimizing the acquisition dead-time. The system is built with the VxWorks 5.0 real time kernel to which we have added device drivers for data acquisition and monitoring. The acquisition is controlled and the data are displayed on a workstation. The user interface is written in C ++ and re-uses the classes of the Interviews and the NIH libraries. The communication between the control workstation and the VMEbus processors is made through SUN RPCs on an Ethernet link. The system will be used for, CAMAC based, data acquisition for nuclear physics experiments as well as for the VXI data taking with the 4π configuration (100 neutron detectors) of the Brussels-Caen-Louvian-Strasbourg DEMON collaboration. (author)

  13. High-Speed General Purpose Genetic Algorithm Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini Alinodehi, Seyed Pourya; Moshfe, Sajjad; Saber Zaeimian, Masoumeh; Khoei, Abdollah; Hadidi, Khairollah

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ultrafast steady-state genetic algorithm processor (GAP) is presented. Due to the heavy computational load of genetic algorithms (GAs), they usually take a long time to find optimum solutions. Hardware implementation is a significant approach to overcome the problem by speeding up the GAs procedure. Hence, we designed a digital CMOS implementation of GA in [Formula: see text] process. The proposed processor is not bounded to a specific application. Indeed, it is a general-purpose processor, which is capable of performing optimization in any possible application. Utilizing speed-boosting techniques, such as pipeline scheme, parallel coarse-grained processing, parallel fitness computation, parallel selection of parents, dual-population scheme, and support for pipelined fitness computation, the proposed processor significantly reduces the processing time. Furthermore, by relying on a built-in discard operator the proposed hardware may be used in constrained problems that are very common in control applications. In the proposed design, a large search space is achievable through the bit string length extension of individuals in the genetic population by connecting the 32-bit GAPs. In addition, the proposed processor supports parallel processing, in which the GAs procedure can be run on several connected processors simultaneously.

  14. Interfacial Properties of EXXPRO(TM) and General Purpose Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, Jon; Qu, S.; Ge, S.; Ngyuen, D.; Li, Z.; Peiffer, D.; Song, L.; Dias, J. A.; McElrath, K. O.

    1998-03-01

    EXXPRO(Trademark) elastomers are used for tires and many other applications. This elastomer (denoted as BIMS) is a random copolymer of p-methylstyrene (MS) and polyisobutylene (I) with varying degrees of PMS content and bromination (B) on the p-methyl group. BIMS is impermeable to gases, and has good heat, ozone and flex resistance. Very often general purpose elastomers are blended with BIMS. The interfacial width between polybutadiene and BIMS is a sensitive function of the Br level and PMS content. By neutron reflectivity (NR), we studied the dynamics of interface formation as a function of time and temperature for BIMS with varying degrees of PMS and Br. We found that in addition to the bulk parameters, the total film thickness and the proximity of an interactive surface can affect the interfacial interaction rates. The interfacial properties can also be modified by inclusion of particles, such as carbon black (a filler component in tire rubbers). Results will be presented on the relation between the interfacial width as measured by NR and compatibilization studies via AFM and LFM.

  15. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; /Edinburgh U.; Butterworth, Jonathan; /University Coll. London; Gieseke, Stefan; /Karlsruhe U., ITP; Grellscheid, David; /Durham U., IPPP; Hoche, Stefan; /SLAC; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys. /CERN; Nurse, Emily; /University Coll. London; Richardson, Peter; /Durham U., IPPP; Schumann, Steffen; /Heidelberg U.; Seymour, Michael H.; /Manchester U.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Skands, Peter; /CERN; Webber, Bryan; /Cambridge U.

    2011-03-03

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  16. Foam A General Purpose Cellular Monte Carlo Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, Stanislaw

    2003-01-01

    A general purpose, self-adapting, Monte Carlo (MC) event generator (simulator) is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be $n$-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called ``foam'', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyper-plane is driven by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution. As any MC generator, it can also be used for the MC integration. With the typical personal computer CPU, the program is able to perform adaptive integration/simulation at relatively small number of dimensions ($\\leq 16$). With the continu...

  17. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) Version 6 - General Purpose Thermo-Fluid Network Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.

  18. SNAP: A General Purpose Network Analysis and Graph Mining Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovec, Jure; Sosič, Rok

    2016-10-01

    Large networks are becoming a widely used abstraction for studying complex systems in a broad set of disciplines, ranging from social network analysis to molecular biology and neuroscience. Despite an increasing need to analyze and manipulate large networks, only a limited number of tools are available for this task. Here, we describe Stanford Network Analysis Platform (SNAP), a general-purpose, high-performance system that provides easy to use, high-level operations for analysis and manipulation of large networks. We present SNAP functionality, describe its implementational details, and give performance benchmarks. SNAP has been developed for single big-memory machines and it balances the trade-off between maximum performance, compact in-memory graph representation, and the ability to handle dynamic graphs where nodes and edges are being added or removed over time. SNAP can process massive networks with hundreds of millions of nodes and billions of edges. SNAP offers over 140 different graph algorithms that can efficiently manipulate large graphs, calculate structural properties, generate regular and random graphs, and handle attributes and meta-data on nodes and edges. Besides being able to handle large graphs, an additional strength of SNAP is that networks and their attributes are fully dynamic, they can be modified during the computation at low cost. SNAP is provided as an open source library in C++ as well as a module in Python. We also describe the Stanford Large Network Dataset, a set of social and information real-world networks and datasets, which we make publicly available. The collection is a complementary resource to our SNAP software and is widely used for development and benchmarking of graph analytics algorithms.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6890 - General purpose disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use... disinfectant is a germicide intended to process noncritical medical devices and equipment surfaces. A general... prior to terminal sterilization or high level disinfection. Noncritical medical devices make only...

  20. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, B. van der; Visser, J.; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.; Kulis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a 'soft core' CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four

  1. A damage mechanics based general purpose interface/contact element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chengyong

    laboratory test data presented in the literature. The results demonstrate that the proposed element and the damage law perform very well. The most important scientific contribution of this dissertation is the proposed damage criterion based on second law of thermodynamic and entropy of the system. The proposed general purpose interface/contact element is another contribution of this research. Compared to the previous adhoc interface elements proposed in the literature, the new one is, much more powerful and includes creep, plastic deformations, sliding, temperature, damage, cyclic behavior and fatigue life in a unified formulation.

  2. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  3. 7 CFR 249.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) General § 249.1 General.... 2011, et seq.), and to any other Federal or State food or nutrition assistance program under which...

  4. 7 CFR 210.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... general and special cash assistance and donations of foods acquired by the Department to be used to assist..., preparation and service of nutritious lunches, payment of funds, use of program funds, program monitoring, and...

  5. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W.; Blair, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices

  6. RoboCon: A general purpose telerobotic control center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Noakes, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Schempf, H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes human factors issues involved in the design of RoboCon, a multi-purpose control center for use in US Department of Energy remote handling applications. RoboCon is intended to be a flexible, modular control center capable of supporting a wide variety of robotic devices.

  7. General Purpose Segmentation for Microorganisms in Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian H. Nesgaard; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rankl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving generalized segmentation of microorganisms in mi- croscopy images. It employs a pixel-wise classification strategy based on local features. Multilayer percep- trons are utilized for classification of the local features and is trained for each sp...

  8. A general purpose tomographic program with combined inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenbin; Dong Jiafu; Li Fanzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general tomographic program has been developed by combining the Bessel expansion with the Zernicke expansion. It is useful for studying of the magnetic island structure of the tearing mode and in reconstructing the density profiles of impurities in tokamak plasmas. This combined method have the advantages of both expansions, i.e. there will be no spurious images in the edge and it will be of high inverse precision in the center of plasma

  9. MONK - a general purpose Monte Carlo neutronics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherriffs, V.S.W.

    1978-01-01

    MONK is a Monte Carlo neutronics code written principally for criticality calculations relevant to the transport, storage, and processing of fissile material. The code exploits the ability of the Monte Carlo method to represent complex shapes with very great accuracy. The nuclear data used is derived from the UK Nuclear Data File processed to the required format by a subsidiary program POND. A general description is given of the MONK code together with the subsidiary program SCAN which produces diagrams of the system specified. Details of the data input required by MONK and SCAN are also given. (author)

  10. An embedded domain specific language for general purpose vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Przemyslaw

    2017-01-01

    Portable SIMD code generation is an open problem in modern High Performance Computing systems. Performance portability can already be achieved, however it might fail when user-framework interaction is required. Of all portable vectorization techniques, explicit vectorization, using wrapper-class libraries, is proven to achieve the fastest performance, however it does not exploit optimization opportunities outside the simplest algebraic primitives. A more advanced language is therefore required, but the design of a new independent language is not feasible due to its high costs. This work describes an Embedded Domain Specific Language for solving generalized 1-D vectorization problems. The language is implemented using C++ as a host language and published as a lightweight library. By decoupling expression creation from evaluation a wider range of problems can be solved, without sacrificing runtime efficiency. In this paper we discuss design patterns necessary, but not limited, to efficient EDSL implementatio...

  11. GENERAL ASPECTS AND PURPOSE OF THE CONSUMMATION CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MATEESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper mainly tackles the consummation contract and the ways in which it forms, adjusts and helps the citizen, in the general frame of the consumer’s rights. The consummation contract is a legal instrument for institutionalizing the commercial operations between a professional and the consumer. This type of instrument has been especially created to help the citizen in being adequately treated both correctly and adequately in all consummation matters. In the 20th century, the need to bring the commercial relations between professionals and citizens under regulation became imperative. Taking into account the socio-humanistic development rhythm, the consummation contact became a way of guaranteeing for the citizens’ rights in consummation matters and, at the same time, it confers a legal frame to guide and direct the merchants. Since 2007, the year when Romania adhered the European Union, the consumers’ rights became even more important, as the fact that the European Union focuses on the rights of all its citizens and the way in which they are treated by the merchants from a commercial point of view, was widely recognized. Once Romania adhered to a commercial frame which embeds over 500 million inhabitants, the dimension of the rights and obligations regarding consummation became an ever stronger argument in bringing the legislation under regulation. Eventually, clarifying the principles that founded the consummation contract will determine the legal frame in which it revolves and will bring to light the utility it has for the citizens, its subsequent employments and all things that should be further added to it in order to ensure an even better protection and settlement, in legal terms, of the commercial relations between a merchant and one or more citizens.

  12. Lipase polystyrene giant amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonia, Kelly; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2002-04-24

    A new type of giant amphiphilic molecule has been synthesized by covalently connecting a lipase enzyme headgroup to a maleimide-functionalized polystyrene tail (40 repeat units). The resulting biohybrid forms catalytic micellar rods in water.

  13. Lipseys Quest for the Micro-foundations of GPT-the General Purpose Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The construct of the General Purpose Technology misses its micro-foundation (as observed by Richard Lipsey). We present a possible solution in the General Purpose Engines. These are the basic innovations and the clusters of contributing and derived innovation, that appear in a Schumpeterian 'cluster

  14. 78 FR 65300 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... (NOA) for General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center Construction (GPW/IT)--Tracy Site... proposed action to construct a General Purpose Warehouse and Information Technology Center at Defense..., Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350- 3100. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ann Engelberger at (703) 767...

  15. An Aerodynamic Database for the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag Bomb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamoorthy, L

    1997-01-01

    The drag database of the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag bomb, the primary gravity weapon in the RAAF inventory, has some shortcomings in the quality and traceability of data, and in the variations due...

  16. Implementation elements for conversion of general-purpose freeway lane into high-occupancy-vehicle lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of a general-purpose freeway into a high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane is an alternative to infrastructure addition for HOV system implementation. Research indicates that lane conversion is feasible technically if sufficient HOV usage and m...

  17. Low Overhead Real-Time Computing With General Purpose Operating Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... In larger systems and more recently, general-purpose operating systems such as SGI IRIX and Linux are used for new projects because they already have multiprocessor and device driver support as well a large user base...

  18. 24 CFR 990.310 - Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Management Systems, Monitoring, and Reporting § 990.310 Purpose—General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting. All PHA financial management systems, reporting, and monitoring of program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose-General policy on financial...

  19. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  20. [Violence for educational purpose: Representations of general practitioners in the Paris area, France. A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brie, Claire; Piet, Emmanuelle; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners. We have performed semi-directed interviews of general practitioners in the Paris, France region (Île-de-France). Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed by two investigators. Interviews were conducted with 20 physicians (November 2015-January 2016). General practitioners considered that physical, verbal or psychological abuse had possible negative consequences on children. Uncertainty regarding the consequences of violence was a cause of tolerance towards violence for educational purpose, depending on the act committed and the context, as perceived by nearly all practitioners. General practitioners expressed interest in the field. They cited their own education and experience as the main obstacles to action. Most of them expressed a feeling of failure when they screened or took care of violence for educational purpose. This study suggests that doctors can participate in supporting the parents in the prevention of violence for educational purpose. Support to parents would need specific medical training as well as a societal change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of a general purpose (RS-232C) analog-to-digital data converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Q.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design a general purpose hardware that interfaces analog devices with any desirable computer supporting the RS-232 interface. The hardware incorporates bidirectional data transmission at 1,200 bps, 2,400 bps, 4800 bps, 9,600 bps, 19,200 pbs and 38400 bps. The communication / processing software has been written in C language that incorporates the idea of the potability of the software from one environment to the other. (author)

  2. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  3. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 3: Volume VII. General purpose display components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    A catalog of commercially available physical protection equipment has been prepared under MITRE contract AT(49-24)-0376 for use by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Included is information on barrier structures and equipment, interior and exterior intrusion detection sensors, entry (access) control devices, surveillance and alarm assessment equipment, contraband detection sensors, automated response equipment, general purpose displays and general purpose communications, with one volume devoted to each of these eight areas. For each item of equipment the information included consists of performance, physical, cost and supply/logistics data. The entire catalog is contained in three notebooks for ease in its use by licensing and inspection staff at NRC

  4. Report on the operation and utilization of general purpose use computer system 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Kamimura, Tetsuo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    The General Purpose Use Computer System of National Institute for Fusion Science was replaced in January, 2001. The System is almost fully used after the first three months operation. Reported here is the process of the introduction of the new system and the state of the operation and utilization of the System between January and March, 2001, especially the detailed utilization of March. (author)

  5. Some thermo-electromagnetic applications to fusion technology of a general purpose CAD package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdinio, P.; Molfino, P.; Molinari, G.; Raia, G.; Rosatelli, F.; Viviani, A.

    1985-01-01

    A general purpose CAD package is applied to the solution of problems related to fusion technology. The problems solved are the interacting electromagnetic and thermal fields in a resistive toroidal coil and the design of the poloidal field coils in Tokamak machines. In both cases, the procedure used is reported and the results obtained are displayed and discussed

  6. Some thermo-electromagnetic applications to fusion technology of a general purpose CAD package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdinio, P.; Molfino, P.; Molinari, G.; Viviani, A.; Raia, G.; Rosatelli, F.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose CAD package is applied to the solution of problems related to fusion technology. The problems solved are the interacting electromagnetic and thermal fields in a resistive toroidal coil and the design of the poloidal field coils in Tokamak machines. In both cases, the procedure used is reported and the results obtained are displayed and discussed. (author)

  7. BALTORO a general purpose code for coupling discrete ordinates and Monte-Carlo radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazula, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The general purpose code BALTORO was written for coupling the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo /MC/ with the one-dimensional Discrete Ordinates /DO/ radiation transport calculations. The quantity of a radiation-induced /neutrons or gamma-rays/ nuclear effect or the score from a radiation-yielding nuclear effect can be analysed in this way. (author)

  8. An Evaluation of Classroom Activities and Exercises in ELT Classroom for General Purposes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It is through effective implementation of activities and exercises which students can be motivated and consequently lead to language learning. However, as an insider, the experience of teaching English for General Purposes (EGP) course indicates that it has some problems which need to be modified. In order to evaluate the EGP course,…

  9. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations. MVP version 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yasunobu

    2017-01-01

    JAEA has developed a general-purpose neutron/photon transport Monte Carlo code MVP. This paper describes the recent development of the MVP code and reviews the basic features and capabilities. In addition, capabilities implemented in Version 3 are also described. (author)

  10. Experience of application of the general-purpose pressure and pressure drop transformers on nitrogen tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    An experience of application of the general-purpose pressure and pressure drop transformers at the Nuclear Power Engineering Institute of the BSSR Academy of Sciences for measurements on nitrogen tetroxide has been described. The concrete recommendations on the types of transformers and the volume of preparational work before putting them into operation have been given

  11. A general-purpose trigger processor system and its application to fast vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, M.; Banas, E.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.

    1997-12-01

    A general-purpose hardware trigger system has been developed. The system comprises programmable trigger processors and pattern generator/samplers. The hardware design of the system is described. An application as a prototype of the very fast vertex trigger in an asymmetric B-factory at KEK is also explained. (author)

  12. A general purpose program system for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuren; Xing Yuguo; Jin Bingnian

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduced the functions, structure and system generation of a general purpose program system (Fermilab MULTI) for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis. Works concerning the reconstruction of MULTI system level 0.5 which can be run on the computer PDP-11/23 are also introduced briefly

  13. Perbandingan Kemampuan Embedded Computer dengan General Purpose Computer untuk Pengolahan Citra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herryawan Pujiharsono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi komputer membuat pengolahan citra saat ini banyak dikembangkan untuk dapat membantu manusia di berbagai bidang pekerjaan. Namun, tidak semua bidang pekerjaan dapat dikembangkan dengan pengolahan citra karena tidak mendukung penggunaan komputer sehingga mendorong pengembangan pengolahan citra dengan mikrokontroler atau mikroprosesor khusus. Perkembangan mikrokontroler dan mikroprosesor memungkinkan pengolahan citra saat ini dapat dikembangkan dengan embedded computer atau single board computer (SBC. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan embedded computer dalam mengolah citra dan membandingkan hasilnya dengan komputer pada umumnya (general purpose computer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan mengukur waktu eksekusi dari empat operasi pengolahan citra yang diberikan pada sepuluh ukuran citra. Hasil yang diperoleh pada penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa optimasi waktu eksekusi embedded computer lebih baik jika dibandingkan dengan general purpose computer dengan waktu eksekusi rata-rata embedded computer adalah 4-5 kali waktu eksekusi general purpose computer dan ukuran citra maksimal yang tidak membebani CPU terlalu besar untuk embedded computer adalah 256x256 piksel dan untuk general purpose computer adalah 400x300 piksel.

  14. Application of a general purpose finite element program system in pressure vessel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, B.; Sandsmark, N.; Medonos, S.

    1977-01-01

    Main advantages of using general purpose finite element program systems in structural analysis are summarized. Several illustrative applications of the program system SESAM-69 to pressure vessel problems are described. The first example is a dynamic analysis of the motor housing of the internal main circulation pump of a BWR nuclear reactor. The next example is a transient heat conduction and stress analysis of deflector of feeding nozzle of PWR nuclear reactor. Then, numerical calculations of stress intensity factors and fatigue crack growth of semi-elliptical surface cracks are discussed. And finally, an elasto-plastic analysis of a thick plate with edge-cracks is considered. It is concluded that due to the fact that general purpose finite element program systems are general and user-orientated, they will gain increasingly higher popularity in the years ahead

  15. 21 CFR 862.2050 - General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or... TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2050 General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use. (a) Identification. General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or...

  16. Real-time radar signal processing using GPGPU (general-purpose graphic processing unit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Cai, Jingxiao; Palmer, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to develop real-time signal processing chain for general phased array radar on NVIDIA GPUs(Graphical Processing Units) using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) libraries such as cuBlas and cuFFT, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. The processed results are rigorously verified against those from the CPUs. Performance benchmarked in computation time with various input data cube sizes are compared across GPUs and CPUs. Through the analysis, it will be demonstrated that GPGPUs (General Purpose GPU) real-time processing of the array radar data is possible with relatively low-cost commercial GPUs.

  17. Discrete-Event Execution Alternatives on General Purpose Graphical Processing Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.

    2006-01-01

    Graphics cards, traditionally designed as accelerators for computer graphics, have evolved to support more general-purpose computation. General Purpose Graphical Processing Units (GPGPUs) are now being used as highly efficient, cost-effective platforms for executing certain simulation applications. While most of these applications belong to the category of time-stepped simulations, little is known about the applicability of GPGPUs to discrete event simulation (DES). Here, we identify some of the issues and challenges that the GPGPU stream-based interface raises for DES, and present some possible approaches to moving DES to GPGPUs. Initial performance results on simulation of a diffusion process show that DES-style execution on GPGPU runs faster than DES on CPU and also significantly faster than time-stepped simulations on either CPU or GPGPU.

  18. Design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan

    2005-01-01

    It is very important for studying the radiation damage effects and mechanism systematically about CCD to develop a general-purpose test platform. The paper discusses the design method of general-purpose driving circuit for CCD based on CPLD and the realization approach. A main controller has being designed to read the data file from the outer memory, setup the correlative parameter registers and produce the driving pulses according with parameter request strictly, which is based on MAX7000S by using MAX-PLUS II software. The basic driving circuit module has being finished based on this method. The output waveform of the module is the same figure as the simulation waveform. The result indicates that the design method is feasible. (authors)

  19. ABAQUS-EPGEN: a general-purpose finite-element code. Volume 1. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbitt, H.D.; Karlsson, B.I.; Sorensen, E.P.

    1982-10-01

    This document is the User's Manual for ABAQUS/EPGEN, a general purpose finite element computer program, designed specifically to serve advanced structural analysis needs. The program contains very general libraries of elements, materials and analysis procedures, and is highly modular, so that complex combinations of features can be put together to model physical problems. The program is aimed at production analysis needs, and for this purpose aspects such as ease-of-use, reliability, flexibility and efficiency have received maximum attention. The input language is designed to make it straightforward to describe complicated models; the analysis procedures are highly automated with the program choosing time or load increments based on user supplied tolerances and controls; and the program offers a wide range of post-processing options for display of the analysis results

  20. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed hear are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  1. Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport monte carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Niita, Koji

    2002-01-01

    The high-energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which has been developed at JAERI, was improved for the high-energy heavy ion transport calculation by incorporating the JQMD code, the SPAR code and the Shen formula. The new NMTC/JAM named PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) is the first general-purpose heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code over the incident energies from several MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon. (author)

  2. Comparison of progressive addition lenses for general purpose and for computer vision: an office field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    Two types of progressive addition lenses (PALs) were compared in an office field study: 1. General purpose PALs with continuous clear vision between infinity and near reading distances and 2. Computer vision PALs with a wider zone of clear vision at the monitor and in near vision but no clear distance vision. Twenty-three presbyopic participants wore each type of lens for two weeks in a double-masked four-week quasi-experimental procedure that included an adaptation phase (Weeks 1 and 2) and a test phase (Weeks 3 and 4). Questionnaires on visual and musculoskeletal conditions as well as preferences regarding the type of lenses were administered. After eight more weeks of free use of the spectacles, the preferences were assessed again. The ergonomic conditions were analysed from photographs. Head inclination when looking at the monitor was significantly lower by 2.3 degrees with the computer vision PALs than with the general purpose PALs. Vision at the monitor was judged significantly better with computer PALs, while distance vision was judged better with general purpose PALs; however, the reported advantage of computer vision PALs differed in extent between participants. Accordingly, 61 per cent of the participants preferred the computer vision PALs, when asked without information about lens design. After full information about lens characteristics and additional eight weeks of free spectacle use, 44 per cent preferred the computer vision PALs. On average, computer vision PALs were rated significantly better with respect to vision at the monitor during the experimental part of the study. In the final forced-choice ratings, approximately half of the participants preferred either the computer vision PAL or the general purpose PAL. Individual factors seem to play a role in this preference and in the rated advantage of computer vision PALs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  3. A new general purpose event horizon finder for 3D numerical spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, Peter

    2003-01-01

    I present a new general purpose event horizon finder for full 3D numerical spacetimes. It works by evolving a complete null surface backwards in time. The null surface is described as the zero-level set of a scalar function, which in principle is defined everywhere. This description of the surface allows the surface, trivially, to change topology, making this event horizon finder able to handle numerical spacetimes where two (or more) black holes merge into a single final black hole

  4. A prepaid case study: Ready Credit’s general-purpose & transit-fare programs

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2012-01-01

    Today, prepaid cards are used in dozens of payment applications. To examine the most recent developments, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop on August 22, 2011. Leading the workshop was Tim Walsh, president and chief executive officer of Ready Credit Corporation, a firm that developed network-branded prepaid cards for use in transit-fare systems and also markets general-purpose, reloadable prepaid cards to consumers. Walsh discussed the uniq...

  5. Design of General-purpose Industrial signal acquisition system in a large scientific device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bin; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    In order to measure the industrial signal of a large scientific device experiment, a set of industrial data general-purpose acquisition system has been designed. It can collect 4~20mA current signal and 0~10V voltage signal. Through the practical experiments, it shows that the system is flexible, reliable, convenient and economical, and the system has characters of high definition and strong anti-interference ability. Thus, the system fully meets the design requirements..

  6. Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Phillip; Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T

    2018-02-13

    Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.

  7. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  8. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  9. Design of tallying function for general purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan Danhua; Li Gang; Deng Li; Zhang Baoyin

    2013-01-01

    A new postponed accumulation algorithm was proposed. Based on JCOGIN (J combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport infrastructure) framework and the postponed accumulation algorithm, the tallying function of the general purpose Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code JMCT was improved markedly. JMCT gets a higher tallying efficiency than MCNP 4C by 28% for simple geometry model, and JMCT is faster than MCNP 4C by two orders of magnitude for complicated repeated structure model. The available ability of tallying function for JMCT makes firm foundation for reactor analysis and multi-step burnup calculation. (authors)

  10. General-purpose chemical analyzer for on-line analyses of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Kronberg, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    An automated analyzer is being developed to perform analytical measurements on radioactive solutions on-line in a hostile environment. This General Purpose Chemical Analyzer (GPCA) samples a process stream, adds reagents, measures solution absorbances or electrode potentials, and automatically calculates the results. The use of modular components, under microprocessor control, permits a single analyzer design to carry out many types of analyses. This paper discusses the more important design criteria for the GPCA, and describes the equipment being tested in a prototype unit

  11. Software design of a general purpose data acquisition and control executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.G.; Minor, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The software design of an executive which performs general purpose data acquisition, monitoring, and control is presented. The executive runs on a memory-based mini or micro-computer and communicates with a disk-based computer where data analysis and display are done. The executive design stresses reliability and versatility, and has yielded software which can provide control and monitoring for widely different hardware systems. Applications of this software on two major fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be described

  12. Specialized Monte Carlo codes versus general-purpose Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, Vadim; DesRosiers, Colleen; Papiez, Lech; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2002-01-01

    The possibilities of Monte Carlo modeling for dose calculations and optimization treatment are quite limited in radiation oncology applications. The main reason is that the Monte Carlo technique for dose calculations is time consuming while treatment planning may require hundreds of possible cases of dose simulations to be evaluated for dose optimization. The second reason is that general-purpose codes widely used in practice, require an experienced user to customize them for calculations. This paper discusses the concept of Monte Carlo code design that can avoid the main problems that are preventing wide spread use of this simulation technique in medical physics. (authors)

  13. General purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of cosmological domain wall network evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J R C C C; Martins, C J A P

    2017-10-01

    Topological defects unavoidably form at symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. To probe the parameter space of theoretical models and set tighter experimental constraints (exploiting the recent advances in astrophysical observations), one requires more and more demanding simulations, and therefore more hardware resources and computation time. Improving the speed and efficiency of existing codes is essential. Here we present a general purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of the canonical Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm for the evolution of cosmological domain wall networks. This is ported to the Open Computing Language standard, and as a consequence significant speedups are achieved both in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D simulations.

  14. A Real-Time Programmer's Tour of General-Purpose L4 Microkernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ruocco Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Abstract L4-embedded is a microkernel successfully deployed in mobile devices with soft real-time requirements. It now faces the challenges of tightly integrated systems, in which user interface, multimedia, OS, wireless protocols, and even software-defined radios must run on a single CPU. In this paper we discuss the pros and cons of L4-embedded for real-time systems design, focusing on the issues caused by the extreme speed optimisations it inherited from its general-purpose ancestors. Sinc...

  15. A Real-Time Programmer's Tour of General-Purpose L4 Microkernels

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Ruocco

    2008-01-01

    L4-embedded is a microkernel successfully deployed in mobile devices with soft real-time requirements. It now faces the challenges of tightly integrated systems, in which user interface, multimedia, OS, wireless protocols, and even software-defined radios must run on a single CPU. In this paper we discuss the pros and cons of L4-embedded for real-time systems design, focusing on the issues caused by the extreme speed optimisations it inherited from its general-purpose ancestors. Since these i...

  16. Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)

  17. General purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of cosmological domain wall network evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. R. C. C. C.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Topological defects unavoidably form at symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. To probe the parameter space of theoretical models and set tighter experimental constraints (exploiting the recent advances in astrophysical observations), one requires more and more demanding simulations, and therefore more hardware resources and computation time. Improving the speed and efficiency of existing codes is essential. Here we present a general purpose graphics-processing-unit implementation of the canonical Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm for the evolution of cosmological domain wall networks. This is ported to the Open Computing Language standard, and as a consequence significant speedups are achieved both in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D simulations.

  18. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  19. Interfacing a General Purpose Fluid Network Flow Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Popok, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski (SINDA/G). The flow code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasi-steady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.

  20. Implementation of the dynamic Monte Carlo method for transient analysis in the general purpose code Tripoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjenitzer, Bart L.; Hoogenboom, J. Eduard, E-mail: B.L.Sjenitzer@TUDelft.nl, E-mail: J.E.Hoogenboom@TUDelft.nl [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    A new Dynamic Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code Tripoli 4.6.1. With this new method incorporated, a general purpose code can be used for safety transient analysis, such as the movement of a control rod or in an accident scenario. To make the Tripoli code ready for calculating on dynamic systems, the Tripoli scheme had to be altered to incorporate time steps, to include the simulation of delayed neutron precursors and to simulate prompt neutron chains. The modified Tripoli code is tested on two sample cases, a steady-state system and a subcritical system and the resulting neutron fluxes behave just as expected. The steady-state calculation has a constant neutron flux over time and this result shows the stability of the calculation. The neutron flux stays constant with acceptable variance. This also shows that the starting conditions are determined correctly. The sub-critical case shows that the code can also handle dynamic systems with a varying neutron flux. (author)

  1. Implementation of the dynamic Monte Carlo method for transient analysis in the general purpose code Tripoli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjenitzer, Bart L.; Hoogenboom, J. Eduard

    2011-01-01

    A new Dynamic Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code Tripoli 4.6.1. With this new method incorporated, a general purpose code can be used for safety transient analysis, such as the movement of a control rod or in an accident scenario. To make the Tripoli code ready for calculating on dynamic systems, the Tripoli scheme had to be altered to incorporate time steps, to include the simulation of delayed neutron precursors and to simulate prompt neutron chains. The modified Tripoli code is tested on two sample cases, a steady-state system and a subcritical system and the resulting neutron fluxes behave just as expected. The steady-state calculation has a constant neutron flux over time and this result shows the stability of the calculation. The neutron flux stays constant with acceptable variance. This also shows that the starting conditions are determined correctly. The sub-critical case shows that the code can also handle dynamic systems with a varying neutron flux. (author)

  2. Power performance of the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Lombardo, J.J.; Rock, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GRHS-RTG) has been developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun. A total of five nuclear-heated generators and one electrically heated generator have been built and tested, proving out the design concept and meeting the specification requirements. The GPHS-RTG design is built upon the successful-technology used in the RTGs flown on the two NASA Voyager spacecraft and two US Air Force communications satellites. THe GPHS-RTG converts about 4400 W(t) from the nuclear heat source into at least 285 W(e) at beginning of mission (BOM). The GPHS-RTG consists of two major components: the General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and the Converter. A conceptual drawing of the GPHs-RTG is presented and its design and performance are described

  3. Economic selection index development for Beefmaster cattle II: General-purpose breeding objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K P; MacNeil, M D; Lewis, R M; Spangler, M L

    2017-05-01

    An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means. Relative economic values for the objective traits calving difficultly direct (CDd), calving difficulty maternal (CDm), weaning weight direct (WWd), weaning weight maternal (WWm), mature cow weight (MW), and heifer pregnancy (HP) were -2.11, -1.53, 18.49, 11.28, -33.46, and 1.19, respectively. Consequently, under the scenario assumed herein, the greatest improvements in profitability could be made by decreasing maintenance energy costs associated with MW followed by improvements in weaning weight. The accuracy of the index lies between 0.218 (phenotypic-based index selection) and 0.428 (breeding values known without error). Implementation of this index would facilitate genetic improvement and increase profitability of Beefmaster cattle operations with a general-purpose breeding objective when replacement females are retained and with weaned calves as the sale end point.

