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Sample records for general population study

  1. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left...... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are sparse. We used data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, which comprises 5,890 individuals with data on pulmonary and cardiac symptoms, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary function tests, ECG and relevant medical history. Among...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  2. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are sparse. We used data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, which comprises 5,890 individuals with data on pulmonary and cardiac symptoms, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary function tests, ECG and relevant medical history. Among.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  3. Study design, participation and characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Bathum, Lise; Kvetny, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  4. Study design, participation and characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Bathum, Lise; Kvetny, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  5. Study design, participation and characteristics of the Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Kvetny, Jan; Rasmussen, Dorthe;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  6. Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Bebbington, Paul; Gittins, Matthew; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Garety, Philippa

    2008-04-01

    Judging whether we can trust other people is central to social interaction, despite being error-prone. A fear of others can be instilled by the contemporary political and social climate. Unfounded mistrust is called paranoia, and in severe forms is a central symptom of schizophrenia. To demonstrate that individuals without severe mental illness in the general population experience unfounded paranoid thoughts, and to determine factors predictive of paranoia using the first laboratory method of capturing the experience. Two hundred members of the general public were comprehensively assessed, and then entered a virtual reality train ride populated by neutral characters. Ordinal logistic regressions (controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, intellectual functioning, socio-economic status, train use, playing of computer games) were used to determine predictors of paranoia. The majority agreed that the characters were neutral, or even thought they were friendly. However, a substantial minority reported paranoid concerns. Paranoia was strongly predicted by anxiety, worry, perceptual anomalies and cognitive inflexibility. This is the most unambiguous demonstration of paranoid ideation in the general public so far. Paranoia can be understood in terms of cognitive factors. The use of virtual reality should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of paranoia.

  7. Trajectories of picky eating during childhood : A general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Tiemeier, Henning; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Tharner, Anne; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThis cohort study describes the prevalence of picky eating and examines prognostic factors for picky eating trajectories during childhood. Methods4,018 participants of a population-based cohort with measurements from pregnancy onwards were included. Picky eating was assessed by maternal rep

  8. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma in a general elderly population - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, S; Ikram, MK; Wolfs, RCW; Jansonius, NM; Hofman, A; de Jong, PTVM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a general elderly white population. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants 55 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG underwent at baseline

  9. Possible relations between general population suicide rates and societal crime: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2008-10-01

    Crime may be associated with a less structured society, less social integration, and feelings of less security and greater distress among citizens, which characteristics may lead to mental illness and subsequent suicide. Therefore, a cross-national analysis examining the association of general population suicide rates with percent of males and females in the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and United Nations for 42 countries. Spearman correlations were generally weak and not statistically significant. Those values were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides in the general population may permit exploration of the relation of general population suicides with experience and percent by nations of being victimised by crime.

  10. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods: All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 year...

  11. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterd (Arend); A.W. Hoes (Arno); M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); D.T. Linker (David); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To determine the prevalence of heart failure and symptomatic as well as asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 5540 participants of the Rotterdam Study (age 68.9+/-8.7 years, 2251 men) aged

  12. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood : a prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Hoek, Hans W.; van Hoeken, Daphne; de Barse, Lisanne M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPicky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associations with child ment

  13. Nonallergic rhinitis and its association with smoking and lower airway disease: A general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F;

    2011-01-01

    The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....

  14. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood: A prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cardona Cano; H.W. Hoek (Hans); D. Van Hoeken (Daphne); L.M. de Barse (Lisanne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Picky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associ

  15. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  16. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Moreira

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors.Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg.Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0. Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2. Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70, and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1. Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension.In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders.

  17. Prevalence of depression, quality of life and antidepressant treatment in the Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS), the objective of which is to facilitate epidemiological and genetic research, has included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) among the medical health questionnaires. We were thus...... in a position to compare the 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression in the period from 2010 to 2012 with our previous Danish general population study from 2003, in which the MDI was also included. Aims: The aim of our analysis was not only to evaluate the point prevalence of ICD-10 depression but also...... analysis. The scalability of the MDI and the WHO-5 was quite acceptable. Results: In total, 14,787 respondents were available from a response rate of 50%. The 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression was 2.3%, which is rather similar to the 2.8% in our 2003 study. The rate of people receiving antidepressants...

