WorldWideScience

Sample records for general public due

  1. Exposure of the general public due to wireless LAN applications in public places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Preiner, P.; Lager, D.; Ueberbacher, R.; Georg, R.

    2007-01-01

    The typical exposure caused by wireless LAN applications in public areas has been investigated in a variety of scenarios. Small-sized (internet cafe) and large-scale (airport) indoor scenarios as well as outdoor scenarios in the environment of access points (AP) supplying for residential areas and public places were considered. The exposure assessment was carried out by numerical GTD/UTD computations based on optical wave propagation, as well as by verifying frequency selective measurements in the considered scenarios under real life conditions. In the small-sized indoor scenario the maximum temporal peak values of power density, spatially averaged over body dimensions, were found to be lower than 20 mW/m 2 , corresponding to 0.2% of the reference level according to the European Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC. Local peak values of power density might be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, spatial and time-averaged values for usual data traffic conditions might be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, depending on the actual data traffic. In the considered outdoor scenarios, exposure was several orders of magnitude lower than in indoor scenarios due to the usually larger distances to the AP antennas. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the effective equivalent dose in the general public due to the discharge of uranium in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Jacomino, V.M.F.

    1989-12-01

    Some facilities available at IPEN-CNEN/SP may discharge uranium in their liquid effluents. The uranium contents of these effluents are analyzed by photometry or fluorimetry, and according to the results obtained a decision is made, by the Environmental Monitoring Division, upon their discharge to the environment. In 1988 a total activity of 3.66x10 9 Bq of uranium was discharge in a volume of approximately 30 m 3 . The effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated by making a conservative assumption that all the liquid effluents containing uranium are discharged directly to the soil reaching the groundwater. The dose calculation was carried out by using a generic model which described the transport of radionuclides in the groundwater. In order to be conservative it was also assumed that the critical pathway is the direct in gestion of water through hypothetical wells around the Institute. Conservative assumptions were also made in the characterization of the local aquifer parameters such as vertical and longitudinal dispersivity, effective porosity of the soil, hydraulic conductivity etc., in roder to overestimate the effective equivalent dose. The result obtained, of 5.3x10 -10 mSv/a is far below the dose limit for the public adopted by the Radiological Protection Board. The derived limit for the discharge was also evaluated, using the same model, giving a result of 3.6x10 13 Bq/a. (author) [pt

  3. General editorial on publication ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    General editorial on publication ethics. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-014-0923-2; ePublication: The scientific research and publishing communities the world over are by now well aware that over the past few decades, instances of scientific misconduct seem to be on the rise. These are consequences of the increasing pressures to ...

  4. General Editorial on Publication Ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. General Editorial on Publication Ethics. R Ramaswamy. General Editorial Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0001-0002 ...

  5. General editorial on publication ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    General editorial on publication ethics. The scientific research and ... The Indian Academy of Sciences takes a very serious view of all forms of scientific misconduct, and especially of pla- ... The Academy reserves the right to bring such instances to the attention of the author's employers and funding agencies, and also to ...

  6. 34 CFR 674.41 - Due diligence-general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due diligence-general requirements. 674.41 Section 674... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Due Diligence § 674.41 Due diligence—general requirements. (a) General. Each institution shall exercise due diligence in collecting...

  7. Public Information Programmes on Risks Due to Radon. Annex V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Public concern about radon is generally lower than public concern about other comparable risks, or about much lower risks such as those associated with artificial radiation. The public tends to be most concerned about hazards that are: (a) Human made rather than natural; (b) Imposed by a human agency rather than arising by chance; (c) Able to cause harm to groups rather than individuals; (d) Obvious, immediate and ‘dread’ rather than covert, delayed and familiar. None of the four above mentioned factors that would increase concern apply to radon, and a study has found that householders often deny that a health risk exists. For this reason, public information programmes are necessary for the risks due to radon to be taken seriously

  8. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  9. Generalization of a summation formula due to Fox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A. Rakha

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this research paper is to provide the generalization of Fox’s summation formula and to obtain 19 results of this type. The results are derived with the help of generalized Gauss’s second summation theorem recently obtained by Rakha, et al. and a general formula due to Fox. The results derived in this paper are simple, interesting, easily established and may be potentially useful.

  10. Corruption and public governance: implication for customer due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... causes and effects of corruption on service delivery in Africa. It is within this context that this paper explored Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public governance, customer due diligence and the various aspects of development including economic growth and sustainable development.

  11. Explaining the LHC to the general public

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    We’re looking for volunteers for the "Big Science" exhibition, to be set up for a limited time at the Balexert shopping centre.To get even closer to the general public, CERN is moving its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre for a limited time only, from 19 to 31 May 2008. All members of the CERN personnel are warmly invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcome and guide members of the general public around the exhibition. From 11.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m., Monday to Friday, and 10.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. on the Saturdays. For information and to sign up, please call +41 22 767 9288, or e-mail mailto:genevieve.choukroun@cern.ch

  12. Emergency notification systems for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes various aspects of the design, installation, and evaluation of a system to alert the public in the event of an incident at a nuclear generating plant. It is based on experience in the development of alerting systems for 20 U.S. nuclear plants. An alerting system for the community surrounding a nuclear plant is generally referred to as a prompt notification system (PNS). The area within a 10-mile radius surrounding a nuclear plant where the public must be alerted is referred to as an emergency planning zone (EPZ). This circle is usually adjusted to follow the boundaries of local political jurisdictions and to enclose any concentration of population which my be on the border of the EPZ. The following aspects of PNS implementation are addressed in this paper: regulatory perspective, alternative alerting methods, PNS implementation and design, and evaluation and documentation

  13. Determination of committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th and 222Rn from the application of various Moroccan black soap (Saboun Beldi) samples by members of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Outeqablit, K.

    2010-01-01

    238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured inside various Moroccan black soap samples widely used by the Moroccan population in traditional baths (Hammams) by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors. The measured 238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations, respectively, ranged from (3.7±0.2) to (11.7±0.7) mBq kg -1 , (0.11±0.01) to (0.32±0.02) mBq kg -1 , (3.8±0.2) to (11.6±0.6) Bq kg -1 and (0.10±0.01) to (0.31±0.02) Bq kg -1 for the Moroccan black soap samples studied. The influence of pollution on the concentrations of these radionuclides inside the considered Moroccan black soap was investigated. A new dosimetric model for evaluating annual committed effective doses due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn to the skin of different age groups of the Moroccan populations from the application of the black soap samples studied was developed. The maximum total committed effective dose to the skin due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn from the application of unpolluted black soap samples 20 min per week by the Moroccan populations was found to be equal to (0.88±0.05) μSv y -1 cm -2 . (authors)

  14. Quantum physics reimagined for the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobroff, Julien

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Physics has always been a challenging issue for outreach. It is invisible, non-intuitive and written in sophisticated mathematics. In our ``Physics Reimagined'' research group, we explore new ways to present that field to the general public. Our approach is to develop close collaborations between physicists and designers or graphic artists. By developing this new kind of dialogue, we seek to find new ways to present complex phenomena and recent research topics to the public at large. For example, we created with web-illustrators a series of 3D animations about basic quantum laws and research topics (graphene, Bose-Einstein condensation, decoherence, pump-probe techniques, ARPES...). We collaborated with designers to develop original setups, from quantum wave animated models or foldings to a superconducting circus with levitating animals. With illustrators, we produced exhibits, comic strips or postcards displaying the physicists in their labs, either famous ones or even our own colleagues in their daily life as researchers. With artists, we recently made a stop-motion picture to explain in an esthetic way the process of discovery and scientific publication. We will discuss how these new types of outreach projects allowed us to engage the public with modern physics both on a scientific and cultural level and how the concepts and process can easily be replicated and expanded by other physicists. We are at the precise time when creative tools, interfaces, and ways of sharing and learning are rapidly evolving (wikipedia, MOOCs, smartphones...). If scientists don't step forward to employ these tools and develop new resources, other people will, and the integrity of the science and underlying character of research risks being compromised. All our productions are free to use and can be downloaded at www.PhysicsReimagined.com (for 3D quantum videos, specific link: www.QuantumMadeSimple.com) This work benefited from the support of the Chair ``Physics Reimagined

  15. 34 CFR 75.620 - General conditions on publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conditions on publication. 75.620 Section 75... Must Be Met by a Grantee? Publications and Copyrights § 75.620 General conditions on publication. (a...) Required statement. The grantee shall ensure that any publication that contains project materials also...

  16. 45 CFR 1180.48 - General conditions on publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General conditions on publications. 1180.48... Conditions Which Must Be Met by a Grantee Publications and Copyrights § 1180.48 General conditions on publications. (a) Content of materials. Subject to any specific requirements that apply to its grant, a grantee...

  17. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Luciana; Monteiro, Damiana Aparecida Trindade; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá; Ciol, Márcia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadotti; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents. victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories. among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%). The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%), surgical site infection (26.3%) and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%). The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year. the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  18. Readmissions due to traffic accidents at a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paiva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to verify the occurrence and the causes of hospital readmissions within a year after discharge from hospitalizations due to traffic accidents.Methods: victims of multiple traumas due to traffic accidents were included, who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Sociodemographic data, accident circumstances, body regions affected and cause of readmission were collected from the patient histories.Results: among the 109 victims of traffic accidents, the majority were young and adult men. Most hospitalizations due to accidents involved motorcycle drivers (56.9%. The causes of the return to the hospital were: need to continue the surgical treatment (63.2%, surgical site infection (26.3% and fall related to the physical sequelae of the trauma (10.5%. The rehospitalization rate corresponded to 174/1,000 people/year.Conclusion: the hospital readmission rate in the study population is similar to the rates found in other studies. Victims of severe limb traumas need multiple surgical procedures, lengthier hospitalizations and extended rehabilitation.

  19. Procedural Due Process for Students at Public Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Edward J.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study to determine what procedural protections are afforded students at public colleges and universities who are faced with disciplinary or academic dismissal. The data are from 62 of the 85 public postsecondary institutions asked to provide published procedural guidelines. (Author/MLF)

  20. A generalized theory of carcinogenesis due to chronodisruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J

    2008-12-01

    For two decades, research has been suggested and conducted into the causation and development of cancers in seemingly diverse and unrelated populations such as blind individuals, shift-workers, flight personnel, Arctic residents and subsets of sleepers. One common denominator of these investigations is "melatonin". Another common denominator is that all these studies implicitly pursued the validity of the so-called "melatonin hypothesis", of a corollary and of associated predictions which can be united in our proposed theory of "carcinogenesis due to chronodisruption". The new theory suggests that the various predictions investigated between 1987 and 2008 represent different aspects of the same problem. Indeed, abundant experimental evidence supports the notion that the final common cause of many cases of cancer may be what has been termed chronodisruption (CD), a relevant disturbance of the temporal organization or order of physiology, endocrinology, metabolism and behaviour. While melatonin as a key time messenger and time keeper can be a marker of CD, it is probably only partially related to the differential cancer occurrence apparent in individuals who chronically or frequently experience an excess or deficit of chronodisruption.

  1. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Department of Political Science and International Relations. University of ... Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public .... of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not .... suffers from the payment of the bribe since it is recoverable in the overall costing of.

  2. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    -product situation (whether to buy organic food or not). This design provides a possibility to detect whether any effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior or due to altruistic motives among trusters. The results show that generalized trust enhances recycling significantly whereas it only has a very......This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  3. Advancing public health obesity policy through state attorneys general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-03-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.

  4. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  5. General expression for spectrum of magnetic anomaly due to long tabular body and its characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, D.C.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    A general expression for spectrum of magnetic anomalies-vertical, horizontal and total intensity - due to a long tabular body is derived which is used to estimate the body parameters. The analysis is extended to a marine magnetic anomaly recorded...

  6. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the

  7. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 2; Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. (Compiler); Mankins, J. (Editor); Bekey, I. (Editor); Rogers, T. (Editor); Stallmer, E. (Editor); Piland, W. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation Association and NASA conducted a General Public Space Travel study between 1996 and 1998. During the study, a workshop was held at Georgetown University. Participants included representatives from the travel, aerospace, and construction industries. This report is the proceedings from that workshop. Sections include infrastructure needs, travel packages, policy related issues, and potential near-term activities.

  8. The way to inform the general public about radiological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artus, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    It is a lawfully necessity that the general public will be informed about matters of radiological risks. For that practitioners have to receive an appropriate knowledge about risk parameters, so the effective dose. Moreover they must do their utmost to give information to their patients, in a context of false ideas and often exaggerated prejudices. (author)

  9. General Public Interest: between Electoral Rhetoric and Administrative Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cornea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, public administration is considered to be the operative side of government. Itis supposed to include all the activities involved in carrying out the policies of the elected officialsand some activities associated with the development of these policies. In this respect, well-knownauthors consider that the Public administration is all that comes after the last election promise and theelection night cheer: the means and ends of government. The complexity of social life, however, hasgenerated in recent years the appearance of a rationality deficit in the actions of government. It is thespread of some behaviour patterns that hinder the leadership of the system: rational options arereplaced by investment policy, the administration accepts the behaviours that are substantiallydifferent from the electoral promises. This situation generates dissatisfaction of citizens, declaringthemselves dissatisfied with the activity of the public authorities which, moreover, they have chosen.The intention of this study is to encourage analytical reflections on how the general public interest isrepresented.

  10. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stakeholders Involvement in Performance Management in Public General Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Ploom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns with the legitimacy and efficiency of public spending, performance management as a part of world-wide public sector reform, called New Public Management (NPM has taken place. This is also the case of educational sector. In Estonian education system, legislation formally enables to design an integrated performance management system. But there is few research done to investigate how these policies and regulations ought to be put into force in order to gain the benefits considering the schools' and pupils' better performance. This study investigates how different stakeholders are involved into the performance management in Estonian general schools. The study is based on empirical survey data gathered from 303 schools providing secondary education in Estonia. The research findings have three main implications. Firstly, the paper contributes to the scarce knowledge about implementation of performance management issues in public schools. Our analysis revealed that compilation of school development plans in Estonian schools is rather a formal obligation. Therefore we propose that the analysis and discussion of the school development plans is needed to organize on regional level, involving all main stakeholders of a school. Secondly, we suggest that in the circumstances of a decentralised education system, like in Estonia, it is needed to implement, central practical performance assessment principles and guidance for the schools. Thirdly, it is highly necessary to improve schools’ cooperation with different stakeholder groups. Also the framework involving different stakeholder groups in the decentralized schools management system should be built up.

  12. Practices in communicating technical issues to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Storey, P.

    2006-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations of this session can be summarized this way. - Basic goal for the regulator is to protect the public and communication is a must to fully achieve this goal. - Regulator should become the prime source of information to the public and the media, regulator should base its actions upon values of competence, independence, transparency and stringency. - Set up of a Information and Communication Policy will help for consistency and efficiency. Policy will include setting goals, strategies, organisational aspects, procedures, and tools. Practices should be developed in accordance with local culture. - Challenges will consider transparency, public involvement and consultation with the stakeholders. - Practices will include in general: - Interactions with the media like press releases, news conferences, media workshops. Printed materials from plant periodical status reports, to periodical and annual reports and specific reports. Audio-visual materials. Use of radio and TV. Web site and electronic mail. - Method chosen depends on the targeted audience and the relevance of the topic. - Messages should be clearly understandable. Do not dehumanize the message by making it technically unintelligible. - Two excellent examples presented. How local culture and social characteristics were taken into account in designing and implementing plans is key for success. - Municipalities are to be considered as front line stakeholders. - Communicators role is relevant to meet regulatory needs. Good collaboration between communicators and technical staff produces benefits for the nuclear regulator and the public. (authors)

  13. Wildlife value orientations among hunters, landowners and the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined wildlife value orientations among hunters (n = 1,130) and landowners (n = 1,207) in comparison to the general public (n = 1,001 adults) in Denmark, a highly urbanized European country. Respondents were categorized into four value types based on their responses to 19 statements....... Significant differences in wildlife value orientations were found. Mutualists and distanced dominated in the public; most landowners and hunters were utilitarian followed by pluralist. Male hunters were more utilitarian than female. More active hunters were more utilitarian; hunters belonging to a hunting...... association were more utilitarian than those who did not belong to associations. Full-time farmers were more utilitarian than part-time farmers, and conventional farmers were more utilitarian than organic farmers. No significant difference with regard to residence for all three groups was found. Future...

  14. The opening of the CEA to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloche, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The relationships between science and society have evolved considerably over the past years, just like the perception of the nuclear industry in the French public opinion. Recent psychosociological surveys show that only half of the French population is familiar with the CEA and that the public would like to obtain new elements of judgment in order to be able to develop a direct appreciation of the activities of a research organization such as the Atomic Energy Commission. It is essential to meet the public's expectations, to keep it properly informed of the CEA's research activities, and to help it understand the relevance of the results obtained and the solutions offered to decision-makers, i.e. industrialists and public authorities. One way to answer the public opinion's questions and to meet its expectations is to allow a rowing number of visitors to see who we are, what we study in our laboratories, and how we work to contribute to scientific progress and to the diffusion of technology, in a manner that is useful to society as a whole. This describes the spirit and the objective that governed the very idea and elaboration of the program entitled 'Opening of the CEA to the general public'. This operation consists not only in having communication specialists guide visitors throughout the facilities and equipment of the CEA, but also in encouraging researchers and groups of visitors to meet in the laboratories. A 'CEA - communication' network is under construction. It already has nearly 600 members. Communication is considered to be a real calling that falls within the scope of the CEA's strategy, and the work accomplished in this respect is recognized to the same extent as research. To this end, a charter for the CEA - communication network will be signed by every contributor and manager. A training scheme focused on public speaking and scientific vulgarization was initiated. 50 members of the network have already been trained, and 250 will be in 1999

  15. 76 FR 62396 - Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut Public Utilities Regulatory Authority... Martha Coakley, Attorney General of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Connecticut Public Utilities..., George Jepsen, Attorney General of the State of Connecticut, Connecticut Office of Consumer Counsel...

  16. A bibliometric analysis of Australian general practice publications from 1980 to 2007 using PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Kidd, Michael R; Schattner, Peter; Canalese, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We analysed Australian general practice (GP) publications in PubMed from 1980 to 2007 to determine journals, authors, publication types, national health priority areas (NHPA) and compared the results with those from three specialties (public health, cardiology and medical informatics) and two countries (the UK and New Zealand). Australian GP publications were downloaded in MEDLINE format using PubMed queries and were written to a Microsoft Access database using a software application. Search Query Language and online PubMed queries were used for further analysis. There were 4777 publications from 1980 to 2007. Australian Family Physician (38.1%) and the Medical Journal of Australia (17.6%) contributed 55.7% of publications. Reviews (12.7%), letters (6.6%), clinical trials (6.5%) and systematic reviews (5%) were the main PubMed publication types. Thirty five percent of publications addressed National Health Priority Areas with material on mental health (13.7%), neoplasms (6.5%) and cardiovascular conditions (5.9%). The comparable numbers of publications for the three specialties were: public health - 80 911, cardiology - 15 130 and medical informatics - 3338; total country GP comparisons were: UK - 14 658 and New Zealand - 1111. Australian GP publications have shown an impressive growth from 1980 to 2007 with a 15-fold increase. This increase may be due in part to the actions of the Australian government over the past decade to financially support research in primary care, as well as the maturing of academic general practice. This analysis can assist governments, researchers, policy makers and others to target resources so that further developments can be encouraged, supported and monitored.

  17. A bibliometric analysis of Australian general practice publications from 1980 to 2007 using PubMed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Mendis

    2010-12-01

    Discussion Australian GP publications have shown an impressive growth from 1980 to 2007 with a 15- fold increase. This increase may be due in part to the actions of the Australian government over the past decade to financially support research in primary care, as well as the maturing of academic general practice. This analysis can assist governments, researchers, policy makers and others to target resources so that further developments can be encouraged, supported and monitored.

  18. Trends in fatalities due to poisoning at Umtata General Hospital, Mthatha (1993–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banwari L. Meel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a common method of committing suicide in this region of South Africa. Females generally ingest poisons but it is increasingly becoming common in males too. This is a record review of autopsies carried out at the Umtata (Mthatha General Hospital mortuary, which forms part of the teaching hospital of the Walter Sisulu University Medical School. There were 10 230 unnatural deaths between 1993 and 2005. Of these deaths, 161 (1.6% were deaths due to poisoning. There was a marked increase in death by poisoning from 2.5% in 1993 to 13.7% in 2004. The highest percentage (17.4% of poison-related deaths was in 2001, and the lowest (2.5% was in 1993 and 1994. About two-thirds of victims (66% were males, and more than half of the victims (51.5% were in the 11 to 30 age group. There is an increasing trend in fatalities due to poisoning at Umtata General Hospital, Mthatha.

  19. Estimation of Collective Effective Dose Due to Cosmic Ray Exposures to Members of The Public and to Airline Passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, N.S.; Salah Eldin, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; El Dosoky, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using UNSCEAR 2000 report to United Nation General Assembly and its appendices, Annual collective dose to Egyptian members of the public (75097301). Was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average collective effective dose to air line passenger for 10 million is estimated as 25.25 micro Sievert. Furthermore using hypothetical approach for Egyptian passengers who fly locally, regionally and internationally, the collective dose was estimated to be 252.5 man Sv , hence the average average collective effective dose for Egyptian passenger is due to Aviation is 3.36 micro Sievert

  20. Remote Sensing:From Trained Professionals to General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAN Jie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the growing popularity of smart phones and the rapid development of open science, remote sensing is being developed and applied more by general public than by trained professionals. This trend is mainly embodied in the democratized data collection, democratized data processing and democratized data usage. This paper discusses and analyzes the three aforementioned characteristics, introduces some recent representative work and progress. It also lists numerous international open data processing tools, including photogrammetry processing, laser scanning processing, machine learning, and spatial information management. In addition, the article makes a detailed description of the benefits of open data, and lists a number of global data programs and experimental data sets for scientific research. At the end of this paper, it is pointed out that the democratization of remote sensing will not only produce great economic benefits, but also bring about great social benefits, and finally change the landscape of industry and the life style of people.

  1. Due Diligence Processes for Public Acquisition of Mining-Impacted Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Monohan, C.; Keeble-Toll, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of public land is critical for achieving conservation and habitat goals in rural regions projected to experience continuously high rates of population growth. To ensure that public funds are utilized responsibly in the purchase of conservation easements appropriate due diligence processes must be established that limit landowner liability post-acquisition. Traditional methods of characterizing contamination in regions where legacy mining activities were prevalent may not utilize current scientific knowledge and understanding of contaminant fate, transport and bioavailability, and therefore are likely to have type two error. Agency prescribed assessment methods utilized under CERLA in many cases fail to detect contamination that presents liability issues by failing to require water quality sampling that would reveal offsite transport potential of contaminants posing human health risks, including mercury. Historical analysis can be used to inform judgmental sampling to identify hotspots and contaminants of concern. Land acquisition projects at two historic mine sites in Nevada County, California, the Champion Mine Complex and the Black Swan Preserve have established the necessity of re-thinking due diligence processes for mining-impacted landscapes. These pilot projects demonstrate that pre-acquisition assessment in the Gold Country must include judgmental sampling and evaluation of contaminant transport. Best practices using the current scientific knowledge must be codified by agencies, consultants, and NGOs in order to ensure responsible use of public funds and to safeguard public health.

  2. Radiogenic health effects: communicating risks to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, Jadwiga

    1999-01-01

    Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)

  3. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management... an information collection entitled, ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period to November 18, 2013 due to the public's inability to access...

  4. Due diligence in the open-access explosion era: choosing a reputable journal for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Yondell; Ashcraft, Alyce

    2017-11-15

    Faculty are required to publish. Naïve and "in-a-hurry-to-publish" authors seek to publish in journals where manuscripts are rapidly accepted. Others may innocently submit to one of an increasing number of questionable/predatory journals, where predatory is defined as practices of publishing journals for exploitation of author-pays, open-access publication model by charging authors publication fees for publisher profit without provision of expected services (expert peer review, editing, archiving, and indexing published manuscripts) and promising almost instant publication. Authors may intentionally submit manuscripts to predatory journals for rapid publication without concern for journal quality. A brief summary of the open access "movement," suggestions for selecting reputable open access journals, and suggestion for avoiding predatory publishers/journals are described. The purpose is to alert junior and seasoned faculty about predatory publishers included among available open access journal listings. Brief review of open access publication, predatory/questionable journal characteristics, suggestions for selecting reputable open access journals and avoiding predatory publishers/journals are described. Time is required for intentionally performing due diligence in open access journal selection, based on publisher/journal quality, prior to manuscript submission or authors must be able to successfully withdraw manuscripts when submission to a questionable or predatory journal is discovered. © FEMS 2017.

  5. The incidence of public sector hospitalisations due to dog bites in Australia 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekar, Mithun; Blizzard, Leigh; Julian, Roberta; Williams, Anne-Marie; Tennant, Marc; Forrest, Alex; Walsh, Laurence J; Wilson, Gary

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the incidence of dog bite-related injuries requiring public sector hospitalisation in Australia during the period 2001-13. Summary data on public sector hospitalisations due to dog bite-related injuries with an ICD 10-AM W54.0 coding were sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for the study period 2001-2013. In Australia, on average, 2,061 persons were hospitalised each year for treatment for dog bite injuries at an annual rate of 12.39 (95%CI 12.25-12.53) per 100,000 during 2001-13. The highest annual rates of 25.95 (95%CI 25.16-26.72) and 18.42 (95%CI 17.75-19.07) per 100,000 were for age groups 0-4 and 5-9 years respectively. Rates of recorded events increased over the study period and reached 16.15 (95%CI 15.78-16.52) per 100,000 during 2011-13. Dog bites are a largely unrecognised and growing public health problem in Australia. Implications for public health: There is an increasing public sector burden of hospitalisations for injuries from dog bites in Australia. © 2017 Menzies Institute for Medical Research.

  6. General practitioners’ attitudes towards and experiences with referrals due to supplemental health insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe K; Pedersen, Line B; Dupont, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Supplemental health insurances (SHI) cover 38% of the Danish population. SHI can give faster access to, and additional treatment from, private health providers. However, this is contingent on a referral from the general practitioner (GP), further complicating clinical decision...... to 3321 GPs focusing on three issues: (i) Attitudes towards the public health care system. (ii) Perceptions of the impact of SHI. (iii) Experiences with patients holding SHIs. Results.: The response rate was 64%. Overall, GPs found that SHIs contribute to inequality (83%) and overtreatment (90%). However...... a majority of GPs associate SHI with overtreatment and inequality in health, many GPs feel under pressure to refer patients holding SHI for treatments or examinations that are not medically warranted. Some GPs even refer these patients without further examination or questioning. Insistent SHI patients may...

  7. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general licenses. [[Page 47923

  8. Public exposure due to radioactive liquid effluent discharges from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares/IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Fatima F.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical and social-economic characterization of aquatic environment influenced by IPEN was performed and possible exposure pathways were identified. The effective dose equivalent to the critical groups were estimated by using a mathematic model that simulate radionuclide transport through environment components, and dosimetric models that relate activity at environment components to public exposure. This study has concluded that there is not a single critical group that receives the highest dose equivalents from the source, but all the populational groups potentially exposed receive doses at the same level, and then all of them must be considered in a radiological assessment process. The results showed that the public exposure due to liquid discharges from IPEN remains bellow established dose limits. (author). 58 refs., 28 figs., 24 tabs

  9. A general approach for the estimation of loss of life due to natural and technological disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Lentz, A.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing the safety of engineering systems in the context of quantitative risk analysis one of the most important consequence types concerns the loss of life due to accidents and disasters. In this paper, a general approach for loss of life estimation is proposed which includes three elements: (1) the assessment of physical effects associated with the event; (2) determination of the number of exposed persons (taking into account warning and evacuation); and (3) determination of mortality amongst the population exposed. The typical characteristics of and modelling approaches for these three elements are discussed. This paper focuses on 'small probability-large consequences' events within the engineering domain. It is demonstrated how the proposed approach can be applied to various case studies, such as tunnel fires, earthquakes and flood events.

  10. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. A study on image of radiotechnologist of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jin; Kim, Gyeong Geun

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the image of Radiotechnologist of the general public and ro see Radiotechnologist as a profession. The data were collected by 437 arbitrarily selected groups of college students, teachers, office workers and housewives residing in Daegu, with questionnaires from July 15 to September 30, 1985. The findings are as follows: 1. Most responds are regarded first impressions and appearance of Radiotechnologist as common of 66.6%, 54.0%, respectively. 2. 28.4% of respondents are regarded Radiotechnologist as responsibility 36.5% as skill fullness, 31.4% as overwork. 34.3% of respondants saw a Radiotechnologist as a doctor's assistant, 12.4% as a counselor about patient diseases and 52.7% as ones who have independent professional vocation. 3. For Radiotechnological education, 42.3% of respondents agreed to four year college program and 36.7% as three year Junior College program. 4. Only 13.7% of respondents wanted their children to become Radiotechnologist while 19.5% of them did not want

  12. Comentaris breus sobre la GNU General Public License v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Bain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La llicència GNU General Public License és la llicència de programari lliure més utilitzada i constitueix un document fonamental per al moviment de programari lliure. Per fer front a l’evolució tecnològica i jurídica des de la seva primera publicació el 1989, la Free Software Foundation en va revisar en profunditat els termes i el juny del 2007 en va publicar la nova versió 3. Aquest article comenta les causes i els objectius d’aquesta revisió i alguns dels principals elements nous de la GPLv3. El resultat de la revisió és una llicència més d’acord amb el marc internacional de drets d’autor, i més flexible i compatible amb altres llicències de programari lliure. Destaquen pactes addicionals per a fer front a noves “amenaces” a les llibertats del programari, com les patents de programari i la protecció jurídica dels sistemes electrònics de gestió de drets (DRM.

  13. Cosmogenic radioberyllium and background radiation dose to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    To discover the causes of the presence of abnormal Be concentrations (anthropogenic or natural or cosmogenic source) in the area of the Kralicky Sneznik mountain massive (in the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude of about 800 m), concentrations of 7 Be and 10 Be were also assayed in selected environmental components in the years of 2005 - 2007. The 10 Be concentrations in soils (80.39x10 6 - 210.45x10 6 atom g -1 ) and activity concentrations of 7 Be in soils and wet deposition were very low (1.3 - 5.3 Bq kg -1 and 0.6 - 4.5 Bq l -1 , resp.). However, activities of 7 Be in birch leaves and grass (dry matter) reached relatively high values (up to 1000 Bq kg -1 ) and, in addition, showed out their significant seasonal growth. In the work the probable contribution of the cosmogenic 7 Be activities to background radiation dose to the general public is discussed. (authors)

  14. 78 FR 73863 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2013 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MV-2013-03; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 37] Public... Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2013...) Circular A-76, General Services Administration (GSA) is publishing this notice to advise the public of the...

  15. Public radiation exposure due to radon transport from a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Johnston, A.; Pfitzner, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radon and radon daughter concentrations at locations several kilometres away from a uranium mine are due both to the background sources and the mine-related sources. The contribution of these two types of sources should be distinguished because the authorised limits on public radiation dose apply only to the mine-related sources. Such a distinction can be achieved by measuring radon and radon daughter concentration in the wind sectors containing only the background sources and those in the wind sectors containing both the background and the mine-related sources. This approach has been used to make estimates of public radiation dose due to radon transport from the Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. The residential town of Jabiru, the non-residential working town of Jabiru East, and the aboriginal camp sites in the vicinity of the mine were considered. The results indicate that, for the groups of population considered, the annual mine-related dose varies between 0.04 and 0.2 mSv. (author)

  16. Cancer Deaths due to Lack of Universal Access to Radiotherapy in the Brazilian Public Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, L C; Moraes, F Y; Fernandes, G Dos S; Weltman, E

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a fundamental role in the treatment of cancer. Currently, the Brazilian public health system cannot match the national radiotherapy demand and many patients requiring radiotherapy are never exposed to this treatment. This study estimated the number of preventable deaths in the public health system if access to radiotherapy was universal. Incidence rates for the year 2016 provided by Instituto Nacional de Cancer were used in this analysis. The number of untreated patients requiring radiotherapy was obtained through the difference between the total number of patients requiring radiotherapy and the total amount of delivered radiotherapy treatments in the public health system. The number of deaths for the three most common cancers in each gender due to radiotherapy shortage was calculated. Initially, the total number of patients per cancer type was divided in stages using Brazilian epidemiological data. Subsequently, previously published tree arm diagrams were used to define the rate of patients requiring radiotherapy in each specific clinical setting. Finally, the clinical benefit of radiotherapy in overall survival was extracted from studies with level 1 evidence. Over 596 000 cancer cases were expected in Brazil in 2016. The public health system covers more than 75% of the Brazilian population and an estimated 111 432 patients who required radiotherapy in 2016 did not receive this treatment. Breast, colorectal and cervix cancers are the most frequent malignant tumours in women and prostate, lung and colorectal in men. The number of deaths due to a radiotherapy shortage in the year 2016 for these types of cancer were: (i) breast: 1011 deaths in 10 years; (ii) cervix: 2006 deaths in 2 years; (iii) lung: 1206 deaths in 2 years; (iv) prostate, intermediate risk: 562 deaths in 13 years; high risk: 298 deaths in 10 years; (v) colorectal: 0 deaths, as radiotherapy has no proven benefit in overall survival. Thousands of cancer patients requiring

  17. Assessment of general bullying and bullying due to appearance of teeth in a sample of 11-16 year-old Peruvian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Bazán-Serrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of general bullying and bullying due to the appearance of teeth in a sample of 11-16 year-old Peruvian schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 218 students aged 11 to 16 years old (13.41±1.44, 109 males, and 153 from a public school. A survey on general bullying and the appearance of teeth was applied using a validated questionnaire. Results: The frequency of general bullying was 32.57%, and bullying due to dental appearance was 18.81%. General bullying (p=0.005 and dental appearance (p=0.024 were more frequent in the public school, but there were no statistically significant differences according to sex. The highest frequency of general bullying was related to name-calling, which accounted for 47.71%. Victimization by appearance of teeth in one or two occasions in the last two months accounted for 12.39%, according to participating subjects. Conclusion: General and tooth-related bullying was more frequent among students in public schools, with no significant differences according to sex.

  18. In situ occupational and general public exposure to VHF/UHF transmission for air traffic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Verloock, Leen; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Occupational and general public exposure due to very high frequency (VHF)/ultra high frequency (UHF) transmission centres for verbal communication for air traffic control is investigated in situ for the first time. These systems are used for communication with aircraft, resulting in different human exposure from that of classical broadcasting. Measurement methods are proposed for the exposure assessment, and a measurement campaign is executed in three transmission centres. By investigating the temporal behaviour of the VHF signals for 6 d, a realistic worst-case duty cycle of 29 % is determined. Periods of high exposures corresponding with high aircraft traffic are from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m. and in the evening. All measured electric-field values satisfy the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines. Fields vary from 0.2 to 21.1 V m(-1) for occupational exposure and from 0.007 to 8.0 V m(-1) for general public exposure. The average fields equal 5.2 V m(-1) for workers, and 0.7 V m(-1) for general public.

  19. In situ occupational and general public exposure to VHF/UHF transmission for air traffic communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, W.; Goeminne, F.; Verloock, L.; Vermeeren, G.; Martens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational and general public exposure due to very high frequency (VHF)/ultra high frequency (UHF) transmission centres for verbal communication for air traffic control is investigated in situ for the first time. These systems are used for communication with aircraft, resulting in different human exposure from that of classical broadcasting. Measurement methods are proposed for the exposure assessment, and a measurement campaign is executed in three transmission centres. By investigating the temporal behaviour of the VHF signals for 6 d, a realistic worst-case duty cycle of 29 % is determined. Periods of high exposures corresponding with high aircraft traffic are from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m. and in the evening. All measured electric field values satisfy the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines. Fields vary from 0.2 to 21.1 V m -1 for occupational exposure and from 0.007 to 8.0 V m -1 for general public exposure. The average fields equal 5.2 V m -1 for workers, and 0.7 V m -1 for general public. (authors)

  20. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  1. Generalized peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis: Hartmann's procedure or primary anastomosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Loris; Biondo, Sebastiano; Golda, Thomas; Monica, Millan; Kreisler, Esther; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Frago, Ricardo; Jaurrieta, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Hartmann's procedure (HP) still remains the most frequently performed procedure for diffuse peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility and safety of resection with primary anastomosis (RPA) in patients with purulent or fecal diverticular peritonitis and review morbidity and mortality after single stage procedure and Hartmann in our experience. From January 1995 through December 2008, patients operated for generalized diverticular peritonitis were studied. Patients were classified into two main groups: RPA and HP. A total of 87 patients underwent emergency surgery for diverticulitis complicated with purulent or diffuse fecal peritonitis. Sixty (69%) had undergone HP while RPA was performed in 27 patients (31%). At the multivariate analysis, RPA was associated with less post-operative complications (P clinical anastomotic leakage and needed re-operation. RPA can be safely performed without adding morbidity and mortality in cases of diffuse diverticular peritonitis. HP should be reserved only for hemodynamically unstable or high-risk patients. Specialization in colorectal surgery improves mortality and raises the percentage of one-stage procedures.

  2. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  3. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Daniel (Compiler); Bekey, Ivan; Mankins, John; Rogers, Thomas F.; Stallmer, Eric W.