  4. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.

  5. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  6. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  7. Knowledge Management Systems as an Interdisciplinary Communication and Personalized General-Purpose Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of human civilization, Knowledge Management (KM processes have co-evolved in line with General-Purpose-Technologies (GPT, such as writing, printing, and information and communication systems. As evidenced by the recent shift from information scarcity to abundance, GPTs are capable of drastically altering societies due to their game-changing impact on our spheres of work and personal development. This paper looks at the prospect of whether a novel Personal Knowledge Management (PKM concept supported by a prototype system has got what it takes to grow into a transformative General-Purpose-Technology. Following up on a series of papers, the KM scenario of a decentralizing revolution where individuals and self-organized groups yield more power and autonomy is examined according to a GPT's essential characteristics, including a wide scope for improvement and elaboration (in people's private, professional and societal life, applicability across a broad range of uses in a wide variety of products and processes (in multi-disciplinary educational and work contexts, and strong complementarities with existing or potential new technologies (like organizational KM Systems and a proposed World Heritage of Memes Repository. The result portrays the PKM concept as a strong candidate due to its personal, autonomous, bottom-up, collaborative, interdisciplinary, and creativity-supporting approach destined to advance the availability, quantity, and quality of the world extelligence and to allow for a wider sharing and faster diffusion of ideas across current disciplinary and opportunity divides.

  8. A randomised comparison between an inexpensive, general-purpose headlight and a purpose-built surgical headlight on users' visual acuity and colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, I; Sayles, M; Nistor, M; McRae, A R

    2014-02-01

    To determine if there are any differences in near visual acuity and colour vision between an inexpensive general-purpose light emitting diode (LED) headlight and a purpose-built surgical LED headlight. A prospective study was conducted sequentially comparing near visual acuity and colour vision, the headlights being tested in random order, in a testing room with a constant minimal amount of background light. The participants were NHS employee volunteers, with self-declared normal (or corrected) vision, working in occupations requiring full literacy. For visual acuity, outcome was measured by recording the smallest font legible when using each headlight when the subject read a near visual acuity test card. For colour vision, the outcome was passing or failing the Ishihara test. There was no statistically significant difference between the general-purpose and the purpose-built headlights in users' near visual acuity or colour vision.

  9. Design of a general-purpose European compound screening library for EU-OPENSCREEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Dragos; Lisurek, Michael; Rupp, Bernd; Kühne, Ronald; Specker, Edgar; von Kries, Jens; Rognan, Didier; Andersson, C David; Almqvist, Fredrik; Elofsson, Mikael; Enqvist, Per-Anders; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Remez, Nikita; Mestres, Jordi; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexander; Hibert, Marcel; Quintana, Jordi; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a collaborative effort to define and apply a protocol for the rational selection of a general-purpose screening library, to be used by the screening platforms affiliated with the EU-OPENSCREEN initiative. It is designed as a standard source of compounds for primary screening against novel biological targets, at the request of research partners. Given the general nature of the potential applications of this compound collection, the focus of the selection strategy lies on ensuring chemical stability, absence of reactive compounds, screening-compliant physicochemical properties, loose compliance to drug-likeness criteria (as drug design is a major, but not exclusive application), and maximal diversity/coverage of chemical space, aimed at providing hits for a wide spectrum of drugable targets. Finally, practical availability/cost issues cannot be avoided. The main goal of this publication is to inform potential future users of this library about its conception, sources, and characteristics. The outline of the selection procedure, notably of the filtering rules designed by a large committee of European medicinal chemists and chemoinformaticians, may be of general methodological interest for the screening/medicinal chemistry community. The selection task of 200K molecules out of a pre-filtered set of 1.4M candidates was shared by five independent European research groups, each picking a subset of 40K compounds according to their own in-house methodology and expertise. An in-depth analysis of chemical space coverage of the library serves not only to characterize the collection, but also to compare the various chemoinformatics-driven selection procedures of maximal diversity sets. Compound selections contributed by various participating groups were mapped onto general-purpose self-organizing maps (SOMs) built on the basis of marketed drugs and bioactive reference molecules. In this way, the occupancy of chemical space by the EU-OPENSCREEN library could

  10. A Real-Time Programmer's Tour of General-Purpose L4 Microkernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract L4-embedded is a microkernel successfully deployed in mobile devices with soft real-time requirements. It now faces the challenges of tightly integrated systems, in which user interface, multimedia, OS, wireless protocols, and even software-defined radios must run on a single CPU. In this paper we discuss the pros and cons of L4-embedded for real-time systems design, focusing on the issues caused by the extreme speed optimisations it inherited from its general-purpose ancestors. Since these issues can be addressed with a minimal performance loss, we conclude that, overall, the design of real-time systems based on L4-embedded is possible, and facilitated by a number of design features unique to microkernels and the L4 family.

  11. General purpose dynamic Monte Carlo with continuous energy for transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjenitzer, B. L.; Hoogenboom, J. E. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclide and Reactors, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    For safety assessments transient analysis is an important tool. It can predict maximum temperatures during regular reactor operation or during an accident scenario. Despite the fact that this kind of analysis is very important, the state of the art still uses rather crude methods, like diffusion theory and point-kinetics. For reference calculations it is preferable to use the Monte Carlo method. In this paper the dynamic Monte Carlo method is implemented in the general purpose Monte Carlo code Tripoli4. Also, the method is extended for use with continuous energy. The first results of Dynamic Tripoli demonstrate that this kind of calculation is indeed accurate and the results are achieved in a reasonable amount of time. With the method implemented in Tripoli it is now possible to do an exact transient calculation in arbitrary geometry. (authors)

  12. Generic functional requirements for a NASA general-purpose data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Generic functional requirements for a general-purpose, multi-mission data base management system (DBMS) for application to remotely sensed scientific data bases are detailed. The motivation for utilizing DBMS technology in this environment is explained. The major requirements include: (1) a DBMS for scientific observational data; (2) a multi-mission capability; (3) user-friendly; (4) extensive and integrated information about data; (5) robust languages for defining data structures and formats; (6) scientific data types and structures; (7) flexible physical access mechanisms; (8) ways of representing spatial relationships; (9) a high level nonprocedural interactive query and data manipulation language; (10) data base maintenance utilities; (11) high rate input/output and large data volume storage; and adaptability to a distributed data base and/or data base machine configuration. Detailed functions are specified in a top-down hierarchic fashion. Implementation, performance, and support requirements are also given.

  13. A General Purpose Feature Extractor for Light Detection and Ranging Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin B. Olson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a central step of processing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can be poor. We describe a general purpose feature detector for both 2D and 3D LIDAR data that is applicable to virtually any environment. Our method adapts classic feature detection methods from the image processing literature, specifically the multi-scale Kanade-Tomasi corner detector. The resulting method is capable of identifying highly stable and repeatable features at a variety of spatial scales without knowledge of environment, and produces principled uncertainty estimates and corner descriptors at same time. We present results on both software simulation and standard datasets, including the 2D Victoria Park and Intel Research Center datasets, and the 3D MIT DARPA Urban Challenge dataset.

  14. A general purpose feature extractor for light detection and ranging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangming; Olson, Edwin B

    2010-01-01

    Feature extraction is a central step of processing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear) environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can be poor. We describe a general purpose feature detector for both 2D and 3D LIDAR data that is applicable to virtually any environment. Our method adapts classic feature detection methods from the image processing literature, specifically the multi-scale Kanade-Tomasi corner detector. The resulting method is capable of identifying highly stable and repeatable features at a variety of spatial scales without knowledge of environment, and produces principled uncertainty estimates and corner descriptors at same time. We present results on both software simulation and standard datasets, including the 2D Victoria Park and Intel Research Center datasets, and the 3D MIT DARPA Urban Challenge dataset.

  15. Edge corrections to electromagnetic Casimir energies from general-purpose Mathieu-function routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Elizabeth Noelle; Ghimire, Biswash; Graham, Noah; Stratton-Smith, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Scattering theory methods make it possible to calculate the Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder opposite a perfectly conducting plane in terms of Mathieu functions. In the limit of zero radius, the elliptic cylinder becomes a finite-width strip, which allows for the study of edge effects. However, existing packages for computing Mathieu functions are insufficient for this calculation because none can compute Mathieu functions of both the first and second kind for complex arguments. To address this shortcoming, we have written a general-purpose Mathieu-function package, based on algorithms developed by Alhargan. We use these routines to find edge corrections to the proximity force approximation for the Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting strip opposite a perfectly conducting plane.

  16. A General Purpose Connections type CTI Server Based on SIP Protocol and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Koizumi, Hisao

    In this paper, we propose a general purpose connections type CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) server that provides various CTI services such as voice logging where the CTI server communicates with IP-PBX using the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), and accumulates voice packets of external line telephone call flowing between an IP telephone for extension and a VoIP gateway connected to outside line networks. The CTI server realizes CTI services such as voice logging, telephone conference, or IVR (interactive voice response) with accumulating and processing voice packets sampled. Furthermore, the CTI server incorporates a web server function which can provide various CTI services such as a Web telephone directory via a Web browser to PCs, cellular telephones or smart-phones in mobile environments.

  17. The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: Power for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Lombardo, J.J.; Hemler, R.J.; Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power for NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter and ESA's Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun will be provided by General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generators (GPHS-RTGs). Building upon the successful RTG technology used in the Voyager program, each GPHS-RTG will provide at least 285 W(e) at beginning-of-mission. The design concept has been proven through extensive tests of an electrically heated Engineering Unit and a nuclear-heated Qualification Unit. Four flight generators have been successfully assembled and tested for use on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. All indications are that the GPHS-RTGs will meet or exceed the power requirement of the missions

  18. INGEN: a general-purpose mesh generator for finite element codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1979-05-01

    INGEN is a general-purpose mesh generator for two- and three-dimensional finite element codes. The basic parts of the code are surface and three-dimensional region generators that use linear-blending interpolation formulas. These generators are based on an i, j, k index scheme that is used to number nodal points, construct elements, and develop displacement and traction boundary conditions. This code can generate truss elements (2 modal points); plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetry two-dimensional continuum elements (4 to 8 nodal points); plate elements (4 to 8 nodal points); and three-dimensional continuum elements (8 to 21 nodal points). The traction loads generated are consistent with the element generated. The expansion--contraction option is of special interest. This option makes it possible to change an existing mesh such that some regions are refined and others are made coarser than the original mesh. 9 figures

  19. Development of general-purpose software to analyze the static thermal characteristic of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Koda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the general-purpose software by which static thermal characteristic of the power generation system is analyzed easily. This software has the notable features as follows. It has the new algorithm to solve non-linear simultaneous equations to analyze the static thermal characteristics such as heat and mass balance, efficiencies, etc. of various power generation systems. It has the flexibility for setting calculation conditions. It is able to be executed on the personal computer easily and quickly. We ensured that it is able to construct heat and mass balance diagrams of main steam system of nuclear power plant and calculate the power output and efficiencies of the system. Furthermore, we evaluated various heat recovery measures of steam generator blowdown water and found that this software could be a useful operation aid for planning effective changes in support of power stretch. (author)

  20. The ICVSIE: A General Purpose Integral Equation Method for Bio-Electromagnetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis J; Yucel, Abdulkadir C; Michielssen, Eric

    2018-03-01

    An internally combined volume surface integral equation (ICVSIE) for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) interactions with biological tissue and wide ranging diagnostic, therapeutic, and research applications, is proposed. The ICVSIE is a system of integral equations in terms of volume and surface equivalent currents in biological tissue subject to fields produced by externally or internally positioned devices. The system is created by using equivalence principles and solved numerically; the resulting current values are used to evaluate scattered and total electric fields, specific absorption rates, and related quantities. The validity, applicability, and efficiency of the ICVSIE are demonstrated by EM analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic resonance imaging, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Unlike previous integral equations, the ICVSIE is stable regardless of the electric permittivities of the tissue or frequency of operation, providing an application-agnostic computational framework for EM-biomedical analysis. Use of the general purpose and robust ICVSIE permits streamlining the development, deployment, and safety analysis of EM-biomedical technologies.

  1. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwangyong; Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran

    2017-01-01

    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea).

  2. A low cost general purpose portable programmable master/slave manipulative appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRIUMF 100 μA 500 MeV cyclotron, located at the University of British Columbia, required a low cost, portable master/slave manipulative capability for experimental beam line servicing. A programmable capability was also required for the hot cell manipulators. A general purpose unit was developed that might also have applications in light manufacturing and medical rehabilitation. The project now in prototype testing represents a modular portable robot costing less than $5000 that is lead-through-teach programmable by either a master controller or hands-on lead-through. Task programs are stored and retrieved on any 32 k personal computer. An on-board proportional integral derivative controller (Motorola 6809 based) gives discrete positioning of the six degrees of freedom 2 kg capacity end effector

  3. Simrank: Rapid and sensitive general-purpose k-mer search tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, T.Z.; Keller, K.; Karaoz, U.; Alekseyenko, A.V; Singh, N.N.S.; Brodie, E.L; Pei, Z.; Andersen, G.L; Larsen, N.

    2011-04-01

    Terabyte-scale collections of string-encoded data are expected from consortia efforts such as the Human Microbiome Project (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/hmp). Intra- and inter-project data similarity searches are enabled by rapid k-mer matching strategies. Software applications for sequence database partitioning, guide tree estimation, molecular classification and alignment acceleration have benefited from embedded k-mer searches as sub-routines. However, a rapid, general-purpose, open-source, flexible, stand-alone k-mer tool has not been available. Here we present a stand-alone utility, Simrank, which allows users to rapidly identify database strings the most similar to query strings. Performance testing of Simrank and related tools against DNA, RNA, protein and human-languages found Simrank 10X to 928X faster depending on the dataset. Simrank provides molecular ecologists with a high-throughput, open source choice for comparing large sequence sets to find similarity.

  4. A Real-Time Programmer's Tour of General-Purpose L4 Microkernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruocco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L4-embedded is a microkernel successfully deployed in mobile devices with soft real-time requirements. It now faces the challenges of tightly integrated systems, in which user interface, multimedia, OS, wireless protocols, and even software-defined radios must run on a single CPU. In this paper we discuss the pros and cons of L4-embedded for real-time systems design, focusing on the issues caused by the extreme speed optimisations it inherited from its general-purpose ancestors. Since these issues can be addressed with a minimal performance loss, we conclude that, overall, the design of real-time systems based on L4-embedded is possible, and facilitated by a number of design features unique to microkernels and the L4 family.

  5. General-purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem with standard asynchronous serial-line interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.; Alberi, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A general-purpose mechanical positioning subsystem for open-loop control of experiment devices which have their positions established and read out by stepping motor-encoder combinations has been developed. The subsystem is to be used mainly for experiments to be conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The subsystem unit has been designed to be compatible with a wide variety of stepping motor and encoder types. The unit may be operated by any device capable of driving a standard RS-232-C asynchronous serial communication line. An informal survey has shown that several experiments at the Light Source will use one particular type of computer, operating system, and programming language. Accordingly, a library of subroutines compatible with this combination of computer system elements has been written to facilitate driving the positioning subsystem unit

  6. Development and application of General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell (GPDAS) at advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Youngjoo; Kim, Keeman.

    1991-01-01

    An operating system shell GPDAS (General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell) on MS-DOS-based microcomputers has been developed to provide flexibility in data acquisition and device control for magnet measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. GPDAS is both a command interpreter and an integrated script-based programming environment. It also incorporates the MS-DOS shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. Features include: alias definition, virtual memory, windows, graphics, data and procedure backup, background operation, script programming language, and script level debugging. Data acquisition system devices can be controlled through IEEE488 board, multifunction I/O board, digital I/O board and Gespac crate via Euro G-64 bus. GPDAS is now being used for diagnostics R ampersand D and accelerator physics studies as well as for magnet measurements. Their hardware configurations will also be discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  7. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  8. Developing wearable bio-feedback systems: a general-purpose platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luigi; Babiloni, Fabio; Cincotti, Febo; Arrivas, Marco; Bollero, Patrizio; Marciani, Maria Grazia

    2003-06-01

    Microprocessors, even those in PocketPCs, have adequate power for many real-time biofeedback applications for disabled people. This power allows design of portable or wearable devices that are smaller and lighter, and that have longer battery life compared to notebook-based systems. In this paper, we discuss a general-purpose hardware/software solution based on industrial or consumer devices and a C++ framework. Its flexibility and modularity make it adaptable to a wide range of situations. Moreover, its design minimizes system requirements and programming effort, thus allowing efficient systems to be built quickly and easily. Our design has been used to build two brain computer interface systems that were easily ported from the Win32 platform.

  9. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs

  10. ''Sheiva'' : a general purpose multi-parameter data acquisition and processing system at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viyogi, Y.P.; Ganguly, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general purpose interactive software to be used with the PDP-15/76 on-line computer at VEC Centre for the acquisition and processing of data in nuclear physics experiments is described. The program can accommodate a maximum of thirty two inputs although the present hardware limits the number of inputs to eight. Particular emphasis is given to the problems of flexibility and ease of operation, memory optimisation and techniques dealing with experimenter-computer interaction. Various graphical methods for one- and two-dimensional data presentation are discussed. Specific problems of particle identification using detector telescopes have been dealt with carefully to handle experiments using several detector telescopes and those involving light particle-heavy particle coincidence studies. Steps needed to tailor this program towards utilisation for special experiments are also described. (author)

  11. A general purpose subroutine for fast fourier transform on a distributed memory parallel machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, A.; Zubair, M.; Grosch, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    One issue which is central in developing a general purpose Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) subroutine on a distributed memory parallel machine is the data distribution. It is possible that different users would like to use the FFT routine with different data distributions. Thus, there is a need to design FFT schemes on distributed memory parallel machines which can support a variety of data distributions. An FFT implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine which works for a number of data distributions commonly encountered in scientific applications is presented. The problem of rearranging the data after computing the FFT is also addressed. The performance of the implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine Intel iPSC/860 is evaluated.

  12. General purpose graphic processing unit implementation of adaptive pulse compression algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingxiao; Zhang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to implement real-time signal processing algorithms for general surveillance radar based on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). The pulse compression algorithms are implemented using compute unified device architecture (CUDA) libraries such as CUDA basic linear algebra subroutines and CUDA fast Fourier transform library, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. For more advanced, adaptive processing algorithms such as adaptive pulse compression, customized kernel optimization is needed and investigated. A statistical optimization approach is developed for this purpose without needing much knowledge of the physical configurations of the kernels. It was found that the kernel optimization approach can significantly improve the performance. Benchmark performance is compared with the CPU performance in terms of processing accelerations. The proposed implementation framework can be used in various radar systems including ground-based phased array radar, airborne sense and avoid radar, and aerospace surveillance radar.

  13. A general-purpose process modelling framework for marine energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Zymaris, Alexandros S.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process modelling techniques applied in marine engineering. • Systems engineering approaches to manage the complexity of modern ship machinery. • General purpose modelling framework called COSSMOS. • Mathematical modelling of conservation equations and related chemical – transport phenomena. • Generic library of ship machinery component models. - Abstract: High fuel prices, environmental regulations and current shipping market conditions impose ships to operate in a more efficient and greener way. These drivers lead to the introduction of new technologies, fuels, and operations, increasing the complexity of modern ship energy systems. As a means to manage this complexity, in this paper we present the introduction of systems engineering methodologies in marine engineering via the development of a general-purpose process modelling framework for ships named as DNV COSSMOS. Shifting the focus from components – the standard approach in shipping- to systems, widens the space for optimal design and operation solutions. The associated computer implementation of COSSMOS is a platform that models, simulates and optimises integrated marine energy systems with respect to energy efficiency, emissions, safety/reliability and costs, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. DNV COSSMOS can be used in assessment and optimisation of design and operation problems in existing vessels, new builds as well as new technologies. The main features and our modelling approach are presented and key capabilities are illustrated via two studies on the thermo-economic design and operation optimisation of a combined cycle system for large bulk carriers, and the transient operation simulation of an electric marine propulsion system

  14. Design of the SLAC RCE Platform: A General Purpose ATCA Based Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.; Claus, R.; Freytag, M.; Haller, G.; Huffer, M.; Maldonado, S.; Nishimura, K.; O'Grady, C.; Panetta, J.; Perazzo, A.; Reese, B.; Ruckman, L.; Thayer, J.G.; Weaver, M.

    2015-01-01

    The SLAC RCE platform is a general purpose clustered data acquisition system implemented on a custom ATCA compliant blade, called the Cluster On Board (COB). The core of the system is the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE), which is a system-on-chip design based upon the Xilinx Zynq family of FPGAs, mounted on custom COB daughter-boards. The Zynq architecture couples a dual core ARM Cortex A9 based processor with a high performance 28nm FPGA. The RCE has 12 external general purpose bi-directional high speed links, each supporting serial rates of up to 12Gbps. 8 RCE nodes are included on a COB, each with a 10Gbps connection to an on-board 24-port Ethernet switch integrated circuit. The COB is designed to be used with a standard full-mesh ATCA backplane allowing multiple RCE nodes to be tightly interconnected with minimal interconnect latency. Multiple shelves can be clustered using the front panel 10-gbps connections. The COB also supports local and inter-blade timing and trigger distribution. An experiment specific Rear Transition Module adapts the 96 high speed serial links to specific experiments and allows an experiment-specific timing and busy feedback connection. This coupling of processors with a high performance FPGA fabric in a low latency, multiple node cluster allows high speed data processing that can be easily adapted to any physics experiment. RTEMS and Linux are both ported to the module. The RCE has been used or is the baseline for several current and proposed experiments (LCLS, HPS, LSST, ATLAS-CSC, LBNE, DarkSide, ILC-SiD, etc).

  15. Transforming the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system to a general-purpose plasma control platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang; Cole, Richard; Gräter, Alexander; Lüddecke, Klaus; Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Control framework split in core and custom part. • Core framework deployable in other fusion device environments. • Adaptible through customizable modules, plug-in support and generic interfaces. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System DCS is a modern and mature product, originally designed to regulate and supervise ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak plasma operation. In its core DCS is based on a generic, versatile real-time software framework with a plugin architecture that allows to easily combine, modify and extend control function modules in order to tailor the system to required features and let it continuously evolve with the progress of an experimental fusion device. Due to these properties other fusion experiments like the WEST project have expressed interest in adopting DCS. For this purpose, essential parts of DCS must be unpinned from the ASDEX Upgrade environment by exposure or introduction of generalised interfaces. Re-organisation of DCS modules allows distinguishing between intrinsic framework core functions and device-specific applications. In particular, DCS must be prepared for deployment in different system environments with their own realisations for user interface, pulse schedule preparation, parameter server, time and event distribution, diagnostic and actuator systems, network communication and data archiving. The article explains the principles of the revised DCS structure, derives the necessary interface definitions and describes major steps to achieve the separation between general-purpose framework and fusion device specific components.

  16. Transforming the ASDEX Upgrade discharge control system to a general-purpose plasma control platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Gräter, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems, Seeshaupter Str. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Rapson, Christopher; Raupp, Gerhard; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Control framework split in core and custom part. • Core framework deployable in other fusion device environments. • Adaptible through customizable modules, plug-in support and generic interfaces. - Abstract: The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System DCS is a modern and mature product, originally designed to regulate and supervise ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak plasma operation. In its core DCS is based on a generic, versatile real-time software framework with a plugin architecture that allows to easily combine, modify and extend control function modules in order to tailor the system to required features and let it continuously evolve with the progress of an experimental fusion device. Due to these properties other fusion experiments like the WEST project have expressed interest in adopting DCS. For this purpose, essential parts of DCS must be unpinned from the ASDEX Upgrade environment by exposure or introduction of generalised interfaces. Re-organisation of DCS modules allows distinguishing between intrinsic framework core functions and device-specific applications. In particular, DCS must be prepared for deployment in different system environments with their own realisations for user interface, pulse schedule preparation, parameter server, time and event distribution, diagnostic and actuator systems, network communication and data archiving. The article explains the principles of the revised DCS structure, derives the necessary interface definitions and describes major steps to achieve the separation between general-purpose framework and fusion device specific components.

  17. Optimization of a general-purpose, actively scanned proton beamline for ocular treatments: Geant4 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersimoni, Pierluigi; Rimoldi, Adele; Riccardi, Cristina; Pirola, Michele; Molinelli, Silvia; Ciocca, Mario

    2015-03-08

    The Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), a synchrotron-based hospital facility, started the treatment of patients within selected clinical trials in late 2011 and 2012 with actively scanned proton and carbon ion beams, respectively. The activation of a new clinical protocol for the irradiation of uveal melanoma using the existing general-purpose proton beamline is foreseen for late 2014. Beam characteristics and patient treatment setup need to be tuned to meet the specific requirements for such a type of treatment technique. The aim of this study is to optimize the CNAO transport beamline by adding passive components and minimizing air gap to achieve the optimal conditions for ocular tumor irradiation. The CNAO setup with the active and passive components along the transport beamline, as well as a human eye-modeled detector also including a realistic target volume, were simulated using the Monte Carlo Geant4 toolkit. The strong reduction of the air gap between the nozzle and patient skin, as well as the insertion of a range shifter plus a patient-specific brass collimator at a short distance from the eye, were found to be effective tools to be implemented. In perspective, this simulation toolkit could also be used as a benchmark for future developments and testing purposes on commercial treatment planning systems.

  18. TACO: a general-purpose tool for predicting cell-type-specific transcription factor dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Prabhakar, Shyam; Tiuryn, Jerzy

    2014-03-19

    Cooperative binding of transcription factor (TF) dimers to DNA is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to binding specificity. However, it is likely that the set of known TF dimers is highly incomplete, given that they were discovered using ad hoc approaches, or through computational analyses of limited datasets. Here, we present TACO (Transcription factor Association from Complex Overrepresentation), a general-purpose standalone software tool that takes as input any genome-wide set of regulatory elements and predicts cell-type-specific TF dimers based on enrichment of motif complexes. TACO is the first tool that can accommodate motif complexes composed of overlapping motifs, a characteristic feature of many known TF dimers. Our method comprehensively outperforms existing tools when benchmarked on a reference set of 29 known dimers. We demonstrate the utility and consistency of TACO by applying it to 152 DNase-seq datasets and 94 ChIP-seq datasets. Based on these results, we uncover a general principle governing the structure of TF-TF-DNA ternary complexes, namely that the flexibility of the complex is correlated with, and most likely a consequence of, inter-motif spacing.

  19. DNA Processing and Reassembly on General Purpose FPGA-based Development Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZÁSZ Csaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of researchers involved in microelectronics generally agree that many scientific challenges in life sciences have associated with them a powerful computational requirement that must be solved before scientific progress can be made. The current trend in Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA computing technologies is to develop special hardware platforms capable to provide the needed processing performance at lower cost. In this endeavor the FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Arrays configurations aimed to accelerate genome sequencing and reassembly plays a leading role. This paper emphasizes benefits and advantages using general purpose FPGA-based development boards in DNA reassembly applications beside the special hardware architecture solutions. An original approach is unfolded which outlines the versatility of high performance ready-to-use manufacturer development platforms endowed with powerful hardware resources fully optimized for high speed processing applications. The theoretical arguments are supported via an intuitive implementation example where the designer it is discharged from any hardware development effort and completely assisted in exclusive concentration only on software design issues providing greatly reduced application development cycles. The experiments prove that such boards available on the market are suitable to fulfill in all a wide range of DNA sequencing and reassembly applications.

  20. Modelling of a general purpose irradiation chamber using a Monte Carlo particle transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi; Sheik, F.O.A.; Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The aim of this research is to stimulate the effectiveness use of a general purpose irradiation chamber to contain pure neutron particles obtained from a research reactor. The secondary neutron and gamma particles dose discharge from the chamber layers will be used as a platform to estimate the safe dimension of the chamber. The chamber, made up of layers of lead (Pb), shielding, polyethylene (PE), moderator and commercial grade aluminium (Al) cladding is proposed for the use of interacting samples with pure neutron particles in a nuclear reactor environment. The estimation was accomplished through simulation based on general Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code using Los Alamos MCNPX software. Simulations were performed on the model of the chamber subjected to high neutron flux radiation and its gamma radiation product. The model of neutron particle used is based on the neutron source found in PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor which holds a maximum flux value of 1 x 10 12 neutron/ cm 2 s. The expected outcomes of this research are zero gamma dose in the core of the chamber and neutron dose rate of less than 10 μSv/ day discharge from the chamber system. (author)

  1. Litrani: a general purpose Monte-Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic or anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentit, F.-X.

    2002-01-01

    Litrani is a general purpose Monte-Carlo program simulating light propagation in any type of setup describable by the shapes provided by ROOT. Each shape may be made of a different material. Dielectric constant, absorption length and diffusion length of materials may depend upon wavelength. Dielectric constant and absorption length may be anisotropic. Each face of a volume is either partially or totally in contact with a face of another volume, or covered with some wrapping having defined characteristics of absorption, reflection and diffusion. When in contact with another face of another volume, the possibility exists to have a thin slice of width d and index n between the two faces. The program has various sources of light: spontaneous photons, photons coming from an optical fibre, photons generated by the crossing of particles or photons generated by an electromagnetic shower. The time and wavelength spectra of emitted photons may reproduce any scintillation spectrum. As detectors, phototubes, APD, or any general type of surface or volume detectors may be specified. The aim is to follow each photon until it is absorbed or detected. Quantities to be delivered by the program are the proportion of photons detected, and the time distribution for the arrival of these, or the various ways photons may be lost

  2. 15 CFR 744.17 - Restrictions on certain exports and reexports of general purpose microprocessors for “military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reexports of general purpose microprocessors for âmilitary end-usesâ and to âmilitary end-users.â 744.17...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.17 Restrictions on certain exports and reexports of general purpose microprocessors for “military end-uses” and to “military end-users.” (a) General prohibition. In addition to the...