  18. A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Vicki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measuring HRQL in general injury populations with a generic health state measure to summarize existing knowledge. Methods Injury studies (1995-2009 were identified with main inclusion criteria being the use of a generic health status measure and not being restricted to one specific type of injury. Articles were collated by study design, HRQL instrument used, timing of assessment(s, predictive variables and ability to detect change over time. Results Forty one studies met inclusion criteria, using 24 different generic HRQL and functional status measures (most used were SF-36, FIM, GOS, EQ-5D. The majority of the studies used a longitudinal design, but with different lengths and timings of follow-up (mostly 6, 12, and 24 months. Different generic health measures were able to discriminate between the health status of subgroups and picked up changes in health status between discharge and 12 month follow-up. Most studies reported high prevalences of health problems within the first year after injury. The twelve studies that reported HRQL utility scores showed considerable but incomplete recovery in the first year after discharge. Conclusion This systematic review demonstrates large variation in use of HRQL instruments, study populations, and assessment time points used in studies measuring HRQL of general injury populations. This variability impedes comparison of HRQL summary scores between studies and prevented formal meta-analyses aiming to quantify and improve precision of the impact of injury on population health over time.

  19. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  20. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  1. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  2. Neuropathic pain in the general population: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, O; Austin, Sophie K; Khan, Rafi A; Smith, B H; Torrance, N

    2014-04-01

    Most patients with neuropathic pain symptoms present and are managed in primary care, with only a minority being referred for specialist clinical assessment and diagnoses. Previous reviews have focused mainly on specific neuropathic pain conditions based in specialist settings. This is the first systematic review of epidemiological studies of neuropathic pain in the general population. Electronic databases were searched from January 1966 to December 2012, and studies were included where the main focus was on neuropathic pain prevalence and/or incidence, either as part of a specific neuropathic pain-related condition or as a global entity in the general population. We excluded studies in which data were extracted from pain or other specialist clinics or focusing on specific population subgroups. Twenty-one articles were identified and underwent quality assessment and data extraction. Included studies differed in 3 main ways: method of data retrieval, case ascertainment tool used, and presentation of prevalence/incidence rates. This heterogeneity precluded any meta-analysis. We categorised comparable incidence and prevalence rates into 2 main subgroups: (1) chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics (range 3-17%), and (2) neuropathic pain associated with a specific condition, including postherpetic neuralgia (3.9-42.0/100,000 person-years [PY]), trigeminal neuralgia (12.6-28.9/100,000 PY), painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (15.3-72.3/100,000 PY), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (0.2-0.4/100,000 PY). These differences highlight the importance of a standardised approach for identifying neuropathic pain in future epidemiological studies. A best estimate of population prevalence of pain with neuropathic characteristics is likely to lie between 6.9% and 10%. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-05-01

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  4. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  5. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population : results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J; De Graaf, R; Bijl, RV; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  6. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; Bijl, R.V.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  7. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke.

  8. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  9. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Lange, Peter; Scharling, H;

    2006-01-01

    population. METHODS: As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25 years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25 year observation period was analysed. RESULTS: The percentage......BACKGROUND: Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non-smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10 years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25 year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general...... cessation, especially early in the follow up period, decreased the risk of developing COPD substantially compared with continuous smoking. During the follow up period there were 2912 deaths, 109 of which were from COPD. 92% of the COPD deaths occurred in subjects who were current smokers at the beginning...

  10. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Periodontal Disease in a Japanese General Population: the Suita Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikui, Miki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Kida, Momoyo; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been noted. However, no study has evaluated the relationship by sex and in a general urban population using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between MetS and periodontal status using the uniform definition in a general urban Japanese population. A total of 1,856 Japanese men and women (mean age: 66.4 years) were studied using data from the Suita study. Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). MetS was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The associations of the MetS and its components with periodontal disease were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, drinking, and smoking. Among the components of the MetS, low HDL cholesterol level was significantly associated with periodontal disease in men and women [odds ratios (OR)=2.39 and 1.53; 95% confidence intervals=1.36-4.19 and 1.06-2.19]. Furthermore, the risk of periodontal disease showed 1.43-, 1.42-, and 1.89-fold increases in those with 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively, compared with those having no components (Ptrend <0.001). For the analysis by sex, the risk of periodontal disease was increased 2.27- and 1.76-fold in those with ≥4 components in men and women, respectively (both Ptrend=0.001). These findings suggest that MetS and lower HDL cholesterol are associated with periodontal disease. Subjects with two or more MetS components had a significantly higher prevalence of periodontal disease.