    1998-01-01

    Travel and tourism is one of the world's largest businesses. Its gross revenues exceed $400 billion per year in the U.S. alone, and it is our second largest employer. U.S. private sector business revenues in the space information area now approximate $10 billion per year, and are increasing rapidly. Not so in the human spaceflight area. After spending $100s of billions (1998 dollars) in public funds thereon, and continuing to spend over $5 billion per year, the government is still the only customer for human spaceflight goods and services. Serious and detailed consideration was first given to the possibility of space being opened up to trips by the general public three decades ago, and some initial attempts to do so were made a dozen years ago. But the difficulties were great and the Challenger disaster put an end to them. In recent years professional space tourism studies have been conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany and, especially, Japan. In the U.S., technological progress has been pronounced; we have had nearly a decade's experience in seeing our astronauts travel to-from low Earth orbit (LEO) safely, and we expect to commence assembly of a LEO space station housing a half-dozen people this year. Too, NASA and our space industry now have new and promising space transportation development programs underway, especially the X-33 and X-34 programs, and some related, further generation, basic technology development programs. And five private companies are also working on the design of new surface - LEO vehicles. The first professional space tourism market studies have been conducted in several countries in the past few years, especially in Japan and here. The U.S. study makes it clear that, conceptually, tens of millions of us would like to take a trip to space if we could do so with reasonable safety, comfort and reliability, and at an acceptable price. Initial businesses will address the desires of those willing to pay a greater price and accept a greater

  4. Change in General Relativistic precession rates due to Lidov-Kozai oscillations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David J.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Two well known phenomena associated with low perihelion distance bodies in orbital dynamics are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations. The accurate prediction of the perihelion shift of Mercury in accord with real observations is one of the significant triumphs of the general theory of relativity developed by Einstein. The Lidov-Kozai mechanism was first proposed and derived by Kozai and independently by Lidov explaining the periodic exchange between eccentricities e and inclinations i thereby increasing or decreasing the perihelion distance q secularly in the orbiting body. Co-existence of GR Precession and LK Oscillations: In this work, we were interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK oscillations and being GR active at the same time. Of all the bodies we checked from the IAU-Minor Planet Center, and Marsden plus Kracht families from the comet catalogue, 96P/Machholz 1 stands out because it shows all these trends in the near future. LK leads to secular lowering of q which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of argument of pericentre. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the e,i and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show the continuum nature between GR precession domi-nant and LK mechanism dominant regimes. Results and Discussion: We have shown that there are bodies in the solar system in which both GR precession and LK mechanism can co-exist at the same time and for which these effects can be measured and identified using analytical and numerical techniques. Thus there is a continuum of bodies encompassing, firstly GR precession dominant, secondly GR precession plus LK mechanism co-existing and finally LK mechanism dominant states which are all

  5. Public Opinion shifts to the favour of nuclear energy due to steam generator transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengar, I.; Nemec, T.

    2000-01-01

    In late August and early September of 1999, nuclear energy topics occupied a central place in the Slovenian media because of the transport of two new steam generators to the Krsko nuclear power plant, and also due to the protest action of an Austrian Green peace group. Before these events, the public opinion in Slovenia was not in favour or nuclear energy ;and Green peace had a good reputation. In September it has lost much credibility because of their clumsy :action of protest, and in just one month this caused a shift of public opinion in Slovenia towards support of Slovenian's only nuclear power plant. The Green peace protest action occurred during the transport of the two new steam generators to Krsko. By replacement of the old steam generators the operation of the Krsko NPP will be extended until 2023. The transport envoy travelled during the first half of September '99 across a considerable part of Slovene territory, passing by the capital of Ljubljana. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 5253 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MV-2012-01; Docket 2012-0002; Sequence 3] Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy (MV); General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY...

  7. 78 FR 10174 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MV-2013-02; Docket No. 2013-0002; Sequence 3] Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In...

  8. 77 FR 54917 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-MV-2012-02; Docket No. 2012-0002; Sequence 14] Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2012 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act Inventory AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of Fiscal...

  9. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Candido dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation: Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  10. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  11. Raymark Public Open House and General Information Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, CTDEEP, CT DPH, & the Stratford Health Department will host an Open House & General Information Session for Stratford, CT residents to learn more about the Raymark Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, on Tuesday, May 23, 2017...

  12. Purchasing a General Ticket for Public Transport - A Means-End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price ...

  13. Severe Bradycardia Possibly due to a Local Anesthetic Oral Mucosal Injection during General Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kenichi; Ohashi, Ayako; Kumagai, Miho; Hoshi, Hideki; Otaka, Kousei; Joh, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthesia may induce systemic complications leading to parasympathetic activity leading to bradycardia and hypotension. We report a case of a 50-year-old man undergoing dental surgery under general anesthesia who experienced severe bradycardia and hypotension after local anesthesia infiltration. Concerns regarding the utilization of a relatively large lumen injection needle for local anesthesia during general anesthesia are discussed.

  14. X-rays in the eye of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegie, R.; Guenther, D.; Stender, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    For a pilot study, a random sample of 181 office personnel in steel companies were interviewed about their knowledge and feelings on X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation. The general knowledge about the beneficial and detrimental aspects of X-rays was good, with education at school and news media reports being the main sources of information (70%). In general, the news media are considered to give objective and correct reports on this matter. 85% of the interviewed held ionizing radiation to be at least somewhat dangerous. Those with higher education (college/university) were significantly more vocal on the dangerous aspects. Concerning personal fear of X-rays, 30% were at least somewhat fearful. A significant correlation was found between statements on the dangerous aspects and subjective feelings of fear (anxiety). Interestingly, there was no correlation between general fearfulness (manifest anxiety) and fear of X-rays. (orig.) [de

  15. General aspects concerning the nuclear energy and the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodeanu, F.; Bilegan, I.; Chirica, T.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear power successfully competes, from technical and economic point of view all the other energy sources, having a much less environmental impact. Its expansion is limited in our days by the acceptance of local communities. Thus, for the success of a nuclear power project, the public information becomes a strategic option of the company management, and the Romanian Energy Authority - RENEL is now implementing the first steps of its programme aiming at this objective. (author). 23 refs

  16. Communicating airport noise emission data to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Luis; Asensio, Cesar; de Arcas, Guillermo

    2017-05-15

    Despite the efforts that the aviation industry has undertaken during the last few decades, noise annoyance remains high, partly because of the continuous transport demands of modern societies and partly because of changes in citizen expectations and their growing environmental concerns. Although modern aircraft are considerably quieter than their predecessors, the number of complaints has not decreased as much as expected. Therefore, the aeronautical sector has tried more sociological and/or psychological strategies to gain acceptance through awareness and community engagement. In this regard, noise communication to the public is crucial for managers and policy makers. Noise information is a difficult technical topic for non-experts, which is an issue that must first be addressed to take advantage of the new possibilities that have recently been opened by the internet and information and communication technologies. In this review paper, we have compiled the literature that shows the increasing importance of communicating noise information from aircraft and the variety of indicators used to communicate with the public. We also examined the methods of representing noise data, using visualization strategies, and new tools airports are currently using to address this communication problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ACUTRI a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Noguchi, H; Ryufuku, S; Sasaki, T

    2002-01-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: i...

  18. ACUTRI: a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ryufuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Kurosawa, Naohiro [Visible Information Center, Inc., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: inhalation from a primary plume (HT and/or HTO) released from the facilities and inhalation from a secondary plume (HTO) reemitted from the ground following deposition of HT and HTO. This report describes an outline of the ACUTRI code, a user guide and the results of test calculation. (author)

  19. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  20. 78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets...

  1. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA) [fr

  2. Public exposure due to the transport of radiopharmaceuticals; Exposicao do publico devido ao transporte de radiofarmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Demerval L.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A., E-mail: dlrodri@ipen.b, E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b, E-mail: msanches@ipen.b, E-mail: gsordi@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper estimate the radiological impact resulting from radiopharmaceuticals transport from the IPEN to some destinations defined a priori. So, doses were estimated in the public individuals, which are in the streets and vehicles that transit near the public transport, alongside the itinerary went through by packages, during the realization of radiopharmaceuticals transport

  3. Public Knowledge and Behaviours Regarding Antibiotics Use: A Survey among the General Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Y Abujheisha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with increased number of illness, mortality, and health care costs. The incorrect use, excessive prescription and prolonged administration of antibiotics are some factors which allow the growth of resistant bacteria leading to the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several studies about antibiotic use have shown that behaviour towards antibiotics differs among countries, depending on culture, habits, education, and health care organization. The aim of this pilot study was to inspect the attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotics among the public in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire was carried out from January to February 2017 within the public, including hospital attendees and patients come for a consultation at the Prince Sattam university hospital. A total of 670 participants were included in this study. They have been chosen using a suitable sampling method. Persons incorporated in this survey who were above 18 years old and familiar with the term “antibiotics”. Results: The majority of respondents get informed about the use of antibiotics from Pharmacists (79.94%, and Physicians (76.14% and 50.3% (n=331 of the respondents reported using antibiotics six months before the survey. Regarding the source of antibiotics, (42.55% of the respondents usually gets the antibiotics after a consultation with the doctor, while 53.8% declared that their antibiotics were acquired from a retail pharmacy and a few of them (3.65% get the antibiotics from family and friends. The justification of participants for having antibiotics was mostly due to fever (41.34% or respiratory infections (22.19%. About 33.5% stated that they did not complete the treatment course and the reason was they felt better. Almost 57% indicated that they had ever kept an antibiotic at home for emergency need while 28.57% use leftover antibiotics in case they

  4. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of personal exposure to UV radiation of workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisto, R.; Borra, M.; Casale, G. R.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to meteorological conditions variability and to the variability of exposure patterns, which can be largely different during a working day, personal dosemeters use can be necessary to obtain a correct quantitative evaluation of the radiation dose absorbed by an exposed worker. Different classes of personal dosemeters exist and, among them, electronic dosemeters and poly-sulphone film dosemeters. An experimental campaign is presented conduced in a cultivated area of Tuscany and some aspects are discussed about an experimental campaign performed on a population of volunteers on a central Italy beach near Rome. The aim of the present work is to show some relevant issues in a dosimetric approach to the exposure evaluation of outdoor workers and, in general, of the public during recreational activities. (authors)

  6. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Science and Technology Interactive Center, Aurora, IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

  7. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public

  8. 76 FR 5375 - Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [2011-MV-1; Docket No. 2011-0006; Sequence 4] Public Availability of General Services Administration FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisition Policy; General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that GSA is...

  9. Publication and non-publication of drug trial results: a 10-year cohort of trials in Norwegian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brænd, Anja Maria; Straand, Jørund; Jakobsen, Rune Bruhn; Klovning, Atle

    2016-04-11

    Previously, we identified a 10-year cohort of protocols from applications to the Norwegian Medicines Agency 1998-2007, consisting of 196 drug trials in general practice. The aim of this study was to examine whether trial results were published and whether trial funding and conflicts of interest were reported. Cohort study of trials with systematic searches for published results. Clinical drug trials in Norwegian general practice. We performed systematic literature searches of MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL to identify publications originating from each trial using characteristics such as test drug, comparator and patient groups as search terms. When no publication was identified, we contacted trial sponsors for information regarding trial completion and reference to any publications. We determined the frequency of publication of trial results and trial characteristics associated with publication of results. Of the 196 trials, 5 were never started. Of the remaining 191 trials, 71% had results published in a journal, 11% had results publicly available elsewhere and 18% of trials had no results available. Publication was more common among trials with an active comparator drug (χ(2) test, p=0.040), with a larger number of patients (total sample size≥median, p=0.010) and with a longer trial period (duration≥median, p=0.025). Trial funding was reported in 85% of publications and increased over time, as did reporting of conflicts of interest among authors. Among the 134 main journal articles from the trials, 60% presented statistically significant results for the investigational drug, and the conclusion of the article was favourable towards the test drug in 78% of papers. We did not identify any journal publication of results for 29% of the general practice drug trials. Trials with an active comparator, larger and longer trials were more likely to be published. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  10. General observation of the memory effect in metal-insulator-ITO structures due to indium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Huihua; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Yu; Rogach, Andrey L; Shen, Yingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on metal oxides, organic molecules and inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been studied extensively in recent years. Different memory switching mechanisms have been proposed and shown to be closely related to the device architectures. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an ITO/active layer/InGa structure can yield nonvolatile resistive memory behavior in a variety of active materials, including polymers, organic small molecules, and colloidal NCs. Through the electrode material and thickness-dependent study, we show that the ON state of the devices is associated with filamentary conduction induced by indium diffusion from the ITO electrode, occurring mostly within around 40–50 nm from the ITO/active layer interface. A negative differential resistance (NDR) regime is observed during transition from the ON to OFF state, and is explained by the space charge limited current (SCLC) effect due to hole injection at the ITO/active layer interface. Our study reveals the impact of indium diffusion at the ITO/active layer interface, an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing thin printed RRAM devices. (paper)

  11. Spatial generalized linear mixed models of electric power outages due to hurricanes and ice storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Davidson, Rachel A.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new statistical models that predict the number of hurricane- and ice storm-related electric power outages likely to occur in each 3 kmx3 km grid cell in a region. The models are based on a large database of recent outages experienced by three major East Coast power companies in six hurricanes and eight ice storms. A spatial generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approach was used in which spatial correlation is incorporated through random effects. Models were fitted using a composite likelihood approach and the covariance matrix was estimated empirically. A simulation study was conducted to test the model estimation procedure, and model training, validation, and testing were done to select the best models and assess their predictive power. The final hurricane model includes number of protective devices, maximum gust wind speed, hurricane indicator, and company indicator covariates. The final ice storm model includes number of protective devices, ice thickness, and ice storm indicator covariates. The models should be useful for power companies as they plan for future storms. The statistical modeling approach offers a new way to assess the reliability of electric power and other infrastructure systems in extreme events

  12. The Traditional Model Does Not Explain Attitudes Toward Euthanasia: A Web-Based Survey of the General Public in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-01

    The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.

  13. Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

  14. The Directions of Public Administration Reform Due to Romania’s Integration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian M. Nedelcu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From the formal point of view, in Romania there is an institutional framework that haslooked favourable for operation in at least satisfactory conditions for the authorities at the political level andat the level of public administration . In fact, things are different, and Romanians have to admit that thesignals from EU authorities made in the last few years are in compliance with the reality, namely: if the factthat we complied with the political criterion has been accepted, public administrations do not operateaccording to the standards established for adhesion. The faulty operation of public administration is obvious,well known: “Public administration has become uncontrollable in certain fields, and the political level doesnot know what decisions to make because it only listens and it is only interested in nothing else exceptfratricide fights or other image related matters. There is a lack of political culture in making decisions. Andthere is also the so called “psychological corruption” from the desire to keep the power with any price, youare absolutely opaque, closed and refuse to change the way you work, the way to make decisions"

  15. Training programs in remote sensing for professionals, students and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, R.

    1987-01-01

    What remote sensing is, how and why it is used, and why more people should be trained in the field is discussed. Suggestions are offered concerning differences in teaching technicians, the general public, and children in schools.

  16. Algal eating habits of phycologists attending the ISAP Halifax conference and members of the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Maeve D.; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Hynes, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A short questionnaire was devised during the 4th ISAP conference in Halifax (2011) to gather some information on the algal eating habits of the participants. Responses were also collected from random members of the general public in Galway and Copenhagen. Most phycologists had eaten algae before (93%), but few participants ate it more regularly than per month. The general public responses were similar. A probability model tested the likelihood of a participant eating algae. Neither age nor na...

  17. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific

  18. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  19. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  20. 'Just a lovely luxury?' What can public health attachments add to postgraduate general practice training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Reynolds, Joanna; Swanwick, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Changing trends in the role of general practice and general practitioners (GPs), including a focus on commissioning and practice population health needs, were reflected in the specialty training curriculum published by the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) in 2007. In response to these developments the London Deanery established training attachments to the public health departments of ten primary care trusts (PCTs) across London, incorporated into three-year GP specialty training programmes. These attachments were evaluated in 2008 by London South Bank University. The aims of the evaluation were to assess the attachment's suitability for addressing areas of the RCGP curriculum; and to explore perceptions of its value for GP training and for future practice. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with two cohorts of trainees towards the end of their public health attachment, and with public health trainers and GP training programme directors from participating schemes. The training attachments were generally considered to offer good opportunities for trainees to fulfil both public health competences and to address relevant areas of the RCGP curriculum, through a variety of types of work. However, this did not necessarily influence either the level of importance attributed to public health in comparison with other clinical training posts or the perceived impact of the attachment on the trainees' future practice as GPs. The reported learning outcomes and value of the attachment for the public health trainers and programme directors reflected the changing and perceived future demands on GPs, but these views were not generally shared by trainees. Public health attachments may offer general practice training programme opportunities for the development of skills and knowledge that are relevant to the changing nature of general practice. Yet, there still appears to be a barrier for trainee GPs in acknowledging their role in non-clinical, population

  1. General practice vocational training and public health medicine: a novel collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Money, P; Quinn, R

    1994-06-01

    The incorporation of a module of public health teaching into a general practice vocational training programme is described. This programme is itself innovative in that in addition to the 2 years of hospital-based training, it provides 2 years of community-based training. While the curriculum of the public health module is evolving with time, the objectives have remained the same, and are being met. The module has been appraised by external observers, and has been evaluated by participating trainees. The public health module is now an established feature of the Sligo general practice training programme.

  2. General Public Views on Uses and Users of Administrative Health Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alison Paprica

    2017-04-01

    Members of general public were generally supportive of research based on linked administrative health data but with conditions, particularly when the possibility of private sector research was discussed. Notably, and citing security concerns, focus group participants preferred models that had a limited number of individuals or organizations accessing data.

  3. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  4. A General Construction of IND-CCA2 Secure Public Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiltz, Eike; Malone-Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general construction for public key encryption schemes that are IND-CCA2 secure in the random oracle model. We show that the scheme proposed in [1, 2] fits our general framework and moreover that our method of analysis leads to a more efficient security reduction....

  5. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, T.R.; Anoj Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Vikas; Patil, S.S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S.

    2014-01-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi

  6. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, T. R.; Kumar, Anoj; Patra, R. P.; Vikas,; Patil, S. S.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S., E-mail: tejram@barc.gov.in [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi.

  7. Quantification of individual of individual annual doses to the public due to Embalse NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the individual annual doses to the public produced during Embalse NPP operation and the natural radiation doses absorbed in everyday life by the same individuals. The basic idea is to show several examples that allow the comparison. Therefore, everybody will get a clear picture of the radiological contamination that surrounds us and the actual influence that Embalse NPP's operation has in the environment. The first concept to be considered is that the human body cells cannot distinguish whether radiation comes from a natural or an artificial source (a source created by man). This is of great importance in the case of the popular myth that says that radiation coming from artificial sources is the only damaging radiation, and that other types of radiation are innocuous, and represent no hazard to human health. We can preliminarily state that when considering the same dose, the effects of both kinds of radiation in human body are equal. (author)

  8. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication

  9. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication.

  10. Absenteeism due to voice disorders in female teachers: a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-11-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of absenteeism due to voice disorders among teachers and investigates individual and contextual factors associated with it. The study involved 1,980 teachers from 76 municipal schools. The response rate was 85%. The survey was carried out between May 2004 and July 2005 using a self-administered structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and work-related questions. The dependent variable was obtained from answers to the following question: In the last 2 weeks, have you missed work because of voice problems? Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors. Voice-related absenteeism in the prior 2 weeks was reported by 66 teachers (3.35%). During their entire careers, approximately one-third of teachers missed work at least once due to voice problems. In the final model, factors associated with recent absenteeism were as follows: witnessing violence by students or parents one or more times (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.14-3.90), presence of depression or anxiety (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.09-3.78), upper respiratory problems in the prior 2 weeks (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.53-5.29), and absenteeism because of voice problems during the preceding 6 months (OR = 15.79; 95% CI = 8.18-30.45). The results encourage new approaches to the problems of absenteeism in the educational sector and contribute to addressing the weaknesses of economic and administrative approaches to the phenomenon.

  11. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.

  12. Characterization of hospitalizations due to external causes in the public health system, Brazil, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the characteristics of hospital admissions owing to external causes in the public health system in Brazil in 2011. Data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) were analyzed to obtain the frequency, coefficient of hospitalization, and hospital morbidity indicators. Of the 973,015 admissions, falls (38.4%) predominated, followed by traffic accidents (15.8%). The estimated coefficient of hospitalization owing to external causes increased with the age, and it was higher in male patients and in the midwest region of the country. The average stay was higher in hospitalizations for traffic accidents (6.1 days) and assaults (6.0 days), while the hospital mortality rate reached higher values in hospitalizations for assaults (4.7%) and self-harms (4.0%). It is evident from the knowledge of the characteristics described the usefulness of hospital morbidity data for planning care actions and prevention of the external causes.

  13. Opinions about euthanasia and advanced dementia: a qualitative study among Dutch physicians and members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C; van Tol, Donald G; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; de Graeff, Nienke; Weyers, Heleen A M; van der Heide, Agnes; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2015-01-28

    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive (AED) when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia. In this qualitative study, 16 medical specialists, 19 general practitioners, 16 elderly physicians and 16 members of the general public were interviewed and asked for their opinions about a vignette on euthanasia based on an AED in a patient with advanced dementia. Members of the general public perceived advanced dementia as a debilitating and degrading disease. Physicians emphasized the need for direct communication with the patient when making decisions about euthanasia. Respondent from both groups acknowledged difficulties in the assessment of patients' autonomous wishes and the unbearableness of their suffering. Legally, an AED may replace direct communication with patients about their request for euthanasia. In practice, physicians are reluctant to forego adequate verbal communication with the patient because they wish to verify the voluntariness of patients' request and the unbearableness of suffering. For this reason, the applicability of AEDs in advanced dementia seems limited.

  14. Thermophoretic diffusion and nonlinear radiative heat transfer due to a contracting cylinder in a nanofluid with generalized slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abbas

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the generalized slip condition and MHD flow of a nanofluid due to a contracting cylinder in the presence of non-linear radiative heat transfer using Buongiorno’s model. The Navier-Stokes along with energy and nanoparticle concentration equations is transformed to highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These similar differential equations are then solved numerically by employing a shooting technique with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Dual solutions exist for a particular range of the unsteadiness parameter. The physical influence of the several important fluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction is discussed and shown through graphs and table in detail. The present study indicates that as increase of Brownian motion parameter and slip velocity is to decrease the nanoparticle volume fraction. Keywords: Nanofluid, Contracting cylinder, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Generalized slip condition, Numerical solution

  15. The effect of visible facial difference on personal space during encounters with the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Gierasch, A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that people with visible differences are granted more physical space than people without visible differences during encounters with the general public. This study aimed to examine whether given significant sociocultural changes, this remains the case in contemporary Australia. The personal space afforded to a person with a visible difference (with a temporary difference--a scar and a permanent difference--a strawberry hemangioma) or a person without a visible difference by 408 pedestrians on a busy pedestrian walkway in the central business district of Adelaide, Australia, was measured. This was a replication and extension of a study by N. Rumsey, R. Bull, and D. Gahagan (1982). Pedestrians stood no further away from the model in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. Pedestrians stood an average of 128 cm away in the control condition, 120 cm away in the scar condition, and 140 cm away in the birthmark condition. People did not stand to the nonvisibly different (left) side of the model more frequently in the visibly different conditions than in the nonvisibly different conditions. As the original research by N. Rumsey et al. is frequently cited as representing the current situation for people with visible differences, failing to replicate the result is significant. Changes may be due to either recent sociocultural changes promoting inclusion of disability or increasing social taboo against expressing overt prejudice.

  16. Presenting Numerical Modelling of Explosive Volcanic Eruption to a General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, C.; Todesco, M.; Neri, A.; Blasi, G.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical modeling of explosive volcanic eruptions has been widely applied, during the last decades, to study pyroclastic flows dispersion along volcano's flanks and to evaluate their impact on urban areas. Results from these transient multi-phase and multi-component simulations are often reproduced in form of computer animations, representing the spatial and temporal evolution of relevant flow variables (such as temperature, or particle concentration). Despite being a sophisticated, technical tool to analyze and share modeling results within the scientific community, these animations truly look like colorful cartoons showing an erupting volcano and are especially suited to be shown to a general public. Thanks to their particular appeal, and to the large interest usually risen by exploding volcanoes, these animations have been presented several times on television and magazines and are currently displayed in a permanent exposition, at the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples. This work represents an effort to produce an accompanying tool for these animations, capable of explaining to a large audience the scientific meaning of what can otherwise look as a graphical exercise. Dealing with research aimed at the study of dangerous, explosive volcanoes, improving the general understanding of these scientific results plays an important role as far as risk perception is concerned. An educated population has better chances to follow an appropriate behavior, i.e.: one that could lead, on the long period, to a reduction of the potential risk. In this sense, a correct divulgation of scientific results, while improving the confidence of the population in the scientific community, should belong to the strategies adopted to mitigate volcanic risk. Due to the relevance of the long term final goal of such divulgation experiment, this work represents an interdisciplinary effort, combining scientific expertise and specific competence from the modern communication science and risk

  17. The Internet and Generalized Functions of the Public Sphere: Transformative Potentials From a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rauchfleisch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost since the advent of the Internet, there has been great interest in analyzing and understanding online communication from the perspective of public sphere theory. The question of whether the properties of the Internet and, specifically, social media actually contribute to the public sphere is the matter of ongoing and somewhat heated scientific debate. The aim of the article is twofold. First, we propose a hierarchical model of generalized functions of public sphere. On a theoretical level, we interweave different strands of thought on the public sphere, and the resulting model is more inclusive and less rigid than each of those strands on their own. We identify four generalized functions: identity building, agenda-setting, control and criticism, and deliberation. The Internet does not contribute equally to these functions and we evaluate the impact of the Internet on each of these functions as a diminishing marginal utility. Second, we empirically explore the plausibility of our model in a global comparative analysis with focus on the Internet. With the help of macro-level variables which indicate the structural preconditions for a public sphere, we identify the highest possible function of the public sphere for each country to which the Internet can potentially contribute. Based on this approach, future research can be contextualized: case-study-based research can plausibly articulate expectations regarding the impact of the Internet on the public sphere.

  18. Adverse drug reactions reporting : Knowledge and opinion of general public in Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Elkalmi, Ramadan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omar Qutaiba; Jawad Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a w...

  19. Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII. This dataset is not publicly accessible because:...

  20. Comparable Measures of Accessibility to Public Transport Using the General Transit Feed Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Bok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays a critical role in the sustainability of urban settings. The mass mobility and quality of urban lives can be improved by establishing public transport networks that are accessible to pedestrians within a reasonable walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is characterized by the ease with which inhabitants can reach means of transportation such as buses or metros. By measuring the degree of accessibility to public transport networks using a common data format, a comparative study can be conducted between different cities or metropolitan areas with different public transit systems. The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS by Google Developers allows this by offering a common format based on text files and sharing the data set voluntarily produced and contributed by the public transit agencies of many participating cities around the world. This paper suggests a method to assess and compare public transit accessibility in different urban areas using the GTFS feed and demographic data. To demonstrate the value of the new method, six examples of metropolitan areas and their public transit accessibility are presented and compared.

  1. Bridging Water Issue Knowledge Gaps between the General Public and Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Carter, Hannah S.

    2015-01-01

    Global conflicts have rapidly made water the most contentious issue in the world today. Considering water drives health, industry, recreation, and the agricultural food system it is no surprise that it has become such a hot topic. As a result, the general public has an increased interest in water-focused policy; policy that can have a large impact…

  2. Communicating the science of the 11-year sunspot cycle to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysics is one branch of science which excites the imagination of the general public. Pioneer science popularizers like George Gamow and Fred Hoyle wrote on different aspects of astrophysics. However, of late, we see a trend which I find disturbing. While it has become extremely fashionable to write popular science books on cosmology, other areas of astrophysics are grossly neglected.

  3. Lay Beliefs about Autism Spectrum Disorder among the General Public and Childcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gwen E.; Locke, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of beliefs about autism among the general public in the United States and Canada (n = 823) and among individuals working in childcare facilities in the state of Idaho (n = 176). Results included the following. Almost all respondents correctly believed that autism's primary causes are genetic and neurological (not parenting,…

  4. Acceptance of online audio-visual cultural heritage archive services: a study of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Huizer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines the antecedents of user acceptance of an audio-visual heritage archive for a wider audience (i.e., the general public) by extending the technology acceptance model with the concepts of perceived enjoyment, nostalgia proneness and personal innovativeness. Method. A

  5. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  6. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  7. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  8. Changes in Attitudes Towards Bariatric Surgery After 5 Years in the German General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Franziska Ulrike Christine Else; Dietrich, A; Stroh, C; Riedel-Heller, S G; Luck-Sikorski, C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in attitudes of the general public towards bariatric surgery and other interventions that can be part of obesity management, during the last 5 years. 1007 participants were randomly selected and interviewed. Apart from socio-demographic data, interviews also included causal reasons for obesity as well as questions regarding treatment methods and their believed effectiveness. Results were compared with data published 5 years ago. Surgery is seen as a rather ineffective method to reduce weight in obesity and is recommended less often by the general public compared to the assessment 5 years ago. Public health-implications should inform about obesity and benefits of surgery as an intervention to improve individual health conditions.

  9. How can a research library support the communication of science to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.

    2008-06-01

    How can an observatory library support the communication of science to the general public? We will describe how a highly specialised astronomical library can also play a key role in disseminating astronomical knowledge, making scientific results available across a wide range of levels, from professional to public to educational. This outreach activity requires several steps, ranging from the preliminary identification and scrutiny of sources to the production of new information material (e.g. maps, brochures, and DVDs). In particular, we will describe some recent experiences in the dissemination of astronomical information to the general public, especially teachers and children, analysing some results of this activity, such as a bibliography of Italian Astronomical Books for Children, a review of scientific books and other multimedia products.

  10. Attitudes toward strategies to increase organ donation: views of the general public and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Klarenbach, Scott; Gill, John S; Caulfield, Tim; Manns, Braden

    2012-12-01

    The acceptability of financial incentives for organ donation is contentious. This study sought to determine (1) the acceptability of expense reimbursement or financial incentives by the general public, health professionals involved with organ donation and transplantation, and those with or affected by kidney disease and (2) for the public, whether financial incentives would alter their willingness to consider donation. Web-based survey administered to members of the Canadian public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease asking questions regarding acceptability of strategies to increase living and deceased kidney donation and willingness to donate a kidney under various financial incentives. Responses were collected from 2004 members of the Canadian public October 11-18, 2011; responses from health professionals (n=339) and people with or affected by kidney disease (n=268) were collected during a 4-week period commencing October 11, 2011. Acceptability of one or more financial incentives to increase deceased and living donation was noted in >70% and 40% of all groups, respectively. Support for monetary payment for living donors was 45%, 14%, and 27% for the public, health professionals, and people with or affected by kidney disease, respectively. Overall, reimbursement of funeral expenses for deceased donors and a tax break for living donors were the most acceptable. The general public views regulated financial incentives for living and deceased donation to be acceptable. Future research needs to examine the impact of financial incentives on rates of deceased and living donors.

  11. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  12. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author)

  13. Knowledge of and attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy among medical students, psychology students, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Ozlem Erden; Ak, Sertac; Sonmez, Yunus Emre; Demir, Basaran

    2013-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is safe and effective for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Despite being a well-known treatment method among health care professionals, lay people generally have a negative opinion of ECT. The present study aimed to examine knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT among medical students, psychology students, and the general public. Psychology students were included because they are among the important groups in mental health care in Turkey. A Likert-type questionnaire was administered to fifth-year medical students (n = 28), master of science and doctor of philosophy clinical psychology students (n = 35), and a sample of the general public (n = 26). The questionnaire included questions about the general principles of and indications for ECT, and sources of knowledge of and attitudes toward ECT. The medical students were the most knowledgeable about ECT, as expected. The medical students also had a more positive attitude toward ECT than the other 2 groups. More psychology students had negative attitudes on some aspects than general public sample, despite being more knowledgeable. Medical school theoretical and practical training in ECT played an important role in increasing the level of knowledge of and decreasing the prevalence of negative attitudes toward ECT among the medical students; similar training for psychology students is required to achieve similar results.

  14. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  15. How are things adding up? Neural differences between arithmetic operations are due to general problem solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2014-05-15

    A number of previous studies have interpreted differences in brain activation between arithmetic operation types (e.g. addition and multiplication) as evidence in favor of distinct cortical representations, processes or neural systems. It is still not clear how differences in general task complexity contribute to these neural differences. Here, we used a mental arithmetic paradigm to disentangle brain areas related to general problem solving from those involved in operation type specific processes (addition versus multiplication). We orthogonally varied operation type and complexity. Importantly, complexity was defined not only based on surface criteria (for example number size), but also on the basis of individual participants' strategy ratings, which were validated in a detailed behavioral analysis. We replicated previously reported operation type effects in our analyses based on surface criteria. However, these effects vanished when controlling for individual strategies. Instead, procedural strategies contrasted with memory retrieval reliably activated fronto-parietal and motor regions, while retrieval strategies activated parietal cortices. This challenges views that operation types rely on partially different neural systems, and suggests that previously reported differences between operation types may have emerged due to invalid measures of complexity. We conclude that mental arithmetic is a powerful paradigm to study brain networks of abstract problem solving, as long as individual participants' strategies are taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  17. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.

  18. A qualitative exploration of opinions on the community pharmacists' role amongst the general public in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Cowley, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    To understand members of the public's opinions and experiences of pharmacy services. This exploratory study employed qualitative methods. Five focus groups were conducted with 26 members of the public resident in Scotland in March 2010. The groups comprised those perceived to be users and non-users of community pharmacy. A topic guide was developed to prompt discussion. Each focus group was recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants made positive comments about pharmacy services although many preferred to see a general practitioner (GP). Participants discussed using pharmacies for convenience, often because they were unable to access GPs. Pharmacists were perceived principally to be suppliers of medicine, although there was some recognition of roles in dealing with minor ailments and providing advice. For those with serious and long-standing health matters GPs were usually the professional of choice for most health needs. Community pharmacy was seen to offer incomplete services which did not co-ordinate well with other primary-care services. The pharmacy environment and retail setting were not considered to be ideal for private healthcare consultations. This study suggests that despite recent initiatives to extend the role of community pharmacists many members of the general public continue to prefer a GP-led service. Importantly GPs inspire public confidence as well as offering comprehensive services and private consultation facilities. Improved communication and information sharing between community pharmacists and general practice could support community pharmacist-role expansion. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Psychotherapy as a treatment modality for psychiatric disorders: Perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Abdul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders affect about 450 million individuals worldwide. A number of treatment modalities such as psychotropic medications, psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy can be used to treat these disorders. Attitudes of general public play a pivotal role in effective utilization of mental health services. We explored the perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan regarding psychotherapy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan during July-August, 2008. A three-step sampling strategy and a structured questionnaire were employed to survey knowledge and perceptions of adult general public about psychotherapy. Descriptive statistics were used for baseline characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to investigate any significant associations between baseline characteristics of the participants and their perceptions. Results The study sample comprised of 985 individuals (536 males; 531 financially independent with an average age of 36.7 years (SD 13.54 years and 12.5 years (SD 3.09 years of education were included. Majority (59.4%; n = 585 claimed to be aware of psychotherapy as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders but 47.5% of these (n = 278/585 failed to identify its correct definition. Concerns voiced by the participants about psychotherapy included stigma (48.7% and breech in confidentiality (39.5%; 60.7% opined it cost effective and 86.5% favored its use as an adjuvant modality. A preference for psychotherapy as the treatment strategy for psychiatric disorders was demonstrated by 46.6% (n = 459/985. Younger, more educated, financially independent and female participants were more likely to prefer psychotherapy as were those who deemed it cost effective. Conclusion Positive attitudes regarding the acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy were observed in a sample representative of general public of Karachi, Pakistan. These findings

  20. EMB history to increase health technology literacy in the general public for improved health worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Ron S

    2009-01-01

    History provides common access to technology for both technical and non technical persons and for youngsters. Placed in an historical context complex health technology and health care can be more understandable and therefore more accessible to the general public; technical persons can understand past health technology advances to help propel the field. History is a reference for experts disguised as a story that anyone can understand and enjoy. This can be useful and effective at improving self advocate based health care.

  1. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul

    OpenAIRE

    Bashaar, Mohammadk; Thawani, Vijay; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 wa...

  2. The controversy over free trade: the gap between economists and the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus C. Coughlin

    2002-01-01

    Despite economists’ nearly universal support of free trade, the general public in the United States has serious reservations about it. In this article, Cletus C. Coughlin examines the reasons for this difference of opinion and the primary suggestions for bridging this gap.> Economists stress that free trade allows and, in fact, forces a nation to maximize the (net) value of the goods and services produced within its borders. Similarly, free trade allows consumers to maximize the net benefits ...

  3. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  4. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-02-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.).