  3. The PennBMBI: Design of a General Purpose Wireless Brain-Machine-Brain Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Subei, Basheer; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a general purpose wireless Brain-Machine-Brain Interface (BMBI) system is presented. The system integrates four battery-powered wireless devices for the implementation of a closed-loop sensorimotor neural interface, including a neural signal analyzer, a neural stimulator, a body-area sensor node and a graphic user interface implemented on the PC end. The neural signal analyzer features a four channel analog front-end with configurable bandpass filter, gain stage, digitization resolution, and sampling rate. The target frequency band is configurable from EEG to single unit activity. A noise floor of 4.69 μVrms is achieved over a bandwidth from 0.05 Hz to 6 kHz. Digital filtering, neural feature extraction, spike detection, sensing-stimulating modulation, and compressed sensing measurement are realized in a central processing unit integrated in the analyzer. A flash memory card is also integrated in the analyzer. A 2-channel neural stimulator with a compliance voltage up to ± 12 V is included. The stimulator is capable of delivering unipolar or bipolar, charge-balanced current pulses with programmable pulse shape, amplitude, width, pulse train frequency and latency. A multi-functional sensor node, including an accelerometer, a temperature sensor, a flexiforce sensor and a general sensor extension port has been designed. A computer interface is designed to monitor, control and configure all aforementioned devices via a wireless link, according to a custom designed communication protocol. Wireless closed-loop operation between the sensory devices, neural stimulator, and neural signal analyzer can be configured. The proposed system was designed to link two sites in the brain, bridging the brain and external hardware, as well as creating new sensory and motor pathways for clinical practice. Bench test and in vivo experiments are performed to verify the functions and performances of the system.

  4. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  5. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu α-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s

  6. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE's mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned

  7. Evaluation and characterization of General Purpose Heat Source girth welds for the Cassini mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, C.M.; Moniz, P.F.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs) are components of Radioisotopic thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for deep space missions. Each GPHS consists of a 238 Pu oxide ceramic pellet encapsulated in a welded iridium alloy shell which forms a protective barrier against the release of plutonia in the unlikely event of a launch-pad failure or reentry incident. GPHS fueled clad girth weld flaw detection was paramount to ensuring this safety function, and was accomplished using both destructive and non-destructive evaluation techniques. The first girth weld produced from each welding campaign was metallographically examined for flaws such as incomplete weld penetration, cracks, or porosity which would render a GPHS unacceptable for flight applications. After an acceptable example weld was produced, the subsequently welded heat sources were evaluated non-destructively for flaws using ultrasonic immersion testing. Selected heat sources which failed ultrasonic testing would be radiographed, and/or, destructively evaluated to further characterize and document anomalous indications. Metallography was also performed on impacted heat sources to determine the condition of the welds

  8. General purpose nonlinear analysis program FINAS for elevated temperature design of FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, K.; Atsumo, H.; Kano, T.; Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents currently available capabilities of a general purpose finite element nonlinear analysis program FINAS (FBR Inelastic Structural Analysis System) which has been developed at Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) since 1976 to support structural design of fast breeder reactor (FBR) components in Japan. This program is capable of treating inelastic responses of arbitrary complex structures subjected to static and dynamic load histories. Various types of finite element covering rods, beams, pipes, axisymmetric, two and three dimensional solids, plates and shells, are implemented in the program. The thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis is possible for each element type, with primary emphasis on the application to FBR components subjected to sustained or cyclic loads at elevated temperature. The program permits large deformation, buckling, fracture mechanics, and dynamic analyses for some of the element types and provides a number of options for automatic mesh generation and computer graphics. Some examples including elevated temperature effects are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the program

  9. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results

  10. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M.W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station: General purpose intelligent sensor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1988-01-01

    This final report describes the accomplishments of the General Purpose Intelligent Sensor Interface task of the Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Space Station grant for the period from October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988. Portions of the First Biannual Report not revised will not be included but only referenced. The goal is to develop an intelligent sensor system that will simplify the design and development of expert systems using sensors of the physical phenomena as a source of data. This research will concentrate on the integration of image processing sensors and voice processing sensors with a computer designed for expert system development. The result of this research will be the design and documentation of a system in which the user will not need to be an expert in such areas as image processing algorithms, local area networks, image processor hardware selection or interfacing, television camera selection, voice recognition hardware selection, or analog signal processing. The user will be able to access data from video or voice sensors through standard LISP statements without any need to know about the sensor hardware or software.

  12. Low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1985-10-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  13. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Test Program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source(GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 PuO 2 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the third test (DIT-3), a full GPHS module was impacted at 58 m/s and 930 0 C. The module impacted the target at an angle of 30 0 to the pole of the large faces. The four capsules used in DIT-3 survived impact with minimal deformation; no internal cracks other than in the regions indicated by Savannah River Plant (SRP) preimpact nondestructive testing were observed in any of the capsules. The 30 0 impact orientation used in DIT-3 was considerably less severe than the flat-on impact utilized in DIT-1 and DIT-2. The four capsules used in DIT-1 survived, while two of the capsules used in DIT-2 breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 μg) of 238 PuO 2 was released from the capsules breached in the DIT-2 impact. All of the capsules used in DIT-1 and DIT-2 were severely deformed and contained large internal cracks. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-3 test components are described, with emphasis on weld structure and the behavior of defects identified by SRP nondestructive testing

  14. ICECAP: an integrated, general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Judy; King, Kristopher W; Jing, Jing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Liyu

    2015-02-01

    IC50 and EC50 values are commonly used to evaluate drug potency. Mass spectrometry (MS)-centric bioanalytical and biomarker labs are now conducting IC50/EC50 assays, which, if done manually, are tedious and error-prone. Existing bioanalytical sample preparation automation systems cannot meet IC50/EC50 assay throughput demand. A general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform was developed to automate the calculations of spiking solutions and the matrix solutions preparation scheme, the actual spiking and matrix solutions preparations, as well as the flexible sample extraction procedures after incubation. In addition, the platform also automates the data extraction, nonlinear regression curve fitting, computation of IC50/EC50 values, graphing, and reporting. The automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform can process the whole class of assays of varying assay conditions. In each run, the system can handle up to 32 compounds and up to 10 concentration levels per compound, and it greatly improves IC50/EC50 assay experimental productivity and data processing efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. A Fast General-Purpose Clustering Algorithm Based on FPGAs for High-Throughput Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Castegnaro, A; Gatta, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast general-purpose algorithm for high-throughput clustering of data ”with a two dimensional organization”. The algorithm is designed to be implemented with FPGAs or custom electronics. The key feature is a processing time that scales linearly with the amount of data to be processed. This means that clustering can be performed in pipeline with the readout, without suffering from combinatorial delays due to looping multiple times through all the data. This feature makes this algorithm especially well suited for problems where the data has high density, e.g. in the case of tracking devices working under high-luminosity condition such as those of LHC or Super-LHC. The algorithm is organized in two steps: the first step (core) clusters the data; the second step analyzes each cluster of data to extract the desired information. The current algorithm is developed as a clustering device for modern high-energy physics pixel detectors. However, the algorithm has much broader field of applications. In ...

  16. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four 238 PuO 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO 2 as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel

  17. A low-cost general purpose spectral display unit using an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Many physics experiments require acquisition and analysis of spectral data. Commercial minicomputer-based multichannel analyzers collect detected counts at various energies, create a histogram of the counts in memory, and display the resultant spectra. They acquire data and provide the user-to-display interface. The system discussed separates functions into the three modular components of data acquisition, storage, and display. This decoupling of functions allows the experimenter to use any number of detectors for data collection before forwarding up to 64 spectra to the display unit, thereby increasing data throughput over that available with commercial systems. An IBM PC was chosen for the low-cost, general purpose display unit. Up to four spectra may be displayed simultaneously in different colors. The histogram saves 1024 channels per detector, 640 of which may be distinctly displayed per spectra. The IEEE-488 standard provides the data path between the IBM PC and the data collection unit. Data is sent to the PC under interrupt control, using direct memory access. Display manipulations available via keyboard are also discussed

  18. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two 238 PuO 2 pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported

  19. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia's GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia's GTX660 GPU, NVidia's GTX460SE GPU and AMD's Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia's GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel's Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  20. Geometric correction of radiographic images using general purpose image processing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Cheong, Ji Seong; Lee, Sang Hoon

    1994-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare geometric corrected image by general-purpose image processing program for the Apple Macintosh II computer (NIH Image, Adobe Photoshop) with standardized image by individualized custom fabricated alignment instrument. Two non-standardized periapical films with XCP film holder only were taken at the lower molar portion of 19 volunteers. Two standardized periapical films with customized XCP film holder with impression material on the bite-block were taken for each person. Geometric correction was performed with Adobe Photoshop and NIH Image program. Specially, arbitrary image rotation function of 'Adobe Photoshop' and subtraction with transparency function of 'NIH Image' were utilized. The standard deviations of grey values of subtracted images were used to measure image similarity. Average standard deviation of grey values of subtracted images if standardized group was slightly lower than that of corrected group. However, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). It is considered that we can use 'NIH Image' and 'Adobe Photoshop' program for correction of nonstandardized film, taken with XCP film holder at lower molar portion.

  1. Design evolution and verification of the general-purpose heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a radioisotope heat source for use in space power systems. It employs a modular design, to make it adaptable to a wide range of energy conversion systems and power levels. Each 250 W module is completely autonomous, with its own passive safety provisions to prevent fuel release under all abort modes, including atmospheric reentry and earth impact. Prior development tests had demonstrated good impact survival as long as the iridium fuel capsules retained their ductility. This requires high impact temperatures, typically above 900 0 C and reasonably fine grain size, which in turn requires avoidance of excessive operating temperatures and reentry temperatures. These three requirements - on operating, reentry, and impact temperatures - are in mutual conflict, since thermal design changes to improve any one of these temperatures tend to worsen one or both of the others. This conflict creates a difficult design problem, which for a time threatened the success of the program. The present paper describes how this problem was overcome by successive design revisions, supplemented by thermal analyses and confirmatory vibration and impact tests; and how this may be achieved while raising the specific power of the GPHS to 83 W/lb, a 50% improvement over previously flown radioisotope heat sources

  2. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of a conveyance engaged in interstate traffic, except as...

  3. Upscaling from research watersheds: an essential stage of trustworthy general-purpose hydrologic model building

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly instrumented research watersheds provide excellent opportunities for investigating hydrologic processes. A danger, however, is that the processes observed at a particular research watershed are too specific to the watershed and not representative even of the larger scale watershed that contains that particular research watershed. Thus, models developed based on those partial observations may not be suitable for general hydrologic use. Therefore demonstrating the upscaling of hydrologic process from research watersheds to larger watersheds is essential to validate concepts and test model structure. The Hydrograph model has been developed as a general-purpose process-based hydrologic distributed system. In its applications and further development we evaluate the scaling of model concepts and parameters in a wide range of hydrologic landscapes. All models, either lumped or distributed, are based on a discretization concept. It is common practice that watersheds are discretized into so called hydrologic units or hydrologic landscapes possessing assumed homogeneous hydrologic functioning. If a model structure is fixed, the difference in hydrologic functioning (difference in hydrologic landscapes) should be reflected by a specific set of model parameters. Research watersheds provide the possibility for reasonable detailed combining of processes into some typical hydrologic concept such as hydrologic units, hydrologic forms, and runoff formation complexes in the Hydrograph model. And here by upscaling we imply not the upscaling of a single process but upscaling of such unified hydrologic functioning. The simulation of runoff processes for the Dry Creek research watershed, Idaho, USA (27 km2) was undertaken using the Hydrograph model. The information on the watershed was provided by Boise State University and included a GIS database of watershed characteristics and a detailed hydrometeorological observational dataset. The model provided good simulation results in

  4. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  5. An auxiliary frequency tracking system for general purpose lock-in amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Chen, Liuhao; Huang, Anfeng; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Hanlu

    2018-04-01

    Lock-in amplifiers (LIAs) are designed to measure weak signals submerged by noise. This is achieved with a signal modulator to avoid low-frequency noise and a narrow-band filter to suppress out-of-band noise. In asynchronous measurement, even a slight frequency deviation between the modulator and the reference may lead to measurement error because the filter’s passband is not flat. Because many commercial LIAs are unable to track frequency deviations, in this paper we propose an auxiliary frequency tracking system. We analyze the measurement error caused by the frequency deviation and propose both a tracking method and an auto-tracking system. This approach requires only three basic parameters, which can be obtained from any general purpose LIA via its communications interface, to calculate the frequency deviation from the phase difference. The proposed auxiliary tracking system is designed as a peripheral connected to the LIA’s serial port, removing the need for an additional power supply. The test results verified the effectiveness of the proposed system; the modified commercial LIA (model SR-850) was able to track the frequency deviation and continuous drift. For step frequency deviations, a steady tracking error of less than 0.001% was achieved within three adjustments, and the worst tracking accuracy was still better than 0.1% for a continuous frequency drift. The tracking system can be used to expand the application scope of commercial LIAs, especially for remote measurements in which the modulation clock and the local reference are separated.

  6. Use of a general-purpose heat-transfer code for casting simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.

    1975-07-01

    The practical use of numerical techniques in simulating casting solidification dictate that a general purpose heat transfer code be used and that results be obtained in an easy-to-analyze format. Color film plotting routines were developed for use with NASA's CINDA-3G heat transfer code; the combination of which meet the above criteria. The subroutine LQSLTR written for SINDA, the successor to CINDA-3G, was verified by comparing calculated results obtained using LQSLTR with those obtained using the specific heat method for handling the heat of fusion. Excellent agreement existed when similar data was used. When the more restrictive requirement of a 1 0 F melting range was used, comparable results were obtained. Uranium and lead rod castings were cast in instrumented graphite molds and the solidification sequence simulated using CINDA-3G. Discrepancies attributed to initial assumptions of instantaneous mold filling, uniform melt temperature, and intimate metal/mold contact were encountered. Further calculations using a model incorporating a gap between the mold and casting showed that the intimate contact assumption could not be used; a three-dimensional model also showed that the thermocouple assemblies used with the platinum--platinum-10 percent rhodium were a significant perturbation to the system. An L-shaped steel casting was simulated and the results compared to those reported in the literature. The experimental data for this casting were reproduced within the accuracy permitted by the thermal conductivity of the sand, thus demonstrating that agreement can be obtained when the mold material does not act as a chill. (U.S.)

  7. VHS-tape system for general purpose computer. For next generation mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, K.; Takano, M.; Shinohara, M.; Niki, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hamada, T.; Ogawa, M.

    1994-07-01

    Mass storage is one of the key technology of next generation computer system. A huge amount of data is produced on a field of particle and nuclear physics. These data are raw data of experiments, analysis data, Monte Carlo simulations data, etc. We search a storage device for these data at the point of view of capacity, price, size, transfer speed, etc. We have selected a VHS-tape (12.7 mm-tape, helical scan) from many storage devices. Characteristics of the VHS-tape are as follows; capacity of 14.5 GB, size of 460 cm 3 , price of 1,000 yen (S-VHS tape for video use), and 1.996 MB/sec transfer speed at a sustained mode. Last year, we succeeded to operate the VHS-tape system on a workstation as a I/O device with read/write speed of 1.5 MB/sec. We have tested a VHS-tape system by connecting to the channel of the general purpose computer (Fujitsu M-780/10S) in our institute. We obtained a read and write speeds of 1.07 MB/sec and 1.72 MB/sec by FORTRAN test programs, respectively. Read speeds of an open reel tape and a 3480 type cassete tape by the same test programs are 1.13 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec, respectively. Speeds of write operation are 1.09 MB/sec and 2.54 MB/sec for the open reel and 3480 cassete tape, respectively. A start motion of the VHS-tape for read/write operations needs about 60 seconds. (author)

  8. Utilizing General Purpose Graphics Processing Units to Improve Performance of Computer Modelling and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, J.; Zhu, Y.; Koons, P. O.; Segee, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    With the introduction of the G8X series of cards by nVidia an architecture called CUDA was released, virtually all subsequent video cards have had CUDA support. With this new architecture nVidia provided extensions for C/C++ that create an Application Programming Interface (API) allowing code to be executed on the GPU. Since then the concept of GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) has been growing, this is the concept that the GPU is very good a algebra and running things in parallel so we should take use of that power for other applications. This is highly appealing in the area of geodynamic modeling, as multiple parallel solutions of the same differential equations at different points in space leads to a large speedup in simulation speed. Another benefit of CUDA is a programmatic method of transferring large amounts of data between the computer's main memory and the dedicated GPU memory located on the video card. In addition to being able to compute and render on the video card, the CUDA framework allows for a large speedup in the situation, such as with a tiled display wall, where the rendered pixels are to be displayed in a different location than where they are rendered. A CUDA extension for VirtualGL was developed allowing for faster read back at high resolutions. This paper examines several aspects of rendering OpenGL graphics on large displays using VirtualGL and VNC. It demonstrates how performance can be significantly improved in rendering on a tiled monitor wall. We present a CUDA enhanced version of VirtualGL as well as the advantages to having multiple VNC servers. It will discuss restrictions caused by read back and blitting rates and how they are affected by different sizes of virtual displays being rendered.

  9. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare polystyrene nanofiber ion exchangers (PSNIE) with surface cation exchange functionality using a new method based on electrospinning and also to optimize crosslinking and sulfonation reactions to obtain PSNIE with maximum ion exchange capacity (IEC). Method: The nanofibers were prepared from ...

  10. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  11. Incorporation of Nanohybrid Films of Silica into Recycled Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Hernández-Padrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative for the reutilization of polystyrene waste containers consisting in creating a hybrid material made of SiO2 nanoparticles embedded in a matrix of recycled polystyrene (PSR has been developed. Recycled polystyrene functionalized (PSRF was used to influence the morphological and antifog properties by the sol-gel synthesis of nanohybrid silica. To this end, silica nanoparticles were produced from alkoxide precursors in the presence of recycled polystyrene. The functionalization of this polymeric matrix was with the purpose of uniting in situ carboxyl and silanol groups during the sol-gel process. In this way, opaque or transparent solid substrates can be obtained, with each of these endowed with optical conditions that depend on the amount of reactants employed to prepare each nanohybrid specimen. The nanohybrids were labelled as SiO2/PSR (HPSR and SiO2/PSRF (HPSRF and their properties were then compared to those of commercial polystyrene (PS. All the prepared samples were used for coating glass substrates. The hydrophobicity of the resultant coatings was determined through contact angle measurement. The nanohybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR techniques. Additionally, TGA and SEM were employed to determine their thermal and textural properties.

  12. Human plasma fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W B; Grunkemeier, J M; Horbett, T A

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of fibrinogen adsorbed from plasma in mediating platelet adhesion to polymeric biomaterials. Polystyrene was used as a model hydrophobic polymer; i.e., we expected that the role of fibrinogen in platelet adhesion to polystyrene would be representative of other hydrophobic polymers. Platelet adhesion was compared to both the amount and conformation of adsorbed fibrinogen. The strategy was to compare platelet adhesion to surfaces preadsorbed with normal, afibrinogenemic, and fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasmas. Platelet adhesion was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, which was found to be closely correlated with adhesion of 111In-labeled platelets. Fibrinogen adsorption from afibrinogenemic plasma to polystyrene (Immulon I(R)) was low and polystyrene preadsorbed with fibrinogen-replenished afibrinogenemic plasma. Addition of even small, subnormal concentrations of fibrinogen to afibrinogenemic plasma greatly increased platelet adhesion. In addition, surface-bound fibrinogen's ability to mediate platelet adhesion was different, depending on the plasma concentration from which fibrinogen was adsorbed. These differences correlated with changes in the binding of a monoclonal antibody that binds to the Aalpha chain RGDS (572-575), suggesting alteration in the conformation or orientation of the adsorbed fibrinogen. Platelet adhesion to polystyrene preadsorbed with blood plasma thus appears to be a strongly bivariate function of adsorbed fibrinogen, responsive to both low amounts and altered states of the adsorbed molecule. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Apple-CORE: Microgrids of SVP cores: flexible, general-purpose, fine-grained hardware concurrency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Lankamp, M.; Yang, Q.; Fu, J.; van Tol, M.W.; Jesshope, C.; Nair, S.

    2012-01-01

    To harness the potential of CMPs for scalable, energy-efficient performance in general-purpose computers, the Apple-CORE project has co-designed a general machine model and concurrency control interface with dedicated hardware support for concurrency control across multiple cores. Its SVP interface

  14. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  15. The Chronic Kidney Disease Model: A General Purpose Model of Disease Progression and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Uptal D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is the focus of recent national policy efforts; however, decision makers must account for multiple therapeutic options, comorbidities and complications. The objective of the Chronic Kidney Disease model is to provide guidance to decision makers. We describe this model and give an example of how it can inform clinical and policy decisions. Methods Monte Carlo simulation of CKD natural history and treatment. Health states include myocardial infarction, stroke with and without disability, congestive heart failure, CKD stages 1-5, bone disease, dialysis, transplant and death. Each cycle is 1 month. Projections account for race, age, gender, diabetes, proteinuria, hypertension, cardiac disease, and CKD stage. Treatment strategies include hypertension control, diabetes control, use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, nephrology specialty care, CKD screening, and a combination of these. The model architecture is flexible permitting updates as new data become available. The primary outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs. Secondary outcomes include health state events and CKD progression rate. Results The model was validated for GFR change/year -3.0 ± 1.9 vs. -1.7 ± 3.4 (in the AASK trial, and annual myocardial infarction and mortality rates 3.6 ± 0.9% and 1.6 ± 0.5% vs. 4.4% and 1.6% in the Go study. To illustrate the model's utility we estimated lifetime impact of a hypothetical treatment for primary prevention of vascular disease. As vascular risk declined, QALY improved but risk of dialysis increased. At baseline, 20% and 60% reduction: QALYs = 17.6, 18.2, and 19.0 and dialysis = 7.7%, 8.1%, and 10.4%, respectively. Conclusions The CKD Model is a valid, general purpose model intended as a resource to inform clinical and policy decisions improving CKD care. Its value as a tool is illustrated in our example which projects a relationship between

  16. Teacher's and Students' Beliefs on English for General Academic Purposes: The Case of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojour, Masoud Kermani; Heirati, Javad Kia

    2015-01-01

    This study was framed in the sociocultural theory to look into the evolution of L2 learners' beliefs about the general English course during a term. One hundred ninety-eight male and female university students and their general English course teacher were randomly selected as the participants of the study. Data were gathered through the…

  17. Parallelized computation for computer simulation of electrocardiograms using personal computers with multi-core CPU and general-purpose GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenfeng; Wei, Daming; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Xin; Yuan, Shizhong

    2010-10-01

    Biological computations like electrocardiological modelling and simulation usually require high-performance computing environments. This paper introduces an implementation of parallel computation for computer simulation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a personal computer environment with an Intel CPU of Core (TM) 2 Quad Q6600 and a GPU of Geforce 8800GT, with software support by OpenMP and CUDA. It was tested in three parallelization device setups: (a) a four-core CPU without a general-purpose GPU, (b) a general-purpose GPU plus 1 core of CPU, and (c) a four-core CPU plus a general-purpose GPU. To effectively take advantage of a multi-core CPU and a general-purpose GPU, an algorithm based on load-prediction dynamic scheduling was developed and applied to setting (c). In the simulation with 1600 time steps, the speedup of the parallel computation as compared to the serial computation was 3.9 in setting (a), 16.8 in setting (b), and 20.0 in setting (c). This study demonstrates that a current PC with a multi-core CPU and a general-purpose GPU provides a good environment for parallel computations in biological modelling and simulation studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond the "Ivory Tower": Restoring the Balance of Private and Public Purposes of General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Nancy; Englot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We in higher education have allowed the balance of the private and public purposes of liberal education to become skewed in our angst over fully embracing a central role in restoring prosperity and preparing our increasingly diverse population for the evolving responsibility of mending our fraying democracy. As we consider how best to reshape…

  19. Factors Affecting Preservice Teachers' Computer Use for General Purposes: Implications for Computer Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogheib, Salah

    2014-01-01

    As the majority of educational research has focused on preservice teachers' computer use for "educational purposes," the question remains: Do preservice teachers use computer technology for daily life activities and encounters? And do preservice teachers' personality traits and motivational beliefs related to computer training provided…

  20. APL/JHU free flight tests of the General Purpose Heat Source module. Testing: 5-7 March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.M. II.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of the test was to obtain statistical information on the dynamics of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module at terminal speeds. Models were designed to aerodynamically and dynamically represent the GPHS module. Normal and high speed photographic coverage documented the motion of the models. This report documents test parameters and techniques for the free-spin tests. It does not include data analysis

  1. Detectability of T1a lung cancer on digital chest radiographs: an observer-performance comparison among 2-megapixel general-purpose, 2-megapixel medical-purpose, and 3-megapixel medical-purpose liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Jinnnouchi, Mikako; Yonezawa, Masato; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    There has been no comparison of detectability of small lung cancer between general and medical LCD monitors or no comparison of detectability of small lung cancer between solid and part-solid nodules. To compare the detectabilities of T1a lung cancer on chest radiographs on three LCD monitor types: 2-megapixel (MP) for general purpose (General), 2-MP for medical purpose (Medical), and 3-MP-Medical. Radiographs from forty patients with T1aN0M0 primary lung cancer (27 solid nodules, 13 part-solid nodules) and 60 patients with no abnormalities on both chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) were consecutively collected. Five readers assessed 100 cases for each monitor. The observations were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A jackknife method was used for statistical analysis. A P value of General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.86, 0.89, and 0.89, respectively; there were no significant differences among them. The average AUC for part-solid nodule detection using a 2-MP-General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.77, 0.86, and 0.89, respectively. There were significant differences between the 2-MP-General and 2-MP-Medical LCD monitors (P = 0.043) and between the 2-MP-General and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors (P = 0.027). There was no significant difference between the 2-MP-Medical and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors. The average AUC for solid nodule detection using a 2-MP-General, 2-MP-Medical, and 3-MP-Medical LCD monitors were 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively; there were no significant differences among them. The mean AUC values for all and part-solid nodules of the low-experienced readers were significantly lower than those of the high-experienced readers with the 2 M-GP color LCD monitor (P general-purpose LCD monitor was significantly lower than those using medical-purpose LCD monitors. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  2. Structural analysis of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    Since the stereostructure of a high-molecular compound includes three types of isotactic, atactic and sydiotactic structures, a high-molecular compound with excellent properties can be produced by controlling the stereogularity of the compound with the identical composition. The stereoregularity of a stereogular polystyrene, or syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), which had been successfully synthesized recently was quantitatively determined and the open chain structure by polymerization was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two SPSs were synthesized from cis-beta-d/sub/1-styrene and trans-beta-d/sub/1-styrene with alpha, beta, beta-d/sub/3-styrene. The results of spectral analysis of these two SPSs indicate that the former is of trans-conformation and the latter is of gauche conformation and that accordingly the open chain structure by polymerization of SPS is of cis-open chain and SPS has a planar zigzag structure even in the solution. (5 figs, 9 refs)

  3. The Dynamics of a General Purpose Technology in a Research and Assimilation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.

    1998-01-01

    Where is the productivity growth from the IT revolution? Why did the skill premium rise sharply in the early eighties? Were these phenomena related? This paper examines these questions in a general equilibrium model of growth. Technological progress in firms is driven by research aimed at improving

  4. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  5. 41 CFR 60-2.10 - General purpose and contents of affirmative action programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... central premise underlying affirmative action is that, absent discrimination, over time a contractor's workforce, generally, will reflect the gender, racial and ethnic profile of the labor pools from which the... include action-oriented programs. If women and minorities are not being employed at a rate to be expected...

  6. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, Robert; Klein, William; Kroupa, Michael; Olsson, Eric; Rothrock, Rick

    1999-01-01

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  7. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  8. General-Purpose Computation with Neural Networks: A Survey of Complexity Theoretic Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Orponen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2003), s. 2727-2778 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : computational power * computational complexity * perceptrons * radial basis functions * spiking neurons * feedforward networks * reccurent networks * probabilistic computation * analog computation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2003

  9. A Comprehensive Toolset for General-Purpose Private Computing and Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    contexts businesses are also hesitant to make their proprietary available to the cloud [1]. While in general sensitive data can be protected by the...data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...project and scientific advances made towards each of the research thrusts throughout the project duration. 1 Project Objectives Cloud computing enables

  10. Preparing General Purpose Forces in the United States and British Armies for Counterinsurgent Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Operations In Iraq: Planning, Combat, And Occupation,” Thomas Ricks’ Fiasco, and reports by Army historian Major Isaiah Wilson, and former CENCTOM J-4...established Multi-National Forces-Iraq, and Lieutenant General Thomas Metz, commander of the Army’s III Corps, assumed the mantle of Multi-National Corps...Donald P. Wright and Colonel Timothy R. Reese or Thomas Ricks’ Fiasco among other books. 18Dr. Carter Malkasian, “Counterinsurgency in Iraq: May 2003

  11. How did the General Purpose Technology ’Electricity’ contribute to the Second Industrial Revolution (I): The Power Engines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the General Purpose Technology (GPT) of the late 1990s is a culmination of many evolutionairy views in innovation-thinking. By definition the GPT considers the technical, social, and economic effects of meta-technologies like steam-technology and electric technology. This paper uses

  12. [Application of the grayscale standard display function to general purpose liquid-crystal display monitors for clinical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobukazu; Naka, Kentaro; Sueoka, Masaki; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Morishita, Junji

    2010-01-20

    Interpretations of medical images have been shifting to soft-copy readings with liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors. The display function of the medical-grade LCD monitor for soft-copy readings is recommended to calibrate the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) in accordance with the guidelines of Japan and other countries. In this study, the luminance and display function of five models of eight general purpose LCD monitors were measured to gain an understanding of their characteristics. Moreover, the display function (gamma 2.2 or gamma 1.8) of general purpose LCD monitors was converted to GSDF through the use of a look-up table, and the detectability of a simulated lung nodule in the chest x-ray image was examined. As a result, the maximum luminance, contrast ratio, and luminance uniformity of general purpose LCD monitors, except for one model of two LCD monitors, met the management grade 1 standard in the guideline JESRA X-0093-2005. In addition, the detectability of simulated lung nodule in the mediastinal space was obviously improved by converting the display function of a general purpose LCD monitor into GSDF.

  13. RUMD: A general purpose molecular dynamics package optimized to utilize GPU hardware down to a few thousand particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    RUMD is a general purpose, high-performance molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package running on graphical processing units (GPU’s). RUMD addresses the challenge of utilizing the many-core nature of modern GPU hardware when simulating small to medium system sizes (roughly from a few thousand up...