  11. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  12. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  13. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  14. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  15. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Cross-sectional study. General population sample. There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and MS, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yutaka; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Doi, Yasufumi; Kubo, Michiaki; Iida, Mitsuo; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in men and women in the recent general Japanese population, we examined coronary arteries obtained from subjects autopsied in the Hisayama cohort study (autopsy rate: 78.7%). The subjects were over 40 years of age and consisted of 125 men and 108 women. They underwent an antemortem medical examination in 1988 and were subject to autopsy at death during an 8-year follow-up period. Atherosclerosis was globally assessed by examining 14 specimens taken from wide areas of epicardial coronary arteries and classified into 6 grades. The frequency of more severe grades of coronary atherosclerosis increased with age in both genders and was greater in men than in women of the same age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and hemoglobin A(1C) were significant risk factors for men. Age, systolic blood pressure, and waist to hip ratio were risk factors for women. Smoking was not significantly correlated with the grade of coronary atherosclerosis in either gender. Thus, aging, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and glucose intolerance are risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in recent Japanese populations, and the significance of the metabolic risk factors is different between men and women.

  17. A paradigm for the study of paranoia in the general population: the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Lyn; Allen-Crooks, Rhani; Stevens, Adele; Wildschut, Tim; Chadwick, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that paranoia is common in the general population. We report three studies that examined the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) as a paradigm for evaluation of non-clinical paranoia. The PDG captures three key qualities that are at the heart of paranoia--it is interpersonal, it concerns threat, and it concerns the perception of others' intentions towards the self. Study 1 (n=175) found that state paranoia was positively associated with selection of the competitive PDG choice. Study 2 (n=111) found that this association was significant only when participants believed they were playing the PDG against another person, and not when playing against a computer. This finding underscores the interpersonal nature of paranoia and the concomitant necessity of studying paranoia in interpersonal context. In Study 3 (n=152), we assessed both trait and state paranoia, and differentiated between distrust- and greed-based competition. Both trait and state paranoia were positively associated with distrust-based competition (but not with greed-based competition). Crucially, we found that the association between trait paranoia and distrust-based competition was fully mediated by state paranoia. The PDG is a promising paradigm for the study of non-clinical paranoia.

  18. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Clamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.

  19. A new method to study knowledge, attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS in Iranian general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Malekafzali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no study to evaluate knowledge, attitude and sexual practices regarding HIV/AIDS in Iranian general population. Therefore, we chose barber shops as a safe cultural environment since all people, regardless of their social class and age, are customers of barber shops. This method or similar ways of data gathering in general population can be applied according to social and cultural conditions in each country.

  20. Osteoarthrosis in the general population : a follow-up study of osteoarthrosis of the hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.C.M. van Saase (Jan)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractDescribing the prevalence and the radiological and clinial abnormalities as they occur in the Zoetermeer population survey and fixing the position of the EPOZ data regarding OA amidst other population surveys on rheumatic diseases was the first aim of this study. This will be, together w

  1. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER: prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicheto Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain. Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4, (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2, females 5.3% (4.6-6.0; p Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44; inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68 for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16 for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58 for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58 for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65; diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83; previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15; hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18; hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19. Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87 and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94 were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.

  2. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, P.R.; Benn, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 9330 men and women from the general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During 10 years of follow-up, 498 participants developed MI. In women, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for MI for elevated lipoprotein(a) levels were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1...... bias, and lack of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk...... observed a stepwise increase in risk of MI with increasing levels of lipoprotein(a), with no evidence of a threshold effect. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict a 3- to 4-fold increase in risk of MI in the general population and absolute 10-year risks of 20% and 35% in high-risk women and men...