  5. Awareness of the general public relations strategy for nuclear power generation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chano-Ok

    1989-01-01

    Ten years has passed since the first nuclear power plant was established in Korea. During the period, the total nuclear power generation capacity has increased to 5,716,000 kW, and additional two 950,000 kW plants currently under construction will start operating in 1988 and 1989, respectively. As of the end of 1987, nuclear power generation accounted for 53.1 % of the total power generated in the nation. The average utilization rate of the plants increased continuously from 46.3 % ten years ago up to 79.7 % in 1987. Public opinion polls were conducted in August and October of 1986, the year when the Chernobyl accident took place. The first survey covered 2,000 residents in urban and rural areas while the second one covered a total 1,000 nuclear-related engineers, scientists, administrative officials, businessmen, journalists and writers. The surveys have shown that 74.4 % of the general public agree on the construction of more nuclear power plants. The corresponding figure was 75 % for engineers and 50 % for journalists and writers. However, 73 % of the respondents who are for their construction did not want such a plant to be constructed near their residences. Concerning the safety of these plants, 79.5 % of the experts gave a positive reply while the corresponding figure was only 48.3 % for the general public. It is concluded that more active public relations activities are required in the future. (Nogami, K.)

  6. The Europeanization of Public Administration through the General Principles of Good Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUŢ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper is based on an extremely present theme of real interest. Using the content analysis, through a descriptive documentary research, the present study aims at identifying the dimensions of the general principles of good administration, in the context of changes at European an implicitly at national level. To this purpose, an analisys of the specific objectives will be made: the concept of good administration, the national dimensions of the right to be heard, the right to access personal files as well as the motivation of administrative acts and the general principles regulated by the European Code of Good Administration will be underlined, in the context of institutional change determined by the Lisbon Treaty. Good administration defines the way in which institutions function, this being possible by ensuring the right to access information, a more efficient protection of fundamental rights as well as the right to defense, publication of acts and their motivation. Good administration is strongly connected to good government, the relation being in our opinion, from part to whole. The final purpose of good government and implicitly of good administration aims at accomplishing the general interest. The two concepts need a higher degree of transparency and responsibility in the public process. If governing represents the modality of exerting power, good government entails the imperative of the consensus of those governed regarding the objectives and methods of government, the responsibility of those governing, the efficiency of governing and the citizens’ right to be informed regarding the use and the distribution of the financial resources in the governing process. This new concept takes into account the implication of the citizens in the decision - making process, allowing a more efficient use of material, human, and financial resources. We assert thus that by applying the general principles of good administration

  7. Podcasting as an Effective Medium for Direct Science Communication and Outreach to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, R. J.; Padilla, A. J.; Wheatley, P.; Barnhart, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A podcast is an audio program distributed online typically freely available through an RSS feed (essentially an on-demand internet radio show). This medium has grown steadily in listenership and popularity since its inception in the early 2000s, especially thanks to popular distribution platforms such as iTunes, and web-enabled listening devices (i.e. smart phones). In terms of science reporting, many high impact journals now produce podcasts to supplement their publications (e.g. Nature, Science, etc.). However, smaller and/or more specialized journals often can't afford to promote their content via podcasts, thus limiting their authors to rely on traditional media and press releases supplied by their colleges and universities. This is where independent or unaffiliated podcasts can fill an open niche: providing a platform for scientists to discuss their research in their own words aimed at a general audience. Traditional press releases often follow a similar pattern, and many science news outlets essentially report the press releases verbatim with little additional content or reporting from primary sources. Podcasts suffer from no such restrictions, and they can be as long and in-depth as the subject matter necessitates. Furthermore, many news outlets no longer employ dedicated science reporters. Science is covered, if at all, by reporters without specialized scientific knowledge or training. This deficit leads to a much higher potential for science news stories to be incorrectly reported, or misinterpreted by the general public. A podcast allows a lab group or department the opportunity to edit the content for brevity and clarity, affording scientists a better chance of getting their research presented to the public in an accurate and representative way. Finally, podcasts allow the public to hear the voice of the scientist, humanizing the hard work they do, and potentially positively influencing the way the public reacts to science as a discipline.

  8. [Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2010-11-01

    This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented towards the general public overestimate the - sometimes dubious - qualities of their medication, focusing almost exclusively on the benefits and put them in a central position in the therapeutic process. They also fail to mention the risks inherent in their use. Rather than focusing on regulatory proposals aimed at creating constraints to this practice, this article discusses the impossibility, considering the interests of public health, of the coexistence of marketing with the policies for the correct, rational and safe use of drugs.

  9. Query transformations and their role in Web searching by the members of the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Whittle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports preliminary research in a primarily experimental study of how the general public search for information on the Web. The focus is on the query transformation patterns that characterise searching. Method. In this work, we have used transaction logs from the Excite search engine to develop methods for analysing query transformations that should aid the analysis of our ongoing experimental work. Our methods involve the use of similarity techniques to link queries with the most similar previous query in a train. The resulting query transformations are represented as a list of codes representing a whole search. Analysis. It is shown how query transformation sequences can be represented as graphical networks and some basic statistical results are shown. A correlation analysis is performed to examine the co-occurrence of Boolean and quotation mark changes with the syntactic changes. Results. A frequency analysis of the occurrence of query transformation codes is presented. The connectivity of graphs obtained from the query transformation is investigated and found to follow an exponential scaling law. The correlation analysis reveals a number of patterns that provide some interesting insights into Web searching by the general public. Conclusion. We have developed analytical methods based on query similarity that can be applied to our current experimental work with volunteer subjects. The results of these will form part of a database with the aim of developing an improved understanding of how the public search the Web.

  10. Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

  11. Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D

    2004-01-01

    National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.

  12. Attitudes of the general public and electric power company employees toward nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    We conducted an awareness survey targeted at members of the general public residing in urban areas and in areas scheduled for construction of nuclear power plants as well as employees of electric power company in order to determine the awareness and attitude structures of people residing near scheduled construction sites of nuclear power plants with respect to nuclear power generation, and to examine ways of making improvements in terms of promoting nuclear power plant construction sites. Analysis of those results revealed that there are no significant differences in the awareness and attitudes of people residing in urban areas and in areas near scheduled construction sites. On the contrary, a general sense of apprehension regarding the construction of nuclear power plants was observed common to both groups. In addition, significant differences in awareness and attitudes with respect to various factors were determined to exist between members of the general public residing in urban areas and scheduled construction sites and employees of electric power company. (author)

  13. Experiences and lessons learned from creating a generalized workflow for data publication of field campaign datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Ramachandran, R.; Deb, D.; Beaty, T.; Wright, D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the workflow challenges of curating and publishing data produced from disparate data sources and provides a generalized workflow solution to efficiently archive data generated by researchers. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics and the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) DAAC have been collaborating on the development of a generalized workflow solution to efficiently manage the data publication process. The generalized workflow presented here are built on lessons learned from implementations of the workflow system. Data publication consists of the following steps: Accepting the data package from the data providers, ensuring the full integrity of the data files. Identifying and addressing data quality issues Assembling standardized, detailed metadata and documentation, including file level details, processing methodology, and characteristics of data files Setting up data access mechanisms Setup of the data in data tools and services for improved data dissemination and user experience Registering the dataset in online search and discovery catalogues Preserving the data location through Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) We will describe the steps taken to automate, and realize efficiencies to the above process. The goals of the workflow system are to reduce the time taken to publish a dataset, to increase the quality of documentation and metadata, and to track individual datasets through the data curation process. Utilities developed to achieve these goal will be described. We will also share metrics driven value of the workflow system and discuss the future steps towards creation of a common software framework.

  14. Over 600 mobile base station measurements in Buenos Aires City, how far are general public limits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Anibal; Dalmas Di Giovanni, Norberto; Garcia Diaz, Javier; Douthat, Analia; Munoz, Claudio; Saint Nom, Roxana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The general public worries about non ionizing radiation (NIR), produced by mobile base station aren't new, mainly in big cities like Buenos Aires where the amount of antennas of wide communication services (mobile, data links, FM Broadcasting, TV and others), are so considerable. Buenos Aires City has 3 million inhabitants in a surface of 203 km 2 and has about 700 mobile base stations between macro and micro cells. When public demand arrived to local government authorities, the first logical step was to promote a big measurement campaign to do a radiation map of the city. This measurement campaign has been done for two measurement teams, one with CITEFA NIR specialists and the other with ITBA NIR specialists, during 6 months. Local NRI measurement guidelines established that has to be taken between 12 and 16 points around NRI source in a 50 m or 100 m radius, depending on the neighbourhood buildings features (buildings located in the centre of the city aren't the same as a quiet house district). The obtained measured values had to be compared with Argentinean exposure limits, which are the same that ICNIRP limits. With over 7500 measured points in the entire city with wide band instruments (200 kHz-40 GHz), we have started our analysis. This information has been used by local authorities to upgrade a radiation map that can be consulted on the local government internet site. We have compared the obtained values with some international general public exposure limits. From this comparison we found that over 90% of measured points were under general public ICNIRP cell phone frequency limits, but the surprise was that, about 80% of them were below Russian limits (6 V/m) that are the strictest of the world. According to the obtained results and to provide a conclusion we could say that, if in a big city with a very high NIR sources density, we find a majority of lower limits values, this situation will be better in a little town with few NIR sources. However

  15. Education for university students, high school teachers and the general public using the Kinki University Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, T.

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University is equipped with a nuclear reactor which is called UTR-KINKI. UTR is the abbreviation for University Teaching and Research Reactor. The reactor is the first one installed in Japanese universities. Though the reactor is owned and operated by Kinki University, its use is widely open to scientists and students from other universities and research institutions. The reactor is made the best of teaching instrument for the training of high school teachers. In addition, the reactor is utilized for general public education concerning atomic energy. (author)

  16. Algal eating habits of phycologists attending the ISAP Halifax Conference and members of the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Maeve D.; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Hynes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    by ‘other’ (undefined) reasons, whereas the main reason for not eating algae in both groups was a ‘lack of availability’. Phycologists also ate algae for the perceived ‘health benefits’ (36%), whereas few members of the general public chose this option (13%). Consumption of red seaweeds was most popular (60...... of phycological research studied also had a significant effect. Researchers working with macroalgae were 22% more likely to eat algae, whereas microalgal researchers were 15% less likely to eat algae on a monthly or more regular basis. The main reasons for eating algae by both groups were ‘taste’, followed...

  17. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  18. Internal radiation dose to the public from polonium-210 due to consumption of seafood from Bombay-harbour bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangera, V.S.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Marine organisms such as fishes, molluscs and crustaceans are known to accumulate 210 Po. Distribution of 210 Po in coastal marine organisms mainly fishes and shell fishes is studied. Concentration of 210 Po obtained in muscle of common fishes (edible portion) varied from 2.10 ± 0.11 to 21.90 ± 5.00 Bq kg -1 dry muscle (for fishes like Pampus argenteus (Pomfret), Cynoglossus elongatus (sole), Rastrelliger kanagurta (mackerel), Harpodon nehereus (Bombay duck) etc. Concentration factors for 210 Po in edible portion of fish from sea water works out to 10 3 to 10 4 . Radiation dose to the public has been evaluated on the basis of daily intake of 40 g of fish (15 kg y -1 ). Committed effective dose (CED) to 210 Po due to consumption of sea food is calculated, CED varied from 2.05 x 10 -3 to 4 x 10 -2 mSv y -1 . (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  20. How do Perceptions of Autonomy Differ in General Surgery Training Between Faculty, Senior Residents, Hospital Administrators, and the General Public? A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenich, Jason W; Willis, Ross E; Rakosi, Robert; Wiersch, John; Schenarts, Paul Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Identify barriers to resident autonomy in today's educational environment as perceived through 4 selected groups: senior surgical residents, teaching faculty, hospital administration, and the general public. Anonymous surveys were created and distributed to senior residents, faculty, and hospital administrators working within 3 residency programs. The opinions of a convenience sample of the general public were also assessed using a similar survey. Keesler Medical Center, Keesler AFB, MS; the University of Texas Health Science of San Antonio, TX; and the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE. A total of 169 responses were collected: 32 residents, 50 faculty, 20 administrators, and 67 general public. Faculty and residents agree that when attending staff grant more autonomy, residents' self-confidence and sense of ownership improve. Faculty felt that residents should have less autonomy than residents did (p autonomy at their institution, 47% of residents felt that they had too little autonomy and 38% of faculty agreed. No resident or faculty felt that residents had too much autonomy at their institution. The general public were more welcoming of resident participation than faculty (p = 0.002) and administrators (p = 0.02) predicted they would be. When the general public were asked regarding their opinions about resident participation with complex procedures, they were less welcoming than faculty, administrators, and residents thought (p autonomy as important for resident development. The general public are more receptive to resident participation than anticipated. However, with increasing procedural complexity and resident independence, they were less inclined to have residents involved. The general public also had more concerns regarding quality of care provided by residents than the other groups had. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Comparing WTP values of different types of QALY gain elicited from the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Baker, Rachel; Brouwer, Werner; Mason, Helen; Hansen, Dorte Gyrd; Robinson, Angela; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate thresholds for decisions on the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions remain controversial, especially in 'end-of-life' situations. Evidence of the values placed on different types of health gain by the general public is limited. Across nine European countries, 17,657 people were presented with different hypothetical health scenarios each involving a gain of one quality adjusted life year (QALY) and asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for that gain. The questions included quality of life (QoL) enhancing and life extending health gains, and a scenario where respondents faced imminent, premature death. The mean WTP values for a one-QALY gain composed of QoL improvements were modest (PPP$11,000). When comparing QALY gains obtained in the near future, the valuation of life extension exceeded the valuation of QoL enhancing gains (mean WTP PPP$19,000 for a scenario in which a coma is avoided). The mean WTP values were higher still when respondents faced imminent, premature death (PPP$29,000). Evidence from the largest survey on the value of health gains by the general public indicated a higher value for life extending gains compared with QoL enhancing gains. A further modest premium may be indicated for life extension when facing imminent, premature death. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schol, Lianne G C; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-08

    The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). The mean knowledge score (range 0-15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general public (m = 10.8;SD = 2.0). No significant difference was found in perceived severity and susceptibility. Perceived fear of the general public (m = 2.5; SD = 0.8) was significantly higher than among HCW (m = 2.4; SD = 0.7). Respondents primarily used television to obtain information. While Ebola was perceived severe, it did not lead to excessive fear or perceived susceptibility for developing the disease. Nonetheless, our research showed that knowledge with respect to human-to-human transmission is low, while this is crucial to complying with preventive measures. Our study reveals priorities for improving risk communication.

  3. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is

  4. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang

    2013-01-01

    With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (Phospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely market-oriented health-care reform could also misguide future healthcare reform.

  6. MRSA model of learning and adaptation: a qualitative study among the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background More people in the US now die from Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections than from HIV/AIDS. Often acquired in healthcare facilities or during healthcare procedures, the extremely high incidence of MRSA infections and the dangerously low levels of literacy regarding antibiotic resistance in the general public are on a collision course. Traditional medical approaches to infection control and the conventional attitude healthcare practitioners adopt toward public education are no longer adequate to avoid this collision. This study helps us understand how people acquire and process new information and then adapt behaviours based on learning. Methods Using constructivist theory, semi-structured face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted to gather pertinent data. This allowed participants to tell their stories so their experiences could deepen our understanding of this crucial health issue. Interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory and sensitizing concepts. Results Our findings were classified into two main categories, each of which in turn included three subthemes. First, in the category of Learning, we identified how individuals used their Experiences with MRSA, to answer the questions: What was learned? and, How did learning occur? The second category, Adaptation gave us insights into Self-reliance, Reliance on others, and Reflections on the MRSA journey. Conclusions This study underscores the critical importance of educational programs for patients, and improved continuing education for healthcare providers. Five specific results of this study can reduce the vacuum that currently exists between the knowledge and information available to healthcare professionals, and how that information is conveyed to the public. These points include: 1) a common model of MRSA learning and adaptation; 2) the self-directed nature of adult learning; 3) the focus on general MRSA information, care and prevention, and antibiotic

  7. Transfer of scientific knowledge to the general public from the scientists' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Krueger, J.

    1985-07-01

    Our analysis demonstrates that nearly all scientists agree to having responsibilities to disseminate information about their work not only to collegues but also to the general public. More than two-thirds of the respondents perceive personal benefits for their career and/or the acquisition of research funding when reports about their work appear in the mass media. Most scientists rated the interest of the population in reports on science at least as ''medium'', but most of them are also sceptical of the population's ability to understand those reports. Only a minority of the scientists surveyed perceives hostility against science among the public. About 40% of the respondents reported having contacts with journalists. Their experiences during these contacts were often not encouraging. More than half of the scientists whose work had been reported in media answered that at least something had been incorrectly reported. Three-quarters of the scientists who have had contacts with journalists have had partially bad experiences. There are indications that scientists do not see science reporting solely as a task of journalists; they want to be involved in that process, not only as information sources. However, during the contacts with journalists, scientists will experience that their ideas of good science reporting contradict the journalistic approach. Journalists have other quality standards and emphasize other aspects than scientists do. Therefore the collision of scientific norms and values with those of the journalism leads to experiences which are probably frustrating for both sides, although scientists and journalists agree on the general goal of public information. (orig./HP) [de

  8. MRSA model of learning and adaptation: a qualitative study among the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Rodney E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people in the US now die from Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections than from HIV/AIDS. Often acquired in healthcare facilities or during healthcare procedures, the extremely high incidence of MRSA infections and the dangerously low levels of literacy regarding antibiotic resistance in the general public are on a collision course. Traditional medical approaches to infection control and the conventional attitude healthcare practitioners adopt toward public education are no longer adequate to avoid this collision. This study helps us understand how people acquire and process new information and then adapt behaviours based on learning. Methods Using constructivist theory, semi-structured face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted to gather pertinent data. This allowed participants to tell their stories so their experiences could deepen our understanding of this crucial health issue. Interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory and sensitizing concepts. Results Our findings were classified into two main categories, each of which in turn included three subthemes. First, in the category of Learning, we identified how individuals used their Experiences with MRSA, to answer the questions: What was learned? and, How did learning occur? The second category, Adaptation gave us insights into Self-reliance, Reliance on others, and Reflections on the MRSA journey. Conclusions This study underscores the critical importance of educational programs for patients, and improved continuing education for healthcare providers. Five specific results of this study can reduce the vacuum that currently exists between the knowledge and information available to healthcare professionals, and how that information is conveyed to the public. These points include: 1 a common model of MRSA learning and adaptation; 2 the self-directed nature of adult learning; 3 the focus on general MRSA information, care and

  9. Valuation of scleroderma and psoriatic arthritis health states by the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA and scleroderma (SSc are chronic rheumatic disorders with detrimental effects on health-related quality of life. Our objective was to assess health values (utilities from the general public for health states common to people with PsA and SSc for economic evaluations. Methods Adult subjects from the general population in a Midwestern city (N = 218 completed the SF-12 Health Survey and computer-assisted 0-100 rating scale (RS, time trade-off (TTO, range: 0.0-1.0 and standard gamble (SG, range: 0.0-1.0 utility assessments for several hypothetical PsA and SSc health states. Results Subjects included 135 (62% females, 143 (66% Caucasians, and 62 (28% African-Americans. The mean (SD scores for the SF-12 Physical Component Summary scale were 52.9 (8.3 and for the SF-12 Mental Component Summary scale were 49.0 (9.1, close to population norms. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for PsA health states varied with severity, ranging from 20.2 to 63.7 (14.4-20.3 for the RS 0.29 to 0.78 (0.24-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.48 to 0.82 (0.24-0.34 for the SG. The mean RS, TTO, and SG scores for SSc health states were 25.3-69.7 (15.2-16.3 for the RS, 0.36-0.80 (0.25-0.31 for the TTO, and 0.50-0.81 (0.26-0.32 for the SG, depending on disease severity. Conclusion Health utilities for PsA and SSc health states as assessed from the general public reflect the severity of the diseases. These descriptive findings could have implications regarding comparative effectiveness research for tests and treatments for PsA and SSc.

  10. Public Sphere - Political Advertisement Relationship in Turkey: Analysing Political Advertisements of JDP in General Elections 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dağtaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.

  11. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  12. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  13. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2018-03-15

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  14. Social media connecting ocean sciences and the general public: the @OceanSeaIceNPI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. K.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Meyer, A.; Hudson, S. R.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Itkin, P.; Cohen, L.; Dodd, P. A.; de Steur, L.

    2016-02-01

    As researchers we are constantly being encouraged by funding agencies, policy-makers and journalists to conduct effective outreach and to communicate our latest research findings. As environmental scientists we also understand the necessity of communicating our research to the general public. Many of us wish to become better science communicators but have little time and limited funding available to do so. How can we expend our science communication past project-based efforts that have a limited lifetime? Most critically, how can a small research groups do it without additional resources such as funds and communication officers? Social media is one answer, and has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and researchers are exploring the full breadth of possibilities brought by social media for reaching out to the general public, journalists, policy-makers, stake-holders, and research community. However, smaller research groups and labs are still underrepresented in social media. When it comes to practice, some essential difficulties can be encountered: identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interaction within the research group, and finally, choosing a currently up-to-date social medium as a technical solution for communicating your research. Here, a group of oceanography and sea ice researchers (@OceanSeaIceNPI) share the positive experience of developing and maintaining for more than one year a researcher-driven outreach effort currently implemented through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present potential pitfalls and challenges that small research groups could face, and how to better overcome them. This will hopefully inspire and help other research groups and labs to conduct their own effective ocean science communication.

  15. Shore Shapers: Introducing children and the general public to biogeomorphological processes and geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Larissa; Coombes, Martin; Sewell, Jack; White, Anissia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal processes shape the coast into a variety of eye-catching and enticing landforms that attract people to marvel at, relax and enjoy coastal geomorphology. Field guides to explain these processes (and the geodiversity that results) to the general public and children are few and far between. In contrast, there is a relative wealth of resources and organised activities introducing people to coastal wildlife, especially on rocky shores. These biological resources typically focus on the biology and climatic controls on their distribution, rather than how the biology interacts with its physical habitat. As an outcome of two recent rock coast biogeomorphology projects (www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/coastaldefencedbiodiversity and www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/bioprotection ), we produced the first known guide to understanding how biogeomorphological processes help create coastal landforms. The 'Shore Shapers' guide (www.biogeomorph.org/coastal/shoreshapers) is designed to: a) bring biotic-geomorphic interactions to life and b) introduce some of the geomorphological and geological controls on biogeomorphic processes and landform development. The guide provides scientific information in an accessible and interactive way - to help sustain children's interest and extend their learning. We tested a draft version of our guide with children, the general public and volunteers on rocky shore rambles using social science techniques and of 74 respondents, 75.6% were more interested in understanding how rock pools (i.e. coastal landforms) develop after seeing the guide. Respondents' opinions about key bioprotective species also changed as a result of seeing the guide - 58% of people found barnacles unattractive before they saw the guide whilst 36% of respondents were more interested in barnacles after seeing the guide. These results demonstrate that there is considerable interest in more educational materials on coastal biogeomorphology and geodiversity.

  16. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  17. Exposure of the general public to digital broadcast transmitters compared to analogue ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; Bornkessel, C.; Wuschek, M.; Schmidt, P.

    2007-01-01

    The terrestrial digital video and audio broadcast are supposed to replace the existing analogue broadcast systems. To determine possible changes of this switch-over on the public exposure situation to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, extensive measurements at more than 300 identical points were performed 'before' and accordingly 'after' the switch-over. At the point with the highest sum-exposure, only 0.3% of the ICNIRP reference levels for general public exposure (power flux density) was reached. The statistical analysis of both measurement campaigns ('before-after') shows an increase in mean exposure in the centre of the DVB-T starting areas around Nuremberg and Munich, which is mainly based on the increase in the radiated power at the transmitter stations. After developing a simple calculation program based on the ITU-RP.1546, the measured exposure values were compared to calculations. Optimising the results leads to mean deviations of ±3 dB at about 80% of all points. (authors)

  18. Attorney General forces Infectious Diseases Society of America to redo Lyme guidelines due to flawed development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Stricker, R B

    2009-05-01

    Lyme disease is one of the most controversial illnesses in the history of medicine. In 2006 the Connecticut Attorney General launched an antitrust investigation into the Lyme guidelines development process of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). In a recent settlement with IDSA, the Attorney General noted important commercial conflicts of interest and suppression of scientific evidence that had tainted the guidelines process. This paper explores two broad ethical themes that influenced the IDSA investigation. The first is the growing problem of conflicts of interest among guidelines developers, and the second is the increasing centralisation of medical decisions by insurance companies, which use treatment guidelines as a means of controlling the practices of individual doctors and denying treatment for patients. The implications of the first-ever antitrust investigation of medical guidelines and the proposed model to remediate the tainted IDSA guidelines process are also discussed.

  19. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Sue M.

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)–accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, “general public” was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele. PMID:10658965

  20. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido Dos Reis, Francisco J; Lynn, Stuart; Ali, H Raza; Eccles, Diana; Hanby, Andrew; Provenzano, Elena; Caldas, Carlos; Howat, William J; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Liu, Bin; Daley, Frances; Coulson, Penny; Vyas, Rupesh J; Harris, Leslie M; Owens, Joanna M; Carton, Amy F M; McQuillan, Janette P; Paterson, Andy M; Hirji, Zohra; Christie, Sarah K; Holmes, Amber R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Easton, Douglas F; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Milne, Roger L; Mannermaa, Arto; Couch, Fergus; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Blows, Fiona M; Sanders, Joyce; de Groot, Renate; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Hooning, Maartje; Brenner, Hermann; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Lintott, Chris; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2015-07-01

    Citizen science, scientific research conducted by non-specialists, has the potential to facilitate biomedical research using available large-scale data, however validating the results is challenging. The Cell Slider is a citizen science project that intends to share images from tumors with the general public, enabling them to score tumor markers independently through an internet-based interface. From October 2012 to June 2014, 98,293 Citizen Scientists accessed the Cell Slider web page and scored 180,172 sub-images derived from images of 12,326 tissue microarray cores labeled for estrogen receptor (ER). We evaluated the accuracy of Citizen Scientist's ER classification, and the association between ER status and prognosis by comparing their test performance against trained pathologists. The area under ROC curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.96) for cancer cell identification and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.97) for ER status. ER positive tumors scored by Citizen Scientists were associated with survival in a similar way to that scored by trained pathologists. Survival probability at 15 years were 0.78 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.80) for ER-positive and 0.72 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.77) for ER-negative tumors based on Citizen Scientists classification. Based on pathologist classification, survival probability was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.81) for ER-positive and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) for ER-negative tumors. The hazard ratio for death was 0.26 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.37) at diagnosis and became greater than one after 6.5 years of follow-up for ER scored by Citizen Scientists, and 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.33) at diagnosis increasing thereafter to one after 6.7 (95% CI 4.1 to 10.9) years of follow-up for ER scored by pathologists. Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  1. [Information quality in general public French-speaking websites dedicated to oral cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, A; Kowalski, V; Chatellier, A; Babin, E; Bénateau, H; Veyssière, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal set by the French highest national authorities in the 2014-2019 Cancer Plan is to "heal more sick persons by promoting early diagnosis through screening". Screening requires information. Nowadays, Internet allows for access to information "in one click". The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of information found on the Internet. Several sites dedicated to oral cavity cancer screening were selected on Google. The quality of health information found in these sites was evaluated by the DISCERN questionnaire. The quality of decision support provided by the sites was evaluated by the IPDAS checklist. Twenty-seven sites were selected. The average DISCERN score was 25.1/75 (15/75 to 40/75). Eighteen sites (66.6%) had very poor, 8 sites (29.6%) had poor and 1 site had average information quality. IPDAS scores ranged from 11.1 to 38.1. Eight sites (29.6%) had less than 20%, 14 sites (51.9%) had between 20 and 30% and 5 sites (18.5%) had 30% or more validated criteria. No site achieved the pass mark. The quality of general public French-speaking website dedicated to oral cancer detection is very bad. The role of health professionals such as general practitioners and head and neck surgeons, remains essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanheimo Nora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age ( Results The DGA patients (n=349 were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.

  3. Radioecological impact around the nuclear power plant - general public perception and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology have contributed immensely to the overall societal developmental. Today, nuclear applications can be found in almost every social and economical sector, and in virtually every corner of the globe. Radiation and radioisotopes find wide applications in the fields of agriculture, food preservation, health care, industry, water management, etc. During the last five decades, India has established a strong technological base for producing safe and economic electricity through nuclear power, and in the use of radiation and radioisotopes for the benefit of society. Although people in general have been appreciating many of the above achievements, some of them are skeptical about the safety of nuclear reactors and impact on the environment. Large sections of society are also not aware of or are indifferent to many positive contributions that nuclear science and technology have made to everyday life. The Radioecology Research Laboratory of the University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University is engaged in frontline research studies on radioecology and radiation protection around the Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant in the west coast of India for the past 23 years. The general public perception on nuclear power and the results of the detailed scientific study on radioecology in the environment of a nuclear power plant are discussed

  4. Oral Cancer: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Awareness in Undergraduate Dental Students and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Skerman, Emma; Khan, Usman; George, Roy

    To evaluate the knowledge of signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with oral cancer amongst undergraduate dental students and members of the general public. This study was open for a period of six months (Jan-June, 2013) to all undergraduate dental students in the 4th and 5th year of the dental science programme and dental patients attending the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. The survey evaluated the knowledge and awareness of clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancers. A total of 100 undergraduate students and 150 patients provided informed consent and participated in this survey study. Both patients and dental students were aware of the importance of early detection of oral cancer. With the exception of smoking and persistent ulceration, this study indicated that the knowledge about oral cancer, its signs, symptoms and risk factors was limited amongst participants. This study highlights the need to raise awareness and knowledge pertaining to oral cancer, not only in the general community but also amongst those in the dental field. Specific points of concern were the common intraoral sites for oral cancer, erythroplakia as a risk factor, the synergistic action of smoking and alcohol, and HPV (human papilloma virus) as risk factors for oral cancer.

  5. Dive and Discover: Bringing Oceanographic Research into the Classroom and to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, D. J.; Fino, D.; Humphris, S. E.; Fruth, L. L.; Dean, S.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed the "Dive and Discover" web site for use in classrooms and for the general public to provide near real-time, daily access to oceanographic research expeditions, particularly those using deep submergence vehicles operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The site was one of five science sites nominated for a 2001 Webby Award, was selected by Scientific American as one of the top five sites in the category of earth and environmental science, and was one of Eisenhower National Clearinghouse's "digital dozen" for science resources. The web site consists of two major components. A series of educational modules provide both general educational information about the oceans and the people that study them, as well as cruise-specific information about the natural systems being studied, the participating scientists, and the data and sample-collecting methodologies and technologies being used. The second component consists of modules that allow access to near real-time updates of the progress of the cruise, images of seafloor features and animals, samples of data being collected and used on board, and general information about life on board. In addition, a Mail Buoy provides e-mail access for students to ask questions of the scientists on board the ship during the course of the expedition. COSI Toledo have a linked Educator's Companion that gives access to COSI project management tips, background information, activities, correlations to national science education standards, assessment tools, and a vast array of resources to assist educators in using the web site. We have worked with teachers and students from all over the United States to test, evaluate, and refine the web site during five cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans over the last two years. These cruises focused on various problems associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism, and the chemical, physical and biological processes associated with seafloor hydrothermal activity. Our intention

  6. Preference of Chinese general public and healthcare providers for a good death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishan, Huang; Hongjuan, Liu; Tieying, Zeng; Xuemei, Pu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find and compare the current situation between common people and healthcare providers' preferences for a good death in the context of Chinese culture. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey covering 190 ordinary Chinese people and 323 healthcare providers was conducted. An inventory of the good death was translated and the subjects were surveyed about their attitude toward it. Permission to conduct the study was granted by department chiefs, nurse managers and the participants themselves. The participants were informed that they took part on a voluntary and anonymous basis, that they could withdraw at any time, that they had the right to ignore questions they did not wish to answer, and that whatever they chose to do would not jeopardize their employment conditions. The attributes that were perceived as important by major respondents for a good death were maintaining hope and pleasure, good relationship with medical staff, good relationship with family, independence, environment comfort, being respected as an individual, preparation for death, physical and psychological comfort, dying in a favorite place, and not being a burden to others. And some relatively less important characteristics were life completion, receiving enough treatment, natural death, controlling over the future, unawareness of death, pride and beauty, feeling that one's life is worth living, and religious and spiritual comfort. We also found that healthcare providers were more likely than general out-patients to perceive "physical and psychological comfort," "dying in a favorite place," "good relationship with medical staff," and "natural death" as important for a good death. This study offers healthcare providers in China a fundamental understanding of the normal expectations of the general public for a good death. It is believed that these findings in our study are valuable to improve palliative care in China. We compared the attitudes of Chinese and

  7. Application of generalized inverse for analysis of magnetic anomalies due to a dyke model - Some numerical experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    . Indust. Appl. Math, 11 (1963) 431-441. 10. Pedersen L B, Interpretation of potential field data – A generalised inverse approach, Geophy. Prosp. 25 (1977) 199-230. 11. Radhakrishna Murthy I V, Swamy K V & Jagannadha Rao S, Automatic inversion... generalised inverse technique in reconstruction of gravity anomalies due to a fault, Indian J. Pure. Appl. Math., 34 (2003) 31-47. 16. Ramana Murty T V, Somayajulu Y K & Murty C S, Reconstruction of sound speed profile through natural generalised inverse...

  8. Long-Term Effect of GPi-DBS in a Patient With Generalized Dystonia Due to GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Hanci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment outcomes from pallidal deep brain stimulation are highly heterogeneous reflecting the phenotypic and etiologic spectrum of dystonia. Treatment stratification to neurostimulation therapy primarily relies on the phenotypic motor presentation; however, etiology including genetic factors are increasingly recognized as modifiers of treatment outcomes. Here, we describe a 53 year-old female patient with a progressive generalized dystonia since age 25. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS at age 44. Since the clinical phenotype included mobile choreo-dystonic features, we expected favorable therapeutic outcome from GPi-DBS. Although mobile dystonia components were slightly improved in the long-term outcome from GPi-DBS the overall therapeutic response 9 years from implantation was limited when comparing “stimulation off” and “stimulation on” despite of proper electrode localization and sufficient stimulation programming. In order to further understand the reason for this limited motor symptom response, we aimed to clarify the etiology of generalized dystonia in this patient. Genetic testing identified a novel heterozygous pathogenic SLC2A1 mutation as cause of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS. This case report presents the first outcome of GPi-DBS in a patient with GLUT1-DS, and suggests that genotype relations may increasingly complement phenotype-based therapy stratification of GPi-DBS in dystonia.

  9. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA) is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS) and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age (periodontics, surgical procedures and miscellaneous. The reasons for DGA and the treatments provided varied according to age, immigration, previous sedation and DGA and medical background. The logistic regression model showed that previous sedation (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.3-4.1; p=0.005) and extreme non-cooperation (OR 1.7; 95%CI 0.9-3.2; p=0.103) were most indicative of preventive measures given. Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA. PMID:23102205

  10. Oral cancer awareness of the general public in Gorakhpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pandey, Sushma; Jain, Shikha; Maitin, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Global cancer statistical data show that India has one of the highest incidence rates of oral cancer worldwide. Early detection is extremely important as it results in lower morbidity and death rates. The present study was undertaken to assess awareness of oral cancer and knowledge of its early signs and risk factors in the general public of the semi-urban Gorakhpur area of Uttar Pradesh (India). It was also intended to educate the same population for early detection by increasing their ability to recognize signs and risk factors. A questionnaire-based household survey was conducted over a period of one month in different parts of Gorakhpur district, a region where tobacco use is apparently very high. A total of 2,093 persons participated in the survey. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software to assess and associate oral cancer awareness with the prevalence, and abstract risk factors, as well as other confounding variables. The general awareness, knowledge of signs and risk factors of oral cancer were found to be proportionate to the literacy level with the highest rate of awareness being among high school and graduates and lowest among illiterates. It was also observed that on most of these dimensions the younger age groups (awareness of oral cancer in the high-risk population of Gorakhpur was not satisfactory, pointing to a need for further dissemination of information on this issue and its associated risks. This is especially important for the youngsters, as this may possibly help them keep away from the deleterious habit of tobacco indulgence in any form. If necessary risk factor cessation counselling should be provided.

  11. Adverse drug reactions reporting : Knowledge and opinion of general public in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-Lela, Omar Qutaiba; Jawad Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a week period in August 2009. The recommended sample size was calculated to be 368. Three hundred thirty-four responses were received. Slightly more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 18-25 years (53.6%; n = 179). When asked about the sources of their medication majority of them reported medical doctor (85.6%), whereas small number (34.7%) reported community pharmacists as sources of medications. Three-quarter of the respondents (77.2%) get their information about the side-effects of drugs from physicians, followed by pharmacist (44.6%). More than half of the respondents (65.6%, n = 219) reported unawareness about the existence of ADR center set up by the Ministry of Health. Respondents reflected inadequate knowledge on ADR reporting. This needs to be corrected as the trend of future pharmacovigilance is toward the patient. Moreover, the new trend seems to be more appropriate as the patient is the group of the people who are directly affected from the ADR of a particular drug and not the health-care providers. Furthermore, the patient will be informed about the economic implications of not reporting ADR. It is recommended that government agencies, like MADRAC needs to find ways to increase patient- reported ADR cases.

  12. Adverse drug reactions reporting : Knowledge and opinion of general public in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Elkalmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a week period in August 2009. The recommended sample size was calculated to be 368. Results: Three hundred thirty-four responses were received. Slightly more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 18-25 years (53.6%; n = 179. When asked about the sources of their medication majority of them reported medical doctor (85.6%, whereas small number (34.7% reported community pharmacists as sources of medications. Three-quarter of the respondents (77.2% get their information about the side-effects of drugs from physicians, followed by pharmacist (44.6%. More than half of the respondents (65.6%, n = 219 reported unawareness about the existence of ADR center set up by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: Respondents reflected inadequate knowledge on ADR reporting. This needs to be corrected as the trend of future pharmacovigilance is toward the patient. Moreover, the new trend seems to be more appropriate as the patient is the group of the people who are directly affected from the ADR of a particular drug and not the health-care providers. Furthermore, the patient will be informed about the economic implications of not reporting ADR. It is recommended that government agencies, like MADRAC needs to find ways to increase patient- reported ADR cases.