  14. How did the General Purpose Technology Electricity contribute to the Second Industrial Revolution (II): The Communication Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the General Purpose Technology (GPT) of the late 1990s is a culmination of many evolutionairy views in innovation-thinking. By definition the GPT considers the technical, social, and economic effects of meta-technologies like steam-technology and electric technology. This paper uses

  15. rFerns: An Implementation of the Random Ferns Method for General-Purpose Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron B. Kursa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Random ferns is a very simple yet powerful classification method originally introduced for specific computer vision tasks. In this paper, I show that this algorithm may be considered as a constrained decision tree ensemble and use this interpretation to introduce a series of modifications which enable the use of random ferns in general machine learning problems. Moreover, I extend the method with an internal error approximation and an attribute importance measure based on corresponding features of the random forest algorithm. I also present the R package rFerns containing an efficient implementation of this modified version of random ferns.

  16. ABAQUS/EPGEN - a general purpose finite element code with emphasis on nonlinear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbitt, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The article contains a summary description of ABAQUS, a finite element program designed for general use in nonlinear as well as linear structural problems, in the context of its application to nuclear structural integrity analysis. The article begins with a discussion of the design criteria and methods upon which the code development has been based. The engineering modelling capabilities, currently implemented in the program - elements, constitutive models and analysis procedures - are then described. Finally, a few demonstration examples are presented, to illustrate some of the program's features that are of interest in structural integrity analysis associated with nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  17. Working memory training mostly engages general-purpose large-scale networks for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Juha; Nyberg, Lars; Laine, Matti

    2018-03-21

    The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training. The distinguishing feature for WM training was the consistent modulation of the dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) activity. The strongest candidate for mediating transfer to similar untrained WM tasks was the frontostriatal system, showing higher striatal and VLPFC activations, and lower DLPFC activations after training. Modulation of transfer-related areas occurred mostly with longer training periods. Overall, our findings place WM training effects into a general perception-action cycle, where some modulations may depend on the specific cognitive demands of a training task. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reassessment of Resuspension Factor Following Radionuclide Dispersal: Toward a General-purpose Rate Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Shaun [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Potter, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Medich, David [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-05-01

    A recent analysis of historical radionuclide resuspension datasets con rmed the general applicability of the Anspaugh and modified Anspaugh models of resuspension factors following both controlled and disastrous releases. The observations appear to increase in variance earlier in time, however all points were equally weighted in statistical fit calculations, inducing a positive skewing of resuspension coeffcients. Such data are extracted from the available deposition experiments spanning 2900 days. Measurements within a 3-day window are grouped into singular sample sets to construct standard deviations. A refitting is performed using a relative instrumental weighting of the observations. The resulting best-fit equations produces tamer exponentials which give decreased integrated resuspension factor values relative to those reported by Anspaugh. As expected, the fits attenuate greater error amongst the data at earlier time. The reevaluation provides a sharper contrast between the empirical models, and reafirms their deficiencies in the short-lived timeframe wherein the dynamics of particulate dispersion dominate the resuspension process.

  19. Reassessment of Resuspension Factor Following Radionuclide Dispersal: Toward a General-purpose Rate Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Shaun; Potter, Charles; Medich, David

    2018-05-01

    A recent analysis of historical radionuclide resuspension datasets confirmed the general applicability of the Anspaugh and modified Anspaugh models of resuspension factors following both controlled and disastrous releases. While observations appear to have larger variance earlier in time, previous studies equally weighted the data for statistical fit calculations; this could induce a positive skewing of resuspension coefficients in the early time-period. A refitting is performed using a relative instrumental weighting of the observations. Measurements within a 3-d window are grouped into singular sample sets to construct standard deviations. The resulting best-fit equations produce tamer exponentials, which give decreased integrated resuspension factor values relative to those reported by Anspaugh. As expected, the fits attenuate greater error among the data at earlier time. The reevaluation provides a sharper contrast between the empirical models and reaffirms their deficiencies in the short-lived timeframe wherein the dynamics of particulate dispersion dominate the resuspension process.

  20. Minus 3: a general purpose data acquisition system at LBL's 88''-cyclotron and superhilac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maples, C.; Sivak, J.

    1979-05-01

    MINUS 3 is a general, multi-tasked data acquisition package operating on the ModComp IV/25 computers at both the 88''-Cyclotron and SuperHILAC. It currently can acquire data via three different channels: interrupt; serial DMA link; and remote slave units for histogram type data. Two additional acquisition paths, CAMAC (with programmable differential branch drivers) and MODACS (for multiple CPU linkages and control) are scheduled to be added in the near future. The package operates in a prioritized, time-available mode which permits it to dynamically adapt to microscopic data rate structures due to beam characteristics at different accelerators. Special hardware has been added to the graphics system to provide enhanced high-speed interactive capability. The program framework is also designed as a parasitic environment in which users may, in parallel, attach their own specialized and independent code

  1. The Spiral Discovery Network as an Automated General-Purpose Optimization Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Csapo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spiral Discovery Method (SDM was originally proposed as a cognitive artifact for dealing with black-box models that are dependent on multiple inputs with nonlinear and/or multiplicative interaction effects. Besides directly helping to identify functional patterns in such systems, SDM also simplifies their control through its characteristic spiral structure. In this paper, a neural network-based formulation of SDM is proposed together with a set of automatic update rules that makes it suitable for both semiautomated and automated forms of optimization. The behavior of the generalized SDM model, referred to as the Spiral Discovery Network (SDN, and its applicability to nondifferentiable nonconvex optimization problems are elucidated through simulation. Based on the simulation, the case is made that its applicability would be worth investigating in all areas where the default approach of gradient-based backpropagation is used today.

  2. Implementation of Finite Volume based Navier Stokes Algorithm Within General Purpose Flow Network Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Majumdar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume based numerical algorithm that allows multi-dimensional computation of fluid flow within a system level network flow analysis. There are several thermo-fluid engineering problems where higher fidelity solutions are needed that are not within the capacity of system level codes. The proposed algorithm will allow NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation within the framework of GFSSP s typical system level flow network consisting of fluid nodes and branches. The paper presents several classical two-dimensional fluid dynamics problems that have been solved by GFSSP's multi-dimensional flow solver. The numerical solutions are compared with the analytical and benchmark solution of Poiseulle, Couette and flow in a driven cavity.

  3. Signal processing and general purpose data acquisition system for on-line tomographic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Martin, P.; Hemming, O.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Taliercio, C.; Hoffmann, A.

    1997-01-01

    New analog signal conditioning electronics and data acquisition systems have been developed for the soft x-ray and bolometric tomography diagnostic in the reverse field pinch experiment (RFX). For the soft x-ray detectors the analog signal processing includes a fully differential current to voltage conversion, with up to a 200 kHz bandwidth. For the bolometers, a 50 kHz carrier frequency amplifier allows a maximum bandwidth of 10 kHz. In both cases the analog signals are digitized with a 1 MHz sampling rate close to the diagnostic and are transmitted via a transparent asynchronous xmitter/receiver interface (TAXI) link to purpose built Versa Module Europa (VME) modules which perform data acquisition. A software library has been developed for data preprocessing and tomographic reconstruction. It has been written in C language and is self-contained, i.e., no additional mathematical library is required. The package is therefore platform-free: in particular it can perform online analysis in a real-time application, such as continuous display and feedback, and is portable for long duration fusion or other physical experiments. Due to the modular organization of the library, new preprocessing and analysis modules can be easily integrated in the environment. This software is implemented in RFX over three different platforms: open VMS, digital Unix, and VME 68040 CPU.

  4. Low molecular weight block copolymers as plasticizers for polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Karsten; Nielsen, Charlotte Juel; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    /mol and minimum polystyrene content of 50 w/w%, which by us is predicted as the limits for solubility of polystyrene-b-alkyl in polystyrene. DSC showed polystyrene was plasticized, as seen by a reduction in glass transition temperature, by block copolymers consisting of a polystyrene block with molecular weight...... of approximately 1 kg/mol and an alkyl block with a molecular weight of approximately of 0.3 kg/mol. The efficiency of the block copolymers as plasticizers increases with decreasing molecular weight and polystyrene content. In addition, polystyrene-b-alkyl is found to be an efficient plasticizer also...... for polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers. The end use properties of SIS plasticized with polystyrene-b-alkyl, measured as tensile strength, is higher than for SIS plasticized with dioctyl adipate. The polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene and polystyrene-bpoly(propylene glycol...

  5. Interactive general-purpose function minimization for the analysis of neutron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, W.

    1981-12-01

    An on-line graphic display facility has been employed mainly for the peak analysis of time-of-flight spectra measured by inelastic scattering of thermal neutrons. But it is useful also for the analysis of spectra measured with triple axis spectrometers and of diffraction patterns. The spectral lines may be fitted by the following analytical shape functions: (i) a Gaussian, (ii) a Lorentzian, or (iii) a convolution of a Lorentzian with a Gaussian, plus a background continuum. Data reduction or correction may be invoked optionally. For more general applications in analysing of numerical data there is also the possibility to define the analytical shape functions by the user. Three different minimization methods are available which may be used alone or in combination. The parameters of the shape functions may be kept fixed or variable during the minimization steps. The width of variation may be restricted. Global correlation coefficients, parameter errors and the chi 2 are displayed to inform the user about the quality of the fit. A detailed description of the program operations is given. The programs are written in FORTRAN IV and use an IBM/2250-1 graphic display unit. (orig.) [de

  6. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA; Huang, Tianzi [Knoxville, TN; Hong, Kunlun [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  7. TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase nonisothermal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Numerical simulators for multiphase fluid and heat flows in permeable media have been under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for more than 10 yr. Real geofluids contain noncondensible gases and dissolved solids in addition to water, and the desire to model such `compositional` systems led to the development of a flexible multicomponent, multiphase simulation architecture known as MULKOM. The design of MULKOM was based on the recognition that the mass-and energy-balance equations for multiphase fluid and heat flows in multicomponent systems have the same mathematical form, regardless of the number and nature of fluid components and phases present. Application of MULKOM to different fluid mixtures, such as water and air, or water, oil, and gas, is possible by means of appropriate `equation-of-state` (EOS) modules, which provide all thermophysical and transport parameters of the fluid mixture and the permeable medium as a function of a suitable set of primary thermodynamic variables. Investigations of thermal and hydrologic effects from emplacement of heat-generating nuclear wastes into partially water-saturated formations prompted the development and release of a specialized version of MULKOM for nonisothermal flow of water and air, named TOUGH. TOUGH is an acronym for `transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat` and is also an allusion to the tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The TOUGH2 code is intended to supersede TOUGH. It offers all the capabilities of TOUGH and includes a considerably more general subset of MULKOM modules with added capabilities. The paper briefly describes the simulation methodology and user features.

  8. Design and validation of a general purpose robotic testing system for musculoskeletal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lawrence D; Colbrunn, Robb W; Lee, Dong-Gil; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Davis, Brian L

    2010-02-01

    Orthopaedic research on in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons, and ligaments during joint loading has been difficult to perform because of limitations with existing robotic simulators in applying full-physiological loading to the joint under investigation in real time. The objectives of the current work are as follows: (1) describe the design of a musculoskeletal simulator developed to support in vitro testing of cadaveric joint systems, (2) provide component and system-level validation results, and (3) demonstrate the simulator's usefulness for specific applications of the foot-ankle complex and knee. The musculoskeletal simulator allows researchers to simulate a variety of loading conditions on cadaver joints via motorized actuators that simulate muscle forces while simultaneously contacting the joint with an external load applied by a specialized robot. Multiple foot and knee studies have been completed at the Cleveland Clinic to demonstrate the simulator's capabilities. Using a variety of general-use components, experiments can be designed to test other musculoskeletal joints as well (e.g., hip, shoulder, facet joints of the spine). The accuracy of the tendon actuators to generate a target force profile during simulated walking was found to be highly variable and dependent on stance position. Repeatability (the ability of the system to generate the same tendon forces when the same experimental conditions are repeated) results showed that repeat forces were within the measurement accuracy of the system. It was determined that synchronization system accuracy was 6.7+/-2.0 ms and was based on timing measurements from the robot and tendon actuators. The positioning error of the robot ranged from 10 microm to 359 microm, depending on measurement condition (e.g., loaded or unloaded, quasistatic or dynamic motion, centralized movements or extremes of travel, maximum value, or root-mean-square, and x-, y- or z-axis motion). Algorithms and methods for controlling

  9. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  10. Recent advances toward a general purpose linear-scaling quantum force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Timothy J; Huang, Ming; Chen, Haoyuan; York, Darrin M

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus There is need in the molecular simulation community to develop new quantum mechanical (QM) methods that can be routinely applied to the simulation of large molecular systems in complex, heterogeneous condensed phase environments. Although conventional methods, such as the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method, are adequate for many problems, there remain other applications that demand a fully quantum mechanical approach. QM methods are generally required in applications that involve changes in electronic structure, such as when chemical bond formation or cleavage occurs, when molecules respond to one another through polarization or charge transfer, or when matter interacts with electromagnetic fields. A full QM treatment, rather than QM/MM, is necessary when these features present themselves over a wide spatial range that, in some cases, may span the entire system. Specific examples include the study of catalytic events that involve delocalized changes in chemical bonds, charge transfer, or extensive polarization of the macromolecular environment; drug discovery applications, where the wide range of nonstandard residues and protonation states are challenging to model with purely empirical MM force fields; and the interpretation of spectroscopic observables. Unfortunately, the enormous computational cost of conventional QM methods limit their practical application to small systems. Linear-scaling electronic structure methods (LSQMs) make possible the calculation of large systems but are still too computationally intensive to be applied with the degree of configurational sampling often required to make meaningful comparison with experiment. In this work, we present advances in the development of a quantum mechanical force field (QMFF) suitable for application to biological macromolecules and condensed phase simulations. QMFFs leverage the benefits provided by the LSQM and QM/MM approaches to produce a fully QM method that is able to

  11. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  12. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  13. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  14. A general-purpose framework to simulate musculoskeletal system of human body: using a motion tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Rostami, Mostafa; Gudarzi, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Computation of muscle force patterns that produce specified movements of muscle-actuated dynamic models is an important and challenging problem. This problem is an undetermined one, and then a proper optimization is required to calculate muscle forces. The purpose of this paper is to develop a general model for calculating all muscle activation and force patterns in an arbitrary human body movement. For this aim, the equations of a multibody system forward dynamics, which is considered for skeletal system of the human body model, is derived using Lagrange-Euler formulation. Next, muscle contraction dynamics is added to this model and forward dynamics of an arbitrary musculoskeletal system is obtained. For optimization purpose, the obtained model is used in computed muscle control algorithm, and a closed-loop system for tracking desired motions is derived. Finally, a popular sport exercise, biceps curl, is simulated by using this algorithm and the validity of the obtained results is evaluated via EMG signals.

  15. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of detector-source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, E E; Celiktas, C

    2012-12-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. (133)Ba and (207)Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of a general-purpose scintigraphic scanner to transverse-section (tomographic) gamma-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradstock, P.A.; Milward, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the recent application of a general-purpose commercial scintigraphic scanner to transverse-section radioisotope tomography. The principle of the method is to obtain the distribution of radioactive material in a thin transverse slice of the body or brain, from a mathematical reconstruction using the measured transverse projections of the activity within that slice. The usefulness of the radioisotope section-scanning technique for clinical diagnosis, as evidenced from one year's use of the machine at the Midland Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Birmingham, U.K., is briefly discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  19. A parallelization study of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4 on a distributed memory highly parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Takao; Fujisaki, Masahide; Okuda, Motoi; Takano, Makoto; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1993-01-01

    The general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4 has been implemented on the Fujitsu AP1000 distributed memory highly parallel computer. Parallelization techniques developed and studied are reported. A shielding analysis function of the MCNP4 code is parallelized in this study. A technique to map a history to each processor dynamically and to map control process to a certain processor was applied. The efficiency of parallelized code is up to 80% for a typical practical problem with 512 processors. These results demonstrate the advantages of a highly parallel computer to the conventional computers in the field of shielding analysis by Monte Carlo method. (orig.)

  20. Application of a general purpose user's version of the EGS4 code system to a photon skyshine benchmarking calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, I.; Fukasaku, Y.; Narita, O.

    1994-01-01

    A general purpose user's version of the EGS4 code system has been developed to make EGS4 easily applicable to the safety analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. One such application involves the determination of skyshine dose for a variety of photon sources. To verify the accuracy of the code, it was benchmarked with Kansas State University (KSU) photon skyshine experiment of 1977. The results of the simulation showed that this version of EGS4 would be appicable to the skyshine calculation. (author)

  1. Multi­-Threaded Algorithms for General purpose Graphics Processor Units in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger farm. We have developed a demonstrator including GPGPU implementations of Inner Detector and Muon tracking and Calorimeter clustering within the ATLAS software framework. ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, with level 1 implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. The High Level Trigger reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz level 1 acceptance rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per­-event processing time of ~250 ms for this task. The selection in the high level trigger is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Calorimeter. Performing this reconstruction within the available farm resources presents a significant ...

  2. Languages for Specific Academic Purposes or Languages for General Academic Purposes? A Critical Reappraisal of a Key Issue for Language Provision in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the subject specificity of university language tuition has been going on for decades; it has mostly been discussed in the context of English for Academic Purposes. This paper considers the case for disciplinary specificity with regard to languages other than English. Few, if any, developed curricula, syllabuses, suitable textbooks…

  3. Screening tests in toxicity or drug effect studies with use of centrifichem general-purpose spectrophotometeric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Bercz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    CentrifiChem System 400 general-purpose spectrophotometric analyzer which can process simultaneously 30 samples and reads the reactions within milliseconds was used for toxicity studies. Organic and inorganic chemicals were screened for inhibitory action of the hydrolytic activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca,Mg-ATPase and that of the sacrolemmal (SL) Na,K-ATPase, or mitochondrial ATPase (M). SR and SL were prepared from rabbit muscles, Na,K-ATPase from pig kidneys, M from pig hearts. Pseudosubstrates of paranitrophenyl phosphate and 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate, both proven high energy phosphate substitutes for ATPase coupled ion transfer were used. The reaction rates were followed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm measuring the accumulation of yellow nitrophenolate ions. The reported calcium transfer coupling ratio to hydrolysis of 2:1 was ascertained with use of 45 Ca in case of SR. Inhibition constants (pI) on SR, SL, and M for the pseudosubstrate hydrolysis will be given for over 20 chemicals tested. The applicability of the system to general toxicity testing and to general cardio-effective drug screening will be presented

  4. Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends and Reactive Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulkern, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... In this work, the incorporation of HBPs in thermoplastic blends was investigated. Several volume fractions of hydroxyl functionalized hyperbranched polyesters were melt blended with nonreactive polystyrene (PS...

  5. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel

  6. RUMD: A general purpose molecular dynamics package optimized to utilize GPU hardware down to a few thousand particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Bailey, Trond S. Ingebrigtsen, Jesper Schmidt Hansen, Arno A. Veldhorst, Lasse Bøhling, Claire A. Lemarchand, Andreas E. Olsen, Andreas K. Bacher, Lorenzo Costigliola, Ulf R. Pedersen, Heine Larsen, Jeppe C. Dyre, Thomas B. Schrøder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RUMD is a general purpose, high-performance molecular dynamics (MD simulation package running on graphical processing units (GPU's. RUMD addresses the challenge of utilizing the many-core nature of modern GPU hardware when simulating small to medium system sizes (roughly from a few thousand up to hundred thousand particles. It has a performance that is comparable to other GPU-MD codes at large system sizes and substantially better at smaller sizes.RUMD is open-source and consists of a library written in C++ and the CUDA extension to C, an easy-to-use Python interface, and a set of tools for set-up and post-simulation data analysis. The paper describes RUMD's main features, optimizations and performance benchmarks.

  7. VoxelMages: a general-purpose graphical interface for designing geometries and processing DICOM images for PENELOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Alventosa, V; Ballester, F; Vijande, J

    2016-12-01

    The design and construction of geometries for Monte Carlo calculations is an error-prone, time-consuming, and complex step in simulations describing particle interactions and transport in the field of medical physics. The software VoxelMages has been developed to help the user in this task. It allows to design complex geometries and to process DICOM image files for simulations with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE in an easy and straightforward way. VoxelMages also allows to import DICOM-RT structure contour information as delivered by a treatment planning system. Its main characteristics, usage and performance benchmarking are described in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of detector–source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. 133 Ba and 207 Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. - Highlights: ► Effect of the source-detector distance on time spectra was investigated. ► Effect of the detector bias voltage variations on time spectra was examined. ► Optimum detector–source distance was determined for the best time resolution. ► Optimum detector bias voltage was determined for the best time resolution. ► 133 Ba and 207 Bi radioisotopes were used.

  9. Human factors in equipment development for the Space Shuttle - A study of the general purpose work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, M. K.; Giacomi, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a human factors test to assay the suitability of a prototype general purpose work station (GPWS) for biosciences experiments on the fourth Spacelab mission are reported. The evaluation was performed to verify that users of the GPWS would optimally interact with the GPWS configuration and instrumentation. Six male subjects sat on stools positioned to allow assimilation of the zero-g body posture. Trials were run concerning the operator viewing angles facing the console, the console color, procedures for injecting rates with dye, a rat blood cell count, mouse dissection, squirrel monkey transfer, and plant fixation. The trials were run for several days in order to gage improvement or poor performance conditions. Better access to the work surface was found necessary, together with more distinct and better located LEDs, better access window latches, clearer sequences on control buttons, color-coded sequential buttons, and provisions made for an intercom system when operators of the GPWS work in tandem.

  10. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  11. Duplication of complete dentures using general-purpose handheld optical scanner and 3-dimensional printer: Introduction and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Kosuke; Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Ishida, Yuichi; Ito, Teruaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new clinical procedure for fabricating duplicates of complete dentures by bite pressure impression using digital technology, and to discuss its clinical significance. The denture is placed on a rotary table and the 3-dimensional form of the denture is digitized using a general-purpose handheld optical scanner. The duplicate denture is made of polylactic acid by a 3-dimensional printer using the 3-dimensional data. This procedure has the advantages of wasting less material, employing less human power, decreasing treatment time at the chair side, lowering the rates of contamination, and being readily fabricated at the time of the treatment visit. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Abrefah, J.; Klinger, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the

  13. Effect of Recycling in Post-Consumer Polystyrene Cups

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to recycle post-consumer polystyrene cups and to analyze the changes in mechanical and rheological properties of the recycled polystyrene. The me-chanical properties were tensile strength, Young’s modulus and the rheological proper-ties was melt flow index. In order to analyze the changes in properties, material testing results of pristine polystyrene were compared with the recycled polystyrene. The same polystyrene material was recycled and tested twice in order to ...

  14. Simple Coatings to Render Polystyrene Protein Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Hecker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific protein adsorption is detrimental to the performance of many biomedical devices. Polystyrene is a commonly used material in devices and thin films. Simple reliable surface modification of polystyrene to render it protein resistant is desired in particular for device fabrication and orthogonal functionalisation schemes. This report details modifications carried out on a polystyrene surface to prevent protein adsorption. The trialed surfaces included Pluronic F127 and PLL-g-PEG, adsorbed on polystyrene, using a polydopamine-assisted approach. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D results showed only short-term anti-fouling success of the polystyrene surface modified with F127, and the subsequent failure of the polydopamine intermediary layer in improving its stability. In stark contrast, QCM-D analysis proved the success of the polydopamine assisted PLL-g-PEG coating in preventing bovine serum albumin adsorption. This modified surface is equally as protein-rejecting after 24 h in buffer, and thus a promising simple coating for long term protein rejection of polystyrene.

  15. Heuristic simulation of nuclear systems on a supercomputer using the HAL-1987 general-purpose production-rule analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Gvillo, D.; Makowitz, H.

    1987-01-01

    HAL-1987 is a general-purpose tool for the construction of production-rule analysis systems. It uses the rule-based paradigm from the part of artificial intelligence concerned with knowledge engineering. It uses backward-chaining and forward-chaining in an antecedent-consequent logic, and is programmed in Portable Standard Lisp (PSL). The inference engine is flexible and accommodates general additions and modifications to the knowledge base. The system is used in coupled symbolic-procedural programming adaptive methodologies for stochastic simulations. In Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport, the system considers the pre-processing of the input data to the simulation and adaptively controls the variance reduction process as the simulation progresses. This is accomplished through the use of a knowledge base of rules which encompass the user's expertise in the variance reduction process. It is also applied to the construction of model-based systems for monitoring, fault-diagnosis and crisis-alert in engineering devices, particularly in the field of nuclear reactor safety analysis

  16. In vivo dosimetry in intraoperative electron radiotherapy: microMOSFETs, radiochromic films and a general-purpose linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    In vivo dosimetry is desirable for the verification, recording, and eventual correction of treatment in intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). Our aim is to share our experience of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and radiochromic films with patients undergoing IOERT using a general-purpose linac. We used MOSFETs inserted into sterile bronchus catheters and radiochromic films that were cut, digitized, and sterilized by means of gas plasma. In all, 59 measurements were taken from 27 patients involving 15 primary tumors (seven breast and eight non-breast tumors) and 12 relapses. Data were subjected to an outliers' analysis and classified according to their compatibility with the relevant doses. Associations were sought regarding the type of detector, breast and non-breast irradiation, and the radiation oncologist's assessment of the difficulty of detector placement. At the same time, 19 measurements were carried out at the tumor bed with both detectors. MOSFET measurements ([Formula: see text]  = 93.5 %, sD  =  6.5 %) were not significantly shifted from film measurements ([Formula: see text]  =  96.0 %, sD  =  5.5 %; p  =  0.109), and no associations were found (p = 0.526, p = 0.295,  and p = 0.501, respectively). As regards measurements performed at the tumor bed with both detectors, MOSFET measurements ([Formula: see text]  =  95.0 %, sD  =  5.4 % were not significantly shifted from film measurements ([Formula: see text]  =  96.4 %, sD  =  5.0 %; p  =  0.363). In vivo dosimetry can produce satisfactory results at every studied location with a general-purpose linac. Detector choice should depend on user factors, not on the detector performance itself. Surgical team collaboration is crucial to success.

  17. SafeNet: a methodology for integrating general-purpose unsafe devices in safe-robot rehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Federico; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Malosio, Matteo; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Robot-assisted neurorehabilitation often involves networked systems of sensors ("sensory rooms") and powerful devices in physical interaction with weak users. Safety is unquestionably a primary concern. Some lightweight robot platforms and devices designed on purpose include safety properties using redundant sensors or intrinsic safety design (e.g. compliance and backdrivability, limited exchange of energy). Nonetheless, the entire "sensory room" shall be required to be fail-safe and safely monitored as a system at large. Yet, sensor capabilities and control algorithms used in functional therapies require, in general, frequent updates or re-configurations, making a safety-grade release of such devices hardly sustainable in cost-effectiveness and development time. As such, promising integrated platforms for human-in-the-loop therapies could not find clinical application and manufacturing support because of lacking in the maintenance of global fail-safe properties. Under the general context of cross-machinery safety standards, the paper presents a methodology called SafeNet for helping in extending the safety rate of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) systems using unsafe components, including sensors and controllers. SafeNet considers, in fact, the robotic system as a device at large and applies the principles of functional safety (as in ISO 13489-1) through a set of architectural procedures and implementation rules. The enabled capability of monitoring a network of unsafe devices through redundant computational nodes, allows the usage of any custom sensors and algorithms, usually planned and assembled at therapy planning-time rather than at platform design-time. A case study is presented with an actual implementation of the proposed methodology. A specific architectural solution is applied to an example of robot-assisted upper-limb rehabilitation with online motion tracking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling of Convective Process of Water Desorption from Polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakic, M.; Nikolic, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a mathematical model developed to evaluate the influence of structural and operational factors on convective dehydration process (desorption of liquid phase from capillary-porous material), as well as the possibility to utilize this model for the case of water desorption from polystyrene cation resin CG-8. The model accounts for unsteady one-dimensional simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the gas (air) and the solid phase (resin). The identification of effective transport properties for the considered fixed bed of material (resin CG 8) is discussed. To this purpose available data from the literature are used. (author)

  19. Deposition, characterization, and in vivo performance of parylene coating on general-purpose silicone for examining potential biocompatible surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Shiao, Chiao-Ju; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a thorough investigation of parylene coatings was conducted, as follows: microstructure (i.e., X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and cold field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM)), mechanical property (i.e., pencil hardness and cross-cut adhesion test), surface property (i.e., water contact angle measurement, IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)), and biocompatibility tests (i.e., fibroblast cell culture, platelet adhesion, and animal studies). The results revealed that parylene, a crystalline and brittle coating, exhibited satisfactory film adhesion and relative hydrophobicity, thereby contributing to its effective barrier properties. Fibroblast cell culturing on the parylene-deposited specimen demonstrated improved cell proliferation and equivalent to or superior blood compatibility than that of the medical-grade silicone (currently used clinically). In the animal study, parylene coatings exhibited similar subcutaneous inflammatory reactions compared with the medical-grade silicone. Both in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated the satisfactory biocompatibility of parylene coatings. - Highlights: • A complete investigation to identify the characteristics of parylene coatings on general-purpose silicones. • Microstructures, surface properties and mechanical properties of parylene coatings were examined. • In vitro (Cell culture, platelet adhesion) tests and animal studies revealed satisfactory biocompatibility. • An alternative of medical-grade silicones is expected to be obtained

  20. General-purpose computer networks and resource sharing in ERDA. Volume 3. Remote resource-sharing experience and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The investigation focused on heterogeneous networks in which a variety of dissimilar computers and operating systems were interconnected nationwide. Homogeneous networks, such as MFE net and SACNET, were not considered since they could not be used for general purpose resource sharing. Issues of privacy and security are of concern in any network activity. However, consideration of privacy and security of sensitive data arise to a much lesser degree in unclassified scientific research than in areas involving personal or proprietary information. Therefore, the existing mechanisms at individual sites for protecting sensitive data were relied on, and no new protection mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy and security were attempted. Further development of ERDA networking will need to incorporate additional mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy. The investigation itself furnishes an excellent example of computational resource sharing through a heterogeneous network. More than twenty persons, representing seven ERDA computing sites, made extensive use of both ERDA and non-ERDA computers in coordinating, compiling, and formatting the data which constitute the bulk of this report. Volume 3 analyzes the benefits and barriers encountered in actual resource sharing experience, and provides case histories of typical applications.

  1. Architecture of a general purpose embedded Slow-Control Adapter ASIC for future high-energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Loddo, Flavio; Ranieri, Antonio; De Robertis, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    This work is aimed at defining the architecture of a new digital ASIC, namely Slow-Control Adapter (SCA), which will be designed in a commercial 130-nm CMOS technology. This chip will be embedded within a high-speed data acquisition optical link (GBT) to control and monitor the front-end electronics in future high-energy physics experiments. The GBT link provides a transparent transport layer between the SCA and control electronics in the counting room. The proposed SCA supports a variety of common bus protocols to interface with end-user general-purpose electronics. Between the GBT and the SCA a standard 100 Mb/s IEEE-802.3 compatible protocol will be implemented. This standard protocol allows off-line tests of the prototypes using commercial components that support the same standard. The project is justified because embedded applications in modern large HEP experiments require particular care to assure the lowest possible power consumption, still offering the highest reliability demanded by very large particle detectors.