  3. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromso Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  4. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  5. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  6. Barriers for progress in salt reduction in the general population. An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, R S; Elmadfa, I; Biro, Gy; Cheng, Y; Prakash, V; Rust, P; Barna, M; Lion, R; Meijer, G W; Neufingerl, N; Szabolcs, I; van Zweden, R; Yang, Y; Feunekes, G I J

    2013-12-01

    Salt reduction is important for reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events, nevertheless worldwide salt intakes are above recommendations. Consequently strategies to reduce intake are required, however these require an understanding of salt intake behaviours to be effective. As limited information is available on this, an international study was conducted to derive knowledge on salt intake and associated behaviours in the general population. An online cohort was recruited consisting of a representative sample from Germany, Austria, United States of America, Hungary, India, China, South Africa, and Brazil (n=6987; aged 18-65 years; age and gender stratified). Participants completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire on salt intake and associated behaviours. While salt reduction was seen to be healthy and important, over one third of participants were not interested in salt reduction and the majority were unaware of recommendations. Salt intake was largely underestimated and people were unaware of the main dietary sources of salt. Participants saw themselves as mainly responsible for their salt intake, but also acknowledged the roles of others. Additionally, they wanted to learn more about why salt was bad for health and what the main sources in the diet were. As such, strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt. Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction. These findings provide unique insights into issues surrounding salt reduction and should be used to develop effective salt reduction strategies and/or policies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroepidemiology of pertussis in a cross-sectional study of an adult general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, P F; Dalby, T; Simonsen, J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An increase in pertussis has been observed in several countries over the last decades, especially in adult populations. The seroprevalence of pertussis was determined in a cross-sectional study of the adult population in the Copenhagen area, Denmark, conducted between 2006 and 2008....../1000 person-years. In contrast, an incidence of 0·03/1000 person-years was estimated from the official data of notified cases during the same period. Of the investigated risk factors, only age and education were significantly associated with pertussis infection. This study indicates that pertussis is highly...

  8. Old persons' contact with general practitioners in relation to health: a Danish population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, G; Holstein, B E; Holst, E;

    1991-01-01

    The study describes health, social situation, and contact with general practitioners in a random sample of non-institutionalized persons 70-95 years old in Denmark. There was a strong correlation between health and contact with general practitioners. A small group, 3% of the respondents, had...... no health problems, but had been in contact with a general practitioner within the previous month. This group was characterized by a strong social network and a high degree of life satisfaction. Another small group, including 3% of the respondents, had extensive health problems, but had nevertheless...

  9. Extreme ("pathological") demand avoidance in autism: a general population study in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Gillberg, I Carina; Thompson, Lucy; Biskupsto, Rannvá; Billstedt, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Research into Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA), which has been suggested to be a subgroup within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is almost nonexistent in spite of the frequent reference to the condition in clinical practice. The total population of 15 to 24-year-olds in the Faroe Islands was screened for ASD, and 67 individuals were identified who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (corresponding to a general population prevalence of ASD of almost 1 %). Of these 67, 50 had parents who were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11) which contains 15 "PDA-specific" items. Nine individuals met criteria for "possible clinical diagnosis of PDA", meaning that almost one in five of all with ASD also had indications of having had PDA in childhood, and that 0.18 % of the total population had had the combination of ASD and PDA. However, at the time of assessment, only one of the 9 individuals with possible PDA still met "full criteria". PDA possibly constitutes a considerable minority of all cases with ASD diagnosed in childhood, but criteria for the condition are unlikely to be still met in later adolescence and early adult life.

  10. A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Polinder (Suzanne); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E. Belt (Eefje); R.A. Lyons (Ronan); V. Erasmus (Vicky); J. Lund (Johan); E.F. van Beeck (Ed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL) of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measurin

  11. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Lange, Peter; Scharling, H

    2006-01-01

    population. METHODS: As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25 years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25 year observation period was analysed. RESULTS: The percentage...