  13. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  14. Analysis on difference of risk perception between people engaged in nuclear business and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terado, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sugiman, T.; Hibino, A.; Akimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new research project has started to develop two kinds of on-the-web communication systems which are aimed at effective social risk information on nuclear energy. One is mutual communication system for fostering safety culture among the workers in nuclear industry while the other is to enlighten general public about the risk issues on final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Prior to the on-the-web systems development, social investigations have been conducted on risk perception for nuclear power for both the nuclear experts and women in the metropolitan area, in order to know how and what should be considered for the effective risk communication methods. It was found from the statistical analysis of the results of social investigation that the majority of nuclear people take business risk seriously but there is a fraction of nuclear people who are afraid of present practice of nuclear power operation while women in metropolitan area are evenly afraid of radioactive risk. The obtained results of social investigation gave useful insight for developing two kinds of risk communication systems and the related field study for enhancing safety culture in nuclear industries. (authors)

  15. Seeking Medical Information Using Mobile Apps and the Internet: Are Family Caregivers Different from the General Public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Paige Powell, M; Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Bhuyan, Soumitra Sudip

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers play an important role to care cancer patients since they exchange medical information with health care providers. However, relatively little is known about how family caregivers seek medical information using mobile apps and the Internet. We examined factors associated with medical information seeking by using mobile apps and the Internet among family caregivers and the general public using data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 1. The study sample consisted of 2425 family caregivers and 1252 non-family caregivers (the general public). Guided by Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (CMIS), we examined related factors' impact on two outcome variables for medical information seeking: mobile apps use and Internet use with multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that online medical information seeking is different between family caregivers and the general public. Overall, the use of the Internet for medical information seeking is more common among family caregivers, while the use of mobile apps is less common among family caregivers compared with the general public. Married family caregivers were less likely to use mobile apps, while family caregivers who would trust cancer information were more likely to use the Internet for medical information seeking as compared to the general public. Medical information seeking behavior among family caregivers can be an important predictor of both their health and the health of their cancer patients. Future research should explore the low usage of mobile health applications among family caregiver population.

  16. Footprint and imprint: an ecologic time-trend analysis of cardiovascular publications in general and specialty journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated strong associations between publication source and citations, as well as investigatory analysis of collaboration effects, in general and medical literature, but are limited to specific journals or short duration of time. This study sought to analyze time trends in cardiovascular research publications in leading general and specialty journals and to determine the association between collaboration and citation index. Cardiovascular publications were retrieved from Web of Knowledge by a cardiovascular bibliometric filter, and annual publication volumes in 8 general and specialty journals were compared. Univariable linear regression models were used to determine global and journal-specific trends for overall publication, cardiovascular publication, proportion of cardiovascular publication, collaboration, and citations. Cardiovascular publications increased (1999 to 2008) by 36% and number of sources by 74%. Volume increased in European Heart Journal (beta: 18.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6 to 26.3) and decreased in Circulation (beta: -42.9, 95% CI: -79.3 to -6.5), Annals of Internal Medicine (beta: -1.9, 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.3), and Lancet (beta: -11.2, 95% CI: -14.7 to -7.8). Number of contributing countries increased in 3 journals: BMJ (beta: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5), European Heart Journal (beta: -1.2, 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.7), and New England Journal of Medicine (beta: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.7). Fraction of collaborative publications increased (beta: 1.1 to 2.9) in all but Annals of Internal Medicine. Collaboration was associated with a higher median actual citation index (p general and specialty journals. Contribution by country in selected journals was disproportionate and under-represents total cardiovascular research in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The death of public knowledge ? how free markets destroy the general intellect

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Death of Public Knowledge argues for the value and importance of shared, publicly accessible knowledge, and suggests that the erosion of its most visible forms, including public service broadcasting, education, and the network of public libraries, has worrying outcomes for democracy.With contributions from both activists and academics, this collection of short, sharp essays focuses on different aspects of public knowledge, from libraries and education to news media and public policy. Together, the contributors record the stresses and strains placed upon public knowledge by funding cuts and austerity, the new digital economy, quantification and target-setting, neoliberal politics, and inequality. These pressures, the authors contend, not only hinder democracies, but also undermine markets, economies, and social institutions and spaces everywhere. Covering areas of international public concern, these polemical, accessible texts include reflections on the fate of schools and education, the takeover of publi...

  18. Development of evaluation method of collective dose of general public considering the daily life activity and time use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1994-11-01

    A code for evaluation of collective dose of general public to natural radiation has been developed, in which the variation of dose rate due to place of stay is taken into consideration. Only external exposure to natural radiation is subject to discussion in this report. Strict manner of dose evaluation requires the dose rate and the time period of stay for each place and for each person. It is possible to know (measure) them all, but not practicable. In this code, dose rate information was obtained from actually measured data by the authors and estimation based on the environmental conditions. Information on the time period of stay was obtained from a Survey Data on Time Use and Leisure Activities by Management and Coordination Agency, and from Statistical Yearbook of Tokyo with some realistic assumptions. By using them, collective dose was evaluated taking both the daily life style and dose rate varying place by place into consideration. In this report, the dose evaluation code and the results about doses for Tokyo citizens are mentioned. (author)

  19. Live Bird Exposure among the General Public, Guangzhou, China, May 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Liao

    Full Text Available A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9 caused a major outbreak in Mainland China in early 2013. Exposure to live poultry was believed to be the major route of infection. There are limited data on how the general public changes their practices regarding live poultry exposure in response to the early outbreak of this novel influenza and the frequency of population exposure to live poultry in different areas of China.This study investigated population exposures to live birds from various sources during the outbreak of H7N9 in Guangzhou city, China in 2013 and compared them with those observed during the 2006 influenza A(H5N1 outbreak. Adults were telephone-interviewed using two-stage sampling, stratified by three residential areas of Guangzhou: urban areas and two semi-rural areas in one of which (Zengcheng A(H7N9 virus was detected in a chicken from wet markets. Logistic regression models were built to describe practices protecting against avian influenza, weighted by age and gender, and then compare these practices across residential areas in 2013 with those from a comparable 2006 survey.Of 1196 respondents, 45% visited wet markets at least daily and 22.0% reported buying live birds from wet markets at least weekly in April-May, 2013, after the H7N9 epidemic was officially declared in late March 2013. Of those buying live birds, 32.3% reported touching birds when buying and 13.7% would slaughter the poultry at home. Although only 10.1% of the respondents reported raising backyard birds, 92.1% of those who did so had physical contact with the birds they raised. Zengcheng respondents were less likely to report buying live birds from wet markets, but more likely to buy from other sources when compared to urban respondents. Compared with the 2006 survey, the prevalence of buying live birds from wet markets, touching when buying and slaughtering birds at home had substantially declined in the 2013 survey.Although population exposures to live poultry

  20. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi; Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathul; Adamu Ya′u; Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Tarek M Elsayed; Akram Ahmad; Wael Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents co...

  1. DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military Installations (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    helps enhance service members’ quality of life by improving the condition of military-owned housing faster and more economically than traditional...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military...public tenants who leased DoD privatized housing before granting those tenants unescorted access to military installations. In addition, DoD officials

  2. Factors associated with the rejection of active euthanasia: a survey among the general public in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly receptive toward a legislation that allows active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). The purpose of this study was to survey the current attitude towards AVE within the Austrian population and to identify explanatory factors in the areas of socio-demographics, personal experiences with care, and ideological orientation. A further objective was to examine differences depending on the type of problem formulation (abstract vs. situational) for the purpose of measuring attitude. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was conducted across the Austrian population. Data were acquired from 1,000 individuals aged 16 years and over based on telephone interviews (CATI). For the purpose of measuring attitude toward AVE, two different problem formulations (abstract vs. situational) were juxtaposed. Results The abstract question about active voluntary euthanasia was answered negatively by 28.8%, while 71.2% opted in favour of AVE or were undecided. Regression analyses showed rejection of AVE was positively correlated with number of adults and children in the household, experience with care of seriously ill persons, a conservative worldview, and level of education. Mean or high family income was associated with lower levels of rejection. No independent correlations were found for variables such as sex, age, political orientation, self-rated health, and experiences with care of terminally ill patients. Correlation for the situational problem formulation was weaker and included fewer predictors than for the abstract question. Conclusions Our results suggest that factors relating to an individual’s interpersonal living situation and his/her cognitive convictions might be important determinants of the attitude toward AVE. If and to the extent that personal care experience plays a role, it is rather associated with rejection than with acceptance of AVE. PMID:23826902

  3. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bashaar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23 was used for statistical analysis. Results Total of 301 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 100% in which 73.4% men and 26.6% women participated. More than half of the respondents were university graduates. Interestingly, 83.4% of the interviewees purchased medicines on the prescription of which 47.2% were university graduates, while 14.6% purchased medicine over the counter. Among the respondents, 46.5/100 purchased antibiotics and the remaining purchased NSAIDs, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medicines. Significantly, 97/100 checked the expiry date of medicine before buying. Majority (95.3% of the respondents’ stored medicines at home. 77.7% of the respondents discarded the expired medicines in household trash. Majority of respondents held government responsible for creation of awareness for proper medicine disposal. Almost entire sample (98% felt that improper disposal of unused and expired medicines can affect the environment and health. Conclusion Gaps exist in practices, therefore robust, safe and cost-effective pharmaceutical waste management program supported with media campaign is needed. Healthcare practitioners and community pharmacists should offer training to educate customers on standard medicine disposal practices.

  4. Disposal practices of unused and expired pharmaceuticals among general public in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaar, Mohammad; Thawani, Vijay; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2017-01-07

    Most of the medicine users remain unaware about the disposal of unused or expired medicines. The aim of this study was to know the disposal practices of unused and expired medicines among the general public in Kabul. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, conducted through face-to-face interviews using prevalidated structured questionnaire. Returned questionnaires were double-checked for accuracy. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23 was used for statistical analysis. Total of 301 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 100% in which 73.4% men and 26.6% women participated. More than half of the respondents were university graduates. Interestingly, 83.4% of the interviewees purchased medicines on the prescription of which 47.2% were university graduates, while 14.6% purchased medicine over the counter. Among the respondents, 46.5/100 purchased antibiotics and the remaining purchased NSAIDs, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medicines. Significantly, 97/100 checked the expiry date of medicine before buying. Majority (95.3%) of the respondents' stored medicines at home. 77.7% of the respondents discarded the expired medicines in household trash. Majority of respondents held government responsible for creation of awareness for proper medicine disposal. Almost entire sample (98%) felt that improper disposal of unused and expired medicines can affect the environment and health. Gaps exist in practices, therefore robust, safe and cost-effective pharmaceutical waste management program supported with media campaign is needed. Healthcare practitioners and community pharmacists should offer training to educate customers on standard medicine disposal practices.

  5. Evaluation of ingestion dose to different age groups of public of Chutka (MP) environment due to 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejpal, Menaria; Tiwari, S.N.; Mulchandani, U.; Goyal, S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The activity levels of 40 K in the locally produced biological samples of food items as well as trend indicator samples from different locations of Chutka area of Madhya Pradesh site, were estimated by gamma spectrometry as part of preoperational survey. The observed 40 K activity in these samples is comparable with reported values from other areas of India. The annual effective dose through ingestion pathway due to 40 K is estimated for infant, child and adult categories of local population. The computed average ingestion dose due to intake of 40 K is found to be highest for infant child (0.34 mSv/y). Radionuclides enter the human body through complex mechanism including foodstuffs via the food chain. The most predominant naturally occurring radionuclides in foodstuffs is 40 K, other contributions to the radionuclides in foods include deposited fallouts from fission and activation products released during nuclear accidents and constituents of weapons tests released after detonation. The primary objective of the present study is to estimate the activity levels of 40 K in the dietary matrices and to evaluate internal dose due to annual intake of various dietary items by the population around Chutka environment, a proposed nuclear power station site near Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh

  6. Cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders due to overwork and work-related stress among local public employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Takahashi, Masaya; Suka, Machi; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-07

    In Japan, overwork-related disorders occur among local public employees as well as those in private businesses. However, to date, there are no studies reporting the state of compensation for cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork or work-related stress among local public employees in Japan over multiple years. This report examined the recent trend of overwork-related CCVD and mental disorders, including the incidence rates of these disorders, among local public employees in Japan from the perspective of compensation for public accidents, using data from the Japanese Government and relevant organizations. Since 2000, compared to CCVD, there has been an overall increase in the number of claims and cases of compensation for mental disorders. Over half of the individuals receiving compensation for mental disorders were either in their 30s or younger. About 47% of cases of mental disorders were compensated due to work-related factors other than long working hours. The incidence rate by job type was highest among "police officials" and "fire department officials" for compensated CCVD and mental disorders cases, respectively. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders among local public employees in Japan under a legal foundation should be closely monitored.

  7. Assessment of the Risk to Public Health due to Use of Antimicrobials in Pigs-An Example of Pleuromutilins in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Andreasen, Margit; Dahl, Jan; Sönksen, Ute W

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic consumption in pigs can be optimized by developing treatment guidelines, which encourage veterinarians to use effective drugs with low probability of developing resistance of importance for human health. In Denmark, treatment guidelines for use in swine production are currently under review at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Use of pleuromutilins in swine has previously been associated with a very low risk for human health. However, recent international data and sporadic findings of novel resistance genes suggest a change of risk. Consequently, a reassessment was undertaken inspired by a risk assessment framework developed by the European Medicines Agency. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398) and enterococci were identified as relevant hazards. The release assessment showed that the probability of development of pleuromutilin resistance was high in MRSA CC398 (medium uncertainty) and low in enterococci (high uncertainty). A relatively small proportion of Danes has an occupational exposure to pigs, and foodborne transmission was only considered of relevance for enterococci, resulting in an altogether low exposure risk. The human consequences of infection with pleuromutilin-resistant MRSA CC398 or enterococci were assessed as low for the public in general but high for vulnerable groups such as hospitalized and immunocompromised persons. For MRSA CC398, the total risk was estimated as low (low uncertainty), among other due to the current guidelines on prevention of MRSA in place at Danish hospitals, which include screening of patients with daily contact to pigs on admittance. Moreover, MRSA CC398 has a medium human-human transmission potential. For enterococci, the total risk was estimated as low due to low prevalence of resistance, low probability of spread to humans, low virulence, but no screening of hospitalized patients, high ability of acquiring resistance genes, and a

  8. Assessment of the Risk to Public Health due to Use of Antimicrobials in Pigs—An Example of Pleuromutilins in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Alban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic consumption in pigs can be optimized by developing treatment guidelines, which encourage veterinarians to use effective drugs with low probability of developing resistance of importance for human health. In Denmark, treatment guidelines for use in swine production are currently under review at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Use of pleuromutilins in swine has previously been associated with a very low risk for human health. However, recent international data and sporadic findings of novel resistance genes suggest a change of risk. Consequently, a reassessment was undertaken inspired by a risk assessment framework developed by the European Medicines Agency. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398 and enterococci were identified as relevant hazards. The release assessment showed that the probability of development of pleuromutilin resistance was high in MRSA CC398 (medium uncertainty and low in enterococci (high uncertainty. A relatively small proportion of Danes has an occupational exposure to pigs, and foodborne transmission was only considered of relevance for enterococci, resulting in an altogether low exposure risk. The human consequences of infection with pleuromutilin-resistant MRSA CC398 or enterococci were assessed as low for the public in general but high for vulnerable groups such as hospitalized and immunocompromised persons. For MRSA CC398, the total risk was estimated as low (low uncertainty, among other due to the current guidelines on prevention of MRSA in place at Danish hospitals, which include screening of patients with daily contact to pigs on admittance. Moreover, MRSA CC398 has a medium human–human transmission potential. For enterococci, the total risk was estimated as low due to low prevalence of resistance, low probability of spread to humans, low virulence, but no screening of hospitalized patients, high ability of acquiring resistance

  9. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  10. The general public's willingness to pay for tax increases to support unrestricted access to an Alzheimer's disease medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Mark; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Raina, Parminder; Thabane, Lehana; Foster, Gary; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Clayton, Natasha

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder highlighted by progressive declines in cognitive and functional abilities. Our objective was to assess the general public's maximum willingness to pay ((M)WTP) for an increase in annual personal income taxes to fund unrestricted access to AD medications. We randomly recruited 500 Canadians nationally and used computer-assisted telephone interviewing to administer a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained four 'efficacy' scenarios describing an AD medication as capable of symptomatically treating cognitive decline or modifying disease progression. The scenarios also described the medication as having no adverse effects or a 30% chance of adverse effects. We randomized participants to order of scenarios and willingness-to-pay bid values; (M)WTP for each scenario was the highest accepted bid for that scenario. We conducted linear regression and bootstrap sensitivity analyses to investigate potential determinants of (M)WTP. Mean (M)WTP was highest for the 'disease modification/no adverse effects' scenario ($Can130.26) and lowest for the 'symptomatic treatment/30% chance of adverse effects' scenario ($Can99.16). Bootstrap analyses indicated none of our potential determinants (e.g. age, sex) were associated with participants' (M)WTP. The general public is willing to pay higher income taxes to fund unrestricted access to AD (especially disease-modifying) medications. Consequently, the public should favour placing new AD medications on public drug plans. As far as we are aware, no other study has elicited the general public's willingness to pay for AD medications.

  11. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Omar T; Hassali, Mohamed A; Saleem, Fahad; Ibrahim, Inas R; Abdulameer, Aseel H; Jasim, Hanan H

    2017-01-01

    Patients' behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%), followed by self-medication (20.9%). The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89). The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  12. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  13. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  14. Caught you: threats to confidentiality due to the public release of large-scale genetic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, Matthias

    2010-12-29

    Large-scale genetic data sets are frequently shared with other research groups and even released on the Internet to allow for secondary analysis. Study participants are usually not informed about such data sharing because data sets are assumed to be anonymous after stripping off personal identifiers. The assumption of anonymity of genetic data sets, however, is tenuous because genetic data are intrinsically self-identifying. Two types of re-identification are possible: the "Netflix" type and the "profiling" type. The "Netflix" type needs another small genetic data set, usually with less than 100 SNPs but including a personal identifier. This second data set might originate from another clinical examination, a study of leftover samples or forensic testing. When merged to the primary, unidentified set it will re-identify all samples of that individual. Even with no second data set at hand, a "profiling" strategy can be developed to extract as much information as possible from a sample collection. Starting with the identification of ethnic subgroups along with predictions of body characteristics and diseases, the asthma kids case as a real-life example is used to illustrate that approach. Depending on the degree of supplemental information, there is a good chance that at least a few individuals can be identified from an anonymized data set. Any re-identification, however, may potentially harm study participants because it will release individual genetic disease risks to the public.

  15. Caught you: threats to confidentiality due to the public release of large-scale genetic data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wjst Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genetic data sets are frequently shared with other research groups and even released on the Internet to allow for secondary analysis. Study participants are usually not informed about such data sharing because data sets are assumed to be anonymous after stripping off personal identifiers. Discussion The assumption of anonymity of genetic data sets, however, is tenuous because genetic data are intrinsically self-identifying. Two types of re-identification are possible: the "Netflix" type and the "profiling" type. The "Netflix" type needs another small genetic data set, usually with less than 100 SNPs but including a personal identifier. This second data set might originate from another clinical examination, a study of leftover samples or forensic testing. When merged to the primary, unidentified set it will re-identify all samples of that individual. Even with no second data set at hand, a "profiling" strategy can be developed to extract as much information as possible from a sample collection. Starting with the identification of ethnic subgroups along with predictions of body characteristics and diseases, the asthma kids case as a real-life example is used to illustrate that approach. Summary Depending on the degree of supplemental information, there is a good chance that at least a few individuals can be identified from an anonymized data set. Any re-identification, however, may potentially harm study participants because it will release individual genetic disease risks to the public.

  16. The Australian general public's perceptions of having a personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lynda; Gajanayake, Randike; Sahama, Tony

    2014-12-01

    The move internationally by Governments and other health providers to encourage patients to have their own electronic personal health record (e-PHRs) is growing exponentially. In Australia the initiative for a personally controlled electronic health record (known as PCEHR) is directed towards the public at large. The first objective of this study then, is to examine how individuals in the general population perceive the promoted idea of having a PCEHR. The second objective is to extend research on applying a theoretically derived consumer technology acceptance model to guide the research. An online survey was conducted to capture the perceptions and beliefs about having a PCEHR identified from technology acceptance models and extant literature. The survey was completed by 750 Queensland respondents, 97% of whom did not have a PCEHR at that time. The model was examined using exploratory factor analysis, regressions and mediation tests. Findings support eight of the 11 hypothesised relationships in the model. Perceived value and perceived risk were the two most important variables explaining attitude, with perceived usefulness and compatibility being weak but significant. The perception of risk was reduced through partial mediation from trust and privacy concerns. Additionally, web-self efficacy and ease of use partially mediate the relationship between attitude and intentions. The findings represent a snapshot of the early stages of implementing this Australian initiative and capture the perceptions of Queenslanders who at present do not have a PCEHR. Findings show that while individuals appreciate the value of having this record, they do not appear to regard it as particularly useful at present, nor is it particularly compatible with their current engagement with e-services. Moreover, they will need to have any concerns about the risks alleviated, particularly through an increased sense of trust and reduction of privacy concerns. It is noted that although the

  17. Attitudes in Korea toward Introducing Smart Policing Technologies: Differences between the General Public and Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungBin Moon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.

  18. Full journal publication of abstracts presented at the Nordic Congress of General Practice in 2009 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Petersen, Kristine; Vinther, Siri

    2017-01-01

    journal publications within a 36-month follow-up from both congresses. In cases of doubt, the first author was contacted directly. Main outcome measures: Full journal publication within 36 months after the congress. Results: A total of 200 abstracts were analyzed. Of these, 85 (42.5%) were identified...... articles within 36 months. Key points: Congress abstracts accepted for Nordic Congress of General Practice are not indexed in international search databases. Less than half of the abstracts accepted for oral or poster presentation at two consecutive Nordic Congresses of General Practice were published...... as full text articles within 36 months. Future congress committees could address this aspect in order to increase the visibility of and accessibility to research within the field of general practice....

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTING ECONOMIC AND OTHER GENERAL FACTORS’ INFLUENCE ON THE VALUE OF PUBLIC COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To make the right decision in regard to the expression of the value of property, equipment or something else, first for appraiser it is necessary to examine the general economic and other factors that may affect the expression of the value of the company. Especially there is a need to pay attention to devote to the expression value of a public company, because the public companies manage property that stems in part by funds from the budget. This is especially important in the case of a country that aspires to become an EU member. The Republic of Serbia signed the first two chapters with the EU in December 2015. Chapter 32 imperatively requires that the Republic of Serbia begins important application of fair expression of value of the property of public enterprises, because it is a section that requires audit activities of the entire public users, and therefore the company.

  20. [Occupational injury incidence due to biological material in a tertiary referral public hospital in Santa Fe province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanca, Romina; Perretta, Luis; Lebensohn, Natalia; Di Paolo, Oscar; Pires, Miryam; Quaglia, Nora Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Occupational accidents due to biological materials cause significant harm to workers and institutions. To estimate the risk of accidents in doctors and nurses at the Hospital Provincial del Centenario (HPC) and particularly in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) between 2009 and 2013. retrospective cohort study from the survey information of injuries by accidents with biohazard in doctors and nurses workers from HPC. medical workers reported 45.7% (95% CI 37.2 to 54.3%) of accidents and nurses 38.4% (from 30.3 to 47.1%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) (doctors / nurses) (2009-2013) = 0.953 (0.661-1.373). EMS workers ages and seniority were significantly lower than those of other care areas taken together. Reports of accidents from the EMS were 34.1% (95% CI: 26.2 to 42.6%) of the total. EMS workers had age and seniority average significantly less than workers in other services. In EMS, the IRR (doctors / nurses) (2009-2013) = 6.337 (2.264 -17.733). SGM medical workers ages and seniority were significantly lower than those of nurses working in this service. The EMS was particularly vulnerable to occupational injuries, medical workers have a higher risk of accidents compared to nursing workers. The younger age and lower seniority of medical workers could be related at least partly to these findings.

  1. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A NEW APROACH OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR GENERAL PURPOSE FINANCIAL REPORTING BY PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of accounting in the modern economy is obvious. That is more elevated bodies of the European Union and elsewhere dealing with the organization and functioning of accounting as a fundamental component of business (Nistor C., 2009. The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC is to serve the public interest, strengthen the worldwide accountancy profession and contribute to the development of strong international economies by initiating and encouraging the professional standards of high quality, the convergence process these international standards and to discuss issues of public interest which is extremely relevant international experience of (IFAC, 2011. Currently, the concepts related to financial reports in public sector are developed by IPSAS references. Many of today's IPSAS are based on international accounting standards (IAS / IFRS, to the extent that they are relevant to the requirements of the public sector. Therefore today's IPSAS are based on concepts and definitions of the IASB's conceptual framework, with changes where necessary for public sector specific approach. Thus this study present this brief draft statement under discussion by the leadership of IFAC in collaboration with other organizations and groups that develop financial reporting requirements of the public sector. Then, we highlight the importance and the degree of acceptance of the project which results from comments received. On the basis of combining qualitative with quantitative research seeks to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of a common conceptual framework of the International Accounting Standards (in this case the Public Sector, starting from their emergence from presenting their bodies involved in the foundation, the content standards, experience of different countries. The results have direct implications on Romanian public accounting system, given that the reference of the international implementation and reporting is

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  4. Beyond the "Ivory Tower": Restoring the Balance of Private and Public Purposes of General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Nancy; Englot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We in higher education have allowed the balance of the private and public purposes of liberal education to become skewed in our angst over fully embracing a central role in restoring prosperity and preparing our increasingly diverse population for the evolving responsibility of mending our fraying democracy. As we consider how best to reshape…

  5. Generalized switching regression analysis of private and public sector wage structures in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes wage structures in the public and the private sector for Germany. The data contains a rich set of variables on parents' characteristics that we use as instruments. We extend the empirical literature in this field by endogenizing education level and hours worked, and by using life

  6. Public management, context, and performance: in quest of a more general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the large-N quantitative study of public management and performance. Much of the progress can be attributed to a small number of data sets on local governments in a few countries. The range of data sets suggests the validity of the overall hypothesis of

  7. Public priorities for osteoporosis and fracture research: results from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskins, Zoe; Jinks, Clare; Mahmood, Waheed; Jayakumar, Prakash; Sangan, Caroline B; Belcher, John; Gwilym, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This is the first national study of public and patient research priorities in osteoporosis and fracture. We have identified new research areas of importance to members of the public, particularly 'access to information from health professionals'. The findings are being incorporated into the research strategy of the National Osteoporosis Society. This study aimed to prioritise, with patients and public members, research topics for the osteoporosis research agenda. An e-survey to identify topics for research was co-designed with patient representatives. A link to the e-survey was disseminated to supporters of the UK National Osteoporosis Society (NOS) in a monthly e-newsletter. Responders were asked to indicate their top priority for research across four topics (understanding and preventing osteoporosis, living with osteoporosis, treating osteoporosis and treating fractures) and their top three items within each topic. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and item ranking. A latent class analysis was applied to identify a substantive number of clusters with different combinations of binary responses. One thousand one hundred eighty-eight (7.4%) respondents completed the e-survey. The top three items overall were 'Having easy access to advice and information from health professionals' (63.8%), 'Understanding further the safety and benefit of osteoporosis drug treatments' (49.9%) and 'Identifying the condition early by screening' (49.2%). Latent class analysis revealed distinct clusters of responses within each topic including primary care management and self-management. Those without a history of prior fracture or aged under 70 were more likely to rate items within the cluster of self-management as important (21.0 vs 12.9 and 19.8 vs 13.3%, respectively). This is the first study of public research priorities in osteoporosis and has identified new research areas of importance to members of the public including access to information. The findings

  8. Assessment of general public exposure to lte signals compared to other cellular networks present in Thessaloniki, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 x 10"-"5 and 2.8 x 10"-"2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE down-link signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. (authors)

  9. A pilot study exploring awareness among general public toward issues related to medication safety in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A better understanding of medication safety ensures better health state among healthcare consumers. Aim: The study aims to assess general public awareness toward issues related to medication safety. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general public selected conveniently in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A total of 500 respondents were approached and 476 consumers participated in the survey giving a response rate of 95.2%. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 12.0 and descriptive statistics were reported where appropriate. Results: Majority of the respondents (n=292, 61.3% stated that they were well aware of the possible side effects of their current medications. A total of 196 respondents (41.17% believed that all medicines registered in Malaysia are safe to use as these medicines have no side effects. About 40.33% (n=192 of the respondents claimed that they share their unused medicines with family and friends who are having similar illness. Majority of respondents 57.7% (n=275 were satisfied with the drug information provided by the healthcare professionals. This study also found that more than 80% of the respondents (n=409 did report that they read the labels of their medication before using. Conclusions: In this study, it was revealed that there is a moderate level of public knowledge regarding medication safety. It is evident that public underestimates the risk of their medications. There is a general lack of awareness and understanding among the public especially toward side effects.

  10. Assessment of health seeking behaviour and self-medication among general public in the state of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood OT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. Results: This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%, followed by self-medication (20.9%. The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89. The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.

  11. A bottom-up, scientist-based initiative for the communication of climate sciences with the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter

    2015-04-01

    This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch

  12. [Imputing missing data in public health: general concepts and application to dichotomous variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Gilma; Moriña, David; Navarro, Albert

    The presence of missing data in collected variables is common in health surveys, but the subsequent imputation thereof at the time of analysis is not. Working with imputed data may have certain benefits regarding the precision of the estimators and the unbiased identification of associations between variables. The imputation process is probably still little understood by many non-statisticians, who view this process as highly complex and with an uncertain goal. To clarify these questions, this note aims to provide a straightforward, non-exhaustive overview of the imputation process to enable public health researchers ascertain its strengths. All this in the context of dichotomous variables which are commonplace in public health. To illustrate these concepts, an example in which missing data is handled by means of simple and multiple imputation is introduced. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a death education curriculum model for the general public using DACUM method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Chong-Hyung; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Moon-Joon; Arma, Park; Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Song, Hyeon-Dong; Shim, Moon-Sook; Kim, Kwang-Hwan

    2016-05-18

    In order to analyze tasks of the death education curriculum for the public, DACUM method was used. A committee for DACUM was gathered and a survey was conducted on professors of health care, humanities and social sciences for an interdisciplinary study. In the survey used to verify the model for death education for the public, a compilation based on difficulty and importance factor shows that the 27 tasks including the psychological changes in terminally ill or suicidal patients, healing of stress, acceptance and understanding of death and suicide prevention were identified as needing to be included in the curriculum. The data thus concluded will have to be reviewed when they are applied to actual education to revise the education program to make it more appropriate.

  14. A NEW APROACH OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR GENERAL PURPOSE FINANCIAL REPORTING BY PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nistor Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The importance of accounting in the modern economy is obvious. That is more elevated bodies of the European Union and elsewhere dealing with the organization and functioning of accounting as a fundamental component of business (Nistor C., 2009). The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is to serve the public interest, strengthen the worldwide accountancy profession and contribute to the development of strong international economies by initiating and encouraging the pr...

  15. Establishing a general medical outpatient clinic for cancer survivors in a public city hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goytia, Elliott J; Lounsbury, David W; McCabe, Mary S; Weiss, Elisa; Newcomer, Meghan; Nelson, Deena J; Brennessel, Debra; Rapkin, Bruce D; Kemeny, M Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Many cancer centers and community hospitals are developing novel models of survivorship care. However, few are specifically focused on services for socio-economically disadvantaged cancer survivors. To describe a new model of survivorship care serving culturally diverse, urban adult cancer patients and to present findings from a feasibility evaluation. Adult cancer patients treated at a public city hospital cancer center. The clinic provides comprehensive medical and psychosocial services for patients within a public hospital cancer center where they receive their oncology care. Longitudinal data collected over a 3-year period were used to describe patient demographics, patient needs, and services delivered. Since inception, 410 cancer patients have been served. Demand for services has grown steadily. Hypertension was the most frequent comorbid condition treated. Pain, depression, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and bowel dysfunction were the most common post-treatment problems experienced by the patients. Financial counseling was an important patient resource. This new clinical service has been well-integrated into its public urban hospital setting and constitutes an innovative model of health-care delivery for socio-economically challenged, culturally diverse adult cancer survivors.

  16. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  17. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  19. Bedside rationing by general practitioners: a postal survey in the Danish public healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Sigurd; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    survey of 600 randomly selected Danish GPs, of which 330 responded to the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0) was used to produce general descriptive statistics. Significance was calculated with the McNemar and the chi-square test. The main outcome measures...

  20. Are managers' and the general public's perceptions of risk communication needs in line? A French alpine valley case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Sprague, Teresa; Bogaard, Thom; Greiving, Stefan; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Risk communication is a crucial element of risk management. It contributes to social capacity building by influencing the knowledge, attitude, behavior, psychology, as well as social and organizational aspects1,2. It is globally recognized that effective risk communication should address needs and requirements of targeted audiences, especially those of the public. This study compares needs and requirements related to risk communication as seen by the risk managers, with the needs and requirements as expressed by the general public. Two surveys were conducted in a mountainous region facing multi-hazards, the Ubaye valley (France). The first survey, conducted within the context of the Marie Curie Research and Training Network 'Mountain Risk', was addressed to the local community. It aimed at gathering perceptions, needs and requirements of the general public (344 respondents) on risk communication3. The second survey, conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network 'CHANGES', targeted risk managers (16 stakeholders of the authorities, technical services and emergency units) at both the local and the regional scale to evaluate their perceptions regarding risk communication with the general public. The needs and requirements were analyzed with respect to several dimensions: 1) the information provided to the public, 2) the legal requirements for communication, 3) the level of trust the population has in risk managers, 4) insights on awareness and preparedness, and 5) information on the media used in past communication efforts. Results of the analysis concerning the last dimension reveal that, while the general public mentioned press, official reports and technical reports as the top three media by which they received information, the risk managers cited the press but in contrast also selected radio and television. Other results indicate that a potential mismatch exists as more than 80% of the respondents of the population find all listed topics

  1. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010

  2. "Where On Mars?": An Open Planetary Mapping Platform for Researchers, Educators, and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Carter, John; Boix, Oriol

    2016-10-01

    The "Where On Mars?" project is essentially the evolution of an existing outreach product developed in collaboration between ESA and CartoDB; an interactive map visualisation of the ESA's ExoMars Rover candidate landing sites (whereonmars.co). Planetary imagery data and maps are increasingly produced by the scientific community, and shared typically as images, in scientific publications, presentations or public outreach websites. However, this media lacks of interactivity and contextual information available for further exploration, making it difficult for any audience to relate one location-based information to another. We believe that interactive web maps are a powerful way of telling stories, engaging with and educating people who, over the last decade, have become familiar with tools such as Google Maps. A few planetary web maps exist but they are either too complex for non-experts, or are closed-systems that do not allows anyone to publish and share content. The long-term vision for the project is to provide researchers, communicators, educators and a worldwide public with an open planetary mapping and social platform enabling them to create, share, communicate and consume research-based content. We aim for this platform to become the reference website everyone will go to learn about Mars and other planets in our Solar System; just like people head to Google Maps to find their bearings or any location-based information. The driver is clearly to create for people an emotional connection with Mars. The short-term objectives for the project are (1) to produce and curate an open repository of basemaps, geospatial data sets, map visualisations, and story maps; (2) to develop a beautifully crafted and engaging interactive map of Mars. Based on user-generated content, the underlying framework should (3) make it easy to create and share additional interactive maps telling specific stories.

  3. Questioning the differences between general public vs. patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Marko; Murovec, Nika; Fernandez, Natacha Bolanos; Rupel, Valentina Prevolnik

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods. Patients were chosen on a voluntary basis according to their willingness to participate in the survey. They were recruited from patient organisations and a hospital in Madrid, Spain. 282 metastatic breast cancer patients and 333 rheumatoid arthritis patients were included in the sample. The analysis revealed differences in preferences between the general population and patient groups. Based on the results of our analysis, it is suggested that the differences in preferences stem from patients being more able to accurately imagine "non-tangible" dimensions of health states (anxiety or depression, and pain or discomfort) than the general population with less experience in various health states. However, this does not mean that general public values should not be reflected in utilities derived for coverage decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Land degradation due to erosion in public perception. Case study: Secaşul Mare river basin settlements (Transylvanian Depression, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Marioara; Tăuşan, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-1999), the risk indicates potential losses due to particular natural phenomenon, and these could be reduced by improving of prevention and education. People perceive these losses differently depending on phenomenon occurrence, severity, and impact in time. Starting from this idea, this research presents public perception on land degradation through erosion in a small area from the central part of Romania (south-west of Transylvanian Depression). The research was based on a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The items were structured by issues: awareness assessment regarding hazard and risk phenomena, assessment of type of property and land use, assessment of knowledge and information on the possible production of negative effects by natural phenomena, and evaluation of land owners' attitudes towards the occurrence of erosion on their land. Results reveal that the public perception on erosion is weak. This process is perceived as insignificant due to lack of phenomenon knowledge and especially because of scarcity preoccupation in land's quality monitoring. Even though the owned lands are affected by erosion forms, the owners are not aware of the phenomenon that generates them. Material damages caused by erosion, loss of soil quality, and land fertility decrease are less perceived because the economic losses fill only at long term. This perception leads to underestimating erosion risk compared to other natural phenomena and to a passive attitude towards this particular phenomenon.