  2. Deposition, characterization, and in vivo performance of parylene coating on general-purpose silicone for examining potential biocompatible surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Man [Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Taichung Port Rd., Taichung 40705, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Taipei 11221, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shiao, Chiao-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wen-Hwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 666 Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wen-Hwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    In this study, a thorough investigation of parylene coatings was conducted, as follows: microstructure (i.e., X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and cold field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM)), mechanical property (i.e., pencil hardness and cross-cut adhesion test), surface property (i.e., water contact angle measurement, IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)), and biocompatibility tests (i.e., fibroblast cell culture, platelet adhesion, and animal studies). The results revealed that parylene, a crystalline and brittle coating, exhibited satisfactory film adhesion and relative hydrophobicity, thereby contributing to its effective barrier properties. Fibroblast cell culturing on the parylene-deposited specimen demonstrated improved cell proliferation and equivalent to or superior blood compatibility than that of the medical-grade silicone (currently used clinically). In the animal study, parylene coatings exhibited similar subcutaneous inflammatory reactions compared with the medical-grade silicone. Both in vitro and in vivo tests demonstrated the satisfactory biocompatibility of parylene coatings. - Highlights: • A complete investigation to identify the characteristics of parylene coatings on general-purpose silicones. • Microstructures, surface properties and mechanical properties of parylene coatings were examined. • In vitro (Cell culture, platelet adhesion) tests and animal studies revealed satisfactory biocompatibility. • An alternative of medical-grade silicones is expected to be obtained.

  3. Development of a general-purpose method for cell purification using Cre/loxP-mediated recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Shunsuke; Akiyoshi, Mika; Ideguchi, Ko; Kitano, Satsuki; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Hirose, Michiko; Mise, Nathan; Abe, Kuniya; Ogura, Atsuo; Tachibana, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    A mammalian body is composed of more than 200 different types of cells. The purification of a certain cell type from tissues/organs enables a wide variety of studies. One popular cell purification method is immunological isolation, using antibodies against specific cell surface antigens. However, this is not a general-purpose method, since suitable antigens have not been found in certain cell types, including embryonic gonadal somatic cells and Sertoli cells. To address this issue, we established a knock-in mouse line, named R26 KI, designed to express the human cell surface antigen hCD271 through Cre/loxP-mediated recombination. First, we used the R26 Kl mouse line to purify embryonic gonadal somatic cells. Gonadal somatic cells were purified from the R26 KI; Nr5a1-Cre-transgenic (tg) embryos almost equally as efficiently as from Nr5a1-hCD271-tg embryos. Second, we used the R26 KI mouse line to purify Sertoli cells successfully from R26 KI; Amh-Cre-tg testes. In summary, we propose that the R26 KI mouse line is a powerful tool for the purification of various cell types. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. STICK: Spike Time Interval Computational Kernel, a Framework for General Purpose Computation Using Neurons, Precise Timing, Delays, and Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce, Xavier; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-11-01

    There has been significant research over the past two decades in developing new platforms for spiking neural computation. Current neural computers are primarily developed to mimic biology. They use neural networks, which can be trained to perform specific tasks to mainly solve pattern recognition problems. These machines can do more than simulate biology; they allow us to rethink our current paradigm of computation. The ultimate goal is to develop brain-inspired general purpose computation architectures that can breach the current bottleneck introduced by the von Neumann architecture. This work proposes a new framework for such a machine. We show that the use of neuron-like units with precise timing representation, synaptic diversity, and temporal delays allows us to set a complete, scalable compact computation framework. The framework provides both linear and nonlinear operations, allowing us to represent and solve any function. We show usability in solving real use cases from simple differential equations to sets of nonlinear differential equations leading to chaotic attractors.

  5. Architecture of a general purpose embedded Slow-Control Adapter ASIC for future high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Loddo, Flavio; Ranieri, Antonio; De Robertis, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at defining the architecture of a new digital ASIC, namely Slow-Control Adapter (SCA), which will be designed in a commercial 130-nm CMOS technology. This chip will be embedded within a high-speed data acquisition optical link (GBT) to control and monitor the front-end electronics in future high-energy physics experiments. The GBT link provides a transparent transport layer between the SCA and control electronics in the counting room. The proposed SCA supports a variety of common bus protocols to interface with end-user general-purpose electronics. Between the GBT and the SCA a standard 100 Mb/s IEEE-802.3 compatible protocol will be implemented. This standard protocol allows off-line tests of the prototypes using commercial components that support the same standard. The project is justified because embedded applications in modern large HEP experiments require particular care to assure the lowest possible power consumption, still offering the highest reliability demanded by very large particle detectors.

  6. Computer-assisted analyses of (/sup 14/C)2-DG autoradiographs employing a general purpose image processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C; Biral, G P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisiologia Umana; Fonda, S; Baraldi, P [Modena Univ. (Italy). Lab. di Bioingegneria della Clinica Oculistica; Cavazzuti, M [Modena Univ. (Italy). Clinica Neurologica

    1984-09-01

    A general purpose image processing system is described including B/W TV camera, high resolution image processor and display system (TESAK VDC 501), computer (DEC PDP 11/23) and monochrome and color monitors. Images may be acquired from a microscope equipped with a TV camera or using the TV in direct viewing; the A/D converter and the image processor provides fast (40 ms) and precise (512x512 data points) digitization of TV signal with a 256 gray levels maximum resolution. Computer programs have been developed in order to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of autoradiographs obtained with the 2-DG method, which are written in FORTRAN and MACRO 11 Assembly Language. They include: (1) procedures designed to recognize errors in acquisition due to possible image shading and correct them via software; (2) routines suitable for qualitative analyses of the whole image or selected regions of it, providing the opportunity for pseudocolor coding, statistics, graphic overlays; (3) programs permitting the conversion of gray levels into metabolic rates of glucose utilization and the display of gray- or color-coded metabolic maps.

  7. Design and Deployment of a General Purpose, Open Source LoRa to Wi-Fi Hub and Data Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, T. C.; Udell, C.; Kwon, M.; Selker, J. S.; Lopez Alcala, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Methods and technologies facilitating internet connectivity and near-real-time status updates for in site environmental sensor data are of increasing interest in Earth Science. However, Open Source, Do-It-Yourself technologies that enable plug and play functionality for web-connected sensors and devices remain largely inaccessible for typical researchers in our community. The Openly Published Environmental Sensing Lab at Oregon State University (OPEnS Lab) constructed an Open Source 900 MHz Long Range Radio (LoRa) receiver hub with SD card data logger, Ethernet and Wi-Fi shield, and 3D printed enclosure that dynamically uploads transmissions from multiple wirelessly-connected environmental sensing devices. Data transmissions may be received from devices up to 20km away. The hub time-stamps, saves to SD card, and uploads all transmissions to a Google Drive spreadsheet to be accessed in near-real-time by researchers and GeoVisualization applications (such as Arc GIS) for access, visualization, and analysis. This research expands the possibilities of scientific observation of our Earth, transforming the technology, methods, and culture by combining open-source development and cutting edge technology. This poster details our methods and evaluates the application of using 3D printing, Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Adafruit's Open-Hardware Feather development boards, and the WIZNET5500 Ethernet shield for designing this open-source, general purpose LoRa to Wi-Fi data logger.

  8. Cafe Variome: general-purpose software for making genotype-phenotype data discoverable in restricted or open access contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Owen; Beck, Tim; Atlan, David; Swertz, Morris; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Veal, Colin; Dalgleish, Raymond; Brookes, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Biomedical data sharing is desirable, but problematic. Data "discovery" approaches-which establish the existence rather than the substance of data-precisely connect data owners with data seekers, and thereby promote data sharing. Cafe Variome (http://www.cafevariome.org) was therefore designed to provide a general-purpose, Web-based, data discovery tool that can be quickly installed by any genotype-phenotype data owner, or network of data owners, to make safe or sensitive content appropriately discoverable. Data fields or content of any type can be accommodated, from simple ID and label fields through to extensive genotype and phenotype details based on ontologies. The system provides a "shop window" in front of data, with main interfaces being a simple search box and a powerful "query-builder" that enable very elaborate queries to be formulated. After a successful search, counts of records are reported grouped by "openAccess" (data may be directly accessed), "linkedAccess" (a source link is provided), and "restrictedAccess" (facilitated data requests and subsequent provision of approved records). An administrator interface provides a wide range of options for system configuration, enabling highly customized single-site or federated networks to be established. Current uses include rare disease data discovery, patient matchmaking, and a Beacon Web service. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. The Study of the Microbes Degraded Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the observation that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio could eat polystyrene (PS, we setup the platform to screen the gut microbes of these two worms. To take advantage of that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio can eat and digest polystyrene as its diet, we analyzed these special microbes with PS plate and PS turbidity system with time courses. There were two strains TM1 and ZM1 which isolated from Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that TM1 and ZM1 were cocci-like and short rod shape Gram-negative bacteria under microscope. The PS plate and turbidity assay showed that TM1 and ZM1 could utilize polystyrene as their carbon sources. The further study of PS degraded enzyme and cloning warrants our attention that this platform will be an excellent tools to explore and solve this problem.

  10. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  11. In vivo dosimetry in intraoperative electron radiotherapy. microMOSFETs, radiochromic films and a general-purpose linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, Juan; Marco-Blancas, Noelia de; Santos-Serra, Agustin; Quiros-Higueras, Juan David [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Bouche-Babiloni, Ana; Morillo-Macias, Virginia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Castellon de la Plana (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    In vivo dosimetry is desirable for the verification, recording, and eventual correction of treatment in intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). Our aim is to share our experience of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and radiochromic films with patients undergoing IOERT using a general-purpose linac. We used MOSFETs inserted into sterile bronchus catheters and radiochromic films that were cut, digitized, and sterilized by means of gas plasma. In all, 59 measurements were taken from 27 patients involving 15 primary tumors (seven breast and eight non-breast tumors) and 12 relapses. Data were subjected to an outliers' analysis and classified according to their compatibility with the relevant doses. Associations were sought regarding the type of detector, breast and non-breast irradiation, and the radiation oncologist's assessment of the difficulty of detector placement. At the same time, 19 measurements were carried out at the tumor bed with both detectors. MOSFET measurements (D = 93.5 %, s{sub D} = 6.5 %) were not significantly shifted from film measurements (D = 96.0 %, s{sub D} = 5.5 %; p = 0.109), and no associations were found (p = 0.526, p = 0.295, and p = 0.501, respectively). As regards measurements performed at the tumor bed with both detectors, MOSFET measurements (D = 95.0 %, s{sub D} = 5.4 %) were not significantly shifted from film measurements (D = 96.4 %, s{sub D} = 5.0 %; p = 0.363). In vivo dosimetry can produce satisfactory results at every studied location with a general-purpose linac. Detector choice should depend on user factors, not on the detector performance itself. Surgical team collaboration is crucial to success. (orig.) [German] Die In-vivo-Dosimetrie ist wuenschenswert fuer die Ueberpruefung, Registrierung und die eventuelle Korrektur der Behandlungen in der IOERT (''Intraoperative Electron Radiation Therapy''). Unser Ziel ist die Veroeffentlichung unserer Erfahrungen beim

  12. Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270 0 C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177 0 C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270 0 C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260 0 C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177 0 C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270 0 C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270 0 C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260 0 C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure

  13. Development and validation of a general-purpose ASIC chip for the control of switched reluctance machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haijin; Lu Shengli; Shi Longxing

    2009-01-01

    A general-purpose application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip for the control of switched reluctance machines (SRMs) was designed and validated to fill the gap between the microcontroller capability and the controller requirements of high performance switched reluctance drive (SRD) systems. It can be used for the control of SRM running either in low speed or in high-speed, i.e., either in chopped current control (CCC) mode or in angular position control (APC) mode. Main functions of the chip include filtering and cycle calculation of rotor angular position signals, commutation logic according to rotor cycle and turn-on/turn-off angles (θ on /θ off ), controllable pulse width modulation (PWM) waveforms generation, chopping control with adjustable delay time, and commutation control with adjustable delay time. All the control parameters of the chip are set online by the microcontroller through a serial peripheral interface (SPI). The chip has been designed with the standard cell based design methodology, and implemented in the central semiconductor manufacturing corporation (CSMC) 0.5 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process technology. After a successful automatic test equipment (ATE) test using the Nextest's Maverick test system, the chip was further validated through an experimental three-phase 6/2-pole SRD system. Both the ATE test and experimental validation results show that the chip can meet the control requirements of high performance SRD systems, and simplify the controller construction. For a resolution of 0.36 deg. (electrical degree), the chip's maximum processable frequency of the rotor angular position signals is 10 kHz, which is 300,000 rev/min when a three-phase 6/2-pole SRM is concerned

  14. The EB factory project. I. A fast, neural-net-based, general purpose light curve classifier optimized for eclipsing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; Burger, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new neural-net-based light curve classifier and provide it with documentation as a ready-to-use tool for the community. While optimized for identification and classification of eclipsing binary stars, the classifier is general purpose, and has been developed for speed in the context of upcoming massive surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. A challenge for classifiers in the context of neural-net training and massive data sets is to minimize the number of parameters required to describe each light curve. We show that a simple and fast geometric representation that encodes the overall light curve shape, together with a chi-square parameter to capture higher-order morphology information results in efficient yet robust light curve classification, especially for eclipsing binaries. Testing the classifier on the ASAS light curve database, we achieve a retrieval rate of 98% and a false-positive rate of 2% for eclipsing binaries. We achieve similarly high retrieval rates for most other periodic variable-star classes, including RR Lyrae, Mira, and delta Scuti. However, the classifier currently has difficulty discriminating between different sub-classes of eclipsing binaries, and suffers a relatively low (∼60%) retrieval rate for multi-mode delta Cepheid stars. We find that it is imperative to train the classifier's neural network with exemplars that include the full range of light curve quality to which the classifier will be expected to perform; the classifier performs well on noisy light curves only when trained with noisy exemplars. The classifier source code, ancillary programs, a trained neural net, and a guide for use, are provided.

  15. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Electrokinetic properties and conductance relaxation of polystyrene and silver iodide plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental study on the electrokinetic and electrical properties of concentrated polystyrene and silver iodide dispersions. The purpose of the study is to obtain information on the structure of the electrical double layer at the solid-liquid interface. Special

  17. General Purpose Ground Forces: What Purpose?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Challis, Dan

    1993-01-01

    "New World Order," a phrase uttered frequently by former President George Bush during and after the Persian Gulf War, no longer connotes the optimism of America's global view at the end of Desert Storm...

  18. "Why Do I Have to Take This Course?": How Academic Advisers Can Help Students Find Personal Meaning and Purpose in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Kuwaye, Michael; Sano-Franchini, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, student engagement in general education continues to be a challenge. Perhaps one way to increase engagement is to connect general education with a deep student need: finding meaning and purpose in their lives or exploring what some have called "big questions." Recent scholarship has defined these clusters of…

  19. Simulative calculation of bromo-polystyrene mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Chao; Tang Yong Jian

    2002-01-01

    The non-crystal model of polystyrene and bromo-polystyrene was established with the help of simulative software in the computer. DREIDING was chosen as force field and its parameters is modified according to the published data. Based on the calculation results and other published data the mechanism properties of polystyrene and bromo-polystyrene, such as bulk module, Yong's module and Poisson's ratios, were discussed

  20. The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General-purpose Dictionaries with Special Reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on the treatment of polysemy and homonymy in general-purpose monolingual dictionaries with special reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. It was found that there are some inconsistencies in the treatment of polysemous and homonymous entries in this dictionary. The article shows that an overreliance on one criterion, particularly etymology, to distinguish polysemy and homonymy is often misleading and unreliable. Polysemy itself has its own inherent complexities, among these being the problem of determining the exact number of meanings of a polysemous lemma. When the meanings of a polysemous lemma are listed, the central or primary meaning, which is not always easily ascertainable, should come first. A holistic approach is proposed to distinguish polysemy and homonymy, which entails the use of the following criteria: etymology, relatedness vs unrelatedness of meaning, componential analysis, the identification of the central or core meaning and the test of ambiguity. Whatever results are obtained from a particular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against native speakers' intuitive knowledge and introspective judgements.

    OPSOMMING: Die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in eentalige algemene woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Hierdie artikel fokus op die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in algemene eentalige woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Daar is vasgestel dat daar 'n aantal inkonsekwensies in die behandeling van poliseme en homonieme inskrywings in hierdie woordeboek is. Die artikel toon dat 'n te groot steun op een kriterium, veral etimologie, om polisemie en homonimie te onderskei, dikwels misleidend en onbetroubaar is. Polisemie self het sy eie inherente gekompliseerdhede waarvan sommige die probleem is om die presiese aantal betekenisse van 'n poliseme lemma te bepaal. Wanneer

  1. Activity of Antimicrobial Silver Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palomba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique based on doping polymers with in situ generated silver nanoparticles (Ag/PS films has been developed. In particular, an antiseptic material has been prepared by dissolving silver 1,5-cyclooctadiene-hexafluoroacetylacetonate in amorphous polystyrene, and the obtained solid solution has been heated for ca. 10 s at a convenient temperature (180°C. Under such conditions the metal precursor decomposes producing silver atoms that diffuse into the polymer and clusterize. The antimicrobial characteristics of the resulting polystyrene-based material have been accurately evaluated toward Escherichia coli (E. coli comparing the cytotoxicity effect of 10 wt.% and 30 wt.% (drastic and mild annealing silver-doped polystyrene to the corresponding pure micrometric silver powder. Two different bacterial viability assays were performed in order to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of Ag/PS films on cultured E. coli: (1 turbidimetric determination of optical density; (2 BacLight fluorescence-based test. Both methods have shown that silver-doped polystyrene (30 wt.% provides higher antibacterial activity than pure Ag powder, under similar concentration and incubation conditions.

  2. Effects of Different Types of Clays and Maleic Anhydride Modified Polystyrene on Polystyrene/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/clay nanocomposites are considered as a new subject of research in Iran and the world. Addition of a minimum amount of clay (2-5wt% can improve the mechanical properties, enhance barrier properties and reduce flammability dramatically. Polystyrene (PS exhibits high strength, high modulus and excellent dimensional stability, but it has poor ductility, elongation, and flexural modulus. By incorporating clay into polystyrene these properties can be improved. In this study preparation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposite, effects of different types of clays (Cloisite 10A andNanomer I.30TC and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene on mechanical properties of the prepared polystyrene/clay nanocomposites were evaluated. Samples were prepared by a twin screw extruder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques were employed to evaluate the extent of intercalation and exfoliation of silicate layers in the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests show that by addition of clay and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene the flexural modulus (~30% and elongation-at-break (~40% of prepared nanocomposites have been improved. XRD and TEM results show that nanocomposite have an intercalated structure with ability to change to further exfoliation structure.

  3. A model for the stress-strain behavior of toughened polystyrene. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, S.D.; Heikens, D.

    1982-01-01

    The general stress-strain relationship derived in an earlier paper is applied to analyse experimental stress-strain curves of polystyrene-polyethylene blends. It is concluded from the stress and temperature dependence of the rates of craze initiation and craze growth that these rates can be

  4. Low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktar, O.; Ari, G.; Guenduez, O.; Demirel, H.; Demirbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matri10. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared by an extruder in SANAEM. Molds suitable for extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and pressure were obtained. Plastic blocks prepared were optically and mechanically tested and its response against various radioactive sources was measured.This study has shown that plastic scintillators imported can be produced in SANAEM domestically and be used for detection of radioactive materials within the country or border gates.

  5. Characterization of SWNT based Polystyrene Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cynthia; Bahr, Jeffrey; Tour, James; Arepalli, Sivaram; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2003-03-01

    Polystyrene nanocomposites with functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), prepared by the in-situ generation and addition of organic diazonium compounds, were characterized using a range of structural and dynamic methods. These were contrasted to the properties of polystyrene composites prepared with unfunctionalized SWNTs at the same loadings. The functionalized nanocomposites demonstrated a percolated SWNT network structure at concentrations of 1 vol SWNT based composites at similar loadings of SWNT exhibited behavior comparable to that of the unfilled polymer. This formation of the SWNT network structure is because of the improved compatibility between the SWNTs and the polymer matrix due to the functionalization. Further structural evidence for the compatibility of the modified SWNTs and the polymer matrix will be discussed in the presentation.

  6. 77 FR 18899 - To Modify Duty-Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of Preferences and For Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) if such country fails to act in good faith in recognizing as binding or in enforcing arbitral awards in favor of United States citizens or a corporation, partnership, or... faith in enforcing arbitral awards in favor of United States citizens or a corporation, partnership, or...

  7. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  8. Text messaging among residents and faculty in a university general surgery residency program: prevalence, purpose, and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhruvil R; Galante, Joseph M; Bold, Richard J; Canter, Robert J; Martinez, Steve R

    2013-01-01

    There is little information about the use of text messaging (texting) devices among resident and faculty physicians for patient-related care (PRC). To determine the prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding texting among resident and attending surgeons and to identify factors associated with PRC texting. E-mail survey. University medical center and its affiliated hospitals. Surgery resident and attending staff. Prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding patient-related care text messaging. Overall, 73 (65%) surveyed physicians responded, including 45 resident (66%) and 28 attending surgeons (62%). All respondents owned a texting device. Majority of surgery residents (88%) and attendings (71%) texted residents, whereas only 59% of residents and 65% of attendings texted other faculty. Most resident to resident text occurred at a frequency of 3-5 times/d (43%) compared with most attending to resident texts, which occurred 1-2 times/d (33%). Most resident to attending (25%) and attending to attending (30%) texts occurred 1-2 times/d. Among those that texted, PRC was the most frequently reported purpose for resident to resident (46%), resident to attending (64%), attending to resident (82%), and attending to other attending staff (60%) texting. Texting was the most preferred method to communicate about routine PRC (47% of residents vs 44% of attendings). Age (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; p = 0.003), but not sex, specialty/clinical rotation, academic rank, or postgraduate year (PGY) level predicted PRC texting. Most resident and attending staff surveyed utilize texting, mostly for PRC. Texting was preferred for communicating routine PRC information. Our data may facilitate the development of guidelines for the appropriate use of PRC texting. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wettability control of polystyrene by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masaya

    1994-01-01

    The permanent effects of ion implantation on the improvement of wettability of polystyrene is investigated in relation to ion species and fluences. The He + , Ne + , Na + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , K + and Kr + ion implantations were performed at energies of 50 and 150 keV at room temperature. The fluences ranged from 1x10 15 to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . The results showed that the contact angle of water for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene decreased from 87 to 0 , as the fluences increased to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 50 keV. The contact angle for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene did not change under ambient room conditions, even when time elapsed. However, the contact an gle for He + , C + , O + , Ne + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , and Kr + ion implanted specimens decreased slightly immediately after ion implantation. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the increase in the Na content in the surface of Na + implanted specimens were observed with increasing fluence. It is concluded that permanent improvement in wettability was caused by doping effects rather than by radiation effects from Na + and K + ion implantation. ((orig.))

  10. General Purpose Force Capability; the Challenge of Versatility and Achieving Balance Along the Widest Possible Spectrum of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    STRATEGY 16 Ir 16 Balance 17 The Imbalance between Traditional and Irregul 17 Finding the Proper Balance 18 CHAPTER 3 - DEFINING 20 Introduction 20...wider struggle for control and support of the contested c ir warfare as well as W 41      4. IRREGULAR WARFARE – HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND CURRENT...Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., July 20, 2009. R 1984. homas E. The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military

  11. "I Love Knowing That What I'm Doing Has Purpose": Male Instrumentalists Who Choose to Teach Elementary General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouldice, Heather Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Few entering music education students plan to teach in an elementary general music (EGM) setting, and the majority of those who teach EGM are female and have vocalist backgrounds. The purpose of this collective case study was to examine six male instrumentalists' decisions to pursue a career in EGM teaching rather than secondary instrumental…

  12. CRSEC: a general purpose Hauser--Feshbach code for the calculation of nuclear cross-sections and thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.; Fowler, W.A.

    1977-09-01

    CRSEC is a FORTRAN IV computer code designed for the efficient calculation of average nuclear cross sections in situations where a statistical theory of nuclear reactions is applicable and where compound nuclear formation is the dominant reaction mechanism. This code generates cross sections of roughly factor of 2 accuracy for incident particle energies in the range of 10 keV to 10 MeV for most target nuclei from magnesium to bismuth. Exceptions usually involve reactions that enter the compound nucleus at such a low energy that fewer than 10 levels are present in the ''energy window of interest.'' The incident particle must be a neutron, proton, or alpha particle, and only binary reactions resulting in the emission of a single n, p, α, or γ (cascade) are calculated. CRSEC is quite fast, a complete calculation of 12 different reactions over a grid of roughly 150 energy points and the generation of Maxwellian averaged rates taking about 30 seconds of CDC7600 time. Also the semi-empirical parameterization of nuclear properties contained in CRSEC is very general. Greater accuracy may be obtained, however, by furnishing specific low-lying excited states, level density parameterization, and nuclear strength functions. A more general version of CRSEC, called CRSECI, is available that conserves isospin properly in all reactions and allows the user to specify a given degree of isospin mixing in the highly excited states of the compound nucleus. Besides the cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy, CRSEC also generates the Maxwell--Boltzmann averaged thermonuclear reaction rate and temperature dependent nuclear partition function for a grid of temperatures from 10 8 to 10 10 0 K. Sections of this report describe in greater detail the physics employed in CRSEC and how to use the code. 2 tables

  13. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R 1989) sealed source standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ''Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization''. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ( 238 P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR

  14. Local Segmental Dynamics and Stresses in Polystyrene - C$_{60}$ Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogiatzis, Georgios G.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2014-01-01

    The polymer dynamics of homogeneous C$_{60}$-polystyrene mixtures in the molten state are studied via molecular simulations using two interconnected levels of representation for polystyrene nanocomposites: (a) A coarse-grained representation, in which each polystyrene repeat unit is mapped into a single "superatom" and each fullerene is viewed as a spherical shell. Equilibration of coarse-grained polymer-nanoparticle systems at all length scales is achieved via connectivity-altering Monte Car...

  15. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA,L. A. C.; VIEIRA,J. G.; OMENA,T. H.; FARIA,F. A. C.; RODRIGUES FILHO,G.; ASSUNÇÃO,R. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase...

  16. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  17. Adsorption of different amphiphilic molecules onto polystyrene latices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar-Reyes, A B; Ortega-Vinuesa, J L; Martín-Rodríguez, A

    2005-02-15

    In order to know the influence of the surface characteristics and the chain properties on the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules onto polystyrene latex, a set of experiments to study the adsorption of ionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants and an amphiphilic synthetic peptide on different latex dispersions was performed. The adsorbed amount versus the equilibrium surfactant concentration was determined. The main adsorption mechanism was the hydrophobic attraction between the nonpolar tail of the molecule and the hydrophobic regions of the latex surface. This attraction overcame the electrostatic repulsion between chains and latex surface with identical charge sign. However, the electrostatic interactions chain-surface and chain-chain also played a role. General patterns for the adsorption of ionic chains on charged latex surfaces could be established. Regarding the shape, the isotherms presented different plateaus corresponding to electrostatic effects and conformational changes. The surfactant size also affects the adsorption results: the higher the hydrophilic moiety in the surfactant molecule the lower the adsorbed amount.

  18. Fabrication of polystyrene porous films with gradient pore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hongwei; Zhang Lin; Li Bo; Yin Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Silica opals and multilayer heterostructures were fabricated by vertical deposition technique. Polystyrene inverse opals and gradient porous structures were obtained by colloidal templating, in order to control the pore microstructure of polymer porous materials. As shown in the scanning electron microscopy images, the polystyrene porous structures are precise replicas of inverse structures of the original templates. After being infiltrated with the polystyrene, the photonic stop-band position of the opal composite is redshifted compared with the original template, and it is blueshifted after the opal template being removed. The filling ratio of polystyrene was calculated according to the Bragg formula. (authors)

  19. Area-based cell colony surviving fraction evaluation: A novel fully automatic approach using general-purpose acquisition hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Rundo, Leonardo; Conti, Vincenzo; Minafra, Luigi; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Porcino, Nunziatina

    2017-10-01

    The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent. Considering that the Area Covered by Colony (ACC) is proportional to the colony number and size as well as to the growth rate, we propose a novel fully automatic approach exploiting Circle Hough Transform, to automatically detect the wells in the plate, and local adaptive thresholding, which calculates the percentage of ACC for the SF quantification. This measurement relies just on this covering percentage and does not consider the colony number, preventing inconsistencies due to intra- and inter-operator variability. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we compared the SFs obtained by our automatic ACC-based method against the conventional counting procedure. The achieved results (r = 0.9791 and r = 0.9682 on MCF7 and MCF10A cells, respectively) showed values highly correlated with the measurements using the traditional approach based on colony number alone. The proposed computer-assisted methodology could be integrated in laboratory practice as an expert system for the SF evaluation in clonogenic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Circularly polarized luminescence of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Guerra, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    Syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) films, when crystallized from the amorphous state by temporary sorption of non-racemic guest molecules (like carvone) not only exhibit unusually high optical activity, both in the UV-Visible and Infrared ranges, but also present circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high dissymmetry ratios (g = ΔI/I values in the range 0.02-0.03). Experimental evidences provide support, rather than to the usual molecular circular dichroism, to a supramolecular chiral optical response being extrinsic to the site of photon absorption and emission, possibly associated with a helical morphology of s-PS crystallites.

  1. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were fabricated using a free-surface thermo-compression molding method on a polystyrene (PS) sheet which was then bonded on top of microfluidic channels as a cover plate, with the convex microlenses providing a magnified image of the channel for the easier observation of the flow in the microchannels. This approach for fabricating the integrated microlens in microfluidic devices is rapid, low cost and without the requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. PARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCED WITH Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE THEREPHTHALATE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio da Silva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the properties of wood particleboards, containing particles of polystyrene (PS and polyethylene therephthalate (PET. Particleboards were produced with 0%, 25% or 50% of polystyrene and 100%, 75% or 50% of Eucalyptus grandis particles. Additional boards were produced with two amounts of PET/PS (5/20% or 10/40% and 75% or 50% wood particles. As binding agents three amounts (0%, 4% or 6% of urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde adhesive and three amounts of polystyrene in toluene solution (0%, 4% or 6% were used. One-layer boards, measuring approximately 400,0 x 400,0 x 10,0 mm with density approximately equal to 0,60 g/cm3, were produced. Internal bond, modulus of rupture and elasticity, screw withdrawal, as well water absorption and thickness swelling, after 24 hours of immersion were determined. All mechanical boards’ properties were superior to the established by ANSI/A 208.1-1993 standards. All wood/plastic particleboards absorbed more water then those observed in commercial boards. However the observed thickness swelling was quite similar to the values of commercial wood particleboards. Boards in which the solution of polystyrene was applied were, in general, presented the best values for all properties.