  5. Quality improvement training for core medical and general practice trainees: a pilot study of project participation, completion and journal publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Duncan; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale quality improvement projects are expected to make a significant contribution towards improving the quality of healthcare. Enabling doctors-in-training to design and lead quality improvement projects is important preparation for independent practice. Participation is mandatory in speciality training curricula. However, provision of training and ongoing support in quality improvement methods and practice is variable. We aimed to design and deliver a quality improvement training package to core medical and general practice specialty trainees and evaluate impact in terms of project participation, completion and publication in a healthcare journal. A quality improvement training package was developed and delivered to core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in the west of Scotland encompassing a 1-day workshop and mentoring during completion of a quality improvement project over 3 months. A mixed methods evaluation was undertaken and data collected via questionnaire surveys, knowledge assessment, and formative assessment of project proposals, completed quality improvement projects and publication success. Twenty-three participants attended the training day with 20 submitting a project proposal (87%). Ten completed quality improvement projects (43%), eight were judged as satisfactory (35%), and four were submitted and accepted for journal publication (17%). Knowledge and confidence in aspects of quality improvement improved during the pilot, while early feedback on project proposals was valued (85.7%). This small study reports modest success in training core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in quality improvement. Many gained knowledge of, confidence in and experience of quality improvement, while journal publication was shown to be possible. The development of educational resources to aid quality improvement project completion and mentoring support is necessary if expectations for quality improvement are to be

  6. Non-physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands: a cross-sectional survey among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, Merel Kristi; van Thiel, Ghislaine José Madeleine Wilhelmien; van Delden, Johannes Jozef Marten

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, approximately 45% of patients' requests for euthanasia are granted by a physician. After a rejected request, some patients approach non-physicians and ask them for assistance in suicide. Recently, a non-physician who assisted his mother's suicide was declared guilty without punishment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the opinion of the Dutch general public on non-physician-assisted suicide. A cross-sectional survey among the Dutch general public was performed. A total of 1113 respondents were included (response rate 80%). The survey covered two case descriptions in which a patient asks a non-physician for assisted suicide after a non-granted request for physician-assisted dying. In both cases, a son, friend or professional facilitates the suicide by either the provision of information or the purchase of lethal medication. Respondents were invited to give their opinion on these cases and in addition on 10 propositions on non-physician-assisted suicide. When a son provides information on how to acquire lethal medication in case of a patient with a terminal illness, this involvement is accepted by 62% of the respondents. The actual purchase of lethal medication receives less support (38%). If the patient suffers without a serious disease, both forms of assistance are less accepted (46% and 24%, respectively). In addition, only 21% support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. The Dutch public prefer involvement of a physician in assisted suicide (69%). The Dutch general public consider non-physician-assisted suicide in some specific cases a tolerable alternative for patients with a rejected request for physician-assisted dying if the assistance is limited to the provision of information. However, the majority do not support the legalisation of non-physician-assisted suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Academic impact of a public electronic health database: bibliometric analysis of studies using the general practice research database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with 'General Practice Research Database' as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors contributed nearly half (47.9% of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of "Pharmacology and Pharmacy", "General and Internal Medicine", and "Public, Environmental and Occupational Health". The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. CONCLUSIONS: A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research.

  8. Academic Impact of a Public Electronic Health Database: Bibliometric Analysis of Studies Using the General Practice Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Wu, Jau-Ching; Haschler, Ingo; Majeed, Azeem; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Wetter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies that use electronic health databases as research material are getting popular but the influence of a single electronic health database had not been well investigated yet. The United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD) is one of the few electronic health databases publicly available to academic researchers. This study analyzed studies that used GPRD to demonstrate the scientific production and academic impact by a single public health database. Methodology and Findings A total of 749 studies published between 1995 and 2009 with ‘General Practice Research Database’ as their topics, defined as GPRD studies, were extracted from Web of Science. By the end of 2009, the GPRD had attracted 1251 authors from 22 countries and been used extensively in 749 studies published in 193 journals across 58 study fields. Each GPRD study was cited 2.7 times by successive studies. Moreover, the total number of GPRD studies increased rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1500 by 2015, twice the number accumulated till the end of 2009. Since 17 of the most prolific authors (1.4% of all authors) contributed nearly half (47.9%) of GPRD studies, success in conducting GPRD studies may accumulate. The GPRD was used mainly in, but not limited to, the three study fields of “Pharmacology and Pharmacy”, “General and Internal Medicine”, and “Public, Environmental and Occupational Health”. The UK and United States were the two most active regions of GPRD studies. One-third of GRPD studies were internationally co-authored. Conclusions A public electronic health database such as the GPRD will promote scientific production in many ways. Data owners of electronic health databases at a national level should consider how to reduce access barriers and to make data more available for research. PMID:21731733

  9. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrou, Persefoni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co...

  10. The radiological impact of the Ranger Uranium Mine on the general public in Jabiru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, Jiri

    1992-01-01

    Potential alpha energy concentrations (PAEC) of radon daughters were monitored by a Kodak LR 115 nuclear track detector both outdoors and indoors in Jabiru (a township 9 km west of the Ranger Uranium Mine) at five locations between Ranger and Jabiru during the 1989 Dry Season. The average outdoor PAEC and the indoor PAEC in private dwellings in Jabiru were 2.4 ± 0.2 mWL and 2.4 ± 0.7 mWL respectively. Though the total radon emission from the Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) project is relatively high (about 7 MBq s -1 ) the mining and milling of uranium contributes only marginally to the PAEC in Jabiru as can be seen from results of the air dispersion modelling and environmental radon daughter monitoring carried out in parallel with the indoor monitoring in Jabiru. The description of the radon daughter monitor and the major characteristics of the RUM project are given in the Appendixes. The average annual PAEC in Jabiru attributable t the mining and milling operations at Ranger was calculated to be about 0.16 mWL, which corresponds to an effective dose equivalent of 0.07 mSv y -1 (7% of the 1 mSv y -1 public limit) for members of the public in Jabiru. 17 refs., 3 tab., 7 figs

  11. A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.

  12. A Theory of the Podkletnov Effect based on General Relativity: Anti-Gravity Force due to the Perturbed Non-Holonomic Background of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Podkletnov effect — the weight loss of an object located over a superconducting disc in air due to support by an alternating magnetic field. We consider this problem using the mathematical methods of General Relativity. We show via Einstein’s equations and the geodesic equations in a space perturbed by a disc undergoing oscillatory bounces orthogonal to its own plane, that there is no r ˆ ole of superconductivity; the Podkletnov effect is due to the fact that the field of the background space non-holonomity (the basic non-othogonality of time lines to the spatial section, being perturbed by such an oscillating disc produces energy and momentum flow in order to compensate the perturbation in itself. Such a momentum flow is directed above the disc in Podkletnov’s experiment, so it works like negative gravity (anti-gravity. We propose a simple mechanical system which, simulating the Podkletnov effect, is an experimental test of the whole theory. The theory allows for other “anti-gravity devices”, which simulate the Podkletnov effect without use of very costly superconductor technology. Such devices could be applied to be used as a cheap source of new energy, and could have implications to air and space travel.

  13. Computational assessment of pregnant woman models exposed to uniform ELF-magnetic fields: compliance with the European current exposure regulations for the general public and occupational exposures at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Fiocchi, Serena; Ravazzani, Paolo; Douglas, Mark; Capstick, Myles; Kuster, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The Recommendation 1999/529/EU and the Directive 2013/35/EU suggest limits for both general public and occupational exposures to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, but without special limits for pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of 40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages). (authors)

  14. Work-related violence and its association with self-rated general health among public sector employees in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez, Marjan; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva; Voss, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related violence is one of the most serious threats to employee safety and health. To ascertain the extent of self-reported violence or threats of violence at work in relation to the general health of public sector employees. The study population comprised 9,611 female (83%) and male public employees in Sweden. A questionnaire based on items derived mainly from validated instruments was constructed to cover aspects such as health, lifestyle, and physical and psychosocial work conditions. One in three employees reported work-related violence, with the highest proportions among psychiatric nurses (79%) and psychiatric attendants (75%). Work-related violence more often affected those who were worked worked nights, or reported poor health. Regardless of gender, age, hours of work, night work, and type of occupation, exposure to work-related violence was associated with less than good general health, and this relationship was strongest for psychiatric nurses (OR=3.19; 95% CI=1.28-7.98), medical doctors/dentists (OR=2.46; 95% CI=1.35-4.49), compulsory school teachers (OR=2.14; 95% CI=1.33-3.45), and other nurses (OR=1.87; 95% CI=1.23-2.84). Work-related violence was frequently reported by employees in the most common public sector occupations, and it was associated with poor health in both genders.

  15. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for

  16. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other

  17. Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor. Date Effective: May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention'), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This publication is intended to help fulfil in part these functions assigned to the IAEA in the Assistance Convention. The aim of this publication is to provide those persons who are responsible for making and for acting on decisions in the event of an emergency at a light water reactor with an understanding of the actions that are necessary to protect the public. The publication provides a basis for developing the tools and criteria at the preparedness stage that would be needed in taking protective actions and other actions in response to such an emergency. The publication applies the safety principles stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and it will be of assistance to Member States in meeting the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The application of these requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people and the environment in any nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(55)/RES/9: 'Emphasizes the importance for all Member States to implement emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and develop mitigation measures at a national level, consistent with the Agency's Safety Standards, for improving emergency preparedness and response, facilitating communication in an emergency and contributing to harmonization of national criteria for protective and other

  18. Characteristics of Orthopedic Publications in High-Impact General Medical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Lehman, Jason D; Lyman, Stephen; Marx, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Orthopedic studies are occasionally published in high-impact general medical journals; these studies are often given high visibility and have significant potential to impact health care policy and inform clinical decision-making. The purpose of this review was to investigate the characteristics of operative orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals. The number of orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals is relatively low; however, these studies demonstrate methodological characteristics that may bias toward nonoperative treatment. Careful analysis and interpretation of orthopedic studies published in these journals is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e405-e412.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Schol, Lianne G. C.; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M.; Beaujean, Desirée J. M. A.; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    Background The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. Methods In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). Results The mean knowledge score (range 0–15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general pub...

  20. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  2. Assessment of general public perceptions toward traditional medicines used for aphrodisiac purpose in state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Farooqui, Maryam; Aljadhey, Hisham; Atif, Muhammad; Masood, Imran

    2012-11-01

    The study aims to evaluate general public perceptions regarding the use of Traditional and Complementary Medicines (TCM) for aphrodisiac purposes. A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Respondents were selected in the state of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 392 respondents were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Chi Square/Fischer Exact tests were used where appropriate. Out of 392 respondents, 150 (38.26%) reported using specific Traditional medicines for aphrodisiac purposes. Most respondents (46.94%) agreed that aphrodisiac medicines were easily available t. Moreover, 40.31% of the respondents reported that traditional aphrodisiac medicines were cheaper than modern (prescription) medicines. This study highlights limited public knowledge regarding the use of traditional aphrodisiac medicine. Healthcare professionals should be aware of informal TCM usage when prescribing allopathic medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of mobile phone traffic on base station exposure of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen

    2010-11-01

    The influence of mobile phone traffic on temporal radiofrequency exposure due to base stations during 7 d is compared for five different sites with Erlang data (representing average mobile phone traffic intensity during a period of time). The time periods of high exposure and high traffic during a day are compared and good agreement is obtained. The minimal required measurement periods to obtain accurate estimates for maximal and average long-period exposure (7 d) are determined. It is shown that these periods may be very long, indicating the necessity of new methodologies to estimate maximal and average exposure from short-period measurement data. Therefore, a new method to calculate the fields at a time instant from fields at another time instant using normalized Erlang values is proposed. This enables the estimation of maximal and average exposure during a week from short-period measurements using only Erlang data and avoids the necessity of long measurement times.

  4. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the dose commitment of the general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, H

    1986-01-01

    The cumulative effective equipment dose from external radiation and by inhalation was about 5.10/sup -5/ Sv (5 mrem) for the adults monitored and about 7.10/sup -5/ Sv (7 mrem) for small children by the beginning of June. The inhalation dose has already reached its limit, but the external dose could rise by another 1 to 2.10/sup -5/ Sv (1-2 mrem) during the year. Another 2.5.10/sup -5/ Sv (2.5 mrem) effective equivalent dose was measured in children and 1.10/sup -5/ Sv (1 mrem) in adults, due to ingestion. The dose from Cs 137 received by the population in food will remain small during the next few years.

  5. BangA: An Efficient and Flexible Generalization-Based Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP has become a critical issue for companies and organizations that would release their data. k-Anonymization was proposed as a first generalization model to guarantee against identity disclosure of individual records in a data set. Point access methods (PAMs are not well studied for the problem of data anonymization. In this article, we propose yet another approximation algorithm for anonymization, coined BangA, that combines useful features from Point Access Methods (PAMs and clustering. Hence, it achieves fast computation and scalability as a PAM, and very high quality thanks to its density-based clustering step. Extensive experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for extending BangA to achieve a relaxed form of differential privacy which provides stronger privacy guarantees as compared to traditional privacy definitions.

  6. Angalasut, an education and outreach project to create a bridge between scientists, local population in Greenland and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgain, Pascaline

    2015-04-01

    Bridging Science and Society has now become a necessity for scientists to develop new partnerships with local communities and to raise the public interest for scientific activities. The French-Greenlandic educational project called "Angalasut" reflects this desire to create a bridge between science, local people and the general public. This program was set up on the 2012-2013 school year, as part of an international scientific program dedicated to study the interactions between the ocean and glaciers on the western coast of Greenland, in the Uummannaq fjord. Greenlandic and French school children were involved in educational activities, in classrooms and out on the field, associated with the scientific observations conducted in Greenland (glacier flow, ocean chemical composition and circulation, instrumentation...). In Greenland, the children had the opportunity to come on board the scientific sailing boat, and in France, several meetings were organized between the children and the scientists of the expedition. In the small village of Ikerasak, the children interviewed Elders about sea ice evolution in the area. These activities, coupled to the organization of public conferences and to the creation of a trilingual website of the project (French, Greenlandic, English) aimed at explaining why scientists come to study Greenland environment. This was the opportunity for scientists to discuss with villagers who could testify on their changing environment over the past decades. A first step toward a future collaboration between scientists and villagers that would deserve further development... The project Angalasut was also the opportunity for Greenlandic and French school children to exchange about their culture and their environment through Skype communications, the exchange of mails (drawings, shells...), the creation of a society game about European fauna and flora... A meeting in France between the two groups of children is considered, possibly in summer 2015

  7. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. © The

  8. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  9. Clinician, patient and general public beliefs about diagnostic imaging for low back pain: protocol for a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Adrian C; Reed, Benjamin J; O'Connor, Denise A; Hoffmann, Tammy C; Machado, Gustavo C; Bonner, Carissa; Maher, Chris G; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2018-02-10

    Little is known about how to reduce unnecessary imaging for low back pain. Understanding clinician, patient and general public beliefs about imaging is critical to developing strategies to reduce overuse. To synthesise qualitative research that has explored clinician, patient or general public beliefs about diagnostic imaging for low back pain. We will perform a qualitative evidence synthesis of relevant qualitative research exploring clinician, patient and general public beliefs about diagnostic imaging for low back pain. Exclusions will be studies not using qualitative methods and studies not published in English. Studies will be identified using sensitive search strategies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO. Two reviewers will independently apply inclusion and exclusion criteria, extract data, and use the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme quality assessment tool to assess the quality of included studies. To synthesise the data we will use a narrative synthesis approach that involves developing a theoretical model, conducting a preliminary synthesis, exploring relations in the data, and providing a structured summary. We will code the data using NVivo. At least two reviewers will independently apply the thematic framework to extracted data. Confidence in synthesis findings will be evaluated using the GRADE Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research tool. Ethical approval is not required to conduct this review. We will publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42017076047. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, K.; Endo, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable web sites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner

  11. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Tyndall Petition: Bridging the Gap between Academia and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Ong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climatepedia is a student-founded organization with a mission to communicate climate science to a broad audience. Since its inception in 2011, Climatepedia has grown from a UCLA club to a transitioning 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with members from UCLA, UC Irvine, Yale University, Duke University, UC Santa Barbara, and the University of Pennsylvania. Our main project is the Tyndall Petition (http://www.climatepedia.org/home/tyndallpetition) - the largest online climate petition of its kind - which features nearly 700 signatories who agree that human-induced climate change is an urgent and real issue. Our signatories are PhD level experts with a research focus in climate science or a highly related field. Each signatory has their own profile page that links to other signatories within our network. The Tyndall Petition can be used as a tool to bring transparency to the climate experts that support our statement. In this way, we hope to inform the general audience about the strong scientific consensus about climate change. We also seek to improve climate literacy through exposure to diverse research topics related to climate change. The Tyndall Petition can serve as a mechanism to connect signatories to regional climate issues and the communities affected by these issues. In parallel, Climatepedia administers a Student Certificate Program that trains college students to become climate literate, gain skills in climate communication, and support the growth of the Tyndall Petition.

  13. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrou, Persefoni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2010-11-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67) and nurses (N = 219) participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E) outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p job satisfaction compared to the nursing staff. Surgical sector nurses and those >55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested.

  14. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67 and nurses (N = 219 participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested.

  15. Day surgery: Results after restructuration of a university public general surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, S; Cappiello, F; Bouam, S; Damardji, I; Aissat, A; Boutron, I; Béthoux, J P

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, in France, development of the ambulatory surgery has stalled. This is probably related to the fact that ambulatory surgery is restricted by the law to the "day surgery" in 12 hours, and only 17 procedures are referenced for this surgery. Thus, conventional hospitalization remained the rule after surgery. In January 2010, our university general surgery unit was restructured. It evolved from a conventional unit to a predominantly ambulatory unit. Otherwise, our unit adjoins a hotel, even inside our institution, which accommodates patients, patient visitors and tourists. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the postoperative accommodation modalities between two groups of patients. The first group consisted of patients admitted before January 2010, at the time of conventional activity, whereas the second group consisted of patients admitted after January 2010 in a restructured unit. Inclusion of patients admitted from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009 (conventional hospitalization period) and from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 (ambulatory management period), scheduled for one single surgical procedure excluding emergency. A total of 360 patients were retained: 229 for the conventional period and 131 for the ambulatory period, with a median age of 55 (range 15-87). No statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups as concerned median age, gender or ASA status. The number of postoperative nights varied significantly between the two groups with a mean of 3.8 nights (median three nights, range 0-32) for the conventional period versus 0.4 nights (median 0 night, range 0-10) for the ambulatory period (Plegal period of 12 hours to 24 hours in order to expand the list of the referenced procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey of the general public's attitudes toward advance directives in Japan: How to respect patients' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance directives policy and practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 418 members of the general middle-aged and senior adults (aged between 40 and 65 in Tokyo, Japan. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward advance directives, and preferences toward treatment options. Results Over 60% of respondents agreed that it is better to express their wishes regarding advance directives (treatment preferences in writing, appointment of proxy for care decision making, appointment of legal administrator of property, stating preferences regarding disposal of one's property and funeral arrangements but less than 10% of them had already done so. About 60% of respondents in this study preferred to indicate treatment preferences in broad rather than concrete terms. Over 80% would like to decide treatment preferences in consultation with others (22.2% with their proxy, 11.0% with the doctor, and 47.8% with both their proxy and the doctor. Conclusion This study revealed that many Japanese people indicate an interest in undertaking advance directives. This study found that there is a range of preferences regarding how advance directives are undertaken, thus it is important to recognize that any processes put into place should allow flexibility in order to best respect patients' wishes and autonomy.

  17. Challenging mental health related stigma in China: Systematic review and meta-analysis. I. Interventions among the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyan; Rüsch, Nicolas; Huang, Fangfang; Kösters, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Mental illness stigma is widely endorsed by the general public in China. Evidence-based anti-stigma interventions to reduce public stigma are needed. However, most studies on the efficacy of anti-stigma interventions took place in Western countries and existing Chinese studies were often not included in recent systematic reviews. This review evaluates the efficacy of anti-stigma interventions among the general population in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau. Eight databases in English and Chinese were searched for randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Subgroup analyses compared interventions with and without consumer contact. Standardized mean differences were calculated from eligible studies where possible. We included 9 trials involving 2041 participants. Interventions yielded a small effect on stereotypes reduction and a similar effect on improving mental health literacy. No study assessed discrimination outcomes. Interventions with consumer contact were not superior to those without. There were insufficient data on medium and long term effects. Heterogeneity across studies was moderate. Quality of studies was modest. Further research using rigorous methods is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of General Public Exposure to LTE signals compared to other Cellular Networks Present in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros

    2017-07-01

    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 × 10-5 and 2.8 × 10-2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE downlink signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Results of comparative evaluations concerning the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Renn, O.

    1983-01-01

    The perception of risk has become a mayor research field, after scientists and politicians recognized that scientific risk studies like the Rasmussen-Report on nuclear energy had no large impact on the public acceptance. With our surveys we aimed to combine two methodological approaches (object perception and attitude theory) and to develop a technique in which the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public was followed up and analyzed. Psychological experiments in the field of isolating relevant factors of qualitative risk properties as well as demographic surveys for the measurement of the belief structure were carried out. Our results indicate that in objection to the common conception by natural scientists people in general have a good estimative ability to judge the expected value of different risks. But beyond this estimation of fatalities people also use other criteria (like personal control) to order different objects in respect to their riskiness. The perceived risk is but one factor influencing attitude. A simplified model of the acceptance-building process is carried out showing that acceptance-building is not a purely individual process. Individuals are linked together by their social environment so that every individual decision is influenced by the decision of other people

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  1. È VIVO: Virtual eruptions at Vesuvius; A multimedia tool to illustrate numerical modeling to a general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Micol; Neri, Augusto; Demaria, Cristina; Marmo, Costantino; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2006-07-01

    Dissemination of scientific results to the general public has become increasingly important in our society. When science deals with natural hazards, public outreach is even more important: on the one hand, it contributes to hazard perception and it is a necessary step toward preparedness and risk mitigation; on the other hand, it contributes to establish a positive link of mutual confidence between scientific community and the population living at risk. The existence of such a link plays a relevant role in hazard communication, which in turn is essential to mitigate the risk. In this work, we present a tool that we have developed to illustrate our scientific results on pyroclastic flow propagation at Vesuvius. This tool, a CD-ROM that we developed joining scientific data with appropriate knowledge in communication sciences is meant to be a first prototype that will be used to test the validity of this approach to public outreach. The multimedia guide contains figures, images of real volcanoes and computer animations obtained through numerical modeling of pyroclastic density currents. Explanatory text, kept as short and simple as possible, illustrates both the process and the methodology applied to study this very dangerous natural phenomenon. In this first version, the CD-ROM will be distributed among selected categories of end-users together with a short questionnaire that we have drawn to test its readability. Future releases will include feedback from the users, further advancement of scientific results as well as a higher degree of interactivity.

  2. Performance of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Amhara and Oromia States, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham

    2016-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude

  3. Is temporary employment a risk factor for work disability due to depressive disorders and delayed return to work? The Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2014-07-01

    Research on temporary employment as a risk factor for work disability due to depression is mixed, and few studies have measured work disability outcome in detail. We separately examined the associations of temporary employment with (i) the onset of work disability due to depression, (ii) the length of disability episodes, and (iii) the recurrence of work disability, taking into account the possible effect modification of sociodemographic factors. We linked the prospective cohort study data of 107 828 Finnish public sector employees to national registers on work disability (>9 days) due to depression from January 2005 to December 2011. Disability episodes were longer among temporary than permanent employees after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, chronic somatic disease, and history of mental/behavioral disorders [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-51). The association between temporary employment and the length of depression-related disability episodes was more pronounced among participants with a low educational level (COR 1.95, 95% CI 1.54-2.48) and older employees (>52 years; COR 3.67, 95% CI 2.83-4.76). The association was weaker in a subgroup of employees employed for ≥ 50% of the follow-up period (95% of the original sample). Temporary employment was not associated with the onset or recurrence of depression-related work disability. Temporary employment is associated with slower return to work, indicated by longer depression-related disability episodes, especially among older workers and those with a low level of education. Continuous employment might protect temporary employees from prolonged work disability.

  4. Record of responses to public comments on proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425, referred to in this document as the Act) assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) the authority for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Among other provisions, the Act specifies a process and schedule for the siting of two geologic repositories for this purpose. The Act requires that the DOE issue general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories. The guidelines are to be developed in consultation with three Federal agencies (the Council on Environmental Quality, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey) and with interested Governors and issued with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To meet this directive, the DOE convened a task force of program experts to develop proposed guidelines, issued the proposed guidelines on February 7, 1983, and invited comments from the specified Federal agencies, interested Governors, and the general public. Public hearings on the proposed guidelines were held in March at the following locations: Chicago, New Orleans, Washington, DC, Salt Lake City, and Seattle. After considering the resulting comments and preparing responses to them, the task force prepared a draft of this comment-response document and a set of alternative guidelines; these documents were issued on May 27, 1983. This document summarizes the record of comments that directly led to the alternative guidelines of May 27, 1983. It contains synopses of comments, presents the responses of the task force to the comments, and briefly describes how the proposed guidelines of February 7, 1983, were revised to produce the alternative guidelines of May 27, 1983. 13 references

  5. Preferred place of care and place of death of the general public and cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Yoshida, Saran; Akizuki, Nobuya; Shirahige, Yutaka; Akiyama, Miki; Eguchi, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Dying at a favorite place is one of the important determinants for terminally ill cancer patients. The primary aim was to clarify (1) differences in preferred place of care and place of death among the general public across four areas across Japan and (2) preferred place of care and place of death among community-representative cancer patients. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted on 8,000 randomly selected general population. We examined preferred place of care and place of death using two vignettes and obtained a total of 3,984 (50%) responses. For the pain scenario, approximately 50% of the general public throughout four areas chose home as their preferred place of care; and for the dependent-without-pain scenario, about 40% chose home as preferred place of care. In cancer patients, for both scenarios, approximately 40% chose home as the preferred place of care, and they were significantly less likely to choose home. The most preferred combination of place of care and place of death was home hospice for both groups. Although there were statistically significant differences in preferred place of care and place of death among the four regions, the absolute difference was less than 8%. Independent determinants of choosing home as place of care included concern about family burden and being unable to adequately respond to sudden changes out of working hours. In conclusion, establishing more accessible home and hospice service is strongly required through arranging regional resources to reduce family burden, alleviating patient-perceived burdens, and improving 24-h support at home.

  6. Determinants of General Health, Work-Related Strain, and Burnout in Public Versus Private Emergency Medical Technicians in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaligil, Verda; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan; Erdogan, Mehmet Sarper

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of working for public versus private ambulance services in Turkey and elaborated on predictors of mental, physical, and emotional well-being in emergency medical technicians (EMT-Bs). In this observational cross-sectional study, an 81-question self-report survey was used to gather data about employee demographics, socioeconomic status, educational background, working conditions, and occupational health and workplace safety (OHS), followed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Work-Related Strain Inventory (WRSI), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with three subscales: Emotional Exhaustion (MBI-EE), Depersonalization (MBI-DP), and Diminished Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA). In 2011, 1,038 EMT-Bs worked for publicly operated and 483 EMT-Bs worked for privately owned ambulance services in Istanbul, Turkey, of which 606 (58.4%) and 236 (48.9%) participated in the study (overall participation rate = 55.4%), respectively. On all scales, differences between total mean scores in both sectors were statistically insignificant (p > .05). In the public sector, work locations, false accusations, occupational injuries and diseases, work-related permanent disabilities, and organizational support were found to significantly influence self-reported perceptions of well-being (p well-being. EMT-Bs were asked about aspects of their working lives that need improvement; priority expectations in the public and private sectors were higher earnings (17.5%; 16.7%) and better social opportunities (17.4%; 16.8%). Working conditions, vocational training, and OHS emerged as topics that merit priority attention. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Factors affecting public support for forest-based biorefineries: A comparison of mill towns and the general public in Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, James A.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Teisl, Mario F.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Neupane, Binod

    2014-01-01

    Community views toward the risks and benefits of emerging renewable energy technologies are important factors in facility siting decisions and their eventual success. While the actual socioeconomic and biophysical impacts of proposed industrial developments are fraught with uncertainty, understanding public perceptions is critical in managing costs and benefits to local citizens. Here, we explore the social acceptability of forest-based biorefineries in Maine using random utility modeling to identify how project attributes and citizen characteristics interact to affect level of support. Using a statewide sample (Statewide) and a subsample of mill towns (Mill Towns), we found that: (1) in both samples, individual characteristics had similar coefficients and significance levels except for pro-environment attitudes; (2) the coefficients related to the industry’s negative attributes were notably different between the two samples, while positive attributes were not; (3) in both samples, positive industry attributes such as “producing products from a sustainable resource” and “increased economic development” were the most influential variables in determining the level of support for a new biorefinery in an individual’s community; and (4) in general, Mill Town respondents were more accepting of potential negative attributes such as increased levels of truck traffic, odor, noise, and air and water pollution. - Highlights: • We examined social views of bioproducts processing in mill towns and statewide. • Environmental sustainability was a major concern expressed by both samples. • Views were affected by proximity to processing, and by respondent characteristics. • Public concerns should be considered along the entire supply chain. • Views toward biorefineries may be influenced by views of related industries

  8. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  9. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Dobrow, Mark J

    2011-10-12

    Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.

  10. Attitudes and relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo De Ferrari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  12. Experiences of Public Doctors on Managing Work Difficulties and Maintaining Professional Enthusiasm in Acute General Hospitals: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Andrew Leung; Yau, Adrian Fai To

    2018-01-01

    Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training. Ten public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions. Three themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1) managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients' relatives; (2) constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3) managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1) self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2) seeking help from others; and (3) organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1) personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2) Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3) Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4) Organization support: working with

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: knowledge and opinions among the U.S. general public. State of the science-fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Larkin, Gregory L

    2008-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is undertaken more than 250,000 times annually in the United States. This study was undertaken to determine knowledge and opinions of the general public regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Validated multisite community-based cross-sectional survey. Knowledge and opinions about resuscitative practices and outcomes, using hypothetical clinical scenarios and other social, spiritual, and environmental considerations. Among 1831 participants representing 38 states, markedly inaccurate perceptions of cardiac arrest were reported. Participants' mean estimate of predicted survival rate after cardiac arrest was 54% (median 50%, IQR 35-75%), and mean estimated duration of resuscitative efforts in the ED was 28min (median 15min; IQR 10-30). Projected age and health status were independent predictors of resuscitation preferences in a series of 4 hypothetical scenarios. Participants indicated that physicians should consider patient and family wishes as the most important factors when making resuscitation decisions. Participants considered advanced technology and physician communication to be the most important actions during attempted resuscitation. Inaccurate perceptions regarding resuscitation and survival rates exist among the lay public. Participants indicated strong preferences regarding resuscitation and advance directives.

  14. Stigmatization and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Syuhada, A R Nur

    2011-09-01

    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.

  15. Radiation sensors for medical, industrial and environmental applications: how to engage with schools and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, B.; Campos Rivera, N.; Gray, R.; Powell, A.; Thomson, F.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation, radiation detection and radiation protection are topics in physics and its applications which generate a wide interest in the public. This interest is either generated through medical procedures, applications of nuclear energy or nuclear accidents. The technical nature of these topics usually means that they are not well covered in the normal education stream, opening many opportunities to engage with schools and the general public to showcase the latest developments and their applications. The detection of radiation is at the very heart of understanding radiation, its fascination and associated fears. The outreach group of the nuclear physics group at the University of Glasgow demonstrates a number of successful outreach activities centred around radiation detection and described in this paper, focusing on activities delivered to a variety of audiences and related to applied nuclear physics work within our group. These concentrate on the application of novel sensor technologies for nuclear decommissioning, medical imaging modalities and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity. The paper will provide some necessary background material as well as practical instructions for some of the activities developed.

  16. Development of quick scan whole body monitor for in-vivo monitoring of radiation workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhla, Rajesh; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whole body monitoring of radiation workers at nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement and is recommended for assessment of internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides. Additionally, nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, Fukushima and radiological accidents like Goiania have clearly highlighted the need for in-vivo monitoring of the members of the public during and/or after such accidents. To cater to these requirements, a high throughput, fast screening, standing linear geometry Quick Scan Whole Body Monitor (QS-WBM) is designed, fabricated and commissioned to measure internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides (E γ >200keV) incorporated in the human body. The system is designed to achieve sensitivity comparable with conventional WBM for 1 - 2 minutes counting time and to accommodate different body sizes of Indian occupational workers. It is calibrated using BARC reference Bottle Mannequin Absorption (BOMAB) type phantom and also using a family of BOMAB type phantoms representative of different age groups namely 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20- years. The developed system will also be highly useful during emergency situations when large numbers of persons are to be monitored in short interval of time. (author)

  17. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  18. What services are public? What aspects of performance are to be ranked? The case of “services of general interest”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we focus on the difficulties in evaluating the performance of so-called services of general interest. These services generally include such services as water and electricity supply, telephony, postal services, and public transport, where providers are subjected to

  19. Estimating the increment of dose in members of the public due to discharges from norm facilities located in high background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on the environmental monitoring of a monazite facility located in a region which environmental media contain a large range of values of natural radionuclide concentration, this paper addresses the challenge of applying radiological protection standards to facilities when considering the heterogeneous radionuclides distribution in the environment. By side of the dose due immersion in its water, the conceptual model pointed out the lagoon water as the main route for the contamination of fish, milk and beef. However, in the lagoon watercourse the contents of 228 Ra and 226 Ra vary from 0.08 to 0.36 Bq/l and 0.12 to 1.52 Bq/l, respectively; additionally, natural variability on the content of the main radionuclides in food ranges, e.g., from 226 Ra and 0.01 to 0.60 Bq/l for 228 Ra in milk, and from 0.15 to 1.37 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 0.20 to 2.88 Bq/kg for 228 Ra in fish. To comply with an optimised dose level below a dose constraint that is lower than the dose limit for the public, as defined in Brazilian standards, may be a difficult task as dose sums up over several different exposure pathways. The total natural variability, including several environmental pathways, such as external exposure and ingestion of water, milk and fish, is far larger (values ranging from 0.5 to 2.7 mSv/y) than the increment of dose to comply with (value of 0.3 mSy/y). (author)

  20. The general public's perceptions and use of antimicrobials in Trinidad and Tobago Las percepciones del público general y el uso de antimicrobianos en Trinidad y Tabago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Parimi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the general public's perceptions and use of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island republic in the Caribbean. Methods. This prospective study surveyed 824 randomly selected households listed in the telephone directory, from November 1998 to January 1999. Through telephone interviews we determined knowledge about antibiotics and beliefs concerning their safety and efficacy. We studied the influence of age, gender, education, and having private health insurance on knowledge, self-medication, storing medication at home for emergency use ("hoarding", and asking a private doctor to prescribe antibiotics ("demand prescribing". Results. For the 824 telephone calls that the interviewers completed, 753 of the households agreed to participate (91.4% response rate. Of those 753 participants, 699 of them (93% knew the term "antibiotic," 29% (206/699 said it was a drug for bacterial infections, and 25% (170/690 had asked a doctor for an antibiotic prescription. Penicillin was correctly identified as an antibiotic across age, gender, and education categories, but 36% of respondents incorrectly said Benadryl (diphenhydramine, a common over-the-counter cough and cold formulation, was an antibiotic. Gender was not significantly associated with knowledge of antibiotic safety, with self-medication, or with hoarding antibiotics. On the other hand, completion of tertiary (university education was significantly associated with correct knowledge of the safety of antibiotics and whether or not they could cure all infections. Of the various antimicrobials, beta-lactams were the ones that survey respondents had used most frequently in the preceding year, and 20% of antibiotics users had used multiple antibiotics in that period. In comparison to persons with private health insurance, more individuals without private health insurance said that antibiotics are safe and do not have side effects, and more of them also incorrectly called

  1. Attitudes toward clinical autopsy in unexpected patient deaths in Japan: a nation-wide survey of the general public and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Maeda, Shoichi; Starkey, Jay; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2012-12-01

    Autopsy is a useful tool for understanding the cause and manner of unexpected patient death. However, the attitudes of the general public and physicians in Japan about clinical autopsy are limited. To describe the beliefs of the general public about whether autopsy should be performed and ascertain if they would actually request one given specific clinical situations where patient death occurred with the additional variable of medical error. To compare these attitudes with previously obtained attitudes of physicians practising at Japanese teaching hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the general public. We sent standardised questionnaires in 2010 to a randomly selected non-physician adult population using a survey company for participant selection. Respondents gave their opinions about the necessity of autopsy and how they might act given various clinical scenarios of patient death. We compared these results with those of a previous survey of Japanese physicians conducted in 2009. Of the 2300 eligible general adult population, 1575 (68.5%) responded. The majority of the general public indicated they believed an autopsy was necessary. However, in cases of unclear medical error or unclear cause and effect relationship of medical care and patient death, the general public were much less likely to indicate they would actually request an autopsy than were physicians (pcase of error related to death is underway. The results from this study will be important in informing related decisions.

  2. Factors affecting public dissatisfaction with urban family physician plan: A general population based study in Fars Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Imani, Bahareh

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the level of public satisfaction with a family physician plan as well as the relevant factors in this respect, can be employed as valuable tools in identifying quality of services. To determine the factors affecting public dissatisfaction with an urban family physician plan in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2014 through June 2015 on Fars Province residents in Iran, selected based on cluster sampling method. The data collection instrument was comprised of a two-part checklist including demographic information and items related to dissatisfaction with the family physician plan, specialists, para-clinic services, pharmacy, physicians on shift work, emergency services, and family physician assistants. Data were described by SPSS 20. In this study, 1,020 individuals (524 males, 496 females) were investigated. Based on the results, the most frequent factor affecting dissatisfaction with physicians was their single work shifts and unavailability (53%). In terms of dissatisfaction with family physicians' specialist colleagues and para-clinic services, the most common factors were related to difficulty in obtaining a referral form (41.5%) and making appointments (21.6%), respectively. Given the level of dissatisfaction with pharmacies, the significant factor was reported to be excessive delay in medication delivery (31.6%); and in terms of physicians on shift work and emergency services, the most important factor was lower work hours for family physicians (9.2%). It seems that, the most common causes of dissatisfaction with the urban family physician plan are due to the short duration of services, obtaining a referral form and making appointments, and providing prescribed medications.

  3. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya'u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse.

  4. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mohamed Elkalmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0. Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%, Malay (83.8%, Muslims (83.8%, singles (69%, and employed (75.8%, with about 83 (29.9% of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4. About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26% have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02. Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5% and cheaper price (40.8%. Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse.

  5. Experiences of Public Doctors on Managing Work Difficulties and Maintaining Professional Enthusiasm in Acute General Hospitals: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leung Luk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOverseas studies suggest that 10–20% of doctors are depressed, 30–45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training.MethodTen public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions.ResultsThree themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1 managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients’ relatives; (2 constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3 managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1 self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2 seeking help from others; and (3 organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1 personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2 Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3 Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of public health doctors towards pandemic influenza compared to the general population in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Semyonov, Leda; Mannocci, Alice; Boccia, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To study differences between public health physicians' and general population's knowledge, attitude, and behaviours towards an influenza pandemic. During winter 2009, an anonymous questionnaire online (www.ijph.it) of 34 questions was available for participants, structured into three parts: socio-demographic information, people's knowledge, and behaviours about influenza H1N1. 836 persons were interviewed (335 physicians and 501 not physicians). Of these, 50.8% of physicians and 78.1% of not physicians were aged less than 50 years and 57.6% of physicians and 31.7% of not physicians were male. Physicians were more interested to be updated about the pandemic (90.6% versus 88.4% of not physicians; p = 0.003); not physicians were more inclined to avoid crowded places (29.7% versus 17.6% of physicians; p health facilities' internal communication (33.1%), while for not physicians being watching the national television news (34.1%) and surfing the internet (30.9%). During the spread of the pandemic flu, a lot of information was propagated chaotically. The information given were not always truthful and often they were interpreted incorrectly or sometimes only partially understood by the population, and this needs to be taken into account for future successful communication in cases of emergency.

  7. Communicating polar science to the general public: sharing the social media experience of @OceanSeaIceNPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.

  8. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2018-03-01

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.

  9. Health Information-Seeking Patterns of the General Public and Indications for Disease Surveillance: Register-Based Study Using Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesälä, Samuli; Virtanen, Mikko J; Sane, Jussi; Mustonen, Pekka; Kaila, Minna; Helve, Otto

    2017-11-06

    People using the Internet to find information on health issues, such as specific diseases, usually start their search from a general search engine, for example, Google. Internet searches such as these may yield results and data of questionable quality and reliability. Health Library is a free-of-charge medical portal on the Internet providing medical information for the general public. Physician's Databases, an Internet evidence-based medicine source, provides medical information for health care professionals (HCPs) to support their clinical practice. Both databases are available throughout Finland, but the latter is used only by health professionals and pharmacies. Little is known about how the general public seeks medical information from medical sources on the Internet, how this behavior differs from HCPs' queries, and what causes possible differences in behavior. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the general public's and HCPs' information-seeking trends from Internet medical databases differ seasonally and temporally. In addition, we aimed to evaluate whether the general public's information-seeking trends could be utilized for disease surveillance and whether media coverage could affect these seeking trends. Lyme disease, serving as a well-defined disease model with distinct seasonal variation, was chosen as a case study. Two Internet medical databases, Health Library and Physician's Databases, were used. We compared the general public's article openings on Lyme disease from Health Library to HCPs' article openings on Lyme disease from Physician's Databases seasonally across Finland from 2011 to 2015. Additionally, media publications related to Lyme disease were searched from the largest and most popular media websites in Finland. Both databases, Health Library and Physician's Databases, show visually similar patterns in temporal variations of article openings on Lyme disease in Finland from 2011 to 2015. However, Health Library openings show not only

  10. Data on motivational factors of the medical and nursing staff of a Greek Public Regional General Hospital during the economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Marianna; Konstantinos, Mitosis; Talias, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we present the data related to motivational factors given by the medical (n=118) and nursing (n=217) staff, of a Greek Public General Hospital during a period of financial austerity. The data collection has been based on a structured self-administrable questionnaire which was used in a previous survey in Cyprus (Chatzicharalambous, 2015) [1]. The incentives-rewards included amount in a total to 11 (both financial and non-financial). The data contains 4 parts: (1) demographics, (2) assessment of the degree to which this hospital provided such incentives-rewards, (3) personal assessment of the participants about the significance of these incentive-rewards and (4) to what extent these incentives-rewards have increased or decreased over the last five years due to the economic crisis. The sample was analyzed as a whole on demographics and by a professional subgroup (doctors and nurses) for the other three parts. The data include quantitative tables for all parts. Finally include three tables contain multilevel models.

  11. Data on motivational factors of the medical and nursing staff of a Greek Public Regional General Hospital during the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Charalambous

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the data related to motivational factors given by the medical (n=118 and nursing (n=217 staff, of a Greek Public General Hospital during a period of financial austerity. The data collection has been based on a structured self-administrable questionnaire which was used in a previous survey in Cyprus (Chatzicharalambous, 2015 [1]. The incentives-rewards included amount in a total to 11 (both financial and non-financial. The data contains 4 parts: (1 demographics, (2 assessment of the degree to which this hospital provided such incentives-rewards, (3 personal assessment of the participants about the significance of these incentive-rewards and (4 to what extent these incentives-rewards have increased or decreased over the last five years due to the economic crisis. The sample was analyzed as a whole on demographics and by a professional subgroup (doctors and nurses for the other three parts. The data include quantitative tables for all parts. Finally include three tables contain multilevel models.

  12. An internet-based survey in Japan concerning social distance and stigmatization toward the mentally ill among doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoo; Hanya, Manako; Kishi, Masanori; Kondo, Yuki; Cates, Marshall E; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-28

    Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders tends to be manifested as negative attitudes or behavior toward the mentally ill. It has negative influences, such as leading to difficulty in establishing trust-based relationships and interfering with medical treatment. In order to reduce such stigma, it is necessary to clarify its extent and characteristics in healthcare professionals. Considering this, an Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted, involving doctors (n = 186), nurses (n = 161), and pharmacists (n = 192) in comparison with the general public (n = 331), and using the Whatley Social Distance Scale (WSDS) and Index of Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (IATM) as stigma-related indices. Median total WSDS scores and interquartile range were as follows: doctors: 15.5(12.0-18.0), nurses: 14.0(12.0-16.5), pharmacists: 15.0(13.0-17.0), and the general public: 16.0(13.0-18.0). Similarly, median IATM scores were as follows: doctors: 39.0(36.0-42.0), nurses: 39.0(37.0-43.0), pharmacists: 40.0(36.0-42.0), and the general public: 37.0(33.0-41.0). IATM scores were significantly higher in the professional groups than the general public group. Both healthcare professionals and the general public with prior exposure to mental illness were more favorable attitudes toward the mentally ill. Especially among healthcare professionals, they working in psychiatric departments were more favorable attitudes. These results suggest that the stigma of healthcare professionals toward the mentally ill was shown to have a smaller and relatively favorable attitude than that of the general public. In order to correct the stigma it was suggested that a good contact experience with the patient such as work and training in psychiatry is effective. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Aesthetic outcome of cleft lip and palate treatment. Perceptions of patients, families, and health professionals compared to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Papamanou, Despina A; Christou, Panagiotis; Topouzelis, Nikolaos

    2013-10-01

    The aesthetic outcome of cleft treatment is of great importance due to its complex management and the psychosocial consequences of this defect. The aim of the study was to assess the aesthetic evaluations of patients following cleft surgery by various groups and investigate potential associations of the assessments with life quality parameters. Head photos of 12 adult patients with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate were evaluated by laypeople and professionals. A questionnaire was distributed and answered by the patients and their parents. Intra-panel agreement was high (α > 0.8) for laypeople and professionals. Between-groups agreement was high for both laypeople and professionals, but not when patients and/or parents were tested. Professionals, parents, and patients were more satisfied with patients' appearance than laypeople, although in general all groups were not highly satisfied. Low satisfaction with aesthetics correlated with increased self-reported influence of the cleft in the patients' social activity and professional life (0.56 < rho < 0.74, p < 0.05). These findings highlight the observed negative influence of the cleft on the patient's social activity and professional life and underline the need for the highest quality of surgical outcome for this group of patients. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing Interest of Mass Communication Media and the General Public in the Distribution of Tweets About Mental Disorders: Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mon, Miguel Angel; Asunsolo Del Barco, Angel; Lahera, Guillermo; Quintero, Javier; Ferre, Francisco; Pereira-Sanchez, Victor; Ortuño, Felipe; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-05-28

    The contents of traditional communication media and new internet social media reflect the interests of society. However, certain barriers and a lack of attention towards mental disorders have been previously observed. The objective of this study is to measure the relevance of influential American mainstream media outlets for the distribution of psychiatric information and the interest generated in these topics among their Twitter followers. We investigated tweets generated about mental health conditions and diseases among 15 mainstream general communication media outlets in the United States of America between January 2007 and December 2016. Our study strategy focused on identifying several psychiatric terms of primary interest. The number of retweets generated from the selected tweets was also investigated. As a control, we examined tweets generated about the main causes of death in the United States of America, the main chronic neurological degenerative diseases, and HIV. In total, 13,119 tweets about mental health disorders sent by the American mainstream media outlets were analyzed. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution but preferential accumulation for a select number of conditions. Suicide and gender dysphoria accounted for half of the number of tweets sent. Variability in the number of tweets related to each control disease was also found (5998). The number of tweets sent regarding each different psychiatric or organic disease analyzed was significantly correlated with the number of retweets generated by followers (1,030,974 and 424,813 responses to mental health disorders and organic diseases, respectively). However, the probability of a tweet being retweeted differed significantly among the conditions and diseases analyzed. Furthermore, the retweeted to tweet ratio was significantly higher for psychiatric diseases than for the control diseases (odds ratio 1.11, CI 1.07-1.14; Pmedia outlets and the general public demonstrate a preferential

  15. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Libraries Serving the General Public. Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations; Round Table--International Association of Metropolitan City Libraries; Round Table on Mobile Libraries. Booklet 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The seven papers in this collection continue the presentations from the Division of Libraries Serving the General Public: (1) "Multicultural Activities for Children and Young People at the Munich International Youth Library" (German and English versions; Lioba Betten); (2) "Multicultural Literature and Library Services for Children:…

  16. Analysis of the public debate on health hazards due to high-voltage transmission lines. Recommendations for the radiation protection related communication with respect of grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Florian; Kuehne, Olaf; Jenal, Corinna; Sanio, Tina; Langer, Kerstin; Igel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    With its phase-out of nuclear power generation and the expansion of renewably sourced energy, the German energy turnaround ('Energiewende') has radically changed existing power supply structures, with wide geographical repercussions. One aspect of this is changes to the national power grid. Existing networks are to be upgraded and new long-distance north-south power-lines built. This creates resistance and conflict. Commissioned by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, and the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, the research project entitled Analysis of public discourse on the health impacts of high-voltage power lines - recommendations for action in radiation-protection discourse related to the extension of the power grid starts precisely at the point of conflict. It first investigates from a discourse theory perspective how power grid extensions and possible health-related consequences are communicatively constructed, and what argumentation patterns dominate the discussion. From this it derives recommendations for action, with a focus on health politics information and discourse. Behind the research project stands a socio-constructivist discourse theory that sees 'social reality' not as a given but as a socially evolved entity, and its meanings, therefore, not as stable but as subject to change. The central mechanism for the communication of an objectivized social world is language. The analyses undertaken here of power grid extension are based on a methodological mix of quantitative and qualitative elements that facilitates both the differentiation of central issues and detailed examination of individual aspects. Analysis focuses on the discussion of health issues not only in the relevant literature and on civic initiative websites, but also in the first 50 Google hits, in articles from the Sueddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) and Focus, and in talk shows. The resultant discourse analysis

  17. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  18. USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, S.; di Toro, G.; Collettini, C.; Usems Team; Glass Team

    2011-12-01

    USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evident in the two ongoing projects that deal with earthquake physics, as these projects are increasingly recognized in their scientific community. We can say that putting excellence at the heart of European Research strongly contributes to the construction of a European knowledge-based society. From a researcher point-of-view one of the most challenging aspects of these projects is to approach and convey the results of the projects to a general public, contributing to the construction of knowledge-based society. Luckily, media interest and the availability of a number of new communication tools facilitate the outreach of scientific achievements. The largest earthquakes during the last ten years (e.g. Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011) have received widespread attention in the media world (TV, W.W.W., Newspaper and so on) for months, and successful research projects such as those above also become media protagonists, gaining their space in the media bullring. The USEMS principal investigator and his team have participated in several dissemination events in the Mass Media, such as interviews wit Italian and French TV national broadcasts (RAI Due TG2, RAI Uno Unomattina, Rai Tre Geo & Geo, FRANCE 2); interviews in scientific journals: SCIENCE (Sept. 2010), newspapers and web (Corriere della Sera, Il Gazzettino, Il Messagero, La Stampa, Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio (RadioRai Uno, RadioRai Tre Scienza); documentary "Die Eroberung der Alpen" produced by Tangram

  19. Tennessee Public Infrastructure Needs Inventory Assessment for FY 1998. A Commission Report to the 101st General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harry A.; Norman, John F, .; McClure, C. Bennett, II

    This report represents the first effort by any public or private agency or organization to provide a comprehensive assessment of Tennessee's public infrastructure needs. Hundreds of local government officials and private citizens contributed information to this research. The main participants in the infrastructure inventory were the local…

  20. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    covering the period from the Middle Ages to the present day - give their voice in the honouring of the two scholars for their musical scholarship. As it may be seen from the table of contents, the publication covers a broad range both in time and in topics, which are all included in the scholarly sphere...

  1. Public School Principals' Experiences with Interpreting and Implementing Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Law (Connecticut General Statute Section 10-222d): A Statewide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana J.; Nestler-Rusack, Donna; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: In June 2002, the State of Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) passed Public Act 02-119, An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Section 1 mandated that each local and regional board of education (school district) develop a policy to address bullying in its schools. Conn. Gen. Statute…

  2. 14477 - Order of 27 May 1993 publishing the agreement of the Council of Ministers on informing the general public in case of a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    These Regulations give effect in Spain to the Council of the European Communities Directive 89/618/Euratom on informing the general public about health protection measures to be applied and steps to be taken in the event of a radiological emergency. (NEA)

  3. EUROPEAN VOLCANOES' NIGHT: building a link between general public and volcanologists in a relaxed and welcoming setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David; González-Cárdenas, María E.; Baldrich, Laura; Solana, Carmen; Nave, Rosella; Calvari, Sonia; Harangi, Szabolcs; Chouraqui, Floriane; Dionis, Samara; Silva, Sonia V.; Forjaz, Victor H.; D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    European Volcanoes' Night (www.volcanoesnight.com) is a "volcanic eruption" of art, culture, music, gastronomy, school activities, geotourism, exhibitions and scientific debates. The event aims to bring together members of the general public with scientists who work on the study of volcanoes, in order to meet and ask questions in a relaxed and welcoming setting. It is open to both locals and tourists who appreciate the beauty and power of this natural phenomena. This celebration gives attendees, and in particular young people, the opportunity to meet researchers in a relaxed and festive setting, which will feature many activities and which will be used to highlight the attractiveness of a career research on one of the most attractive natural phenomena; volcanoes. The 2016 European Volcanoes' Night was held at 16 different municipalities of Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Cape Verde on September 30, 2016, coinciding with the celebration of "European Researchers' Night" held annually throughout Europe and neighbouring countries the last Friday of September. The spirit of the European VolcanoeśNight fits perfectly in the aim of the ERN, trying to close the gap between the scientific community and the rest of the society. In this case, volcanoes are the driving force of this event, celebrating the singularity of living on volcanoes, and how these affect our daily lives, our culture and our heritage. European VolcanoeśNight also celebrates volcano science, with avantgarde talks and presentations on different volcanic topics and becomes a meeting point for children discovering volcanoes as a pastime or a leisure topic, making this event a must for tourists and locals wherever has been held. At the end of 2016 European VolcanoeśNight, almost 150 activities were performed for thousands of spectators, a big success that confirms something as crucial as science as a communication issue, and as a tool to strengthen the ties between researchers

  4. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia and long-QT syndrome in a new form of congenital generalized lipodystrophy with muscle rippling (CGL4 due to PTRF-CAVIN mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rajab

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated eight families with a novel subtype of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL4 of whom five members had died from sudden cardiac death during their teenage years. ECG studies revealed features of long-QT syndrome, bradycardia, as well as supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias. Further symptoms comprised myopathy with muscle rippling, skeletal as well as smooth-muscle hypertrophy, leading to impaired gastrointestinal motility and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in some children. Additionally, we found impaired bone formation with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and atlanto-axial instability. Homozygosity mapping located the gene within 2 Mbp on chromosome 17. Prioritization of 74 candidate genes with GeneDistiller for high expression in muscle and adipocytes suggested PTRF-CAVIN (Polymerase I and transcript release factor/Cavin as the most probable candidate leading to the detection of homozygous mutations (c.160delG, c.362dupT. PTRF-CAVIN is essential for caveolae biogenesis. These cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal vesicles are involved in signal-transduction and vesicular trafficking and reside primarily on adipocytes, myocytes, and osteoblasts. Absence of PTRF-CAVIN did not influence abundance of its binding partner caveolin-1 and caveolin-3. In patient fibroblasts, however, caveolin-1 failed to localize toward the cell surface and electron microscopy revealed reduction of caveolae to less than 3%. Transfection of full-length PTRF-CAVIN reestablished the presence of caveolae. The loss of caveolae was confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM in combination with fluorescent imaging. PTRF-CAVIN deficiency thus presents the phenotypic spectrum caused by a quintessential lack of functional caveolae.

  5. Making ATLAS Data from CERN Accessible to the General Public: The Development and Evaluation of a Learning Resource in Experimental Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2243922; Ekelin, Svea Magdalena; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Christiansen, Iben

    2017-08-15

    In 2016, the ATLAS experiment at CERN released data from 100 trillion proton-proton collisions to the general public. In connection to this release the ATLAS Outreach group has developed several tools for visualizing and analyzing the data, one of which is a Histogram analyzer. The focus of this project is to bridge the gap between the general public's knowledge in physics and what is needed to use this Histogram analyzer. The project consists of both the development and an evaluation of a learning resource that explains experimental particle physics for a general public audience. The learning resource is a website making use of analogies and two perspectives on learning: Variation Theory and Cognitive Load Theory. The evaluation of the website was done using a survey with 10 respondents and it focused on whether analogies and the perspectives on learning helped their understanding. In general the respondents found the analogies to be helpful for their learning, and to some degree they found the explanations ...

  6. What Surgical Education the Speciality Offers? Perception of Role of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by 1200 Healthcare Professionals, Students and the General Public in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadepally, Ashwant Kumar; Sinha, Ramen

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the perception of Oral and maxillofacial surgery by healthcare professionals, students and general public. A questionnaire form was created that listed ten clinical situations, and given by hand to 1200 individuals, divided into six groups: group 1, medical professionals; group 2, Specialties of dentistry; group 3, general dentists; group 4, medical students; group 5, dental students; and group 6, general public, each comprising 200 individuals. Respondents were asked to indicate who they would expect to treat them if they had one of the specified conditions listed in the questionnaire. We present the results and current awareness levels of this simple questionnaire. The present study addresses the common issue raised by many authors, 'What surgical education the speciality offers?' especially to medical professionals, medical students and general public to enhance an appropriate referral. Most of the respondents in groups 2, 3 and 5 agreed that specific conditions listed in the questionnaire were within the domain of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but such response was not seen in groups 1, 4 and 6 ( p  oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be 50.2%. The onus of creating and improving the awareness and perception of our specialty lies on oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Unified efforts at individual as well as global level will help achieve this goal.

  7. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines.

  8. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman WE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Kaman,1 Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou,2 John P Hays11Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: The proper development and implementation of point-of-care (POC diagnostics requires knowledge of the perceived requirements and barriers to their implementation. To determine the current requirements and perceived barriers to the introduction of POC diagnostics in the field of medical microbiology (MM-POC a prospective online survey (TEMPOtest-QC was established.Methods and results: The TEMPOtest-QC survey was online between February 2011 and July 2012 and targeted the medical community, POC test diagnostic manufacturers, general practitioners, and the general public. In total, 293 individuals responded to the survey, including 91 (31% medical microbiologists, 39 (13% nonmedical microbiologists, 25 (9% employees of POC test manufacturers, and 138 (47% members of the general public. Responses were received from 18 different European countries, with the largest percentage of these living in The Netherlands (52%. The majority (>50% of medical specialists regarded the development of MM-POC for blood culture and hospital acquired infections as “absolutely necessary”, but were much less favorable towards their use in the home environment. Significant differences in perceptions between medical specialists and the general public included the: (1 Effect on quality of patient care; (2 Ability to better monitor patients; (3 Home testing and the doctor-patient relationship; and (4 MM-POC interpretation. Only 34.7% of the general public is willing to pay more than €10 ($13 for a single MM-POC test, with 85.5% preferring to purchase their MM-POC test from a pharmacy.Conclusion: The requirements for the proper implementation of MM-POC were found to be generally similar between medical

  9. GENERAL CHANGES AS A CONDITION OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION - THE CASE OF THE TAX ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, Mario; Budić, Hrvoje; Pišmiš, Vjekoslav

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency has long played a central role in the contested terrain of public administration values. This paper analyzes the existing business processes and explores how to determine the optimal model of business processes in the Tax Administration. The goal of this model of bussines is to increase business efficiency and reflecting on all users of the Tax Administration.

  10. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts' Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir T Dimitrov

    Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance.We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations.Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20-180 days in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%; and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%. These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%-6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17-23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence.There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However, individuals who become

  11. Estimation of concentration of naturally occurring 210Po in dietary items collected from Tarapur site and public dose due to ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    210 Po is one of the naturally occurring radioactive (T 1/2 : 138.4 d, Energy: 5.297 MeV) member of 238 U series which delivers a significantly high natural dose through ingestion because of its high specific activity (165 TBq/g). The main source of 210 Po in atmosphere is 222 Rn. The paper presents the results of analysis of 210 Po in different terrestrial and aquatic environmental matrices like marine seafood, vegetable, drinking water, crop etc and estimation of population dose due to their consumption at Tarapur, west coast of India. The annual Committed Effective Dose (CED) received by the member of Tarapur population through consumption of these food items estimated to be 102.4 μSV which is 6.3 % of the total internal dose from natural sources. Contribution from marine food items was found to be significant (78.7%) compared to other terrestrial food items. (author)

  12. The control of the exposure of the general public to radioactive materials in the environs of the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE) Aldermaston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallop, R.G.C.; Warren, B.B.; Hannan, A.M.; Saxby, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    The Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (AWRE) at Aldermaston discharges very small amounts of radioactive materials to the local environment. Calculations based on source information indicate that the resultant dose to the general public is less than 0.1% of the local natural radiation background. This conclusion is confirmed by the detailed and extensive environmental monitoring programme carried out by AWRE in the surrounding locality. (author)

  13. Radiation safety practice at nuclear power stations and estimation of dose burdens to the USSR general public in the context of the country's nuclear power development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Turovskij, V.D.; Buldakov, L.A.; Lusev, N.G.; Pavlovskij, O.A.; Parkhomenko, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper sets forth the main features of the State system of health protection for staff and the general public, and likewise the essentials of environmental protection. The principles of standardizing radiation factors are given for power station personnel and for the general public, together with the main provisions of the health Standards and Rules for radiation protection at present valid in the USSR. Data are quoted on the radiation situation at nuclear power stations and on the size of releases of radioactive aerosols and liquid effluents to the environment. The paper pays particular attention to analyses of the radiation situation in districts where nuclear power stations are situated and also to the type and scope of monitoring of radioactive environmental contamination. An analysis of the coefficients achieved with Soviet pressurized water (WWER), high-power channel-type (RBMK) and fast (BN) reactors currently in large-scale use shows that in terms both of release levels of radioactive substances and of the dose burdens to staff and general public these reactors are comparable with the best foreign nuclear power installations. Values actually measured and values calculated for the basic parameters of the radiation situation in areas of the USSR where nuclear power stations are situated confirm the safety of these facilities as regards the health of the general public and the extremely low levels of their effects on the environment. In conclusion, the paper quotes estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent to the USSR population expected to result from implementation of the country's nuclear power programme up to the year 2000. Radiation safety problems associated with nuclear power production which still require solution are enumerated. (author)

  14. Effort-reward and work-life imbalance, general stress and burnout among employees of a large public hospital in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hämmig, Oliver; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg F

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and work-life imbalance (WLI) are recognised risk factors for work stress and burnout but have not been investigated conjointly so far and compared with each other in this regard. The present cross-sectional study provides initial evidence by studying associations of ERI and WLI with general stress and burnout simultaneously. METHODS: The study was based on survey data collected in 2007 among the personnel of a large public hospital in the canton...

  15. Missing citations due to exact reference matching: Analysis of a random sample from WoS. Are publications from peripheral countries disadvantaged?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, P.

    2016-07-01

    Citation counts of scientific research contributions are one fundamental data in scientometrics. Accuracy and completeness of citation links are therefore crucial data quality issues (Moed, 2005, Ch. 13). However, despite the known flaws of reference matching algorithms, usually no attempts are made to incorporate uncertainty about citation counts into indicators. This study is a step towards that goal. Particular attention is paid to the question whether publications from countries not using basic Latin script are differently affected by missed citations. The proprietary reference matching procedure of Web of Science (WoS) is based on (near) exact agreement of cited reference data (normalized during processing) to the target papers bibliographical data. Consequently, the procedure has near-optimal precision but incomplete recall - it is known to miss some slightly inaccurate reference links (Olensky, 2015). However, there has been no attempt so far to estimate the rate of missed citations by a principled method for a random sample. For this study a simple random sample of WoS source papers was drawn and it was attempted to find all reference strings of WoS indexed documents that refer to them, in particular inexact matches. The objective is to give a statistical estimate of the proportion of missed citations and to describe the relationship of the number of found citations to the number of missed citations, i.e. the conditional error distribution. The empirical error distribution is statistically analyzed and modelled. (Author)

  16. An analysis of potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis for the general public in the event of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, H.; Behling, K. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Amarasooriya, H.; Kotsch, J. [Scientech, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A generic difficulty encountered in cost-benefit analyses is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI available for public use, and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects predicted to be realized from the availability of that KI (i.e., the benefits), are defined in the commensurate units of dollars.

  17. Centennial Challenges Program Overview: How NASA Successfully Involves the General Public in the Solving of Current Technology Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Kim, Tony; Sudnik, Janet; Sivak, Amy; Porter, Molly; Cylar, Rosaling; Cavanaugh, Dominique; Krome, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centennial Challenges Program, part of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), addresses key technology needs of NASA and the nation, while facilitating new sources of innovation outside the traditional community. This is done by the direct engagement of the public at large, through the offering of Congressional authorized prize purses and associated challenges developed by NASA and the aerospace community and set up as a competition awarding the prize money for achieving the specified technology goal.

  18. An analysis of potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis for the general public in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, H.; Behling, K.; Amarasooriya, H.; Kotsch, J.

    1995-02-01

    A generic difficulty encountered in cost-benefit analyses is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI available for public use, and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects predicted to be realized from the availability of that KI (i.e., the benefits), are defined in the commensurate units of dollars

  19. SPEEDI: a computer code system for the real-time prediction of radiation dose to the public due to an accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko; Chino, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    1985-10-01

    SPEEDI, a computer code system for prediction of environmental doses from radioactive materials accidentally released from a nuclear plant has been developed to assist the organizations responsible for an emergency planning. For realistic simulation, have been developed a model which statistically predicts the basic wind data and then calculates the three-dimensional mass consistent wind field by interpolating these predicted data, and a model for calculation of the diffusion of released materials using a combined model of random-walk and PICK methods. These calculation in the system is carried out in conversational mode with a computer so that we may use the system with ease in an emergency. SPEEDI has also versatile files, which make it easy to control the complicated flows of calculation. In order to attain a short computation time, a large-scale computer with performance of 25 MIPS and a vector processor of maximum 250 MFLOPS are used for calculation of the models so that quick responses have been made. Simplified models are also prepared for calculation in a minicomputer widely used by local governments and research institutes, although the precision of calculation as same with the above models can not be expected to obtain. The present report outlines the structure and functions of SPEEDI, methods for prediction of the wind field and the models for calculation of the concentration of released materials in air and on the ground, and the doses to the public. Some of the diffusion models have been compared with the field experiments which had been carried out as a part of the SPEEDI development program. The report also discusses the reliability of the diffusion models on the basis of the compared results, and shows that they can reasonably simulate the diffusion in the internal boundary layer which commonly occurs near the coastal region. (J.P.N.)

  20. Summary of State Policy Regulations for Public Sector Labor Relations: Statutes, Attorney Generals' Opinions and Selected Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    This chart represents a state-by-state compilation of the numerous statutes, executive orders, attorney general opinions, and court decisions which govern state and local government labor relations. Where available, information on each authority includes: (1) administrative body, (2) bargaining rights, (3) recognition rights and procedure, (4)…

  1. CREATION OF PUBLIC DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR IMPROVING OF GENERAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Yu. Pylypchuk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems that must be addressed for digital educational resources to meet current requirements and to ensure their general education, analyzed ways to solve these problems abroad, particularly in the Russian Federation, and suggested possible ways to address them in Ukraine.

  2. Primary care and public health a natural alliance? The introduction of the guidelines for obesity and undernutrition of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Avendonk, Mariëlle J P; Mensink, Paul A J S; Drenthen, A J M Ton; van Binsbergen, Jaap J

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally and forms a huge public health problem. On the other hand, the prevalence of malnutrition or undernutrition is substantial, especially in nursing homes or in the elderly at home. Primary care and public health are separate disciplines. But in the field of nutrition and other lifestyle-related interventions, there are many direct and indirect interfaces for over- as well as undernutrition. The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) published the Practice Guideline Obesity in adults and children to lead GPs in this process and to bridge the gap with public health. The same applies for the recently published National Primary Care Cooperation Agreement Undernutrition on the collaboration of primary care workers to enhance awareness and early intervention in case of nutritional impairment. This article goes into the background as well as the content of these two NHG products and the implications for daily practice. An attempt is made to connect primary care and public health in this matter. Particularly in the case of obesity, a close relationship with public health is of vital importance.

  3. Malignant mesothelioma due to non-occupational asbestos exposure from the Italian national surveillance system (ReNaM): epidemiology and public health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Bonafede, Michela; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Marzio, Davide; Scarselli, Alberto; Verardo, Marina; Mirabelli, Dario; Gennaro, Valerio; Mensi, Carolina; Schallemberg, Gert; Merler, Enzo; Negro, Corrado; Romanelli, Antonio; Chellini, Elisabetta; Silvestri, Stefano; Cocchioni, Mario; Pascucci, Cristiana; Stracci, Fabrizio; Ascoli, Valeria; Trafficante, Luana; Angelillo, Italo; Musti, Marina; Cavone, Domenica; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Tallarigo, Federico; Tumino, Rosario; Melis, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Italy produced and imported a large amount of raw asbestos, up to the ban in 1992, with a peak in the period between 1976 and 1980 at about 160,000 tons/year. The National Register of Mesotheliomas (ReNaM, "Registro Nazionale dei Mesoteliomi" in Italian), a surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, has been active since 2002, operating through a regional structure. The Operating Regional Center (COR) actively researches cases and defines asbestos exposure on the basis of national guidelines. Diagnostic, demographic and exposure characteristics of non-occupationally exposed cases are analysed and described with respect to occupationally exposed cases. Standardised incidence rates for pleural mesothelioma in 2008 were 3.84 (per 100,000) for men and 1.45 for women, respectively. Among the 15,845 mesothelioma cases registered between 1993 and 2008, exposure to asbestos fibres was investigated for 12,065 individuals (76.1%), identifying 530 (4.4%) with familial exposure (they lived with an occupationally exposed cohabitant), 514 (4.3%) with environmental exposure to asbestos (they lived near sources of asbestos pollution and were never occupationally exposed) and 188 (1.6%) exposed through hobby-related or other leisure activities. Clusters of cases due to environmental exposure are mainly related to the presence of asbestos-cement industry plants (Casale Monferrato, Broni, Bari), to shipbuilding and repair activities (Monfalcone, Trieste, La Spezia, Genova) and soil contamination (Biancavilla in Sicily). Asbestos pollution outside the workplace contributes significantly to the burden of asbestos-related diseases, suggesting the need to prevent exposures and to discuss how to deal with compensation rights for malignant mesothelioma cases induced by non-occupational exposure to asbestos. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  5. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Methods Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Results The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Conclusion The "infotainment" programme may have a positive effect on people from high-risk groups, but informed general practitioners and midwives were reluctant to facilitate their patients' getting tested. Additional initiatives are needed to motivate primary care providers to facilitate haemoglobinopathy carrier testing for their patients from high-risk backgrounds.

  6. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  7. Traces of freud--the unconscious conflict as a cause of mental disorders in the eyes of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2008-01-01

    We aim to elicit how far the public has incorporated Freudian theory in its understanding of mental illness in different countries, focussing on the unconscious conflict as a possible cause of mental disorders. We conducted representative population surveys with identical sampling procedures and face-to-face interviews in Germany (1990, n = 3,078; 2001, n = 5,025), Novosibirsk (Russia, 2002, n = 745), and Bratislava (Slovakia, 2003, n = 1,000) and a representative telephone survey in Germany in 2006. Two thirds of respondents in Germany endorsed an unconscious conflict as a cause of mental disorder. Endorsement was stronger for depression than for schizophrenia, increased with duration of schooling, and was less prevalent in Bratislava and Novosibirsk and in East compared to West Germany. Endorsement in Germany increased between 1990 and 2001. However, only 5% of respondents could offer a definition of unconscious conflict that resembled Freud's initial theory. The observed West-East gradient is likely to mirror the past political undesirability of psychoanalysis in former communist countries. The popularity of psychoanalytical concepts seems to lag behind their actually declining influence within psychiatry in Germany. Public conception of unconscious conflict however hardly resembles Freud's original ideas. Although psychoanalytical concepts warrant consideration when exploring patients' causal beliefs about mental illness, psychiatrists should focus on the subjective meaning of seemingly psychoanalytic phrases.

  8. Analysis of spontaneous inquiries about suspected adverse drug reactions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobashi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Akira Dobashi,1 Kaori Kurata,1 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,2,3 Mari Nishizawa4 1Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Innovation and Technology Center, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 3Cross Care Field Co., Ltd., 4Yakuju Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Spontaneous inquiries about the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to medicines can be extracted based on the questions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”. Our aim was to clarify the characteristics related to people’s descriptions of suspected ADRs and determine the reasons for submitting a spontaneous inquiry. Methods: Fifty brand names of medicines used for inquiry extraction were chosen by selecting 35 pharmaceutical products, based on the generic names that had the highest sales in Japan. Questions containing both the brand name of one of these medicines and the term “Fukusayō” (ADR in Japanese that were posted from July 2004 to June 2009 were extracted from the site. Results: Among 1,419 questions extracted, 614 questions had at least one identifiable brand name of a suspected medicine, an ADR description, and the extent to which the ADR appeared to be caused by the suspected medicine(s. Among these 614 questions, 589 described in detail the symptoms/signs that the inquirers themselves or their families had experienced as ADRs. The highest number of questions was found for Paxil (525. Posts asking whether the symptoms being experienced were due to an ADR accounted for the highest number of questions. In most cases, the inquirer suspected that a single medicine led to an ADR and was seeking advice from others taking the same medicine. Conclusion: Our examination of spontaneous inquiries showed that people have sufficient knowledge to adequately report potential ADRs in terms of their symptoms

  9. Governor-General Leonard Wood’s neoliberal agenda of privatizing public assets stymied, 1921-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Angel S. Ybiernas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After a serious fiscal and financial crisis erupted in 1920 to 1921 (in the wake of the termination of World War I, the new American Governor General to the Philippines, U.S. Army Major General Leonard Wood, promised in his inaugural address to privatize the country’s government-owned and controlled corporations such as the Philippine National Bank and the Manila Railroad Company, among others. Wood’s neoliberal agenda in the Philippines was opposed by Filipino politicians in the executive and legislative departments from the start. This key policy disagreement climaxed in the resignation en masse of Governor Wood’s Filipino cabinet and the members of the executive-legislative Council of State in 1923. The particulars of the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 —the so-called Conley Affair— however, obscured from plain sight the true gravity of the broader conflict (i.e., Filipino opposition to Wood’s agenda.Moreover, the general perception that Governor Wood’s asset privatization program was successfully blocked by the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 is inaccurate. In truth, Wood was stymied by adverse international and national market conditions from 1921 to 1923. A further delay occurred from 1924 to 1926 when Governor Wood endeavored to get the Council of State and the Filipino Legislature’s Board of Control (an oversight committee on board his neoliberal agenda; he failed to get the support of the Filipino leaders in this regard. When Wood finally decided in 1926 to take unilateral steps, he was tied up by litigation (locally and in the United States arising from his actions until his death from an unsuccessful brain surgery in 1927.