  3. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  4. Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

  5. Solid polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene light output response to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.; Danly, C.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurlbut, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Neutron Imaging System has proven to be an important diagnostic in studying DT implosion characteristics at the National Ignition Facility. The current system depends on a polystyrene scintillating fiber array, which detects fusion neutrons born in the DT hotspot as well as neutrons that have scattered to lower energies in the surrounding cold fuel. Increasing neutron yields at NIF, as well as a desire to resolve three-dimensional information about the fuel assembly, have provided the impetus to build and install two additional next-generation neutron imaging systems. We are currently investigating a novel neutron imaging system that will utilize a deuterated polystyrene (CD) fiber array instead of standard hydrogen-based polystyrene (CH). Studies of deuterated xylene or deuterated benzene liquid scintillator show an improvement in imaging resolution by a factor of two [L. Disdier et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2134 (2004)], but also a reduction in light output [V. Bildstein et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 729, 188 (2013); M. I. Ojaruega, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2009; M. T. Febbraro, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2014] as compared to standard plastic. Tests of the relative light output of deuterated polystyrene and standard polystyrene were completed using 14 MeV fusion neutrons generated through implosions of deuterium-tritium filled capsules at the OMEGA laser facility. In addition, we collected data of the relative response of these two scintillators to a wide energy range of neutrons (1-800 MeV) at the Weapons Neutrons Research Facility. Results of these measurements are presented.

  6. Solid polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene light output response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hurlbut, C. [Eljen Technology, Sweetwater, Texas 79556 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Neutron Imaging System has proven to be an important diagnostic in studying DT implosion characteristics at the National Ignition Facility. The current system depends on a polystyrene scintillating fiber array, which detects fusion neutrons born in the DT hotspot as well as neutrons that have scattered to lower energies in the surrounding cold fuel. Increasing neutron yields at NIF, as well as a desire to resolve three-dimensional information about the fuel assembly, have provided the impetus to build and install two additional next-generation neutron imaging systems. We are currently investigating a novel neutron imaging system that will utilize a deuterated polystyrene (CD) fiber array instead of standard hydrogen-based polystyrene (CH). Studies of deuterated xylene or deuterated benzene liquid scintillator show an improvement in imaging resolution by a factor of two [L. Disdier et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2134 (2004)], but also a reduction in light output [V. Bildstein et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 729, 188 (2013); M. I. Ojaruega, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2009; M. T. Febbraro, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2014] as compared to standard plastic. Tests of the relative light output of deuterated polystyrene and standard polystyrene were completed using 14 MeV fusion neutrons generated through implosions of deuterium-tritium filled capsules at the OMEGA laser facility. In addition, we collected data of the relative response of these two scintillators to a wide energy range of neutrons (1-800 MeV) at the Weapons Neutrons Research Facility. Results of these measurements are presented.

  7. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  8. RESEARCHES OF WORKING LIFE OF FOAM POLYSTYRENE OF BUILDING APPOINTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyumdzhjan Perch Pogosovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental researches of physicomechanical properties of foam polystyrene thermal insulation materials are presented in article. The operational resource was defined on materials subject to ageing, action of liquid excited environments and atmospheric impacts. The destructive processes leading to destruction of foam polystyrene are revealed.

  9. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  10. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah; Nuurul Iffah Che Omar; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Jaafar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252 Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241 Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  11. Validity of silhouette showcards as a measure of body size and obesity in a population in the African region: A practical research tool for general-purpose surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Viswanathan, Barathi; Bovet, Pascal; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the Pulvers silhouette showcard as a measure of weight status in a population in the African region. This tool is particularly beneficial when scarce resources do not allow for direct anthropometric measurements due to limited survey time or lack of measurement technology in face-to-face general-purpose surveys or in mailed, online, or mobile device-based surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Republic of Seychelles with a sample of 1240 adults. We compared self-reported body sizes measured by Pulvers' silhouette showcards to four measurements of body size and adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percent measured, waist circumference, and waist to height ratio. The accuracy of silhouettes as an obesity indicator was examined using sex-specific receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis and the reliability of this tool to detect socioeconomic gradients in obesity was compared to BMI-based measurements. Our study supports silhouette body size showcards as a valid and reliable survey tool to measure self-reported body size and adiposity in an African population. The mean correlation coefficients of self-reported silhouettes with measured BMI were 0.80 in men and 0.81 in women (P general-purpose surveys of obesity in social sciences, where limited resources do not allow for direct anthropometric measurements.

  12. Influence of recycled polystyrene beads on cement paste properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroufi Maroua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the requirements of sustainable development, there is a growing interest towards reducing the energy consumption in the construction and rehabilitation of buildings and the promotion of recycling waste in building materials. The use of recycled polystyrene beads in cement-based materials composition constitutes a solution to improve the insulation in buildings. This allows also limiting landfill by reusing the polystyrene waste. The aim of this study is to compare some properties and performances of a cement paste containing polystyrene beads to a reference paste designed with only the same cement. An experimental campaign was conducted and the obtained results showed that adding recycled polystyrene beads to a cement paste improves its hygro-thermal properties. Further studies are however necessary to better understand the real role of the polystyrene beads in the heat and mass transfers.

  13. Development of a General-Purpose Analysis System Based on a Programmable Fluid Processor Final Report CRADA No. TC-2027-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gascoyne, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The purpose ofthis project was to develop a general-purpose analysis system based on a programmable fluid processor (PFP). The PFP is an array of electrodes surrounded by fluid reservoirs and injectors. Injected droplets of various reagents are manjpulated and combined on the array by Dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The goal was to create a small handheld device that could accomplish the tasks currently undertaken by much larger, time consuming, manual manipulation in the lab. The entire effo1t was funded by DARPA under the Bio-Flips program. MD Anderson Cancer Center was the PI for the DARPA effort. The Bio-Flips program was a 3- year program that ran from September 2000 to September 2003. The CRADA was somewhat behind the Bi-Flips program running from June 2001 to June 2004 with a no cost extension to September 2004.

  14. Performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and other hardware in the microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert P.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) plus other associated hardware during the recent flight of Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1). The RAHF was developed to provide proper housing (food, water, temperature control, lighting and waste management) for up to 24 rodents during flights on the Spacelab. The GPWS was designed to contain particulates and toxic chemicals generated during plant and animal handling and dissection/fixation activities during space flights. A history of the hardware development involves as well as the redesign activities prior to the actual flight are discussed.

  15. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  16. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes

  17. Adsorption of amphipathic dendrons on polystyrene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T; Florence, A T

    2003-03-18

    Adsorption of dendrons onto nanoparticles may provide new model structures which may be useful in drug and gene delivery. Tritiated amphipathic dendrons having three lipidic (C(14)) chains coupled to branched (dendritic) lysine head groups with 8, 16 or 32 free terminal amino groups have been synthesised by solid phase peptide techniques. The interaction between these tritiated dendrons and 200 nm polystyrene latex nanoparticles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The amount of dendron adsorbed increased with increasing concentration of dendrons and then decreased. Maximum adsorption of dendrons per gram of nanoparticles was found to be between 8.2 and 84 x 10(-6)M, the amounts adsorbed being inversely proportional to the number of amino groups present in the molecule. The number of dendron molecules adsorbed per nanoparticle was found to be between 430 and 4421. The degree of adsorption was found to be slightly altered by the temperature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. ANALYSIS DEGRADATION OF POLYSTYRENE WITH MONTMORILLONITE NANOFILLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mihalikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the experimental investigation of the montmorillonite nanofillers effect on deformation properties of polystyrene KRASTEN 171. In some cases, combination of a low amount of clay with dispersed polymeric phase may cause synergistic effects leading to very fair balance of mechanical behaviour. This seems to be a consequence of complex influencing the multiphase system by clay such as modification of components (reinforcement and parameters of the interface accompanied by influencing the dynamic phase behaviour, i.e., the compactibilizing effect. The paper analyses the effect of nanocomposites and type of the material on the individual measured parameters, relations between them, strength and deformation behaviour. Deformation was evaluated by non-contact videoextensometry method

  19. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  20. Synthesis and properties of deuterated polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang; Jin Rong; Xu Yewei; Zhang Lin; Yan Hongwei; Du Kai; Wei Chengfu

    2012-01-01

    Deuterated poly(vinylcyclohexane) (D-PVCH, C 8 H 8 D 6 ) was successfully prepared via deuterated catalytic technology of polystyrene (PS). The structure of D-PVCH was characterized by FT-IR and 1 HNMR spectroscopy, and the results show good agreement with the proposed structure and the deuterated ratio is 41.5%. DSC and TG analyses of the D-PVCH show that D-PVCH possesses good thermal stability (glass transition temperature of 125 ℃, 5% weight loss temperature of 403 ℃). Additionally, D-PVCH dissolves in common solvents such as petroleum ether, cyclohexane and toluene at room temperature. Compared with PS, D-PVCH possesses better thermal stability and improved solubility. (authors)

  1. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathon, O., E-mail: mathon@esrf.fr; Beteva, A.; Borrel, J.; Bugnazet, D.; Gatla, S.; Hino, R.; Kantor, I.; Mairs, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Munoz, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Université Joseph Fourier, 1381 rue de la Piscine, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pasternak, S.; Perrin, F.; Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-10-17

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high-signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5–75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  2. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna V. Pirko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental feature of economy of postindustrial society is the knowledge that represents the basic source of competitive advantage. In the article the circle of didactic, psychological indicators in researches of problems of achievement of a high degree of quality of education and educational services is considered and described. The attention is paid to pedagogical requirements of the given period which are a standard substantiation in orientations for quality estimation of software tools for educational purpose of the general educational environment in Ukraine. The scheme of internal model of maintenance of quality of software tools for educational purpose is considered, the aspects integrated by internal model of quality of software for educational purpose are listed. The article describes the directions of researches in the conditions of formation of the global international educational environment and uniform information space of  education system taking into account the growth of availability of educational services. It is specified the main principles in the organization of pedagogical software tools.

  3. Air bubble-induced detachment of polystyrene particles with different sizes from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle

  4. Combined effect of gamma radiation and stress cracking in polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Fernando A.; Rabello, Marcelo S.; Silva, Leonardo G.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of gamma radiation and stress cracking in polystyrene. Three different grades of polystyrene were analysed. The material was submitted to tensile tests and relaxation, analysis of molecular weight and determination of crosslinking. The results showed an increase in tensile strength in the specimens that had been exposed to radiation. The higher the molecular weight polystyrene showed better mechanical properties and after suffering the effects of gamma radiation there was an increase of 5.67% in the resistance to stress cracking effects. (author)

  5. The Role of Mucin in the Toxicological Impact of Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel oral drug delivery systems is an expanding area of research and both new approaches for improving their efficacy and the investigation of their potential toxicological effect are crucial and should be performed in parallel. Polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs have been used for the production of diagnostic and therapeutic nanosystems, are widely used in food packaging, and have also served as models for investigating NPs interactions with biological systems. The mucous gel layer that covers the epithelium of the gastrointestinal system is a complex barrier-exchange system that it is mainly constituted by mucin and it constitutes the first physical barrier encountered after ingestion. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of polystyrene NPs on mucin and its potential role during NP–cell interactions. For this purpose, we evaluated the interaction of polystyrene NPs with mucin in dispersion by dynamic light scattering and with a deposited layer of mucin using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technology. Next, we measured cell viability and the apoptotic state of three enterocyte-like cell lines that differ in their ability to produce mucin, after their exposure to the NPs. Positive charged NPs showed the ability to strongly interact and aggregate mucin in our model. Positive NPs affected cell viability and induced apoptosis in all cell lines independently of their ability of produce mucin.

  6. Synthesis of micro-sized polystyrene magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Juliete S.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z.; Umpierre, Alexandre P.; Machado, Fabricio; Souza Junior, Fernando G. de

    2011-01-01

    The present work illustrates the synthesis of spherical and micro-sized polystyrene magnetic particles by using a water-based suspension polymerization process to incorporate in situ surface modified superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The crystallite size of Fe 3 O 4 was determined to be equal to 7.7 nm, based on Scherrer's equation and XRD measurement. According to EDX analyses, Fe 3 O 4 / polystyrene nanocomposites particles show strong characteristic peaks Kα and Kβ of iron at the interval from 6.38 KeV to 7.04 KeV with an amount of iron in the samples equal to 98 %, indicating that the inorganic material dispersed in the polystyrene matrix is essentially Fe in the form of iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ). The obtained polymeric materials presented good magnetic behavior, indicating that the modified Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were successfully dispersed in the polystyrene particles. (author)

  7. ESR studies of the radiation effects on polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.W.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Pomery, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the polystyrene system (both pure and commercial samples) to elucidate the type and percentage of each paramagnetic species upon exposure to various irradiation doses. The size of dose plays a vital role in the type of spectra obtained. Upon irradiation in vacuo, polystyrene displays ESR spectra which are basically triplet in character but the line spacing and intensities of components are observed to depend on the magnitude of the irradiation dose. G value for the total radicals present and for the individual species present as a function of dose have been obtained. The relative concentration of each paramagnetic species has been determined through computer simulation of the observed ESR spectra. The relative stability of the different species with respect to temperature is discussed. The results for deuterated polystyrene is used to support those obtained for the unsubstituted polystyrene system. (author)

  8. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  9. Constancy in composition of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.J.; Nath, R.

    1979-01-01

    Variations in the atomic compostion, and mass and electron densities of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMM) plastics were assessed from experimentally determined mass attenuation coefficients for 125 I and 137 Cs gamma rays. The means and standard deviations in the mass densities of 16 samples of PMM and 10 samples of polystyrene were found to be 1.174 +- 1.4% and 1.042 +- 0.6% g/cm 3 , respectively. Based upon transmission measurements on various solutions of ethyl alcohol in water, the standard deviations in the effective atomic numbers of PMM and polystyrene were determined to be 0.77% and 1.3%, respectively. Based upon experimentally determined mass attenuation coefficients for 137 Cs, the standard deviations in electron density for PMM and polystyrene were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Similar measurements on tap water and two grades of distilled water failed to detect any differences in atomic composition

  10. The time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline BM23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, O; Beteva, A; Borrel, J; Bugnazet, D; Gatla, S; Hino, R; Kantor, I; Mairs, T; Munoz, M; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Pascarelli, S

    2015-11-01

    BM23 is the general-purpose EXAFS bending-magnet beamline at the ESRF, replacing the former BM29 beamline in the framework of the ESRF upgrade. Its mission is to serve the whole XAS user community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many specialized instruments available at the ESRF. BM23 offers high signal-to-noise ratio EXAFS in a large energy range (5-75 keV), continuous energy scanning for quick-EXAFS on the second timescale and a micro-XAS station delivering a spot size of 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM. It is a user-friendly facility featuring a high degree of automation, online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment.

  11. The new versatile general purpose surface-muon instrument (GPS) based on silicon photomultipliers for μSR measurements on a continuous-wave beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Sedlak, K; Stoykov, A; Scheuermann, R; Elender, M; Raselli, A; Graf, D

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a new spectrometer for muon-spin relaxation/rotation studies installed at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland). This new instrument is essentially a new design and replaces the old general-purpose surface-muon (GPS) instrument that has been for long the workhorse of the μSR user facility at PSI. By making use of muon and positron detectors made of plastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers, a time resolution of the complete instrument of about 160 ps (standard deviation) could be achieved. In addition, the absence of light guides, which are needed in traditionally built μSR instrument to deliver the scintillation light to photomultiplier tubes located outside magnetic fields applied, allowed us to design a compact instrument with a detector set covering an increased solid angle compared with the old GPS.

  12. High Precision Thermal, Structural and Optical Analysis of an External Occulter Using a Common Model and the General Purpose Multi-Physics Analysis Tool Cielo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Claus; Cady, Eric; Chainyk, Mike; Kissil, Andrew; Levine, Marie; Moore, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The efficient simulation of multidisciplinary thermo-opto-mechanical effects in precision deployable systems has for years been limited by numerical toolsets that do not necessarily share the same finite element basis, level of mesh discretization, data formats, or compute platforms. Cielo, a general purpose integrated modeling tool funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Exoplanet Exploration Program, addresses shortcomings in the current state of the art via features that enable the use of a single, common model for thermal, structural and optical aberration analysis, producing results of greater accuracy, without the need for results interpolation or mapping. This paper will highlight some of these advances, and will demonstrate them within the context of detailed external occulter analyses, focusing on in-plane deformations of the petal edges for both steady-state and transient conditions, with subsequent optical performance metrics including intensity distributions at the pupil and image plane.

  13. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  14. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for uniform scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, Keita [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Moskvin, Vadim P., E-mail: vadim.p.moskvin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Although three general-purpose Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tools: Geant4, FLUKA and PHITS have been used extensively, differences in calculation results have been reported. The major causes are the implementation of the physical model, preset value of the ionization potential or definition of the maximum step size. In order to achieve artifact free MC simulation, an optimized parameters list for each simulation system is required. Several authors have already proposed the optimized lists, but those studies were performed with a simple system such as only a water phantom. Since particle beams have a transport, interaction and electromagnetic processes during beam delivery, establishment of an optimized parameters-list for whole beam delivery system is therefore of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimized parameters list for GATE and PHITS using proton treatment nozzle computational model. The simulation was performed with the broad scanning proton beam. The influences of the customizing parameters on the percentage depth dose (PDD) profile and the proton range were investigated by comparison with the result of FLUKA, and then the optimal parameters were determined. The PDD profile and the proton range obtained from our optimized parameters list showed different characteristics from the results obtained with simple system. This led to the conclusion that the physical model, particle transport mechanics and different geometry-based descriptions need accurate customization in planning computational experiments for artifact-free MC simulation.

  15. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for uniform scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosu, Keita; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Das, Indra J.; Moskvin, Vadim P.

    2014-01-01

    Although three general-purpose Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tools: Geant4, FLUKA and PHITS have been used extensively, differences in calculation results have been reported. The major causes are the implementation of the physical model, preset value of the ionization potential or definition of the maximum step size. In order to achieve artifact free MC simulation, an optimized parameters list for each simulation system is required. Several authors have already proposed the optimized lists, but those studies were performed with a simple system such as only a water phantom. Since particle beams have a transport, interaction and electromagnetic processes during beam delivery, establishment of an optimized parameters-list for whole beam delivery system is therefore of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimized parameters list for GATE and PHITS using proton treatment nozzle computational model. The simulation was performed with the broad scanning proton beam. The influences of the customizing parameters on the percentage depth dose (PDD) profile and the proton range were investigated by comparison with the result of FLUKA, and then the optimal parameters were determined. The PDD profile and the proton range obtained from our optimized parameters list showed different characteristics from the results obtained with simple system. This led to the conclusion that the physical model, particle transport mechanics and different geometry-based descriptions need accurate customization in planning computational experiments for artifact-free MC simulation

  16. Behavior of positronium in polystyrene and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Tashiro, M.; Terashima, Y.; Miyamoto, K.; Kimura, N.; Tagawa, S.

    2003-01-01

    The polystyrene, poly(4-bromostyrene) and poly(4-vinylphenol) are investigated using slow positron beam based on electron linac. There was a difference in the intensity of long-lived component of lifetime in o-Ps (τ 3 ). The S-parameter and the intensity of τ 3 were strongly influenced by the presence of the substituents of polystyrene. In thin films, irradiation effect caused by positron beam was observed

  17. On the Importance of Purification of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Akhil K.; Roy, Sandip; Juvekar, Vinay A.

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange is commonly employed for purification of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS), a molecule widely used as a model polyelectrolyte. However, the present work demonstrates that the ion exchange process itself may introduce some extraneous species into NaPSS samples by two possible mechanisms: (i) chemical transformation of polystyrene sulfonic acid (HPSS), a relatively unstable intermediate formed during ion exchange and (ii) release of small amount of “condensed” acid from cationic...

  18. The polymerization of aniline in polystyrene latex particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blinova, Natalia V.; Reynaud, S.; Roby, F.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 15/16 (2010), s. 1598-1602 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * polystyrene latex * polyaniline-polystyrene composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  19. Grafting of Polystyrene Chains at the Edge of Graphene Nanolayers by "Grafting Through" Approach Using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edge-functionalized graphene nanolayers with polystyrene chains were prepared by a “grafting through” reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. For this purpose, double-bond containing modifier (MD was prepared. After edge-functionalization of graphene oxide (GO by two different amounts of MD and preparation of modified graphenes (LFG and HFG, RAFT polymerization of styrene was applied for preparation of functionalized GO with different densities of polystyrene chains. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that MD and polystyrene chains were grafted at the edge of GO. Gas chromatography showed that conversion decreased by the addition of modified GO content and also grafting density of MD. Number-average molecular weight and polydispersity index of polystyrene chains were derived from gel permeation chromatography. Increase of modified graphene content results in a decrease in molecular weight of attached polystyrene chains and also an increase in their PDI value. Increase of grafting density of MD results in decrease of molecular weight of polystyrene chains with no considerable variation in PDI value. Thermogravimetric analysis results showed that char residue is about 45.1 and 46.8% for LFG and HFG, respectively. The content of degradation ascribed to polystyrene increased with increase of grafting density of MD and decreased with increase of modified graphene content. X-ray diffraction results were used for evaluation of interlayer spacing of graphene layers after functionalization process and also study of nanocomposites structure. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that graphene layers with high clarity turned to opaque layers with lots of creases by oxidation and attachment of polystyrene chains.

  20. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  2. ''Nonisolated-sensor'' solid polystyrene absorbed dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitz, L.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A ''nonisolated-sensor'' solid polystyrene calorimeter was constructed to test the role of thermal diffusion in limiting the length of irradiation time during which temperature measurements with nonisolated sensors could be made sufficiently free of drift for determining dose with radiation fields such as gamma rays, x rays, and high-energy electrons. From measured ratios of dose at 5.0 and 0.5 cm in polystyrene and comparisons to dose measurements with a polystyrene parallel-plate (pancake) ion chamber, it was shown that thermal diffusion is sufficiently small in polystyrene to permit accurate measurements for irradiation periods of less than 20 min. Comparison of the absorbed dose measurements and depth dose ratios with pancake ion chambers and calorimeter showed, that within the precision and accuracy of the two measuring systems, there is close agreement. The nonisolated-sensor solid polystyrene calorimeter has the interesting features of (i) simplicity of construction, (ii) simplicity of operation without vacuum or feedback for temperature control, (iii) capability of simultaneous measurements at several depths and off-axis positions, (iv) the very small thermal defect correction with polystyrene, and (v) operation with the calorimeter in any orientation

  3. Nonisolated-sensor solid polystyrene absorbed dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitz, L.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A nonisolated-sensor solid polystyrene calorimeter was constructed to test the role of thermal diffusion in limiting the length of irradiation time during which temperature measurements with nonisolated sensors could be made sufficiently free of drift for determining dose with radiation fields such as gamma rays, x rays, and high-energy electrons. From measured ratios of dose at 5.0 and 0.5 cm in polystyrene and comparisons to dose measurements with a polystyrene parallel-plate (pancake) ion chamber, it was shown that thermal diffusion is sufficiently small in polystyrene to permit accurate measurements for irradiation periods of less than 20 min. Comparison of the absorbed dose measurements and depth dose ratios with pancake ion chambers and calorimeter showed, that within the precision and accuracy of the two measuring systems, there is close agreement. The nonisolated-sensor solid polystyrene calorimeter has the interesting features of (i) simplicity of construction, (ii) simplicity of operation without vacuum or feedback for temperature control, (iii) capability of simultaneous measurements at several depths and off-axis positions, (iv) the very small thermal defect correction with polystyrene, and (v) operation with the calorimeter in any orientation

  4. Polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent assay for IgE anti-penicillin antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, V.; Delgado, R.G.; Daroca, P.; Lahoz, C.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed based on the binding capacity of polystyrene for proteins. The method was tested on sera from thirteen patients with suspected penicillin allergy, five healthy controls, and three patients with seasonal pollen reactions. The results were compared with those obtained by the radio-allergoabsorbent method (RAST) and with basophil degranulation by penicillin. A penicillin/ovalbumin conjugate (pen-OA) was prepared and polystyrene tubes were incubated with pen-OA, 3% human serum albumin to block free sites, 1/10 dilution of test serum, anti-IgE antiserum specific for epsilon chains, and 125 I-IgE. The tubes were washed after the incubation period and the empty tubes counted in a γ scintillation counter. The specificity of the method was tested by an inhibition assay. The technique seemed more sensitive than the RAST method, the results were reproducible and in general showed good correlation with those of the RAST method. This polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent method therefore provides a simple, specific and sensitive diagnostic technique for penicillin allergy. (U.K)

  5. Coarse graining of atactic polystyrene and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-03-01

    Capturing large length scales in polymers and soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies of dynamic systems. Here we present a new methodology developing coarse-grain model based on atomistic simulation of atactic polystyrene (PS). Similar to previous work by Fritz et al., each monomer is described by two coarse grained beads. In contrast to this earlier work where intramolecular potentials were based on Monte Carlo simulation of both isotactic and syndiotactic single PS molecule to capture stereochemistry, we obtained intramolecular interactions from a single molecular dynamics simulation of an all-atom atactic PS melts. The non-bonded interactions are obtained using the iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) scheme. This methodology has been extended to coarse graining of poly-(t-butyl-styrene) (PtBS). An additional coarse-grained bead is used to describe the t-butyl group. Similar to the process for PS, the intramolecular interactions are obtained from a single all atom atactic melt simulation. Starting from the non-bonded interactions for PS, we show that the IBI method for the non-bonded interactions of PtBS converges relatively fast. A generalized scheme for substituted PS is currently in development. We would like to acknowledge Prof. Kurt Kremer for helpful discussions during this work.

  6. The Evolution of Polystyrene as a Cell Culture Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Max J; Lembong, Josephine; Muramoto, Shin; Gillen, Greg; Fisher, John P

    2018-04-10

    Polystyrene (PS) has brought in vitro cell culture from its humble beginnings to the modern era, propelling dozens of research fields along the way. This review discusses the development of the material, fabrication, and treatment approaches to create the culture material. However, native PS surfaces poorly facilitate cell adhesion and growthin vitro. To overcome this, liquid surface deposition, energetic plasma activation, and emerging functionalization methods transform the surface chemistry. This review seeks to highlight the many potential applications of the first widely accepted polymer growth surface. Although the majority of in vitro research occurs on 2D surfaces, the importance of 3D culture models cannot be overlooked. Here the methods to transition PS to specialized 3D culture surfaces are also reviewed. Specifically, casting, electrospinning, 3D printing, and microcarrier approaches to shift PS to a 3D culture surface are highlighted. The breadth of applications of the material makes it impossible to highlight every use, but the aim remains to demonstrate the versatility and potential as both a general and custom cell culture surface. The review concludes with emerging scaffolding approaches and, based on the findings, presents our insights on the future steps for PS as a tissue culture platform.

  7. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan; Sangeetha, Dharmalingam

    2010-01-01

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10 -3 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  8. Modelling of Radiolytical Proceses in Polystyrenic Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, C.

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of polystyrene, poly α-methylstyrene and poly β-methylstyrene structures in ionizing fields was analyzed using computational methods. In this study, the primary radiolytic effect was evaluated using a free radical mechanism. Molecular structures were built and geometrical optimized using quantum-chemical methods. Binding energies for different quantum states and peripheral orbitals distribution were determined. Based on obtained results it was proposed an evaluation model of radiolytical processes in polymers in solid phase. Suggested model suppose to distinguish the dominant processes by binding energies values analysis and LUMO peripheral orbital distribution. Computed binding energies analysis of energetically optimized molecular structures in ionized state (charge +1, multiplicity 2) reveals a high similitude of obtained binding energies for ionized states. The same similitude was observed also in case of total binding energies for neutral state (charge 0, multiplicity 1). Analyzed molecular structures can be associated with ionized molecule state right after one electron capture. This fact suggests that the determined stage of radiolitical fragmentation act is intermediate state of ionized molecule. This molecule captured one electron but it had no necessary time for atoms rearrangement in the molecule for new quantum state. This supposition is in accordance with literature, the time period between excitation act and fragmentation act being lower than 10 - 15 seconds. Based on realized model could be explained the behavior differences of polymeric structures in ionizing radiation field. Preferential fracture of main chains in fragmentation poly α-methylstirene can be explained in accordance with proposed model by C-C from main C bonding energies decreasing in the neighboring of quaternary C

  9. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Formiggini, Fabio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Marco, Nadia De [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy); Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care IIT@CRIB (Italy); Carotenuto, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.carotenuto@unina.it [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biology (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos.

  10. Polystyrene nanoparticles affect Xenopus laevis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussellino, Margherita; Ronca, Raffaele; Formiggini, Fabio; Marco, Nadia De; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Exposing living organisms to nanoparticulates is potentially hazardous, in particular when it takes place during embryogenesis. In this investigation, we have studied the effects of 50-nm-uncoated polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) as a model to investigate the suitability of their possible future employments. We have used the standardized Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus test during the early stages of larval development of Xenopus laevis, and we have employed either contact exposure or microinjections. We found that the embryos mortality rate is dose dependent and that the survived embryos showed high percentage of malformations. They display disorders in pigmentation distribution, malformations of the head, gut and tail, edema in the anterior ventral region, and a shorter body length compared with sibling untreated embryos. Moreover, these embryos grow more slowly than the untreated embryos. Expressions of the mesoderm markers, bra (T-box Brachyury gene), myod1 (myogenic differentiation1), and of neural crest marker sox9 (sex SRY (determining region Y-box 9) transcription factor sox9), are modified. Confocal microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are localized in the cytoplasm, in the nucleus, and in the periphery of the digestive gut cells. Our data suggest that PSNPs are toxic and show a potential teratogenic effect for Xenopus larvae. We hypothesize that these effects may be due either to the amount of NPs that penetrate into the cells and/or to the “corona” effect caused by the interaction of PSNPs with cytoplasm components. The three endpoints of our study, i.e., mortality, malformations, and growth inhibition, suggest that the tests we used may be a powerful and flexible bioassay in evaluating pollutants in aquatic embryos

  11. Evaluation of general-purpose collimators against high-resolution collimators with resolution recovery with a view to reducing radiation dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT: A preliminary phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Saint, Kimberley J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing focus on reducing radiation dose to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging. This preliminary phantom study aims to evaluate the use of general-purpose collimators with resolution recovery (RR) to allow a reduction in patient radiation dose. Images of a cardiac torso phantom with inferior and anterior wall defects were acquired on a GE Infinia and Siemens Symbia T6 using both high-resolution and general-purpose collimators. Imaging time, a surrogate for administered activity, was reduced between 35% and 40% with general-purpose collimators to match the counts acquired with high-resolution collimators. Images were reconstructed with RR with and without attenuation correction. Two pixel sizes were also investigated. Defect contrast was measured. Defect contrast on general-purpose images was superior or comparable to the high-resolution collimators on both systems despite the reduced imaging time. Infinia general-purpose images required a smaller pixel size to be used to maintain defect contrast, while Symbia T6 general-purpose images did not require a change in pixel size to that used for standard myocardial perfusion SPECT. This study suggests that general-purpose collimators with RR offer a potential for substantial dose reductions while providing similar or better image quality to images acquired using high-resolution collimators.