  10. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  11. Reducing waiting time and raising outpatient satisfaction in a Chinese public tertiary general hospital-an interrupted time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is globally agreed that a well-designed health system deliver timely and convenient access to health services for all patients. Many interventions aiming to reduce waiting times have been implemented in Chinese public tertiary hospitals to improve patients’ satisfaction. However, few were well-documented, and the effects were rarely measured with robust methods. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of the length of waiting times in a public tertiary hospital in Southern China which developed comprehensive data collection systems. Around an average of 60,000 outpatients and 70,000 prescribed outpatients per month were targeted for the study during Oct 2014-February 2017. We analyzed longitudinal time series data using a segmented linear regression model to assess changes in levels and trends of waiting times before and after the introduction of waiting time reduction interventions. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to indicate the strength of association between waiting times and patient satisfactions. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. Results The monthly average length of waiting time decreased 3.49 min (P = 0.003 for consultations and 8.70 min (P = 0.02 for filling prescriptions in the corresponding month when respective interventions were introduced. The trend shifted from baseline slight increasing to afterwards significant decreasing for filling prescriptions (P =0.003. There was a significant negative correlation between waiting time of filling prescriptions and outpatient satisfaction towards pharmacy services (r = −0.71, P = 0.004. Conclusions The interventions aimed at reducing waiting time and raising patient satisfaction in Fujian Provincial Hospital are effective. A long-lasting reduction effect on waiting time for filling prescriptions was observed because of carefully designed continuous efforts, rather than a one-time campaign, and with appropriate incentives

  12. Reducing waiting time and raising outpatient satisfaction in a Chinese public tertiary general hospital-an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Qian; Zhao, Pengyu; Zhang, Qiongyao; Xu, Kai; Chen, Huiying; Hu, Cecile Jia; Stuntz, Mark; Li, Hong; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-08-22

    It is globally agreed that a well-designed health system deliver timely and convenient access to health services for all patients. Many interventions aiming to reduce waiting times have been implemented in Chinese public tertiary hospitals to improve patients' satisfaction. However, few were well-documented, and the effects were rarely measured with robust methods. We conducted a longitudinal study of the length of waiting times in a public tertiary hospital in Southern China which developed comprehensive data collection systems. Around an average of 60,000 outpatients and 70,000 prescribed outpatients per month were targeted for the study during Oct 2014-February 2017. We analyzed longitudinal time series data using a segmented linear regression model to assess changes in levels and trends of waiting times before and after the introduction of waiting time reduction interventions. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to indicate the strength of association between waiting times and patient satisfactions. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. The monthly average length of waiting time decreased 3.49 min (P = 0.003) for consultations and 8.70 min (P = 0.02) for filling prescriptions in the corresponding month when respective interventions were introduced. The trend shifted from baseline slight increasing to afterwards significant decreasing for filling prescriptions (P =0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between waiting time of filling prescriptions and outpatient satisfaction towards pharmacy services (r = -0.71, P = 0.004). The interventions aimed at reducing waiting time and raising patient satisfaction in Fujian Provincial Hospital are effective. A long-lasting reduction effect on waiting time for filling prescriptions was observed because of carefully designed continuous efforts, rather than a one-time campaign, and with appropriate incentives implemented by a taskforce authorized by the hospital managers. This

  13. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  14. Act No. 1989.003 of 23 March 1989 fixing the general principles of public health in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Central African Republic Act provides the following with respect to the right to health care: "1. All citizens have the right to health. 2. All citizens shall be entitled to a free choice of physician. 3. The rights referred to in Sections 1 and 2 shall be conditional on the financial contribution of the citizen in question for the various health benefits made available to him by the public health services as a whole. 4. The Government shall define general policy, determine the organization and functioning of the public and private health services, and improvement of the health of the population, and to improve the lot of the individuals and social groups making up the national community. 5. In order to ensure that establishments in the public sector function properly, their administration shall be carried out either within the normal framework of the financial system of the public sector or in partial independence. 6. The tariffs for all of the services provided in establishments in the public sector shall be fixed within the framework of the Law on finance. 7. In the payment of health costs, the practice of payment by a third party shall be authorized. To this end, contracts to meet the costs of health services for employees in the private or public sectors may be concluded between, on the one hand, the department responsible for public health, and, on the other, private corporations and undertakings, quasi-public corporations, associations and corporations, and mutual social welfare associations. 8. Civil servants and other employees of the State and their families and other social and economic categories shall contribute to health costs in accordance with a proportion which shall be defined by a decree adopted in the Council of Ministers. 9. The State shall meet the health costs of patients recognized as welfare cases. Only patients holding a welfare card may have their expenses met in this way. The card shall be issued by the State or local authorities in

  15. General Approach to Identifying Potential Targets for Cancer Imaging by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis of Publicly Available Genomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging has moved to the forefront of drug development and biomedical research. The identification of appropriate imaging targets has become the touchstone for the accurate diagnosis and prognosis of human cancer. Particularly, cell surface- or membrane-bound proteins are attractive imaging targets for their aberrant expression, easily accessible location, and unique biochemical functions in tumor cells. Previously, we published a literature mining of potential targets for our in-house enzyme-mediated cancer imaging and therapy technology. Here we present a simple and integrated bioinformatics analysis approach that assembles a public cancer microarray database with a pathway knowledge base for ascertaining and prioritizing upregulated genes encoding cell surface- or membrane-bound proteins, which could serve imaging targets. As examples, we obtained lists of potential hits for six common and lethal human tumors in the prostate, breast, lung, colon, ovary, and pancreas. As control tests, a number of well-known cancer imaging targets were detected and confirmed by our study. Further, by consulting gene-disease and protein-disease databases, we suggest a number of significantly upregulated genes as promising imaging targets, including cell surface-associated mucin-1, prostate-specific membrane antigen, hepsin, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and folate receptors. By integrating pathway analysis, we are able to organize and map “focused” interaction networks derived from significantly dysregulated entity pairs to reflect important cellular functions in disease processes. We provide herein an example of identifying a tumor cell growth and proliferation subnetwork for prostate cancer. This systematic mining approach can be broadly applied to identify imaging or therapeutic targets for other human diseases.

  16. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambali, A. S.; Ng, K. H.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Wang, H. B.; Jamal, N.; Spelic, D. C.; Suleiman, O. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  17. [Orientation of patients referred by their general practionner to the public or private hospital sector in France: A prospective epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, P-G; Kernéis, S; Turbelin, C; Souty, C; Arena, C; Gavazzi, G; Sarazin, M; Blanchon, T; Hanslik, T

    2012-12-01

    In-patients characteristics generate cost differences between hospitals. In France, there are few data on the characteristics on the patients referred to hospitals by their general practitioners (GPs) and none on the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze those characteristics and the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. We collected, prospectively, the request for hospitalizations made by the GPs of the Sentinelles network in France, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' characteristics and also the reasons for that request were analyzed. A logistic regression was used to compare the population between local hospitals. Ten thousand seven hundred and eighteen statements were collected. The median age was 73 years. Patients were women in 51% of the cases, and only 14% of the hospitalizations had been planned. Hospitalization in the public sector was preferred for young children and the elderly (Pprivate sector, patients addressed to the public sector were more often seen for emergencies (OR: 2.3 [2.0-2.8]), by a doctor different from their referring GP (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1]) and out of the GP's office. The reasons for hospital admission were different depending on the sector of hospitalization (Ppublic sector hospitals presented with greater comorbidity or more complex diagnosis (for example: feeling ill, fainting or syncope and fever) or a greater disability (for example: stroke, neurological and psychiatric diseases). This study suggests that GPs send their patients to the public or for-profit hospitals according to criteria of severity, comorbidity and disability. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  19. Post-pandemic assessment of public knowledge, behavior, and skill on influenza prevention among the general population of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Seale, Holly; Wu, Shuangsheng; Yang, Peng; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Chunna; MacIntyre, Raina; Wang, Quanyi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, behavioral, and skill responses toward influenza in the general population of Beijing after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China, in January 2011. A survey was conducted in which information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation index system of health literacy related to influenza was built to evaluate the level of health literacy regarding influenza prevention and control among residents in Beijing. Thirteen thousand and fifty-three valid questionnaires were received. The average score for the sum of knowledge, behavior, and skill was 14.12±3.22, and the mean scores for knowledge, behavior, and skill were 4.65±1.20, 7.25±1.94, and 2.21±1.31, respectively. The qualified proportions of these three sections were 23.7%, 11.9%, and 43.4%, respectively, and the total proportion with a qualified level was 6.7%. There were significant differences in health literacy level related to influenza among the different gender, age, educational level, occupational status, and location groups (ppopulation in Beijing and the extent of relativities in knowledge, behavior, and skill about influenza was found to be weak. Therefore, improvements are needed in terms of certain aspects, particularly for the elderly and the population of rural districts. Educational level, as a significant factor in reducing the spread of influenza, should be considered seriously when intervention strategies are implemented. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Raising awareness of carrier testing for hereditary haemoglobinopathies in high-risk ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a pilot study among the general public and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Stephanie S; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly Sm; Rijmen, Frank; Cornel, Martina C; de Kinderen, Marja; Plass, Anne Marie C

    2009-09-15

    In the Netherlands no formal recommendations exist concerning preconceptional or antenatal testing for carriership of hereditary haemoglobinopathies. Those at highest risk may be unaware of the possibility of carrier screening. While universal newborn screening has recently been introduced, neither preconceptional nor antenatal carrier testing is routinely offered by health care services to the general public. A municipal health service and a foundation for public information on medical genetics undertook a pilot project with the aim of increasing knowledge and encouraging informed choice. Two groups were targeted: members of the public from ethnic groups at increased risk, and primary health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of culturally specific 'infotainment' to inform high-risk ethnic groups about their increased risk for haemoglobinopathies. In addition, the study explores attitudes and intentions of primary care providers towards haemoglobinopathy carrier testing of their patients from high-risk ethnic groups. Informational sessions tailored to the public or professionals were organised in Amsterdam, and evaluated for their effect. Psychological parameters were measured using structured questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The pre-test/post-test questionnaire showed that members of the public gained understanding of inheritance and carriership of haemoglobinopathies from the "infotainment" session (p Perceived behavioural control, i.e. the feeling that they could actually get tested if they wanted to, increased in the targeted age group of 18-45 years (N = 41; p ethnic groups was positive, yet they did not show strong intention to effectuate carrier testing of their patients on the basis of ethnicity. The main factor which explained their (lack of) intention was social norm, i.e. their perception of negative peer opinion (41% variance explained). The majority of primary health care providers felt that policy change was

  1. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  2. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornberg, C.

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from 137 Cs and 134 Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of 137 Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m 2 . Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of 134,137 Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137 Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137 Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137 Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137 Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of 137 Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic

  3. Effort-reward and work-life imbalance, general stress and burnout among employees of a large public hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmig, Oliver; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg F

    2012-05-31

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and work-life imbalance (WLI) are recognised risk factors for work stress and burnout but have not been investigated conjointly so far and compared with each other in this regard. The present cross-sectional study provides initial evidence by studying associations of ERI and WLI with general stress and burnout simultaneously. The study was based on survey data collected in 2007 among the personnel of a large public hospital in the canton of Zurich covering a random sample of 502 employees of all professions and positions. Prevalence rates, correlation coefficients, standardised regression coefficients and odds ratios were calculated as measures of association. Concerning the main research question and relating to the entire study sample, WLI was found to be more strongly associated with general stress and burnout than ERI. As stratified analyses with regard to burnout have shown, this applied especially to nursing, technical care and emergency staffs who account for more than three fifths of the study population. But for other professional categories like physicians, therapists and medical-technical personnel the opposite of a stronger association of ERI with burnout was found. Results also suggested that general stress plays a (rather minor) mediating role in the relationships between ERI and burnout and particularly between WLI and burnout. For the prevention of chronic stress and burnout one should consider both high efforts put into work as well as all job demands that are competing and interfering with family responsibilities or other private activities should be considered.

  4. Medical care of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems: a cohort study to describe and compare the care of the occupational physician and the general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Jettinghoff, K; Houtman, I; Schoemaker, C G; Buijs, P C; van den Berg, R

    2006-03-01

    To describe medical management by the general practitioner (GP) and occupational physician (OP) of workers sick listed due to mental health problems, and to determine agreement in diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence and obstacles in return to work. A cohort of 555 employees being sick listed for 12 to 20 weeks due to mental health problems was recruited and followed for 1 year. These employees were interviewed about their mental health and contacts with GP, OP, other specialists and employer. In addition, the GP and/or the OP of 72 employees were interviewed about the medical diagnosis and management. Most employees sick listed for 12-20 weeks visited their GP and OP. According to the employees most interventions applied by the GP were medical interventions, such as referral of employees and prescription of medical drugs. Working conditions were seldom discussed by the GP and work-related interventions were never applied. Most interventions applied by the OP were work-related interventions and/or contact with the employer. The OP more often talked about working conditions and conflicts. According to the employees, the communication between GP and OP only took place in 8% of the cases. Agreement in the diagnosis, main cause of sickness absence, and obstacles in return to work reported by the GPs and OPs of the same employee was poor. In addition, similarity in reported diagnosis by GP and/or OP and the employees' scores on valid questionnaires on (mental) health was limited. The lack of communication and agreement by Dutch GPs and OPs in medical diagnosis and management of employees long-term sick listed due to mental health problems are indicators of sub-optimal medical treatment and return-to-work strategies.

  5. Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Commission of the European Communities. Luxembourg

    Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

  6. Public Policy and the Prison System Failure Brazil: Legal Theses 17 and 18 of the Attorney General's Office - Ago, and Immediate Intervention Judicial Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Almeida Da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal feasibility of the judiciary determine the Executive to carry out works in prisons; confronting the reservation of the theory of financially possible and the immediate applicability of explicit fundamental rights in the Constitution, and the latest understanding of our Constitutional Court on the subject. Thus, it was taken as a backdrop the extraordinary appeal object if 592 581 / RS - which resulted in the legal arguments of nos 17 and 18 of the Attorney General - PGR, which concerned about the problem of "judicial control policies public "to ensure the preservation of the fundamental right to physical and moral integrity of prisoners, including renovation, expansion and construction of prisons in the event of failure of state entities. Finally, there was a brief analysis of the structural crisis of the Brazilian prison system, sign flagrant violation of the supreme value of human dignity.

  7. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  8. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  9. Introducing a European Partnership. First issue of 'European Nuclear Features'. A joint publication of atw, Nuclear Espana, Revue Generale Nucleare (2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    'European Nuclear Features' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue Generale Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power (Germany), planned for six issues annually. ENF is to further greatly the international European exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The first issue of ENF contains contributions about these topics, among others: - European Nuclear Society and Foratom: Strengthening the Nuclear Network. - Report: EPR - the European Pressurized Water Reactor. - Finland: Starting Construction of the Fifth Nuclear Power Plant. - Czech Republic: Nuclear Power Report for 2003/2004. - The Decommissioning Project of the Bohunice-1 and -2 Units. - FRM-II: TUM Research Neutron Source Generates Its First Neutrons. (orig.)

  10. General Editorial on Publication Ethics*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    over the past few decades, instances of scientific misconduct seem to be on the rise. ... of plagiarism could be as mild as the copying of a single sentence from another ... Corresponding Author on behalf of all authors) will be required to sign a ...

  11. General Editorial on Publication Ethics∗

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over the past few decades, instances of scientific misconduct seem to be on the rise. These ... The degree of plagiarism could be as mild as the copying of a single ... sponding Author on behalf of all authors) will be required to sign a statement ...

  12. General editorial on publication ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... to the growth of the Internet and easy access to vast amounts of written material. One dictionary defines plagiarism as “the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work”. The degree of plagiarism could be as mild as the ...

  13. General Editorial on Publication Ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The scientific research and publishing communities the world over are by now well aware that over the past few decades, ... advancement, competition for research support, and desire for recognition, influence and fame. In recent years many ... something directly affecting the integrity of the scientific process. Such behaviour.

  14. Frequency of reporting on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research studies published in a general medical journal: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Schroter, Sara; Snow, Rosamund; Hicks, Melissa; Harmston, Rebecca; Staniszewska, Sophie; Parker, Sam; Richards, Tessa

    2018-03-23

    While documented plans for patient and public involvement (PPI) in research are required in many grant applications, little is known about how frequently PPI occurs in practice. Low levels of reported PPI may mask actual activity due to limited PPI reporting requirements. This research analysed the frequency and types of reported PPI in the presence and absence of a journal requirement to include this information. A before and after comparison of PPI reported in research papers published in The BMJ before and 1 year after the introduction of a journal policy requiring authors to report if and how they involved patients and the public within their papers. Between 1 June 2013 and 31 May 2014, The BMJ published 189 research papers and 1 (0.5%) reported PPI activity. From 1 June 2015 to 31 May 2016, following the introduction of the policy, The BMJ published 152 research papers of which 16 (11%) reported PPI activity. Patients contributed to grant applications in addition to designing studies through to coauthorship and participation in study dissemination. Patient contributors were often not fully acknowledged; 6 of 17 (35%) papers acknowledged their contributions and 2 (12%) included them as coauthors. Infrequent reporting of PPI activity does not appear to be purely due to a failure of documentation. Reporting of PPI activity increased after the introduction of The BMJ 's policy, but activity both before and after was low and reporting was inconsistent in quality. Journals, funders and research institutions should collaborate to move us from the current situation where PPI is an optional extra to one where PPI is fully embedded in practice throughout the research process. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Proceedings of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a summary of the main questions tackled during this debate from its preparation to its closing meeting and dealing with: the acceptation of the debate, the progress of the debate, the socio-technical problem of gathering the different points to be debated with respect to the different areas in concern, the general questions about the overall nuclear wastes and materials (radioactivity, health, radioprotection, management, reprocessing, control, actors organization, knowledge sharing, perenniality of the financing), the specific questions about long-lived wastes (inventory, separation-transmutation feasibility, nuclear energy and energy policy, management solutions, storage and geologic disposal feasibility, impact of debates on the 2006 law, long-lived waste territories), the conclusions for the 2006 law: mastering the overall nuclear wastes and materials and step-by-step building up of a solution for long-lived wastes (difficulties, lessons learnt from foreign experience, first draft of the 2006 law). Some opinions expressed by some participants about these proposals conclude

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public in Galle district in Southern Sri Lanka: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. M Herath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM has become a global epidemic with significant disability and premature death. Identification of the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP related to diabetes among the general public is important in strategies for prevention of diabetes mellitus. Methods This study was conducted as a community based cross sectional study in three Medical Officers of Health (MOH areas in Galle district. Previously healthy literate individuals who have not attended any diabetes education program in the last two years were selected for this study. Results A total of 277 participants were included in the study. The majority (77% had either moderate (39% or above moderate knowledge (38% on diabetes mellitus. Even though, level of education was significantly and positively associated with knowledge (p = 0.001, the association of gender and age with knowledge was not significant. Unlike knowledge, the attitude towards diabetes was poor in majority (90% and level of education had no significant effect on attitude. With regards to practices, more than half of study subjects never had their blood sugar checked and, about 65% used to take refined sugar liberally and a large majority (80% had no regular exercise activity. Conclusions Even though the majority (77% had moderate or above moderate knowledge on diabetes, their attitudes towards diabetes was poor (88%. It appears that the higher knowledge on diabetes did not translate into good practices as over 50% of study subjects did not involve with any preventive measures. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to address the issue of poor attitude and practices towards diabetes mellitus among general public in Sri Lanka.

  17. Pediatric dental care in a tertiary public hospital. Four years of experience in the Service of Stomatology of Valencia University General Hospital (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Rafael; Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Sanchís, José María; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-05-01

    A study is made of the experience gained with the Child Oral Care Program (Plan de Atención Dental Infantil, PADI) in the Service of Stomatology of Valencia University General Hospital (Valencia, Spain) after four years in operation (July 2003 - July 2007). The sample comprised 2626 children between 5-14 years of age, pertaining to department 9 of the Valencian public health system. A clinical history was compiled in each case, a radiological study was made, and a treatment plan was elaborated including fillings, extractions, and control visits. Of the 2626 designated children, 2369 visited our Service - mostly referred from the Preventive Dental Care Units. A total of 5784 fillings were carried out (93.3% with silver amalgam, 5.6% with composites and the rest as provisional fillings). The permanent first molars were the teeth with the largest number of fillings (70.2% of the total). These were followed in order of frequency by the second molars (19.1%). As regards composite resin fillings, most involved the upper central incisors, followed by the upper lateral incisors. A total of 644 extractions were performed, corresponding to 110 permanent teeth and 534 temporary teeth. In the case of the permanent dentition, the first molars were the most commonly removed teeth. In the temporary dentition, the most frequently removed teeth were the second molars. The response of the population to this program has been very good, and reinforces the preventive measures already in place, with the provision of restorative treatments to improve the oral and dental health of the pediatric population, and yielding good results in terms of the program quality indicators. The Service of Stomatology (Valencia University General Hospital) is able to address the demand and offers the public health network integrated and continuous patient care.

  18. NAGT: Partnering to Expand and Improve the Teaching of Earth Sciences at all Levels of Instruction while Increasing Earth Literacy to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbstrith, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Now more than ever, we need an Earth literate public and a workforce that can develop and be engaged in viable solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. The National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) is a member driven organization dedicated to fostering improvement in the teaching of the Earth Sciences at all levels of formal and informal instruction, to emphasizing the cultural significance of the Earth sciences and to disseminating knowledge in this field to the general public. NAGT offers a number of ways to partner and collaborate including our sponsored sessions, events and programs; two publications; workshop programming; three topical focused divisions; educational advocacy; and website offerings hosted through the Science Education Resource Center (SERC). A growing number of associations, institutions, projects, and individual educators are strengthening their professional networks by partnering with NAGT. Locating and connecting members of the Earth education community with shared values and interest is an important part of collaborating and NAGT's topical divisions assist community members who wish to work on the topics of 2-year college faculty, geoscience education research, and teacher preparation. The NAGT website and the linked websites of its collaborating partners provides a peer reviewed venue for educators to showcase their pedagogy and to learn best practices of others. The annual Earth Educators' Rendezvous is an opportunity to network face-to-face with the Earth education community, strengthening our relationships while working with those who share our interests and challenges while also learning from those who have divergent experiences. NAGT is a non-profit organization that advocates for the advancement of the geosciences and supports the work of Earth educators and geoscience education researchers. For more information about NAGT, visit our website at www.nagt.org

  19. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Bilan du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  20. General practice performance in referral for suspected cancer: influence of number of cases and case-mix on publicly reported data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, P; Chowdhury, A; Smith, S; Campbell, N C; Lee, A J; Linden, D; Burton, C D

    2015-05-26

    Publicly available data show variation in GPs' use of urgent suspected cancer (USC) referral pathways. We investigated whether this could be due to small numbers of cancer cases and random case-mix, rather than due to true variation in performance. We analysed individual GP practice USC referral detection rates (proportion of the practice's cancer cases that are detected via USC) and conversion rates (proportion of the practice's USC referrals that prove to be cancer) in routinely collected data from GP practices in all of England (over 4 years) and northeast Scotland (over 7 years). We explored the effect of pooling data. We then modelled the effects of adding random case-mix to practice variation. Correlations between practice detection rate and conversion rate became less positive when data were aggregated over several years. Adding random case-mix to between-practice variation indicated that the median proportion of poorly performing practices correctly identified after 25 cancer cases were examined was 20% (IQR 17 to 24) and after 100 cases was 44% (IQR 40 to 47). Much apparent variation in GPs' use of suspected cancer referral pathways can be attributed to random case-mix. The methods currently used to assess the quality of GP-suspected cancer referral performance, and to compare individual practices, are misleading. These should no longer be used, and more appropriate and robust methods should be developed.

  1. General conditions applicable to the contract for access to the public power transportation network for an eligible consuming site; Conditions generales applicables au contrat d'acces au reseau public de transport d'electricite pour un site consommateur eligible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    On 1 November 2002, the new tariffs for the utilisation of the public power transmission and distribution networks, defined by decree no 2002-1014 of 19 July 2002, will come into effect. A new contract for access to the transmission network has been drawn up in co-operation with the Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) so as to be able to include these new tariffs. This new contract also takes into account the expectations expressed by the users of the transmission network concerning the energy delivery agreement used since the coming into effect of the European Directive on the opening of the electricity market in February 1999. On 31 October 2002, RTE is publishing a new version of the contract for access to the Public Transmission Networks. This document reproduces the general conditions of this contract. It comprises the following parts: preamble; definitions; connection to the public transportation network; metering and deductions; subscribed power; development, exploitation and maintenance of facilities; power continuity and quality; liability; tariffing and conditions of payment; declaration of the balancing actor; general dispositions.

  2. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racha Fadlallah

    Full Text Available To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry.We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country.Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians' disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies.The awareness of participants was low for physicians' receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to be lower awareness

  3. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Racha; Nas, Hala; Naamani, Dana; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoura, Ihsan; Al-Khaled, Lina; Brax, Hneine; Kahale, Lara; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry. We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country. Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians' disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies. The awareness of participants was low for physicians' receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to be lower awareness, less concern and

  4. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  5. An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J

    2016-05-20

    Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.

  6. Monitoring of workers and members of the general public for the incorporation of thorium and uranium in the EU and selected countries outside the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Oeh, U.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Regulla, D.

    2003-01-01

    Among the 92 natural elements, thorium and uranium are elements with only radioactive isotopes. Due to their long half-lives, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U are the parent nuclides of decay chains, each comprising about 12 daughter isotopes. The daughter isotopes always include several α-emitters and β-emitters. Therefore, incorporation of thorium and uranium may result in significant internal radiation exposure. Indeed, isotopes of these two elements are among those with the highest effective dose following intake by inhalation or ingestion[1]. Thorium and uranium are ubiquitously abundant in the human environment in varying concentrations and therefore may enter also the biosphere. Consequently, these elements are present in food and drinking water and also in the human body. Differences in the environ-mental concentrations, but also dietary habits will influence the internal radiation dose of members of the public. Moreover, human activities may lead to accumulation of thorium and uranium in particular areas. Both the elements have numerous applications even in the non-nuclear industry. Increased concentrations require adequate monitoring of workers. Besides the selection of a method suitable to assess intake or body content of thorium and uranium with the necessary sensitivity and accuracy, the interpretation of measured data with regard to occupational exposure requires the differentiation between incorporation of thorium and uranium at work place and uptake from natural sources respectively. In order to keep the internal exposure due to thorium and uranium for workers as well as for members of the public within acceptable limits and to differentiate between occupational and natural sources of exposure, adequate knowledge is required on: sources of natural Th und U uptake, use of Th und U in industry, procedures to assess individual internal exposure, methods to determine committed effective doses for intakes of Th and U. In the reporting period, studies were

  7. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Shreekar; Ale, Bhakta Bahadur; Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands t CO 2 e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption

  8. Smoking ban in public areas is associated with a reduced incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions in non-smokers. Results from the Bremen STEMI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Wienbergen, H; Seide, S; Fiehn, E; Fach, A; Würmann-Busch, B; Gohlke, H; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R

    2014-09-01

    Laws banning tobacco smoking from public areas have been passed in several countries, including the region of Bremen, Germany at the end of 2007. The present study analyses the incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) before and after such a smoking ban was implemented, focusing on differences between smokers and non-smokers. In this respect, data of the Bremen STEMI Registry (BSR) give a complete epidemiological overview of a region in northwest Germany with approximately 800,000 inhabitants since all STEMIs are admitted to one central heart centre. Between January 2006 and December 2010, data from the BSR was analysed focusing on date of admission, age, gender, and prior nicotine consumption. A total of 3545 patients with STEMI were admitted in the Bremen Heart Centre during this time period. Comparing 2006-2007 vs. 2008-2010, hence before and after the smoking ban, a 16% decrease of the number of STEMIs was observed: from a mean of 65 STEMI/month in 2006-2007 to 55/month in 2008-2010 (p smokers showed a constant number of STEMIs: 25/month in 2006-2007 to 26/month in 2008-2010 (+4%, p = 0.8). However, in non-smokers, a significant reduction of STEMIs over time was found: 39/month in 2006-2007 to 29/month in 2008-2010 (-26%, p non-smokers was consistently observed in all age groups and both sexes. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors like hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus did not explain the observed decline. In the BSR, a significant decline of hospital admissions due to STEMIs in non-smokers was observed after the smoking ban in public areas came into force. No reduction of STEMI-related admissions was found in smokers. These results may be explained by the protection of non-smokers from passive smoking and the absence of such an effect in smokers by the dominant effect of active smoking. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure. The application of the Commission's system of radiological protection to controllable radiation exposure due to natural sources and long-lived radioactive residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides guidance on the application of the ICRP system of radiological protection to prolonged exposure situations affecting members of the public. It addresses the general application of the Commission's system to the control of prolonged exposures resulting from practices and to the undertaking of interventions in prolonged exposure situations. Additionally, it provides recommendations on generic reference levels for such interventions. The report also considers some specific situations and discusses a number of issues that have been of concern, namely: natural radiation sources that may give rise to high doses; the restoration and rehabilitation of sites where human activities involving radioactive substances have been carried out; the return to 'normality' following an accident that has released radioactive substances to the environment; and the global marketing of commodities for public consumption that contain radioactive substances. Annexes provide some examples of prolonged exposure situations and discuss the radiological protection quantities, radiation-induced health effects and aspects of the Commission's system of radiological protection relevant to prolonged exposure. Quantitative recommendations for prolonged exposures are provided in the report. They must be interpreted with extreme caution; Chapters 4 and 5 stress the upper bound nature of the following values: Generic reference levels for intervention, in terms of existing total annual doses, are given as < approximately 100 mSv, above which intervention is almost always justifiable (situations for which the annual dose threshold for deterministic effects in relevant organs is exceeded will almost always require intervention), and < approximately 10 mSv, below which intervention is not likely to be justifiable (and above which it may be necessary). Intervention exemption levels for commodities, especially building materials, are expressed as an additional annual dose of approximately 1

  10. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  11. The systematic development of a brief intervention to increase walking in the general public using an "extended" theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Darker, Catherine D; Eves, Frank F; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an "intention-behavior gap" noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.

  12. Obese children, adults and senior citizens in the eyes of the general public: results of a representative study on stigma and causation of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available Obese individuals are blamed for their excess weight based on causal attribution to the individual. It is unclear whether obese individuals of different age groups and gender are faced with the same amount of stigmatization. This information is important in order to identify groups of individuals at risk for higher stigmatization and discrimination. A telephone interview was conducted in a representative sample of 3,003 participants. Experimental manipulation was realized by vignettes describing obese and normal-weight children, adults and senior citizens. Stigmatizing attitudes were measured by semantic differential. Causal attribution was assessed. Internal factors were rated with highest agreement rates as a cause for the vignette's obesity. Lack of activity behavior and eating too much are the most supported causes. Importance of causes differed for the different vignettes. For the child, external causes were considered more important. The overweight vignette was rated consistently more negatively. Higher educational attainment and personal obesity were associated with lower stigmatizing attitudes. The vignette of the obese child was rated more negatively compared to that of an adult or senior citizen. Obesity is seen as a controllable condition, but for children external factors are seen as well. Despite this finding, they are faced with higher stigmatizing attitudes in the general public, contradicting attribution theory assumptions. Internal and external attribution were found to be inter-correlated. Obese children are the population most at risk for being confronted with stigmatization, making them a target point in stigma-reduction campaigns.

  13. Nuclear energy and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The soundness of use of nuclear energy in electric energy generation has received public concern due to the public highly exaggerated fear of nuclear power. It is the purpose of this paper to clear up some issues of public misunderstanding of nuclear power. Those of most importance are the unjustified fears about safety of nuclear power plants and the misunderstanding of nuclear risks and fears of nuclear power plants environmental impact. The paper is addressed to the public and aims at clarifying these issues in simple, correct, and convincing terms in such a way that links the gap between the scientists of nuclear energy and the general public; this gap which the media has failed to cover and failed to convey honestly and correctly the scientific facts about nuclear energy from the scientists standards to the public

  14. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History

    2011-12-01

    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  15. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The Occupy Central (Umbrella) movement and mental health distress in the Hong Kong general public: political movements and concerns as potential structural risk factors of population mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2017-05-01

    Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.

  17. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  18. Proceedings of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes; Compte-rendu du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a summary of the main questions tackled during this debate from its preparation to its closing meeting and dealing with: the acceptation of the debate, the progress of the debate, the socio-technical problem of gathering the different points to be debated with respect to the different areas in concern, the general questions about the overall nuclear wastes and materials (radioactivity, health, radioprotection, management, reprocessing, control, actors organization, knowledge sharing, perenniality of the financing), the specific questions about long-lived wastes (inventory, separation-transmutation feasibility, nuclear energy and energy policy, management solutions, storage and geologic disposal feasibility, impact of debates on the 2006 law, long-lived waste territories), the conclusions for the 2006 law: mastering the overall nuclear wastes and materials and step-by-step building up of a solution for long-lived wastes (difficulties, lessons learnt from foreign experience, first draft of the 2006 law). Some opinions expressed by some participants about these proposals conclude

  19. A Powerful Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public......The paper holds a critical discussion of the Habermasian model of the public sphere and proposes a revised model of a general public...

  20. Primary care and public health a natural alliance? The introduction of the guidelines for obesity and undernutrition of the Dutch College of General Practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendonk, M.J.P van; Mensink, P.A.J.S.; Drenthen, A.J.; Binsbergen, J.J. van

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally and forms a huge public health problem. On the other hand, the prevalence of malnutrition or undernutrition is substantial, especially in nursing homes or in the elderly at home. Primary care and public health are separate disciplines.

  1. Temporal variability of surface runoff due to cropping systems in cultivated catchment areas: Use of the DIAR model for the assessment of environmental public policies in the Pays de Caux (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Joannon, A; Piskiewicz, N

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new model, DIAR (Diagnostic Agronomique du Ruissellement, or Agronomic Assessment of Runoff), for the prediction of the timing of the risk of runoff. DIAR is dedicated to loamy soils which are very sensitive to surface crusting, leading to runoff, soil erosion and muddy flows. The approach is proposed for the north-western European loess belt regions where muddy flows severely impact human activities. The likelihood of runoff is assessed from the sequence of soil surface states generated by cultivation practices. DIAR is based on the calculation of curve number values, for each stage of the soil-surface-state sequence, for calculating runoff for each of these stages. In this study, DIAR is applied to a catchment of 912 ha, cultivated by 26 farmers in the Pays de Caux (Normandy, France) where infrastructures located at the outlet have been damaged several times by muddy flows. Local public authorities involved in reducing muddy flows are eager to limit the agricultural upstream runoff by extending the planting of mustard as a winter cover crop. We tested the efficiency of such a policy on the reduction of the mean runoff. We also tested the year-to-year variability of this efficiency using the acreages of four successive years (1999-2000 to 2002-2003). Finally, the cost-efficiency of the policy was also considered. Though we used the same weather scenario, the initial situation (without much mustard cover) showed a wide year-to-year variation in the total runoff. This variation can be associated with the structure of the farms that cultivate the catchment (Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) of each farm and percentage of this UAA inside the catchment). Our results showed that the widespread planting of winter cover crops could reduce the runoff by 10-20% compared with the initial situation (depending on the year), and also reduce the year-to-year variability of runoff. For each of the 4 tested years, the cost of the infiltrated m(3

  2. The impact of non-response bias due to sampling in public health studies: A comparison of voluntary versus mandatory recruitment in a Dutch national survey on adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kei Long; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Smit, Cees; de Vries, Hein; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2017-03-23

    In public health monitoring of young people it is critical to understand the effects of selective non-response, in particular when a controversial topic is involved like substance abuse or sexual behaviour. Research that is dependent upon voluntary subject participation is particularly vulnerable to sampling bias. As respondents whose participation is hardest to elicit on a voluntary basis are also more likely to report risk behaviour, this potentially leads to underestimation of risk factor prevalence. Inviting adolescents to participate in a home-sent postal survey is a typical voluntary recruitment strategy with high non-response, as opposed to mandatory participation during school time. This study examines the extent to which prevalence estimates of adolescent health-related characteristics are biased due to different sampling methods, and whether this also biases within-subject analyses. Cross-sectional datasets collected in 2011 in Twente and IJsselland, two similar and adjacent regions in the Netherlands, were used. In total, 9360 youngsters in a mandatory sample (Twente) and 1952 youngsters in a voluntary sample (IJsselland) participated in the study. To test whether the samples differed on health-related variables, we conducted both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for any demographic difference between the samples. Additional multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to examine moderating effects of sampling method on associations between health-related variables. As expected, females, older individuals, as well as individuals with higher education levels, were over-represented in the voluntary sample, compared to the mandatory sample. Respondents in the voluntary sample tended to smoke less, consume less alcohol (ever, lifetime, and past four weeks), have better mental health, have better subjective health status, have more positive school experiences and have less sexual intercourse than respondents in the

  3. Regular periodical public disclosure obligations of public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public companies in the capacity of capital market participants have the obligation to inform the public on their legal and financial status, their general business operations, as well as on the issuance of securities and other financial instruments. Such obligations may be divided into two groups: The first group consists of regular periodical public disclosures, such as the publication of financial reports (annual, semi-annual and quarterly, and the management's reports on the public company's business operations. The second group comprises the obligation of occasional (ad hoc public disclosure. The thesis analyses the obligation of public companies to inform the public in course of their regular reporting. The new Capital Market Law based on two EU Directives (the Transparency Directive and the Directive on Public Disclosure of Inside Information and the Definition of Market Manipulation regulates such obligation of public companies in substantially more detail than the prior Law on the Market of Securities and Other Financial Instruments (hereinafter: ZTHV. Due to the above the ZTHV's provisions are compared to the new solutions within the domain of regular periodical disclosure of the Capital Market Law.