  12. Adapting machine learning techniques to censored time-to-event health record data: A general-purpose approach using inverse probability of censoring weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Models for predicting the probability of experiencing various health outcomes or adverse events over a certain time frame (e.g., having a heart attack in the next 5years) based on individual patient characteristics are important tools for managing patient care. Electronic health data (EHD) are appealing sources of training data because they provide access to large amounts of rich individual-level data from present-day patient populations. However, because EHD are derived by extracting information from administrative and clinical databases, some fraction of subjects will not be under observation for the entire time frame over which one wants to make predictions; this loss to follow-up is often due to disenrollment from the health system. For subjects without complete follow-up, whether or not they experienced the adverse event is unknown, and in statistical terms the event time is said to be right-censored. Most machine learning approaches to the problem have been relatively ad hoc; for example, common approaches for handling observations in which the event status is unknown include (1) discarding those observations, (2) treating them as non-events, (3) splitting those observations into two observations: one where the event occurs and one where the event does not. In this paper, we present a general-purpose approach to account for right-censored outcomes using inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). We illustrate how IPCW can easily be incorporated into a number of existing machine learning algorithms used to mine big health care data including Bayesian networks, k-nearest neighbors, decision trees, and generalized additive models. We then show that our approach leads to better calibrated predictions than the three ad hoc approaches when applied to predicting the 5-year risk of experiencing a cardiovascular adverse event, using EHD from a large U.S. Midwestern healthcare system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ProtDCal: A program to compute general-purpose-numerical descriptors for sequences and 3D-structures of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Paz, Waldo; Green, James; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani

    2015-05-16

    software is intended to provide a useful tool for general-purpose encoding of protein sequences and structures for applications is protein classification, similarity analyses and function prediction.

  14. Designing strip footing foundations using expanded polystyrene (EPS) as fill material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psarropoulos, Prodromos; Zania, Varvara; Spyrakos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    One of the modern uses of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is in strip footings as fill material. The current study investigates the effect of the geofoam filling in the static and seismic design of the base slab founded on strip footings. For this purpose the finite element method is employed, and three......-dimensional as well as two-dimensional parametric analyses are conducted taking into account static and seismic loading conditions. The interaction of the soil–geofoam–foundation system is taken into consideration. The use of EPS as fill material in foundation systems is proven to be not only technically but also...

  15. Real-Time and Real-Fast Performance of General-Purpose and Real-Time Operating Systems in Multithreaded Physical Simulation of Complex Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical simulation is a valuable tool in many fields of engineering for the tasks of design, prototyping, and testing. General-purpose operating systems (GPOS are designed for real-fast tasks, such as offline simulation of complex physical models that should finish as soon as possible. Interfacing hardware at a given rate (as in a hardware-in-the-loop test requires instead maximizing time determinism, for which real-time operating systems (RTOS are designed. In this paper, real-fast and real-time performance of RTOS and GPOS are compared when simulating models of high complexity with large time steps. This type of applications is usually present in the automotive industry and requires a good trade-off between real-fast and real-time performance. The performance of an RTOS and a GPOS is compared by running a tire model scalable on the number of degrees-of-freedom and parallel threads. The benchmark shows that the GPOS present better performance in real-fast runs but worse in real-time due to nonexplicit task switches and to the latency associated with interprocess communication (IPC and task switch.

  16. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Robert Chase; Christley, Scott; Chang, Eugene; An, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC) resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC), which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  17. Improved detection of sentinel lymph nodes in SPECT/CT images acquired using a low- to medium-energy general-purpose collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Masato; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    The use of the low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimator for lymphoscintigraphy causes the appearance of star-shaped artifacts at injection sites. The aim of this study was to confirm whether the lower resolution of the low- to medium-energy general-purpose (LMEGP) collimator is compensated by decrease in the degree of septal penetration and the reduction in star-shaped artifacts. A total of 106 female patients with breast cancer, diagnosed by biopsy, were enrolled in this study. Tc phytate (37 MBq, 1 mCi) was injected around the tumor, and planar and SPECT/CT images were obtained after 3 to 4 hours. When sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) could not be identified from planar and SPECT/CT images by using the LEHR collimator, we repeated the study with the LMEGP collimator. Planar imaging performed using the LEHR and LEHR + LMEGP collimators positively identified SLNs in 96.2% (102/106) and 99.1% (105/106) of the patients, respectively. Using combination of planar and SPECT/CT imaging with the LEHR and LEHR + LMEGP collimators, SLNs were positively identified in 97.2% (103/106) and 100% (106/106) of the patients, respectively. The LMEGP collimator provided better results than the LEHR collimator because of the lower degree of septal penetration. The use of the LMEGP collimator improved SLN detection.

  18. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Sangeetha, Dharmalingam, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.ed [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-02-25

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -3} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  19. Variable Lysozyme Transport Dynamics on Oxidatively Functionalized Polystyrene Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moringo, Nicholas A; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Wang, Wenxiao; Bishop, Logan D C; Landes, Christy F

    2017-10-17

    Tuning protein adsorption dynamics at polymeric interfaces is of great interest to many biomedical and material applications. Functionalization of polymer surfaces is a common method to introduce application-specific surface chemistries to a polymer interface. In this work, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is utilized to determine the adsorption dynamics of lysozyme, a well-studied antibacterial protein, at the interface of polystyrene oxidized via UV exposure and oxygen plasma and functionalized by ligand grafting to produce varying degrees of surface hydrophilicity, surface roughness, and induced oxygen content. Single-molecule tracking indicates lysozyme loading capacities, and surface mobility at the polymer interface is hindered as a result of all functionalization techniques. Adsorption dynamics of lysozyme depend on the extent and the specificity of the oxygen functionalities introduced to the polystyrene surface. Hindered adsorption and mobility are dominated by hydrophobic effects attributed to water hydration layer formation at the functionalized polystyrene surfaces.

  20. Photooxidation of polystyrene: irradiation at 254 and 365 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otocka, E.P.; Curran, S.; Porter, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Studies have been made of the near surface photooxidation of atactic polystyrene films prepared in the absence of air. The samples were photooxidized on exposure to air at two frequencies, 254 and 365 nm, using a calibrated mercury irradiation source with filters. Most studies were made at 40 0 C and as a function of irradiation time with the reactions characterized by changes in molecular weight and composition. The former was evaluated by gel permeation chromatography and the latter by transmission Fourier transform infrared ir spectroscopy and by multiple-internal-reflectance ir spectra using different angles and different crystals to evaluate compositions as a function of film depth. Species identified in photooxidation include the generation of hydroperoxides and the appearance of carbonyl bands with the latter identified by the spectral shift associated with the exposure of the photooxidized polystyrene surface to ammonia. These results suggest that principal products of near-surface oxidation of polystyrene are carboxylic acids. 6 figures, 1 table

  1. Partially-Functionalized Isotactic Polystyrene with Blocky Comonomer Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Ariel; Powers, Wayne; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2012-02-01

    Isotactic polystyrenes (iPSs) have been functionalized in solution, while the accessibility of functionalizing agent is limited by the formation of crystalline domains at various temperatures. The chemical system used is the borylated isotactic polystyrene system, and we investigated the temperature effects on reaction kinetics to ultimately control the blockiness of borylated segments in the resulting copolymer. The chemical composition of partially borylated iPS reaches a steady state that is dependent on temperature. This synthesis has been performed at many different temperatures, with different steady states being reached at different temperatures. Further analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown that the higher temperature reactions have greater effect on breaking down the crystal lattice structure of the isotactic polystyrene. As a result, the lower temperature reactions affect the crystalline structure less, and the resulting copolymer has more blockiness.

  2. Manufacturing Sound Absorber Based on Combined Recycling of Polyethylene Trephetalat and Polystyrene at Low and Median Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynolabedin Ghanbarzadeh Alamdari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Noise pollution is one of the main cause of occupational hearing loss. According to WHO reports in many countries workers have been exposed to 85 – 90 dB noise level. The purpose of this study is to manufacture a sound absorber based on combined recycled polyethylene trephetalat (PET and polystyrene (PS with an economical method in order to control of noise Pollution Materials and methods: Sound absorber were made of PET and PS with equal weight percent, polyester fiber, and polyvinyl acetate resine, with five to ten centimeters thick. Sound mean absorption coefficient percents were determined by acoustic impedance tube and compared with those of rock wool. Results: Mean absorption coefficient percent of samples with one to five millimeter pore size and ten centimeters thickness was significantly better than those with six to twenty millimeters pore size in 50 to 630, 1250, and 1600 Hz, (p<0.05. In general, samples mean absorption coehicient was significally different from those rock wool (p=0.005.Conclusion: Recycle polymere absorbers may play an important role in national economics as they are prophylactic to some occupational disease and also are economical.

  3. IBM Demonstrates a General-Purpose, High-Performance, High-Availability Cloud-Hosted Data Distribution System With Live GOES-16 Weather Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. L.; Brown, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    IBM has created a general purpose, data-agnostic solution that provides high performance, low data latency, high availability, scalability, and persistent access to the captured data, regardless of source or type. This capability is hosted on commercially available cloud environments and uses much faster, more efficient, reliable, and secure data transfer protocols than the more typically used FTP. The design incorporates completely redundant data paths at every level, including at the cloud data center level, in order to provide the highest assurance of data availability to the data consumers. IBM has been successful in building and testing a Proof of Concept instance on our IBM Cloud platform to receive and disseminate actual GOES-16 data as it is being downlinked. This solution leverages the inherent benefits of a cloud infrastructure configured and tuned for continuous, stable, high-speed data dissemination to data consumers worldwide at the downlink rate. It also is designed to ingest data from multiple simultaneous sources and disseminate data to multiple consumers. Nearly linear scalability is achieved by adding servers and storage.The IBM Proof of Concept system has been tested with our partners to achieve in excess of 5 Gigabits/second over public internet infrastructure. In tests with live GOES-16 data, the system routinely achieved 2.5 Gigabits/second pass-through to The Weather Company from the University of Wisconsin-Madison SSEC. Simulated data was also transferred from the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites — North Carolina to The Weather Company, as well. The storage node allocated to our Proof of Concept system as tested was sized at 480 Terabytes of RAID protected disk as a worst case sizing to accommodate the data from four GOES-16 class satellites for 30 days in a circular buffer. This shows that an abundance of performance and capacity headroom exists in the IBM design that can be applied to additional missions.

  4. GPScheDVS: A New Paradigm of the Autonomous CPU Speed Control for Commodity-OS-based General-Purpose Mobile Computers with a DVS-friendly Task Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sookyoung

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation studies the problem of increasing battery life-time and reducing CPU heat dissipation without degrading system performance in commodity-OS-based general-purpose (GP) mobile computers using the dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) function of modern CPUs. The dissertation especially focuses on the impact of task scheduling on the effectiveness of DVS in achieving this goal. The task scheduling mechanism used in most contemporary general-purpose operating systems (GPOS) prioritizes t...

  5. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  6. Radiation-induced chemical processes in polystyrene scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.; Bolbit, N.M.; Klinshpont, E.R.; Tupikov, V.I.; Zhdanov, G.S.; Taraban, S.B.; Shelukhov, I.P.; Smoljanskii, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The regularities established for macroradical accumulation and intensity of radioluminescence under γ-irradiation of a polystyrene scintillator prove benzyl macroradicals to be efficient quenchers of the excited scintillator molecules. Dissolved oxygen was determined to have a constant of the quenching rate 100 times lower than that of macroradicals. Oxygen is an efficient antirad because of participating in oxidation reactions and subsequent recombination of macroradicals. The method was developed to obtain a polymeric scintillator with a polystyrene matrix containing a dispersed system of pores and channels. Radiation resistance of such a scintillator is 5-10 times higher than that of standard types

  7. Preparation of Track Etch Membrane Filters Using Polystyrene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewsaenee, Jerawut; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Supaphol, Pitt; Visal-athaphand, Pinpan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Polystyrene nuclear track etch membrane filters was prepared by exposed 13 .m thin film polystyrene with fission fragment. Nuclear latent track was enlarged to through hole on the film by etching with 80 o C 40% H 2 SO 4 with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution for 6-10 hour. The hole size was depend on concentration of etching solution and etching time with 1.3-3.4 .m hole diameter. The flow rate test of water was 0.79-1.56 mm cm-2 min-1 at 109.8-113.7 kPa pressure

  8. Optical Properies of Polystyrene Films Doped by Methyl Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar A. Saeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of methyl green (MG dye on the optical properties of polystyrene (PS have been studied. Pure polystyrene and MG doped PS films were prepared by using casting method. These films were characterized using UV/VIS spectrophotometer technique in order to estimate the type of electric transition which was found to be indirect transition. The value of the optical energy gap was decreased with increasing doping ratios of methyl green dye. Absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and energy gap have been also investigated; it was found that all the above parameters affects by doping dye.

  9. HYDRATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF BLENDED CEMENT WITH SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene foamed plastic wastes are a kind of environmental pollutant. It could be recycled in cement industry as a chemical agent. In this paper, the effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS on the hydration and microstructure of blended cement were investigated by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. SPS slightly delayed the hydration of alite and decreased its hydration degree. SPS did not change the phase compositions during hydration. SPS changed the morphology of ettringite (AFt and decreased the pore volumes and the sizes of pores.

  10. SU-E-T-254: Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo Code Parameters for Uniform Scanning Proton Beam Based On Simulation with FLUKA General-Purpose Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics ' Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, M; Koizumi, M [Department of Medical Physics ' Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Das, I; Moskvin, V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo codes are becoming important tools for proton beam dosimetry. However, the relationships between the customizing parameters and percentage depth dose (PDD) of GATE and PHITS codes have not been reported which are studied for PDD and proton range compared to the FLUKA code and the experimental data. Methods: The beam delivery system of the Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center was modeled for the uniform scanning beam in FLUKA and transferred identically into GATE and PHITS. This computational model was built from the blue print and validated with the commissioning data. Three parameters evaluated are the maximum step size, cut off energy and physical and transport model. The dependence of the PDDs on the customizing parameters was compared with the published results of previous studies. Results: The optimal parameters for the simulation of the whole beam delivery system were defined by referring to the calculation results obtained with each parameter. Although the PDDs from FLUKA and the experimental data show a good agreement, those of GATE and PHITS obtained with our optimal parameters show a minor discrepancy. The measured proton range R90 was 269.37 mm, compared to the calculated range of 269.63 mm, 268.96 mm, and 270.85 mm with FLUKA, GATE and PHITS, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated the dependence of the results for PDDs obtained with GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo generalpurpose codes on the customizing parameters by using the whole computational model of the treatment nozzle. The optimal parameters for the simulation were then defined by referring to the calculation results. The physical model, particle transport mechanics and the different geometrybased descriptions need accurate customization in three simulation codes to agree with experimental data for artifact-free Monte Carlo simulation. This study was supported by Grants-in Aid for Cancer Research (H22-3rd Term Cancer Control-General-043) from the Ministry of Health

  11. Syntheses, magnetic and spectral studies on polystyrene supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    DMF results in the formation of polystyrene-anchored monobasic bidentate Schiff base, ... studied ligands in coordination chemistry. On ac- count of their pronounced coordinating properties, a ... Experimental ... temperature and then was suction-filtered, washed .... vent due to its high dielectric constant and its ability.

  12. Adsorption of lysozyme unto silica and polystyrene surfaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption capacity of lysozyme (chicken egg white) from aqueous solutions unto silica and polystyrene interfaces was studied at varying lysozyme concentrations and ionic strength. The studies revealed an increase in adsorption capacity with increase in concentration and with maximum adsorption densities of 1.34 ...

  13. Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under air plasma and He-Ne laser treatment ... The parameters such as (1) surface area by contact angle measurements, (2) quality of material before and after treatment by SEM and FTIR spectra and (3) material characterization by UV-vis spectra were studied.

  14. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Mather, Patrick T; Haddad, Timothy S; Kim, Gyeong-Man

    2006-01-01

    ...: random copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and styryl-based polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), R7(Si8O12)(C6H4CH=CH2), with R = isobutyl (iBu). A series of styrene-styryl POSS random copolymers with 0, 6, 15, 30, 50 wt...

  15. Melt dispersion of thermoplastic polystyrene in polymer polyols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Polystyrene is dispersed into a polyol via a mechanical dispersion process. A stabilizer is present to stabilize the dispersed polymer particles. The stabilizer includes a copolymer of (1) from 10 to 70% by weight of a branched polyol which has a molecular weight of from 4000 to 20,000, from 0.2 to

  16. Fabrication of polystyrene/agave particle biocomposites using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polystyrene (PS) composites reinforced with ungrafted and acrylonitrile (AN) grafted agave particles (AgP) have been prepared with 10–30% particle content by weight using compression molding technique. The composite specimens thus prepared were subjected to the evaluation of mechanical, chemical, flammability and ...

  17. Preparation and thermal properties of polystyrene/silica nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bera, O.; Pilić, B.; Pavličević, J.; Jovičić, M.; Holló, B.; Meszaros Szecsenyi, K.; Špírková, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 515, č. 1/2 (2011), s. 1-5 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polystyrene * silica nanoparticles * nanocomposites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2011

  18. Microporous polystyrene particles for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliva, Maria; Armatas, Gerasimos S; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2012-02-07

    This study presents the synthesis of microporous polystyrene particles and the potential use of these materials in CO(2) capture for biogas purification. Highly cross-linked polystyrene particles are synthesized by the emulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in water. The cross-link density of the polymer is varied by altering the St/DVB molar ratio. The size and the morphology of the particles are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following supercritical point drying with carbon dioxide or lyophilization from benzene, the polystyrene nanoparticles exhibit a significant surface area and permanent microporosity. The dried particles comprising 35 mol % St and 65 mol % DVB possess the largest surface area, ∼205 m(2)/g measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and ∼185 m(2)/g measured by the Dubinin-Radushkevich method, and a total pore volume of 1.10 cm(3)/g. Low pressure measurements suggest that the microporous polystyrene particles exhibit a good separation performance of CO(2) over CH(4), with separation factors in the range of ∼7-13 (268 K, CO(2)/CH(4) = 5/95 gas mixture), which renders them attractive candidates for use in gas separation processes.

  19. Radiation damage studies on polystyrene-based scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Peresypkin, A.I.; Rykalin, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation resistance of polystyrene-based scintillators containing various scintillation dopes is reported. All samples were irradiated to 137 Cs gamma rays in air at room temperature. The examination of radiation resistance of about thirty fluorescence compounds has been made. The most radiation-hard fluores are X25, X31, 3HF and M3HF. 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  20. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  1. Nanocomposite of polystyrene foil grafted with metallaboranes for antimicrobial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkocká, M.; Kolářová, K.; Matoušek, J.; Semerádtová, A.; Šícha, Václav; Kolská, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 441, MAY (2018), s. 120-129 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Chemical grafting * Metallaboranes * Piranha solution * Polystyrene * Surface properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  2. Steady shear rheology of dilute polystyrene particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, R.; Diemen, van A.J.G.; Laven, J.; Stein, H.N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on dispersions of monodisperse polystyrene (PS) spheres with a typical radius of 1 µm, dispersed in an electrolyte at high ionic strength, screening the electrostatic repulsion. These suspensions gelate at rest even at low volume fractions of PS particles.

  3. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  4. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  5. (Quasi-) 2D aggregation of polystyrene-b-dextran at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Wouter T E; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Norde, Willem

    2013-02-26

    Polystyrene-b-dextran (PS-b-Dextran) copolymers can be used to prepare dextran brushes at solid surfaces, applying Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. When recording the interfacial pressure versus area isotherms of a PS-b-Dextran monolayer, time-dependent hysteresis was observed upon compression and expansion. We argue that this is due to (quasi-) 2D aggregation of the copolymer at the air-water surface, with three contributions. First, at large area per molecule, a zero surface pressure is measured; we ascribe this to self-assembly of block copolymers into surface micelles. At intermediate area we identify a second regime ("desorption regime") where aggregation into large patches occurs due to van der Waals attraction between PS blocks. At high surface pressure ("brush regime") we observe hysteretic behavior attributed to H-bonding between dextran chains. When compared to hysteresis of other amphiphilic diblock copolymers (also containing PS, e.g., polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)) a general criterion can be formulated concerning the extent of hysteresis: when the hydrophobic (PS) block is of equal size as (or bigger than) the hydrophilic block, the hysteresis is maximal. The (quasi-) 2D aggregation of PS-b-Dextran has significant implications for the preparation of dextran brushes at solid surfaces using Langmuir-Blodgett deposition. For each grafting density the monolayer needs to relax, up to several hours, prior to transfer.

  6. Microwave Irradiation Effect on the Dispersion and Thermal Stability of RGO Nanosheets within a Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edreese H. Alsharaeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-reduced graphene oxide (PSTY/RGO composites were prepared via the in situ bulk polymerization method using two different preparation techniques. The general approach is to use microwave irradiation (MWI to enhance the exfoliation and the dispersion of RGO nanosheets within the PSTY matrix. In the first approach, a mixture of GO and styrene monomers (STY were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method facilitated by microwave irradiation (MWI to obtain R-(GO-PSTY composites. In the second approach, a mixture of RGO and STY monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method to obtain RGO-(PSTY composites. The two composites were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability, compared with the composites prepared without MWI. Moreover, DSC results showed that the Tg value of the composites after loading the RGO significantly increased by 24.6 °C compared to the neat polystyrene.

  7. Sorption behaviour of polystyrene grafted sago starch in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janarthanan, P.; Yunus, W.M.Z.W.; Ahmed, M.B.; Rahman, M.Z.; Haron, M.J.; Silong, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes swelling properties of polystyrene grafted sago starch in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); chloroform (CHCl/sub 3/), water, acetone carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) cyclohexanone and toluene. The copolymer for this study was prepared by grafting styrene onto sago starch using ceric ammonium nitrate as a redox initiator. Solvent uptake of the copolymer with respect to time was obtained by soaking the samples in chosen solvents for various time intervals at 25+-1 degree centigrade. The results obtained from swelling of polystyrene grafted sago starch in polar and non polar solvents showed that the percentage of swelling at equilibrium and the swelling rate coefficient decreased in the following order: DMSO > water > acetone cyclohexanone approx. CHCl/sub 3/ > toluene approx. CCl/sub 4/. Dimethyl sulfoxide showed the highest percentage of swelling at equilibrium that is 765%. Diffusions of the solvents onto the polymers were found to be of a Fickian only for DMSO. (author)

  8. Renewable aromatics from the degradation of polystyrene under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Aljabri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A bimetallic FeCu/alumina catalyst was prepared and characterized. It showed excellent catalytic activity to quantitatively convert polystyrene (PS into aromatics at low temperatures. A clear goldish yellow liquid was produced at 250 °C in a batch reactor without distillation. A liquid yield of 66% in an inert environment was achieved without the formation of coke and gas by-products. An exposure time of 90 min. and a catalyst loading of 200 mg were considered as an optimum conditions to minimize the styrene re-polymerization. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis confirms that the primary products are styrene, ethylbenzene, cumene, toluene and α-methylstyrene. Keywords: Polystyrene, Bimetallic, Low-temperature, Catalytic degradation

  9. Hydrophilic nanoporous polystyrenes and 1,2-polybutadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous polymers from ordered block copolymers having hydrophilic cavity surfaces were successfully prepared by two methodologies: ' 1. Nanoporous polystyrenes fromPtBA-b-PS diblock or PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS triblock copolymer precursors by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), or combination...... of living anionic polymerization~ and ATRP r~spectively. The one, PtBA block, can be modified to the hydrophilic PAA, where the dther, polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) block, can be fully degraded. Deprotection of the tert-butyl groups in PtBA and the selective etching of PDMS· chains were accomplished...... by applying HF or TFA in one step. Thus both the di- and triblock copolymers after such a treatment resulted. in nanoporous polystyrenes with hexagonal cavities of different nanosizes (6-11 nm, Figure 1). 2. Nanoporous I,2-polybutadienes (I,2-PB) by grafting various acrylic monomers onto the pore. surfaces...

  10. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which...... are the components of the bi-disperse melt. The measurements show three separated relaxation regimes: a fast regime, a transition regime, and a slow regime. In the fast regime, the orientation of the long chains is frozen and the stress relaxation is due to stretch relaxation of the short chains primarily....... Conversely in the slow regime, the long chains have retracted and undergo relaxation of orientation in fully relaxed short chains....

  11. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  12. Biodegradation of weathered polystyrene films in seawater microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Franchini, Martina; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kaliva, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria; Kolvenbach, Boris; Fava, Fabio; Corvini, Philippe F.-X.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted at two phases in order to investigate the ability of indigenous consortia alone or bioaugmented to degrade weathered polystyrene (PS) films under simulated marine conditions. Viable populations were developed on PS surfaces in a time dependent way towards convergent biofilm communities, enriched with hydrocarbon and xenobiotics degradation genes. Members of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were highly enriched in the acclimated plastic associate...

  13. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  14. Electrorheological Properties of Suspensions Prepared from Polystyrene- Block- Polyisoprene Copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    YAVUZ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Considerable scientific and industrial interest is currently being focused on a class of materials known as electrorheological (ER) fluids, which display remarkable rheological behaviour, being able to convert rapidly and repeatedly from a liquid to solid when an electric field (E) is applied or removed. In this article, the synthesis, characterization, partial hydrolysis and ER properties of polystyrene- block}-polyisoprene copolymer (COP) were investigated. The block copolymer was ...

  15. Radiation effect on polystyrene deposited and grafted on silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Y.; Udagawa, A.; Takehisa, M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of radiation on polystyrene was studied in the presence and absence of silica gel by molecular weight measurement with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Polystyrene crosslinked under vacuum in the absence of silica gel, but it either crosslinked or degraded by radiation, depending on the molecular weight of the polymer in the presence of silica gel. part of the deposited polymer bonded to silica gel by radiation; the G value for graft-chain formation is in the range of 0.01 to 0.1. Irradiation of polystyrene grafted on silica gel resulted in degradation of the graft chain because of the transfer of energy from silica gel. The G value for main chain scission was about 2 when graft polymer was irradiated in the absence of homopolymer. The degradation of graft polymer was suppressed when the polymer was irradiated in the presence of homopolymer, and the amount of unextractable polymer from silica gel increased with increasing irradiation. This adds evidence to the estimation that an increase in grafting percent coupled with a slight decrease in molecular weight at a later stage of radiation-induced polymerization of styrene adsorbed on slica gel is due to a secondary effect of radiation on the polymer

  16. Physical and Chemical Changes of Polystyrene Nanospheres Irradiated with Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Mohd Ubaidillah; Juremi, Nor Rashidah Md.; Mohamad, Farizan; Wibawa, Pratama Jujur; Agam, Mohd Arif; Ali, Ahmad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that polymer resist such as PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate) which is a well known and commonly used polymer resist for fabrication of electronic devices can show zwitter characteristic due to over exposure to electron beam radiation. Overexposed PMMA tend to changes their molecular structure to either become negative or positive resist corresponded to electron beam irradiation doses. These characteristic was due to crosslinking and scissors of the PMMA molecular structures, but till now the understanding of crosslinking and scissors of the polymer resist molecular structure due to electron beam exposure were still unknown to researchers. Previously we have over exposed polystyrene nanospheres to various radiation sources, such as electron beam, solar radiation and laser, which is another compound that can act as polymer resist. We investigated the physical and chemical structures of the irradiated polystyrene nanospheres with FTIR analysis. It is found that the physical and chemical changes of the irradiated polystyrene were found to be corresponded with the radiation dosages. Later, combining Laser irradiation and Reactive Ion Etching manipulation, created a facile technique that we called as LARIEA NSL (Laser and Reactive Ion Etching Assisted Nanosphere Lithography) which can be a facile technique to fabricate controllable carbonaceous nanoparticles for applications such as lithographic mask, catalysts and heavy metal absorbers.

  17. Separation of transfer ribonucleic acids on polystyrene anion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.P.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.

    1976-11-16

    The transfer RNA separation by chromatography on strong-base-polystyrene exchange materials is examined and compared with the widely used reversed-phase chromatography. Results indicate important differences in some transfer RNA (tRNA) elution patterns by the anion-exchange chromatography, as compared with the reversed-phase chromatography. Transfer RNAs containing hydrophobic groups are adsorbed more strongly. The anion exchanger has twice the number of theoretical plates. Single peaks of tRNA/sub 2//sup Glu/ and tRNA/sub 1//sup Phe/ obtained from the reversed-phase column give multiple peaks on polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography. All six leucine tRNAs (Escherichia coli) and differences in tRNA populations synthesized during early and late stages of the dividing lymphocytes from normal human blood can be characterized by the anion-exchange chromatography. Different separation profiles are obtained by two separation systems for tyrosine tRNAs from mouse liver and mouse-plasma-cell tumor. The results indicate that, in contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, strong-base-polystyrene anion-exchange chromatography is capable of separating tRNAs with minor structural differences.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro; Yanelis Karina Ávila Pavón

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ...

  19. Effect of planar extension on the structure and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene-¤co¤-butylene)-polystyrene triblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, C.; Hamley, I.W.; Mortensen, K.

    2000-01-01

    Two thermoplastic poly(styrene)-poly(ethylene-co-butylene) -poly(styrene) triblock copolymers containing either spherical or cylindrical poly(styrene) microdomains were pre-oriented through extensional flow. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements revealed that the pre-oriented triblock...

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  1. Radiological and nuclear terrorism: within the framework of a re-thought planning system, specific tools are complementary to the general purpose instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, France engaged in the revision of its emergency planning system in order to improve its answer to a major crisis in the field of civil defence and protection. On one side, the Vigipirate, which deals with vigilance and prevention and the response plan of the Pirate family, and particularly Piratom, which is intended to answer the radiological or nuclear terrorist events, are specific and up-to-date tools to deal with the issues of hyper-terrorism. On the other side, the new ORSEC system, the last evolution of one of the main pillars of the global public protection against risks and threats of all kinds, provides the modern methods of emergency planning which allow to consider in the most pragmatic way the response to the risks and threats of our modern world. This coherent planning system establishes the general framework for the action of the responders including medical resources. (author)

  2. The effectiveness of the biodegradation of raw and processed polystyrene by mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leluk, Karol; Hanus-Lorenz, Beata; Rybak, Justyna; Bożek, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    In our studies biodegradation of four variants of polystyrene was performed. We tested: raw material (PS), processed polystyrene (PSr), building insulation material (EPS) and food packaging boxes (PSp). Materials were characterized by means melt flow ratio (MFR), shore hardness and gloss. The biochemical assessment of macromolecules (proteins, lipids and sugars) in the mealworms organisms fed with tested forms of polystyrene allowed us to set how efficient and beneficial the biodegradation of types of polystyrene is. We also evaluated the variability of bacterial community in larval guts by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on the bacterial DNA of 16S rRNA genes amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results suggest that EPS and PSp polystyrene are the most digestible for T. molitor larvae. The metabolic degradation of polystyrene is probably strictly connected with the changes in biodiversity of gut bacteria.

  3. The effectiveness of the biodegradation of raw and processed polystyrene by mealworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leluk Karol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our studies biodegradation of four variants of polystyrene was performed. We tested: raw material (PS, processed polystyrene (PSr, building insulation material (EPS and food packaging boxes (PSp. Materials were characterized by means melt flow ratio (MFR, shore hardness and gloss. The biochemical assessment of macromolecules (proteins, lipids and sugars in the mealworms organisms fed with tested forms of polystyrene allowed us to set how efficient and beneficial the biodegradation of types of polystyrene is. We also evaluated the variability of bacterial community in larval guts by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE on the bacterial DNA of 16S rRNA genes amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results suggest that EPS and PSp polystyrene are the most digestible for T. molitor larvae. The metabolic degradation of polystyrene is probably strictly connected with the changes in biodiversity of gut bacteria.

  4. MVP/GMVP Version 3. General purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yasunobu; Okumura, Keisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2017-03-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two Monte Carlo codes MVP (continuous-energy method) and GMVP (multigroup method) have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The codes have adopted a vectorized algorithm and have been developed for vector-type supercomputers. They also support parallel processing with a standard parallelization library MPI and thus a speed-up of Monte Carlo calculations can be achieved on general computing platforms. The first and second versions of the codes were released in 1994 and 2005, respectively. They have been extensively improved and new capabilities have been implemented. The major improvements and new capabilities are as follows: (1) perturbation calculation for effective multiplication factor, (2) exact resonant elastic scattering model, (3) calculation of reactor kinetics parameters, (4) photo-nuclear model, (5) simulation of delayed neutrons, (6) generation of group constants. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new capabilities and input instructions. (author)

  5. MVP/GMVP version 3. General purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaya, Yasunobu; Okumura, Keisuke; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa

    2017-03-01

    In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two Monte Carlo codes MVP (continuous-energy method) and GMVP (multigroup method) have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The codes have adopted a vectorized algorithm and have been developed for vector-type supercomputers. They also support parallel processing with a standard parallelization library MPI and thus a speed-up of Monte Carlo calculations can be achieved on general computing platforms. The first and second versions of the codes were released in 1994 and 2005, respectively. They have been extensively improved and new capabilities have been implemented. The major improvements and new capabilities are as follows: (1) perturbation calculation for effective multiplication factor, (2) exact resonant elastic scattering model, (3) calculation of reactor kinetics parameters, (4) photo-nuclear model, (5) simulation of delayed neutrons, (6) generation of group constants. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new capabilities and input instructions. (author)

  6. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-10-10

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  7. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  8. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  9. General Purpose Fortran Program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Emitting Layered Media: An Update of DISORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Stamnes, Knut; Wiscombe, Warren; Laszlo, Istvan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This update reports a state-of-the-art discrete ordinate algorithm for monochromatic unpolarized radiative transfer in non-isothermal, vertically inhomogeneous, but horizontally homogeneous media. The physical processes included are Planckian thermal emission, scattering with arbitrary phase function, absorption, and surface bidirectional reflection. The system may be driven by parallel or isotropic diffuse radiation incident at the top boundary, as well as by internal thermal sources and thermal emission from the boundaries. Radiances, fluxes, and mean intensities are returned at user-specified angles and levels. DISORT has enjoyed considerable popularity in the atmospheric science and other communities since its introduction in 1988. Several new DISORT features are described in this update: intensity correction algorithms designed to compensate for the 8-M forward-peak scaling and obtain accurate intensities even in low orders of approximation; a more general surface bidirectional reflection option; and an exponential-linear approximation of the Planck function allowing more accurate solutions in the presence of large temperature gradients. DISORT has been designed to be an exemplar of good scientific software as well as a program of intrinsic utility. An extraordinary effort has been made to make it numerically well-conditioned, error-resistant, and user-friendly, and to take advantage of robust existing software tools. A thorough test suite is provided to verify the program both against published results, and for consistency where there are no published results. This careful attention to software design has been just as important in DISORT's popularity as its powerful algorithmic content.

  10. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Nicole; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Vanthomme, Katrien; Van Casteren, Viviane

    2010-06-25

    In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR), knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation) and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly) extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  11. Encapsulation of hydrophobic dyes in polystyrene micro- and nanoparticles via swelling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Thomas; Würth, Christian; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hübner, Martin; Panne, Ulrich; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2011-05-01

    Aiming at the derivation of a generalized procedure for the straightforward preparation of particles fluorescing in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, different swelling procedures for the loading of the hydrophobic polarity-probe Nile Red into nano- and micrometer sized polystyrene particles were studied and compared with respect to the optical properties of the resulting particles. The effect of the amount of incorporated dye on the spectroscopic properties of the particles was investigated for differently sized beads with different surface chemistries, i.e., non-functionalized, amino-modified and PEG-grafted surfaces. Moreover, photostability and leaking studies were performed. The main criterion for the optimization of the dye loading procedures was a high and thermally and photochemically stable fluorescence output of the particles for the future application of these systems as fluorescent labels. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  12. Modification of Jute Fibers with Polystyrene via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Jankova, Katja Atanassova; Egsgaard, Helge

    2005-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated as a method of covalently bonding polystyrene to jute (Corchorus capsularis) and as a possible approach to fiber composites with enhanced properties. Jute fibers were modified with a brominated initiator and subsequently ATRP modified...... to attach polystyrene and then examined using SEM, DSC, TGA, FTIR, XPS, elemental analysis, and Py-GC-MS. These techniques confirmed that polystyrene had been covalently bound to the fibers and consequently ATRP-modified jute fiber mats were used to prepare hot-pressed polystyrene composites. Composite...

  13. Morphology and Viscoelastic Properties of Polystyrene Blended with Fully Condensed Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Namani, Madhu; Geng, Hai-Ping; Lee, Andre; Blanski, Rusty L

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments were performed using a nearly-monodisperse molecular weight polystyrene (PS) blended with varying amounts of two fully condensed POSS molecules surrounded with phenethyl and styrenyl groups...

  14. Renewable Aromatics from the Degradation of Polystyrene under Mild Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jabri, Nouf M.

    2017-08-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is one of the most important polymers in the plastic sector due to its inexpensive cost as well as many preferred properties. Its international market is expected to achieve $28.2 billion by 2019. Although PS has a high calorific value of 87 GJ tonne-1, there is no a practical method to manage its waste but landfill. As a result, the PS debris in the oceans has reached 70% of the total plastic debris. This issue is considered as the main economical and environmental drivers of converting polystyrene waste into renewable chemical feedstocks. The aim of this work is to develop a catalyst for converting PS into renewable chemicals under mild conditions. We introduce FeCu/Alumina with excellent catalytic activity to fully degrade polystyrene with 66% liquid yield at 250 °C. The GC/MS confirmed that the primary products are in the gasoline range. Next, we present the bimetallic FeCo/Alumina and successfully we have obtained 100% PS conversion and 90% liquid yield with maintaining the products selectivity. Later, the tri-metallic FeCuCo/Alumina was synthesized and showed 100% PS conversion and 91% liquid yield. Surprisingly, ethylbenzene was the major product in which 80 wt. % was achieved with excellent reproducibility. Furthermore, the real waste Styrofoam was thermally and catalytically degraded at 250 °C. Interestingly, a high styrene content of 78 wt. % was recovered after 30 minutes of the reaction under mild conditions. Keeping in mind that a good balance between acidity and basicity is required to convert PS into aromatic under mild reaction conditions catalytically. Finally, the performance of the catalysts was compared to literature reports and showed novel liquid yields. In conclusion, we have synthesized cheap, easy to scale up, and efficient catalysts to fully degrade PS into high liquid yields of aromatics with excellent selectivity.

  15. Proton conducting sulphonated fluorinated poly(styrene) crosslinked electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soules, A.; Ameduri, B.; Boutevin, B.; David, G. [Institut Charles Gerhardt UMR CNRS 5253 Equipe, Ingenierie et Architectures Macromoleculaires,' ' Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier, Cedex 05 (France); Perrin, R. [CEA Le Ripault Departement des Materiaux, DMAT/SCMF/LSTP, BP16 - 37260 Monts (France); Gebel, G. [Structure et Proprietes des Architectures Moleculaires UMR 5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF), INAC, SPrAM, CEA Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Potential membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell based on crosslinked sulphonated fluorinated polystyrenes (PS) were synthesised in two steps. First, azide-telechelic polystyrene was obtained by iodine transfer polymerisation of styrene in the presence of 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane followed by azido chain-end functionalisation. Then azide-telechelic polystyrene was efficiently crosslinked with 1,10-diazido-1H,1H,2H,2H,9H,9H,10H,10H-perfluorodecane under UV irradiation. After 45 min only, almost completion of azide crosslinking could be achieved, resulting in crosslinked membranes with insoluble fractions higher than 95%. The sulphonation of the crosslinked membranes afforded ionic exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 2.2 to 3.2 meq g{sup -1}. The hydration number was shown to be very high (from 30 to 75), depending on both the content of perfluorodecane and of sulphonic acid groups. The morphology of the membranes, assessed by small-angle X-ray scattering, was found to be a lamellar-type structure with two types of ionic domains. For the membrane that exhibited an IEC value of 2.2 meq.g{sup -1}, proton conductivity was in the same range as that of Nafion {sup registered} (120-135 mS.cm{sup -1}), whereas the membrane IEC value of 3.2 meq.g{sup -1} showed a proton conductivity higher than that of Nafion {sup registered} in liquid water from 25 to 80 C, though a high water uptake. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  17. Preparation of polystyrene microsphere with emulsion microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo Zhang Lin; Zhang Zhganwen; You Dan; Wei Yun; Wang Chaoyang; Lin Bo; Shi Tao; Chu Qiaomei

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of hollow polystyrene microspheres that are used as inner shell of multi-shell plastic microspheres in the ICF experiments is focused on. The effects of surfactants, water-soluble polymer and electrolyte on the properties of resultant microspheres are studied. Based on these experiments, a fabricating procedure was established with which hollow microspheres were prepared with diameter about 150-3000 μm, wall thickness 0.8-15 μm and toughness Ra less than 4 nm. (authors)

  18. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-05-17

    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  19. Melt dispersion of thermoplastic polystyrene in polymer polyols

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Polystyrene is dispersed into a polyol via a mechanical dispersion process. A stabilizer is present to stabilize the dispersed polymer particles. The stabilizer includes a copolymer of (1) from 10 to 70% by weight of a branched polyol which has a molecular weight of from 4000 to 20,000, from 0.2 to about 1.2 polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated groups per molecule and from about 3 to about 8 hydroxyl groups per molecule with (2) from 30 to 90% by weight of styrene or a mixture of styrene a...

  20. The Surface Imprinted Polystyrene Beads Prepared via Emulsion Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiang CHENG; Guang Ling PEI; Ling Gang ZENG; Li Yong ZHANG; Chao LIU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the surface imprinted cross-linked polystyrene beads were prepared via suspension polymerization with styrene (St), divinylbezene (DVB), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA1788), the mixture of Span 85 and xylene or the mixture of Span 85 and paraffin as monomer, cross-linking agent, dispersion stabilizer and templates, respectively. The results indicate that there are dense cavities on the surface of beads, and the diameter and density of cavity are related with the composition and amount of emulsion template. The forming mechanism of cavity from thermodynamics and dynamics was proposed.

  1. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  2. Processing and characterization of Polystyrene/cornstarch/organophilic clay hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Ivan R. de; Amorim, Ywrrenan C.; Andrade, Cristina T. de

    2011-01-01

    Polystyrene/cornstarch composite blends with organophilic Cloisite 15A were prepared in an internal mixer in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA). The contents of clay were 1, 3 and 5%, based on the weight of the blend. The results obtained by X-ray diffraction revealed significant intercalation and exfoliation of clay particles within the polymeric moiety, which indicate increased interaction between the components of the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis results revealed the increase in thermal stability for the compatibilized blends in relation to the noncompatibilized PS/starch blends. The composites showed better thermal stability with increasing clay content. (author)

  3. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  4. Accurately controlled sequential self-folding structures by polystyrene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongping; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Lan, Xing; Tice, Jesse

    2017-08-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) printing overcomes the traditional fabrication limitations by designing heterogeneous materials to enable the printed structures evolve over time (the fourth dimension) under external stimuli. Here, we present a simple 4D printing of self-folding structures that can be sequentially and accurately folded. When heated above their glass transition temperature pre-strained polystyrene films shrink along the XY plane. In our process silver ink traces printed on the film are used to provide heat stimuli by conducting current to trigger the self-folding behavior. The parameters affecting the folding process are studied and discussed. Sequential folding and accurately controlled folding angles are achieved by using printed ink traces and angle lock design. Theoretical analyses are done to guide the design of the folding processes. Programmable structures such as a lock and a three-dimensional antenna are achieved to test the feasibility and potential applications of this method. These self-folding structures change their shapes after fabrication under controlled stimuli (electric current) and have potential applications in the fields of electronics, consumer devices, and robotics. Our design and fabrication method provides an easy way by using silver ink printed on polystyrene films to 4D print self-folding structures for electrically induced sequential folding with angular control.

  5. Mass Transport Through Carbon Nanotube-Polystyrene Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongzhou; Tran, Tuan

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as test channels to study nanofluidic transport, which has been found to have distinctive properties compared to transport of fluids in macroscopic channels. A long-standing challenge in the study of mass transport through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is the determination of flow enhancement. Various experimental investigations have been conducted to measure the flow rate through CNTs, mainly based on either vertically aligned CNT membranes or individual CNTs. Here, we proposed an alternative approach that can be used to quantify the mass transport through CNTs. This is a simple method relying on the use of carbon nanotube-polystyrene bundles, which are made of CNTs pulled out from a vertically aligned CNT array and glued together by polystyrene. We experimentally showed by using fluorescent tagging that the composite bundles allowed measureable and selective mass transport through CNTs. This type of composite bundle may be useful in various CNT research areas as they are simple to fabricate, less likely to form macroscopic cracks, and offer a high density of CNT pores while maintaining the aligned morphology of CNTs.

  6. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  7. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-01-01

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60's as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with γ rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx ∼ 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs ∼ 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex's molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author)

  8. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  9. Synthesis of well-defined polystyrene macrophotoinitiators by ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degirmenci, M.

    2004-01-01

    Macrophotointiators are polymers with a photoinitiator functionality at side chains or in the end or middle of the chain. these materials are of great scientific and technological interest because of their application in UV-curable coatings and as precursors for graft and block copolymers depending on the position of the photoinitiator moiety incorporated. Many macrophotoinitiators have been synthesized and their utilization in both applications have been studied. The major concern for their uses particulary in the latter application was related to the efficiency of functionalization, well-defined and predetermined structures, and low polydispersities. Obviously, if the all chains are not functionalized, upon irradiation non-funtionalized chains will not be activated and consequently remain as homopolymers in the system. In this study, new mono and bifunctional atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initionars were synthesized by the condensation of 2-bromopropanoyl bromide with 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl propan-1-one (HMPP) and 2-hydroxy-1-(4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl)-2-methyl propan-1-one (HE-HMPP), respectively and characterized. The ATRP of styrene (St) in bulk at 110 degrees by means of these initiators in conjunction with a cuprous complex Cu(I) Br/bipyridine yields polystyrenes with photoactive alkoxy phenylketone groups. GPC, spectroscopic and photodegradation studies revealed that the initiation efficiency was quantitative and low-polydispersity polystyrenes with photoinitiator functionality in the end or middle of chain were obtained

  10. Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

  11. A General Purpose Microcontroller Trainer | Talukder | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the method is discussed primarily for a communication network, it may be applied to any other type of network, such as transportation, water reticulation or any large scale process plants. (Af. J. of Science and Technology: 2002 3(1): 114-121). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajst.v3i1.15296 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. General-purpose radiological examination device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, J

    1978-03-15

    Equipment is described suitable for all radiological examinations using x-ray and neuroradiological diagnostic machines. The equipment consists of a gimbal suspension supporting a base plate and an imaging system, a gantry on which a neurological seat is pivoted capable of isocentrically positioning the patient's head.

  13. General purpose modeling languages for configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit

    In the later years, there has been an important need for companies to reduce their costs while proposing highly customized products. Indeed, today's customers demand products with lower prices, higher quality and faster delivery, but they also want products customized to match their unique needs....

  14. General-Purpose Monitoring during Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie; Janssen, Niels; Dufau, Stephane; Alario, F.-Xavier; Burle, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "monitoring" refers to our ability to control our actions on-line. Monitoring involved in speech production is often described in psycholinguistic models as an inherent part of the language system. We probed the specificity of speech monitoring in two psycholinguistic experiments where electroencephalographic activities were…

  15. Feed-forward general-purpose computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H; Yoshioka, Y; Nakamura, T; Shigei, Y

    1983-08-01

    The feed forward machine (FFM) proposed by the authors has a CPU composed of many fixed arithmetic units and registers. Many features of the FFM which are compatible with concurrent operating and reduce the instruction requirement for store are reported. In order to evaluate the FFM, the minimum execution time of instructions is discussed by using the Petri Net model. From this it is predicted that the execution time will be 0.46-0.6 times the real execution time. Furthermore, it is concluded that the program for the FFM will be reduced in size with respect to the program for the Von Neumann computers. 12 references.

  16. The properties of the wood-polystyrene interphase determined by inverse gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Simonsen; Zhenqiu Hong; Timothy G. Rials

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the interphase in wood-polymer composites are important determinants of the properties of the final composite. This study used inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to measure interphasal properties of composites of polystyrene and two types of wood fiber fillers and an inoranic substrate (CW) with varying amounts of surface coverage of polystyrene. Glass...

  17. Fabrication of microlens and microlens array on polystyrene using CO 2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new process for fabricating microlens and microlens arrays directly on a surface of polystyrene using a CO2 laser. The working spot of the polystyrene is heated locally by a focused CO2 laser beam, which tends to have a

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, Jan

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of new block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of heparin was investigated. Polystyrene with one amino group per chain was synthesized by free radical oligomerization of

  19. Improved synthesis of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulic, I.; Loman, A.J.B.; Feijen, Jan; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of nitrous acid-degraded heparin was developed. Amino-semitelechelic polystyrene was prepared by anionic polymerization of styrene

  20. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  1. Non-aqueous retention measurement: ultrafiltration behaviour of polystyrene solutions and colloidal silver particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage, M.A.M.; Beerlage, M.A.M.; Heijnen, M.L.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The retention behaviour of polyimide ultrafiltration membranes was investigated using dilute solutions of polystyrene in ethyl acetate as test solutions. It is shown that flow-induced deformation of the polystyrene chains highly affects the membrane retention. This coil-stretch transition is not

  2. Foam supported sulfonated polystyrene as a new acidic material for catalytic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene was grafted on carbon foam with a melted polypropylene film predeposited on the surface. Polystyrene was subsequently sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The effect of the temperature, time of grafting and concentration of radical initiator was studied. The materials were characterized by

  3. Polystyrene Microbeads by Dispersion Polymerization: Effect of Solvent on Particle Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene microspheres (PS were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in ethanol/2-Methoxyethanol (EtOH/EGME blend solvent using styrene (St as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator, and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 as stabilizer. The typical recipe of dispersion polymerization is as follows: St/Solvent/AIBN/PVP = 10 g/88 g/0.1 g/2 g. The morphology of polystyrene microspheres was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the molecular weights of PS particles were measured by the Ubbelohde viscometer method. The effect of ethanol content in the blend solvent on the morphology and molecular weight of polystyrene was studied. We found that the size of polystyrene microspheres increased and the molecular weight of polystyrene microspheres decreased with the decreasing of the ethanol content in the blend solvent from 100 wt% to 0 wt%. What is more, the size monodispersity of polystyrene microspheres was quite good when the pure ethanol or pure 2-Methoxyethanol was used; however when the blend ethanol/2-Methoxyethanol solvent was used, the polystyrene microspheres became polydisperse. We further found that the monodispersity of polystyrene microspheres can be significantly improved by adding a small amount of water into the blend solvent; the particles became monodisperse when the content of water in the blend solvent was up to 2 wt%.

  4. Coating carbon nanotubes with a polystyrene-based polymer protects against pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Lyes; Bussy, Cyrill; Setyan, Ari; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Rossi, Michel J; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2011-01-21

    carbon nanotubes (CNT) can have adverse effects on health. Therefore, minimizing the risk associated with CNT exposure is of crucial importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate if coating multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) with polymers could modify their toxicity, thus representing a useful strategy to decrease adverse health effects of CNT. We used industrially-produced MWCNT uncoated (NT1) or coated (50/50 wt%) with acid-based (NT2) or polystyrene-based (NT3) polymer, and exposed murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line) or Balb/c mice by intratracheal administration. Biological experiments were performed both in vitro and in vivo, examining time- and dose-dependent effects of CNT, in terms of cytotoxicity, expression of genes and proteins related to oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue remodeling, cell and lung tissue morphology (optical and transmission electron microscopy), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid content analysis. extensive physico-chemical characterization of MWCNT was performed, and showed, although similar dimensions for the 3 MWCNT, a much smaller specific surface area for NT2 and NT3 as compared to NT1 (54.1, 34 and 227.54 m(2)/g respectively), along with different surface characteristics. MWCNT-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation were increased by acid-based and decreased by polystyrene-based polymer coating both in vitro in murine macrophages and in vivo in lung of mice monitored for 6 months. these results demonstrate that coating CNT with polymers, without affecting their intrinsic structure, may constitute a useful strategy for decreasing CNT toxicity, and may hold promise for improving occupational safety and that of general the user.

  5. ANIONIC SYNTHESIS OF A "CLICKABLE" MIDDLE-CHAIN AZIDEFUNCTIONALIZED POLYSTYRENE AND ITS APPLICATION IN SHAPE AMPHIPHILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan Yue; Jinlin He; Chang Liu; Mingjun Huang; Xue-Hui Dong; Kai Guo; Peihong Ni

    2013-01-01

    "Click chemistry" is,by definition,a general functionalization methodology (GFM) and its marriage with living anionic polymerization is particularly powerful in precise macromolecular synthesis.This paper reports the synthesis of a "clickable" middle-chain azide-functionalized polystyrene (mPS-N3) by anionic polymerization and its application in the preparation of novel shape amphiphiles based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS).The mPS-N3 was synthesized by coupling living poly(styryl)lithium chains (PSLi) with 3-chloropropylmethyldichlorosilane and subsequent nucleophilic substitution of the chloro group in the presence of sodium azide.Excess PSLi was end-capped with ethylene oxide to facilitate its removal by flash chromatography.The mPS-N3 was then derived into a giant lipid-like shape amphiphile in two steps following a sequential "click" strategy.The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between mPS-N3 and alkyne-functionalized vinyl-substituted POSS derivative (VPOSS-alkyne) ensured quantitative ligation to give polystyrene with VPOSS tethered at the middle of the chain (mPS-VPOSS).The thiol-ene reaction with 1-thioglycerol transforms the vinyl groups on the POSS periphery to hydroxyls,resulting in an amphiphilic shape amphiphile,mPS-DPOSS.This synthetic approach is highly efficient and modular.It demonstrates the "click" philosophy of facile complex molecule construction from a library of simple building blocks and also suggests that mPS-N3 can be used as a versatile "clickable" motif in polymer science for the precise synthesis of complex macromolecules.

  6. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free

  8. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene. A Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distributin polystyrene melts ......Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distributin polystyrene melts ...

  9. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and We......A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...

  10. Absence of molecular deuterium dissociation during room-temperature permeation into polystyrene ICF target shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Alexander, N.; Fan, Q.; Gram, R.; Kim, H.

    1991-01-01

    Polystyrene microshells filled with deuterium and tritium gas are important target shells for inertially confined fusion (ICF) and are particularly promising for target containing spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. A currently active approach to the latter uses polarized D in HD, in a method which requires preservation of the high purity of the initially prepared HD (very low specified H 2 and D 2 concentrations). This would not be possible if dissociation should occur during permeation into the target shells. We have thus tested polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure ortho-D 2 as the test gas. An upper limit of 6 x 10 -4 was deduced for the dissociation of D 2 upon room temperature permeation through an approximately 8 um wall of polystyrene, clearing the way for use of polystyrene target shells for ICF fusion experiments with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. 19 refs., 1 fig

  11. Enhanced sensitivity of a microfabricated resonator using a graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Minhyuk; Lee, Eunho; Cho, Kilwon; Jeon, Sangmin, E-mail: jeons@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    A graphene layer was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition methods and a polystyrene solution was spin-cast onto the graphene film. The graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane was attached between the two tines of a microfabricated quartz tuning fork (QTF). The modulus of the graphene-polystyrene bilayer was measured to be twice that of a pristine polystyrene membrane. Exposure of the membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor decreased the resonance frequency of the microresonator. The bilayer membrane-coated QTF produced a frequency change that was three times the change obtained using a polystyrene membrane-coated QTF, with a lower degree of degradation in the Q factor. The limit of detection of the bilayer membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor was determined to be 20 ppm.

  12. Is the Current Management of Patients Presenting With Spinal Trauma to District General Hospitals Fit for Purpose? Our Experience of Delivering a Spinal Service Using an Electronic Referral Platform in a Large District General Teaching Hospital Without Onsite Spinal Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Daniel S; Marynissen, Hans

    2018-04-12

    A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. To describe the provision of a spinal service using an electronic platform to direct management from an external spinal unit, and quantify time taken to obtain definitive management plans whilst under prescribed spinal immobilization. Most attending district general hospitals following spinal trauma will have stable injuries and normal neurology, with only a small proportion requiring urgent transfer to a specialist centre. A retrospective review of 104 patients admitted following vertebral during a 12-month period. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma consensus that "spinal immobilisation is not recommended for more than 48 hours" was the standard of care measured against. 100 patients occupied a total of 975 hospital inpatient bed days. 117 radiological investigations were requested after the point of external referral (47 CT-scans, 37 MRI-scans, and 33 weight bearing radiographs). The period between initial referral to the regional spinal service and then receiving a definitive final management had a median value of 72 hours and a range of 0 - 33 days. Patients will have been under some form of prescribed spinal immobilisation until the definitive management plan was communicated. 34 patients (34% of the overall cohort) had a definitive management plan in place within 48 hours. 80 patients had vertebral injuries (73 stable, 6 unstable), 3 patients had prolapsed intervertebral disks, 1 had metastatic disease, and 17 had not evidence of an acute injury following evaluation. Patients are being placed under prescribed immobilisation for longer than is recommended. Delays in obtaining radiological imaging were an important factor, together with the time taken to receive a definitive management plan. Limitations in social care provision and delays in arranging this were additional barriers to hospital discharge following the final management plan. 4.

  13. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol coating of polystyrene inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, P.; Lee, M.C.; Crawley, R.L.; Downs, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target made of polystyrene is first levitated in an acoustic field. The surface of the target is then etched using an appropriate solution (e.g., cyclohexane) to enhance the wetting characteristics. A specially prepared polyvinyl alcohol solution is atomized using an acoustic atomizer and deposited on the surface of the target. The solution is air dried to form a thin coating (2 μm) on the target (outside diameter approx.350--850 μm). Thicker coatings are obtained by repeated applications of the coating solution. Preliminary results indicate that uniform coatings may be achievable on the targets with a background surface smoothness in the order of 1000 A

  15. Room temperature synthesis of water-repellent polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonggang; Jiang Dong; Zhang Xia; Zhang Zhijun; Wang Qihua

    2010-01-01

    A stable superhydrophobic polystyrene nanocomposite coating was fabricated by means of a very simple and easy method. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The wettability of the products was also investigated. By adding the surface-modified SiO 2 nanoparticles, the wettability of the coating changed to water-repellent superhydrophobic, not only for pure water, but also for a wide pH range of corrosive liquids. The influence of the drying temperature and SiO 2 content on the wettability of the nanocomposite coating was also investigated. It was found that both factors had little or no significant effect on the wetting behavior of the coating surface.

  16. Renewable Aromatics from the Degradation of Polystyrene under Mild Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Jabri, Nouf M

    2017-05-25

    A bimetallic FeCu/alumina catalyst was prepared and characterized. It showed excellent catalytic activity to quantitatively convert polystyrene (PS) into aromatics at low temperatures. A clear goldish yellow liquid was produced at 250 °C in a batch reactor without distillation. A liquid yield of 66% in an inert environment was achieved without the formation of coke and gas by-products. An exposure time of 90 min. and a catalyst loading of 200 mg were considered as an optimum condition to minimize the styrene re-polymerization. The gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis confirms that the primary products are styrene, ethylbenzene, cumene, toluene and α-methylstyrene.

  17. Hydrodynamic chromatography of polystyrene microparticles in micropillar array columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Jeff; De Malsche, Wim; Vangelooven, Joris; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2010-09-24

    We report on the possibility to perform HDC in micropillar array columns and the potential advantages of such a system. The HDC performance of a pillar array column with pillar diameter = 5 microm and an interpillar distance of 2.5 microm has been characterized using both a low MW tracer (FITC) and differently sized polystyrene bead samples (100, 200 and 500 nm). The reduced plate height curves that were obtained for the different investigated markers all overlapped very well, and attained a minimum value of about h(min)=0.3 (reduction based on the pillar diameter), corresponding to 1.6 microm in absolute value and giving good prospects for high efficiency separations. The obtained reduced retention time values were in fair agreement with that predicted by the Di Marzio and Guttman model for a flow between flat plates, using the minimal interpillar distance as characteristic interplate distance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of oriented wrinkles on polydopamine/polystyrene bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Long, Yuhua; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Cai, Chao; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-07-15

    Wrinkles exist widely in nature and our life. In this paper, wrinkles on polydopamine (PDA)/polystyrene (PS) bilayer films were formed by thermal annealing due to the different thermal coefficients of expansion of each layer. The factors that influenced the dimensions of wrinkles were studied. We found that oriented wrinkles could be formed if the bilayer films were patterned with micro-grooves, and the degree of the orientation depended on the thickness of the PDA and the dimensions of the grooves. Combined with the strong adhesion, biocompatibility and reactivity of PDA, the oriented wrinkles on PDA/PS patterned bilayers may find potential application in diffraction gratings, optical sensors and microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Nguyen Hoang Luong; Nguyen Chau; Ngo Quy Tai

    2009-01-01

    Superparamagnetic particles are widely used for biological applications such as cell separation. The size of the particles is normally in the range of 10 - 20 nm which is much smaller than the size of a cell. Therefore small particles create small force which is not strong enough to separate the cells from solution. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles embedded in Polystyrene microspheres (magnetic beads) are very useful for cell separation. Magnetic beads have been prepared by solvent evaporation of an emulsion. The beads with size of 0.2 μm - 1.0 μm have a saturation magnetization of 10 - 25 emu/g. The change of the amount of surfactants, volatile solvent, magnetic particles resulted to the change of size, magnetic properties of the magnetic beads.

  20. PMMA to Polystyrene bonding for polymer based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-03-29

    A thermal bonding technique for Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) to Polystyrene (PS) is presented in this paper. The PMMA to PS bonding was achieved using a thermocompression method, and the bonding strength was carefully characterized. The bonding temperature ranged from 110 to 125 C with a varying compression force, from 700 to 1,000 N (0.36-0.51 MPa). After the bonding process, two kinds of adhesion quantification methods were used to measure the bonding strength: the double cantilever beam method and the tensile stress method. The results show that the bonding strength increases with a rising bonding temperature and bonding force. The results also indicate that the bonding strength is independent of bonding time. A deep-UV surface treatment method was also provided in this paper to lower the bonding temperature and compression force. Finally, a PMMA to PS bonded microfluidic device was fabricated successfully. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.