  4. 2007 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    This book includes only public transportation data and excludes taxicab, unregulated jitney, school, sightseeing, intercity, charter, : military, and services not available to the general public, or segments of the general public (e.g., governmental ...

  5. Assessing the economic impact of public investment in Malaysia: a case study on MyRapid Transit project using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Meenachi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this thesis is the question of whether public investment in transport infrastructure contributes positively to Malaysia’s economic growth and welfare. Although there are strong analytical reasons to believe that public investment spending is one of the important variables that influence growth, there remains significant uncertainty about its actual degree of influence. In Malaysia, whenever there is a collapse in domestic demand, government spending becomes an important m...

  6. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  7. The effects of community-wide dissemination of information on perceptions of palliative care, knowledge about opioids, and sense of security among cancer patients, their families, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Miki; Hirai, Kei; Takebayashi, Toru; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Takeuchi, Ayano; Yamagishi, Akemi; Kinoshita, Hiroya; Shirahige, Yutaka; Eguchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Prejudices against palliative care are a potential barrier to quality end-of-life care. There have been few large-scale community-wide interventions to distribute appropriate information about palliative care, and no studies have investigated their impact on cancer patients, their families, and the general public. Thus, we conducted a 3-year community intervention and evaluated the effects of distributing such information at the community level, and explored associations among levels of exposure, perceptions, knowledge, and the sense of security achieved. Over a period of 3 years, we provided flyers, booklets, posters, and public lectures about palliative care in four regions of Japan, and carried out pre- and post-intervention surveys with repeated cross-sectional samplings of cancer patients (pre 859, post 857), bereaved family members (1110, 1137), and the general public (3984, 1435). The levels of exposure to the provided information were measured by a multiple-choice questionnaire after intervention. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for perceptions of palliative care, knowledge about opioids, and sense of security among the exposure groups. Overall perceptions of palliative care, opioids, and receiving care at home improved significantly among the general public and families, but not among the patients at the community level. However, multiple regression revealed that patients of extensive exposure category had significantly more positive perceptions of palliative care to those of non-exposure category (p = 0.02). The sense of security regarding cancer care of all patients, family members, and the general public improved. Among others, the respondents who reported extensive exposure in the general public and family members scored significantly higher sense of security. Our findings indicate that providing palliative care information via small media and lectures in the community is

  8. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  9. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  10. Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The report by the General Accounting Office examines the status of education for handicapped children in 10 states. P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is reviewed briefly, and the states' compliance with the following aspects was assessed: eligibility criteria, individualized educational programs, and provision of a free…

  11. Indian Education in the Public School System Needs More Direction From the Congress. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office's recommendations to the Congress and the Office of Indian Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare is derived from a review of 16 projects funded under Title IV of the Indian Education Act of 1972 and designed to meet the special needs of American Indian children (operative during 1974-75 in Arizona,…

  12. Structure and Evaluation of a Flipped General Chemistry Course as a Model for Small and Large Gateway Science Courses at an Urban Public Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Melissa A.; Mills, Pamela; McGregor, Donna

    2018-01-01

    A flipped classroom is one where students are first introduced to content outside of the classroom. This frees up class time for more active learning strategies and has been shown to enhance student learning in high school and college classrooms. However, many studies in General Chemistry, a college gateway science course, were conducted in small…

  13. Decree no. 2003-588 from June 27, 2003, relative to the general technical prescriptions of design and operation to which the facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power transportation grid; Decret no. 2003-588 du 27 juin 2003 relatif aux prescriptions techniques generales de conception et de fonctionnement auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations en vue de leur raccordement au reseau public de transport de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This decree fixes the general technical prescriptions of design and operation as foreseen in the article no. 14 of the law from February 10, 2000 and to which the power consuming or power generating facilities must fulfill for their connection to the public power grid. The prescriptions concern the voltage level, the capacity and the power of the facility, the connection scheme, the possible disturbances, the protection systems, the metering etc.. (J.S.)

  14. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  15. Are Health State Valuations from the General Public Biased? A Test of Health State Reference Dependency Using Self-assessed Health and an Efficient Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Marcel F; Attema, Arthur E; Donkers, Bas; Stolk, Elly A; Versteegh, Matthijs M

    2017-12-01

    Health state valuations of patients and non-patients are not the same, whereas health state values obtained from general population samples are a weighted average of both. The latter constitutes an often-overlooked source of bias. This study investigates the resulting bias and tests for the impact of reference dependency on health state valuations using an efficient discrete choice experiment administered to a Dutch nationally representative sample of 788 respondents. A Bayesian discrete choice experiment design consisting of eight sets of 24 (matched pairwise) choice tasks was developed, with each set providing full identification of the included parameters. Mixed logit models were used to estimate health state preferences with respondents' own health included as an additional predictor. Our results indicate that respondents with impaired health worse than or equal to the health state levels under evaluation have approximately 30% smaller health state decrements. This confirms that reference dependency can be observed in general population samples and affirms the relevance of prospect theory in health state valuations. At the same time, the limited number of respondents with severe health impairments does not appear to bias social tariffs as obtained from general population samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez-Rey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  17. Application of virtual reality technology to activities for offering information to the general public in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Kawase, Keiichi; Sugihara, Kozo; Yamamoto, Junta

    2000-01-01

    The Tono Geoscience Center is carrying out the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project (MIU Project), as part of its scientific research program, in Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture. We believe that the public and especially the local residents should have a precise understanding of the MIU project. Therefore, to provide information we have used virtual reality (VR) technology in the project since 1996. Software to introduce both the MIU Project and the geology of the Tono district has been completed. The Tono district is characterized by uranium ore deposits, and by clay deposits which are used by the pottery industry. Software with some amusement value, such as hot spring drilling, has also been completed. We plan further software development of VR technology to increase the feeling of realism. (author)

  18. Globalization, tax distortions and public sector retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    is strengthened by globalization, it is inferred that the marginal costs of public funds increase and a retrenchment of the public sector follows. We challenge whether these conclusions have support in a general equilibrium model featuring standard effects from open macroeconomics and trade theory. Even though...... income taxation unambiguously worsens wage competitiveness, it does not follow that marginal costs of public funds increase with product market integration due to gains from trade. Moreover, non-cooperative fiscal policies do not have a race-to-the-bottom bias despite that taxes harm competitiveness......It is widely perceived that globalization is a threat to tax financed public sector activities. The argument is that public activities (public consumption and transfers) financed by income taxes distort labour markets and cause higher wages and thus a loss of competitiveness. Since this link...

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  20. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  1. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  2. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  3. Support for a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to an Alzheimer's disease medication: a survey of the general public in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Mark; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Clayton, Natasha; Raina, Parminder

    2009-12-29

    Public drug insurance plans provide limited reimbursement for Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications in many jurisdictions, including Canada and the United Kingdom. This study was conducted to assess Canadians' level of support for an increase in annual personal income taxes to fund a public program of unrestricted access to AD medications. A telephone survey was administered to a national sample of 500 adult Canadians. The survey contained four scenarios describing a hypothetical, new AD medication. Descriptions varied across scenarios: the medication was alternatively described as being capable of treating the symptoms of cognitive decline or of halting the progression of cognitive decline, with either no probability of adverse effects or a 30% probability of primarily gastrointestinal adverse effects. After each scenario, participants were asked whether they would support a tax increase to provide unrestricted access to the drug. Participants who responded affirmatively were asked whether they would pay an additional $75, $150, or $225 per annum in taxes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the determinants of support for a tax increase. Eighty percent of participants supported a tax increase for at least one scenario. Support was highest (67%) for the most favourable scenario (halt progression - no adverse effects) and lowest (49%) for the least favourable scenario (symptom treatment - 30% chance of adverse effects). The odds of supporting a tax increase under at least one scenario were approximately 55% less for participants who attached higher ratings to their health state under the assumption that they had moderate AD and almost five times greater if participants thought family members or friends would somewhat or strongly approve of their decision to support a tax increase. A majority of participants would pay an additional $150 per annum in taxes, regardless of scenario. Less than 50% would pay $225. Four out of five persons

  4. easuring the quality of health services provided at a Greek Public Hospital through patient satisfaction. Case Study: The General Hospital of Kavala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki A. Georgiadou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the quality of hospital services as perceived by patients in terms of patient satisfaction with services. Design/Methodology/Approach: A conceptual framework of quality of hospital services, developed by Padma et al. (2009, composed by eight quality dimensions, applied the performance measurement model (SERVPERF, was used for the approach. The Quality Score Tool was a two-part questionnaire that quantified patient satisfaction with benchmarks of the quality dimensions. In order to investigate the above model, the case study method was utilized. The survey was conducted in a public regional hospital. Findings: Five (5 quality dimensions (5Qs have found having a significant impact on overall quality of service, measure of patient satisfaction in the hospital. These dimensions are on a hierarchical scale: "clinical care", "social responsibility", "staff quality", "infrastructure" and "Hospital reliability". Originality/Value: The results of this study can be used as a source of feedback to hospital management, meaning that they can essentially lead to improved adjustments or serve as a basis of process reengineering.

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  6. Interim report of the interagency coal export task force: draft for public comment. [Trade by country 1960-1979; general forecasting to 1985, 1990 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The Interagency Coal Export Task Force was formed in the Spring of 1980 at the direction of the President, in support of the international efforts of the United States, encouraging the use of coal. Its purpose was to report on possible courses of action to increase United States steam coal exports in a manner consistent with other national policies, including our commitment to environmental protection. The Task Force assembled existing data, developed significant new information regarding the international coal market and undertook analyses of apparent problems underlying coal exports. The Task Force contributed to a public awareness of the fact that increased coal exports will serve both the domestic and international interests of the United States. Based upon extensive, independent field studies in Europe and the Far East, the Task Force concludes that there will be significant growth in world demand for steam coal. Such growth has already begun, has contributed to the almost seven-fold increase in United States overseas steam coal exports for 1990 over 1979, and is expected to continue beyond the end of this century. The growth in world steam coal trade projected in the report does not guarantee United States coal exporters a large or expanding share of the market. The United States' role depends on the buying strategies of the consuming countries, the policies and prices of competing exporters, and the actions taken by the United States to maintain reasonable prices, prompt delivery and dependable quality. Projections of United States steam coal exports, therefore, rest upon a number of highly uncertain factors which are discussed in some detail.

  7. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  8. Generalized Tuberculosis in Llamas (Lama glama) Due to Mycobacterium microti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevermann, A.; Pfyffer, G. E.; Zanolari, P.; Meylan, M.; Robert, N.

    2004-01-01

    Necropsy of two llamas revealed numerous caseous nodules containing abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in various organs. The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids. PMID:15071059

  9. Analysis of deformation due to inclined load in generalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    . ... The effect of relaxation times and response of two theories of thermoelasticity i.e. Green and. Lindsay ..... Making use of equations (7) and (8) in the boundary ...... Rayleigh-Lamb waves in transversely isotropic themoelastic diffusive layer.

  10. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  11. Association of green tea consumption with mortality due to all causes and major causes of death in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We examined the association between green tea consumption and mortality due to all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese (aged between 40 and 69 years) recruited between 1990 and 1994. After 18.7 years of follow-up, 12,874 deaths were reported. The association between green tea consumption and risk of all causes and major causes of mortality was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among men who consumed green tea compared with those who drank less than 1 cup/day were 0.96 (0.89-1.03) for 1-2 cups/day, 0.88 (0.82-0.95) for 3-4 cups/day, and 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for more than 5 cups/day (P for trend death in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  13. Consent for use of personal information for health research: Do people with potentially stigmatizing health conditions and the general public differ in their opinions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma refers to a distinguishing personal trait that is perceived as or actually is physically, socially, or psychologically disadvantageous. Little is known about the opinion of those who have more or less stigmatizing health conditions regarding the need for consent for use of their personal information for health research. Methods We surveyed the opinions of people 18 years and older with seven health conditions. Participants were drawn from: physicians' offices and clinics in southern Ontario; and from a cross-Canada marketing panel of individuals with the target health conditions. For each of five research scenarios presented, respondents chose one of five consent choices: (1 no need for me to know; (2 notice with opt-out; (3 broad opt-in; (4 project-specific permission; and (5 this information should not be used. Consent choices were regressed onto: demographics; health condition; and attitude measures of privacy, disclosure concern, and the benefits of health research. We conducted focus groups to discuss possible reasons for observed consent choices. Results We observed substantial variation in the control that people wish to have over use of their personal information for research. However, consent choice profiles were similar across health conditions, possibly due to sampling bias. Research involving profit or requiring linkage of health information with income, education, or occupation were associated with more restrictive consent choices. People were more willing to link their health information with biological samples than with information about their income, occupation, or education. Conclusions The heterogeneity in consent choices suggests individuals should be offered some choice in use of their information for different types of health research, even if limited to selectively opting-out. Some of the implementation challenges could be designed into the interoperable electronic health record. However, many

  14. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  15. The ability of the general male public to assess their suitability to take 50-mg sildenafil: an assessment of the comprehension of patient information materials via internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Tara; Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Schnetzler, Gabriel

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual dysfunction and has a negative impact on masculinity and self-esteem. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, are the first-line treatment option for ED. Providing appropriate information regarding suitability for using sildenafil is important. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a broad spectrum of men could appropriately evaluate their suitability for 50-mg sildenafil after reviewing patient information materials. Patient information (Pack) on appropriate use of 50-mg sildenafil and patient information leaflet (PIL), a Web survey including demographics, self-assessed suitability for sildenafil use, and suitability screener. A randomly selected, population-representative Web-based panel of males in the UK was recruited for this study. Eligible men answered a brief sociodemographic questionnaire and then were presented with the Pack. If a participant desired additional information, he could also review the PIL. The participants then rated the Pack and PIL (if reviewed), self-assessed their suitability for sildenafil use, and completed a previously validated screener for suitability. A total of 1,275 men aged 40 and above were included in these analyses; the mean age was 57.8 ± 9.9 years. A total of 1,054 men reported ED; 517 men (40.5%) deemed themselves suitable for sildenafil; 504 men (39.6%) deemed themselves unsuitable; and 254 (19.9%) were unsure. The concordance rate between screener-assessed suitability and self-assessed suitability was 70.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 68.1-73.7%). When accounting for men who would not take sildenafil even though they were suitable or would seek additional information from a healthcare professional prior to using sildenafil, the concordance rate was 84.2% (95% CI = 82.2-86.2%). The results of this study suggest that men in the general population are capable of using written sildenafil patient education materials to accurately assess

  16. Atendimentos decorrentes de queimaduras em serviços públicos de emergência no Brasil, 2009 Public hospital emergency department visits due to burns in Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2012-04-01

    injuries at home, contact with heat and hot substances, and subsequent hospitalization; burns in the 15-49-year bracket were associated with exposure to fire/flames and electrical current, injuries occurring in public places, and outpatient treatment and discharge. The study highlights the importance of burn prevention strategies targeting children and workers.

  17. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  18. The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, C. D.; Moore, H. J.; Routen, A.; Lake, A. A.; Adams, J.; White, M.; Araujo‐Soares, V.; Abraham, C.; Adamson, A. J.; Brown, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Methods Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer‐level or food‐outlet‐level before‐and‐after data were included. Results Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre‐packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer‐level outcomes. More ‘intrusive’ interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food‐outlet‐level and customer‐level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Conclusion Interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective. PMID:27899007

  19. The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier-Brown, F C; Summerbell, C D; Moore, H J; Routen, A; Lake, A A; Adams, J; White, M; Araujo-Soares, V; Abraham, C; Adamson, A J; Brown, T J

    2017-02-01

    Ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer-level or food-outlet-level before-and-after data were included. Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre-packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer-level outcomes. More 'intrusive' interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food-outlet-level and customer-level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  20. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  1. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  2. [Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami: health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Increased health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials are of concern over a long period of time and over a wide geographical area. From the results of epidemiologic studies conducted after the Chernobyl accident, the health risks are not anticipated to be very marked. The purpose of the present study is to examine (i) the elevated health risks as viewed by the general population, (ii) tolerance to the risks that the general population suffer from their viewpoint, and (iii) the overall picture as seen by researchers and experts in specialized areas of study after the accident. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet and by interviewing a psychologist and tens of employees of several corporations. Epidemiologic studies conducted after the severe accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl revealed an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in children due to (131)I while elevated risks due to radioactive materials other than (131)I were not detected. The amount of radioactive materials leaked into the environment from the FDNPP was less than that in Chernobyl. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP are low. However, it is impossible to conclude a zero risk. It is likely that the general population does not fully understand the health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP. Although no increased incidences of diseases other than thyroid cancer of children were scientifically shown en masse from studies in Chernobyl, individual risks and results in the future caused by the severe accident of FDNPP cannot be denied. Much of the general population is apt to demand the security of

  3. Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami. Health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of radioactive materials were leaked into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanying tsunami. Increased health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials are of concern over a long period of time and over a wide geographical area. From the results of epidemiologic studies conducted after the Chernobyl accident, the health risks are not anticipated to be very marked. The purpose of the present study is to examine the elevated health risks as viewed by the general population, tolerance to the risks that the general population suffer from their viewpoint, and the overall picture as seen by researchers and experts in specialized areas of study after the accident. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet and by interviewing a psychologist and tens of employees of several corporations. Epidemiologic studies conducted after the severe accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl revealed an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in children due to 131 I while elevated risks due to radioactive materials other than 131 I were not detected. The amount of radioactive materials leaked into the environment from the FDNPP was less than that in Chernobyl. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP are low. However, it is impossible to conclude a zero risk. It is likely that the general population does not fully understand the health impairment risks due to the leaked radioactive materials from the FDNPP. Although no increased incidences of diseases other than thyroid cancer of children were scientifically shown en masse from studies in Chernobyl, individual risks and results in the future caused by the severe accident of FDNPP cannot be denied. Much of the general population is apt to demand the security of a zero risk from

  4. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  5. Nuclear power debate - scientists, mass media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A poll among the members of the American Men and Women of Science has shown that the majority of scientists are for nuclear energy. The controversial results of polls in the general public are believed to be due to the distortion effects of the press and media. The biased information role of the communication media might be the result of the prejudiced publicity behavior of antinuclear scientists. A more significant role, however, has been played by the science journalists whose scepticism toward nuclear power is reflected in the public opinion. There seems to be a lack in the communication chain connecting the layman public with the science community. (R.P.)

  6. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Selvan, Esai; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  7. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  8. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness While Traveling. Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. Use a barrier during oral-anal ... tables, trash cans, etc.) Cleaning Wear gloves. Remove feces and discard in a plastic bag. Clean and ...

  9. Einstein for Schools and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…

  10. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this chapter...

  11. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  12. Due Process in Student Discipline in Non-Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Lyndon G.

    A study to determine the status of disciplinary procedures in nonpublic high schools in Nebraska and Kansas is described in this report. A two-part questionnaire to assess schools' written policies and actual practices was administered to 68 out of 72 private schools, a 94 percent response rate. Findings indicate that the majority of nonpublic…

  13. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark......Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly...... and Italy during 2009. The research identifies the current practice and compares it with the recommended practice in international guidelines. The current practice is very diverse and could in many cases be improved by a more structured approach and stricter adherence to international guidelines. However...

  14. 28 CFR 0.28 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Affairs § 0.28 General functions. The Office of Public Affairs is headed by a Director of Public Affairs who shall: (a) Handle matters pertaining to relations with the public generally. (b) Disseminate... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General functions. 0.28 Section 0.28...

  15. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  16. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  17. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces.......A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  18. Monitoring the level of government trust, risk perception and intention of the general public to adopt protective measures during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weerd, Willemien; Timmermans, Daniëlle Rm; Beaujean, Desirée Jma; Oudhoff, Jurriaan; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2011-07-19

    During the course of an influenza pandemic, governments know relatively little about the possibly changing influence of government trust, risk perception, and receipt of information on the public's intention to adopt protective measures or on the acceptance of vaccination. This study aims to identify and describe possible changes in and factors associated with public's intentions during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the Netherlands. Sixteen cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted (N = 8060) between April - November 2009. From these repeated measurements three consecutive periods were categorized based on crucial events during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Time trends in government trust, risk perception, intention to adopt protective measures, and the acceptance of vaccination were analysed. Factors associated with an intention to adopt protective measures or vaccination were identified. Trust in the government was high, but decreased over time. During the course of the pandemic, perceived vulnerability and an intention to adopt protective measures increased. Trust and vulnerability were associated with an intention to adopt protective measures in general only during period one. Higher levels of intention to receive vaccination were associated with increased government trust, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability. In periods two and three receipt of information was positively associated with an intention to adopt protective measures. Most respondents wanted to receive information about infection prevention from municipal health services, health care providers, and the media. The Dutch response to the H1N1 virus was relatively muted. Higher levels of trust in the government, fear/worry, and perceived vulnerability were all positively related to an intention to accept vaccination. Only fear/worry was positively linked to an intention to adopt protective measures during the entire pandemic. Risk and crisis communication by the government should

  19. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  20. Publications about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides the general public, partners, media outlets and health care professionals with a wide variety of asthma resources at no-cost. EPA develops resources to share information about asthma, its triggers, and comprehensive asthma management.

  1. The International Experience in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenna Mariia S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the foreign experience of implementing public procurement, analyzing peculiarities of organizational, normative and procedural provision of public procurement in the Member States of the European Union. The relevance of the research topic is due to the need to harmonize the procurement policy of the Government of Ukraine with the international legal framework and with broad political objectives within the European integration strategy. The organizational framework and principles of implementing public procurement in the EU Member States were analyzed. Special attention was paid to normative provision of public procurement by the EU Member States; peculiarities of the use of national or harmonized rules of public procurement in accordance with the amount of the procurement contract; restrictions and conditions for public authorities in the selection of applicants for bidding. Five types of public procurement procedures used in the EU have been characterized, namely: open procedure, limited procedure, negotiation procedure, competitive dialog, electronic auctions. The need to address the social and legal aspects of public procurement in international practice has been substantiated and the possibilities for resolving these problems have been presented.

  2. True information on the late effect of radiation for medical doctors and general public is indispensable for unimpeded development of atomic industry. Lessons learned from psychological aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainson, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The development of atomic industry in Russia and other countries was practically stopped after the Chernobyl accident. The general public opinion was that the potential hazard from atomic energy stations tremendously outbalanced their benefit. Mass media supplied the public with a lot of negative information on the risk of cancer for the exposed persons, making virtually no reference to the dose-effects of cancer induction, and, more frighteningly, of hereditary consequences of the exposure. Importantly, mass media was only a distributor of negative information, which ion fact was generated in scientific and medical circles. Not so many medical doctors performed real epidemiological studies, comparing the incidence of different sickness in the exposed and control groups and thus receiving true information on the health of their patients. On the other hand, many biologists studied the effects of small doses on the cellular level, and a number of statements about the pronounced biological effects of small radiation doses appeared as a result in the literature. For instance, the effects of genetic instability, bystander effect, and the greater death of radioresistant cancer cells after smaller than larger doses can be mentioned. The discovered effects are real, but their direct extrapolation on the state of human health may lead to wrong conclusions. It is also necessary to be cautious in application of non-human data on the hereditary effect of radiation to humans: Such effects are pronounced in Drosophila, well documented in mice but have not practically been registered among the descendants of thousands of persons exposed to doses of several Gy at the Mayak plutonium production/processing factories, or in the settlements downstream Techa river consuming Mayak's sewage waters. It also obligatory for the scientific community to use proper controls while examining the reported cases of the elevated illness among the descendants of the exposed persons to clarify

  3. Improvement of the organizational support of public water management in Ukraine at the national level

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Vostrikova; V. P. Vostrikov

    2015-01-01

    The article revealed the theoretical and methodological provision of public water management system by formulating the generalized system model and mechanism of state water management. Due to the classical definition of governance and existing approaches to environmental management the interpretation of the term «public water management» is proposed. Using a systematic approach summarizes the system of public water management and considered its main components: control subsystem, controlled s...

  4. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  5. Public education - Whose responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Alva E.

    1977-01-01

    One of the major problems of the nuclear industry is the lack of public education as to the true facts of nuclear energy. This paper describes some of the misconceptions the general public have concerning reactors, and what program the University of Missouri-Rolla Reactor Facility is following to educate the more than three thousand visitors that tour the facility each year. (author)

  6. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  7. Council directive of 1 June 1976 laying down the revised basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    As provided for in the Euratom Treaty, and in particular Article 30 thereof, basic standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations, must be established to enable each Member State in accordance with Article 33 of the Euratom Treaty to lay down provisions by legislation, regulation or administrative action to ensure compliance with each standards, to take the necessary measures with regard to teaching, education and vocational training and to make these provisions in harmony with the provisions applicable in this field in the other Member States. On 2 February 1959, the Council has adopted a directive establishing basic safety standards. These were modified partially by the directives of 5 March 1962 and 27 October 1966. The present edition reproduces the complete text of the directive amending the basic safety standards for the health protection of the population and work against the dangers of ionizing radiation adopted by the Council on 31 May 1976. These new standards take into consideration the increasing scientific knowledge in the fields of radiological protection and radiobiology and the practical experience of applying these directives in national laws

  8. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  9. Propaganda de medicamentos para grande público: parâmetros conceituais de uma prática produtora de risco Drug advertising to the general public: conceptual parameters of a risk producer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro César Nascimento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa alguns conceitos relativos a marketing, propaganda, medicamento, regulação e manipulação, discutindo parâmetros éticos e de vigilância sanitária relativos à prática da propaganda de medicamentos para o grande público. O foco deste trabalho é a análise das contradições, desde o ponto de vista conceitual, da prática da propaganda farmacêutica como instrumento de elevação das vendas e conquista de mercados versus a política de uso racional de medicamentos. Estudos acadêmicos e a monitoração da propaganda farmacêutica realizada pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária demonstram que os conteúdos das peças publicitárias de medicamentos direcionadas ao grande público superestimam as qualidades do produto, enaltecem quase exclusivamente seus benefícios, colocando-os em uma posição central no processo terapêutico; e omitem os riscos inerentes à sua utilização e exageram suas qualidades, às vezes duvidosas. Mais que se debruçar sobre propostas reguladoras que objetivariam criar constrangimentos a esta prática, este artigo discute a impossibilidade, considerando-se os interesses da saúde pública, da convivência de interesses tão díspares quanto os do marketing - que busca sempre expandir mercados - e das políticas de uso correto, racional e seguro de medicamentos.This article analyzes some concepts relating to marketing, advertising, medications, regulation and manipulation. It discusses ethical and health surveillance parameters of drugs advertising for the general public. The focus of this work is the analysis of contradictions from a conceptual point of view between the practice of pharmaceutical advertising as a tool for the increase of sales and the conquest of markets versus the policy of rational use of medicines. Academic studies and monitoring of drugs advertising conducted by the National Health Surveillance Agency show that the contents of the advertising pieces oriented

  10. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  11. Barriers to public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patten, E.

    1986-01-01

    When one talks of public involvement, one immediately thinks of a public hearing. Six problems with the public hearing system are listed and discussed. The constraints involved in the public hearing process are: 1) asking for technical information from general folks; 2) overwhelming the public with complex information; 3) having a format that intimidates the speaker and allows no opportunity for useful dialogue; 4) obtaining a skewed picture of an issue because one hasn't had truly representative comments; 5) citizens having overblown expectations of what public involvement means, and becoming frustrated and cynical when their advice isn't heeded; and 6) convincing the powers that be that a comprehensive program is a wise investment. The second half of this paper lists 21 other forms of public participation, giving a description of each form, its purpose, and brief comments on its advantages

  12. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  13. Perceived risk, anxiety, and behavioural responses of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands: results of three consecutive online surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Steenbergen Jim E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into risk perception and behavioural responses in case of emerging infectious diseases is still relatively new. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions and behaviours of the general public during the early phase of the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in the Netherlands. Methods Two cross-sectional and one follow-up online survey (survey 1, 30 April-4 May; survey 2, 15-19 June; survey 3, 11-20 August 2009. Adults aged 18 years and above participating in a representative Internet panel were invited (survey 1, n = 456; survey 2, n = 478; follow-up survey 3, n = 934. Main outcome measures were 1 time trends in risk perception, feelings of anxiety, and behavioural responses (survey 1-3 and 2 factors associated with taking preventive measures and strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future (survey 3. Results Between May and August 2009, the level of knowledge regarding Influenza A (H1N1 increased, while perceived severity of the new flu, perceived self-efficacy, and intention to comply with preventive measures decreased. The perceived reliability of information from the government decreased from May to August (62% versus 45%. Feelings of anxiety decreased from May to June, and remained stable afterwards. From June to August 2009, perceived vulnerability increased and more respondents took preventive measures (14% versus 38%. Taking preventive measures was associated with no children in the household, high anxiety, high self-efficacy, more agreement with statements on avoidance, and paying much attention to media information regarding Influenza A (H1N1. Having a strong intention to comply with government-advised preventive measures in the future was associated with higher age, high perceived severity, high anxiety, high perceived efficacy of measures, high self-efficacy, and finding governmental information to be reliable. Conclusions Decreasing trends over time in perceived

  14. Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  16. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Baojie [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Ni, Muyi, E-mail: muyi.ni@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wei, Shiping [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Conservative early dose of different unit fusion radioactivity release were assessed. • Data of accident level in INES for fusion reactor were proposed. • Method of environmental restoration time after fusion accident was proposed. • The maximum possible accident level for ITER like fusion reactor is 6. • We need 34–52 years to live after the fusion hypothetical accident. - Abstract: As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1 kg HTO and 1000 kg dust release) and 34–52 years for case 2 (1 kg HTO and 10kg–100 kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  17. THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION COMPARED TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND OTHER SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR IOAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the meaning of the public administration term. In our opinion it is necessary to be able to define exactly what public administration means but at the same time to clearly distinguish it from the other sciences. This is due to the fact that very often confusion is made between public administration and public management, public administration and bureaucracy or public administration and policy. Throughout this paper we hope to clarify some of the aspects related to what exactly distinguishes public administration from the above mentioned sciences and what are its own particularities.

  18. Communicating with external publics: managing public opinion and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristino, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    In health care organizational settings public relations plays an important role in managing relationships with a variety of external publics as well as with society in general. Managing these relationships involves both reactive and proactive communication activities. Reactively, public relations responds to public issues, crises and concerns, as well as inquiries from the media and other social institutions. Proactively, public relations engages in deliberately planned campaigns and programs to inform, influence or change behaviors of targeted publics for a wide range of strategic purposes. These purposes include managing the organization's image and identity; influencing public policies; supporting health promotion and education; promoting fund raising and volunteerism; and managing organizational change and crises.

  19. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  20. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication... Federal Register shall publish a serial publication called the Federal Register to contain the following...

  1. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  2. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  3. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://www.facs.org/trauma/publications/abdominal.pdf. 4. Hoff WS, Holevar M, Nagy KK, Patterson L, Young JS,. Arrillaga A, et al. Practice management guidelines for the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma: the East practice management guidelines work group. The Journal Of Trauma. 2002;53(3):602-15. PubMed PMID: ...

  4. 45 CFR 96.41 - General determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General determination. 96.41 Section 96.41 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.41 General determination. (a) The Department has determined...

  5. 42 CFR 93.100 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy. 93.100 Section 93.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  6. [Harassment in the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  7. 24 CFR 81.72 - Public-use database and public information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public-use database and public... Public-use database and public information. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the Secretary shall establish and make available for public use, a public-use database containing...

  8. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, K.

    2002-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  9. Tendencia de la mortalidad por causas violentas en la población general y entre los adolescentes y jóvenes de la región de las américas Trends in mortality due to violent causes in the overall population and among adolescents and young people in the americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay, sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico, se observa tambien una tendencia decreciente. Solo tres países (Brasil, Colombia y Cuba muestran tendencias francamente crecientes de su mortalidad en todos los grupos de edad, mientras en otros dos (Panamá y Puerto Rico, tales movimientos se aprecian en la población en general y en uno (Uruguay, afectan solo al grupo de 10 a 24 años de edad. La mortalidad por causas externas segun grupo de edad se concentra frecuentemente en el grupo de los adolescentes y jóvenes y las tendencias de la mortalidad por sexo, aunque predomine en el sexo masculino, las diferencias tienden a disminuir. Segun la magnitud de la mortalidad por causas externas se configuran tres grupos de países, de acuerdo a las tasas alcanzadas por este indicador: países de elevada mortalidad (Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Suriname; países de nivel intermedio (Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, Puerto Rico y Venezuela; y países de moderada mortalidad (Argentina, Costa Rica, Panamá, Trinidad & Tobago y Uruguay. En relación a los grupos de causas externas resulta evidente que, a pesar de sus tendencias decrecientes, la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico continúa siendo un grave problema en Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. y Venezuela. La mortalidad por suicidio sigue siendo motivo de preocupación en Canadá, EE.UU., Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y Uruguay. En relación a la mortalidad por homicidio, ésta es particularmente alarmante en Brasil, Colombia, México, Panamá, Puerto Rico y

  10. Public Information Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The Public Information Plan is intended to be used in conjunction with the DOE-UMTRA Project ''Public Participation Plan'' to describe the Department of Energy's plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control of Act of 1978, PL95-604. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the cleanup of designated abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites. The objective of the Public Information Plan of the UMTRA Project is timely and sufficient dissemination of factual information to promote understanding of the project by federal, state, and local officials, the media, special interest groups, and the general public; and thereby to encourage informed participation in the project by the public and government officials. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act provides for public involvement in remedial action planning, with special consideration given to landowners, Indian tribes, and the states. According to the Act, the Secretary of Energy shall hold public hearings in the states where processing sites, vicinity properties, and disposal sites are located. Public participation in the UMTRA Project will not, however, be limited to those mechanisms formally required by law. The public may also be involved informally through informational meetings, workshops, and local citizens' task forces. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  12. Generalized interpolative quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized interpolative quantum statistics is presented by conjecturing a certain reordering of phase space due to the presence of possible exotic objects other than bosons and fermions. Such an interpolation achieved through a Bose-counting strategy predicts the existence of an infinite quantum Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics akin to the one discovered by Greenberg recently

  13. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  14. Public diplomacy: Basic marketing issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Rada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss the general features build in international activities known under term public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is not one-side process as well as strictly official but have a lot meanings - from economic to cultural. Linking up to economic side of the global national appearance, paper stressing an impact public diplomacy developed on the micro or company level. Some general remarks are mentioned in the case of Montenegro experience.

  15. [Study on medical service supply public-private partnership mode: based on the view of public economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Sun, Hong; Zhou, Li

    2015-02-01

    Due to the quasi-public attributes of medical service, the supply mode and system could influence equity and fairness of general people's health. Based on the view of public economics, the purpose of this paper was to explain the economic nature of medical service supply. By analyzing the practice of public-private partnership (PPP) mode in medical care supply and the related public economic issues, we summarized the feasibility and risks of PPP model in Chinese medical care supply market. Finally, we discussed the innovative medical service system provided by government, public hospitals, and social capitals together. Therefore, to guarantee further development of this new medical service supply--PPP mode, we should pay attention to some practical problems, such as the share of cooperation cost and the balance between the benefit and risk among all partners.

  16. 42 CFR 401.106 - Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication. 401.106 Section 401.106 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.106 Publication. (a) Methods of publication. Materials required to be published under the provisions of The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S...

  17. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  18. Public acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    An urgent need to rebuild public confidence after an incident attracting widespread adverse publicity led to the development by British Nuclear Fuels plc of a completely new approach to public relations. The Company's experience suggests that impressions count more than sheer information, provided the impressions have a firm base in reality. (author)

  19. The public's needs drive the public's receptivity to information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.N.

    1999-01-01

    Customers want high-quality products at low prices, and they want them now. The message is clear: The Public compares perceived alternatives. The communication problem of the nuclear industry is the same as any other nonmonopoly provider of products or services, i.e., to show the public that nuclear electricity is superior even though nuclear electricity itself is indistinguishable from any other electricity. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (1) What the public needs in general; (2) what the public wants of information delivered; (3) the nuclear information that the public wants; (4) the ANS public information web page; and (5) wider use of issues information

  20. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.