  12. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France, Ge

  13. Physical activity and onset of depression in adolescents : A prospective study in the general population cohort TRAILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrakakis, N.; Roest, A. M.; Verhulst, F.; Ormel, J.; de Jonge, P.; Oldehinkel, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although it has often been suggested that physical activity and depression are intertwined, only few studies have investigated whether specific aspects of physical activity predict the incidence of major depression in adolescents from the general population. Therefore the aim of this study was to in

  14. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Lange, Peter; Scharling, H

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non-smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10 years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25 year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general populat...

  15. The relationship between lifestyle and self-reported health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta Holm; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    -sectional analyses, persons with an unhealthy lifestyle reported significantly worse physical and mental health than persons with a healthier lifestyle. In longitudinal data, using adjusted multivariate analyses (N=3,084), we found an association between increased physical activity at five-year follow......: This study describes the negative relationship between unhealthy lifestyle and self-reported mental and physical health in a general population. Also, it shows the impact of improvements in lifestyle on self-reported health in a general population, which has not been investigated before....

  16. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...

  17. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  18. Quality of life in female myocardial infarction survivors: a comparative study with a randomly selected general female population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridlund Bengt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial burden associated with MI has been reported. Thus, how survivors experience their quality of life (QOL is now being given increasing attention. However, few studies have involved women and a comparison with the general population. The aims of this study were to determine the QOL of female MI survivors, to investigate whether their QOL differed from that of the general population, and to evaluate the clinical significance of the findings. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were performed; on female MI survivors and the general Norwegian population. The MI survey included women aged 62–80 years, three months to five years after their MI. One hundred and forty-five women responded, yielding a response rate of 60%. A subset of women in the same age range (n = 156 was drawn from a study of 1893 randomly selected Norwegian citizens. QOL was measured in both groups with the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF. Results The majority (54% of the female MI survivors presented with ST-elevation in their ECG, 31% received thrombolysis, and 38% had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Female MI survivors reported significantly lower satisfaction with general health (p = 0.020 and overall QOL (p = 0.017 than women from the general population. This was also the case for the physical and environmental QOL domains (p Conclusion The burden of MI significantly affects the physical health of elderly women. Still, female MI survivors fare as well as the general female population on psychosocial QOL domains. Action should be taken not only to support women's physical needs but also to reinforce their strengths in order to maintain optimal QOL.

  19. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...... and ferritin levels, and clinically overt hemochromatosis is rare. Therefore, C282Y homozygotes identified during population screening, and not because of clinically overt hemochromatosis, at most need to be screened for manifestations of hemochromatosis every 10 to 20 years....

  20. Antihypertensive drug treatment changes in the general population: the colaus study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in antihypertensive drug treatment are paramount in the adequate management of patients with hypertension, still, there is little information regarding changes in antihypertensive drug treatment in Switzerland. Our aim was to assess those changes and associated factors in a population-based, prospective study. Methods Data from the population-based, CoLaus study, conducted among subjects initially aged 35–75 years and living in Lausanne, Switzerland. 772 hypertensive subjects (371 women) were followed for a median of 5.4 years. Data Subjects were defined as continuers (no change), switchers (one antihypertensive class replaced by another), combiners (one antihypertensive class added) and discontinuers (stopped treatment). The distribution and the factors associated with changes in antihypertensive drug treatment were assessed. Results During the study period, the prescription of diuretics decreased and of ARBs increased: at baseline, diuretics were taken by 46.9% of patients; angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) by 44.7%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) by 28.8%, beta-blockers (BB) by 28.0%, calcium channel blockers (CCB) by 18.9% and other antihypertensive drugs by 0.3%. At follow-up (approximately 5 years later), their corresponding percentages were 42.8%, 51.7%, 25.5%, 33.0% 20.7% and 1.0%. Among all participants, 54.4% (95% confidence interval: 50.8-58.0) were continuers, 26.9% (23.8-30.2) combiners, 12.7% (10.4-15.3) switchers and 6.0% (4.4-7.9) discontinuers. Combiners had higher systolic blood pressure values at baseline than the other groups (p antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion In Switzerland, ARBs have replaced diuretics as the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug. Uncontrolled hypertension, ARBs, drug regimen (monotherapy or polytherapy) and overweight/obesity are associated with changes in antihypertensive treatment. PMID:24685255

  1. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the general population: the HypnoLaus study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzer, R; Vat, S; Marques-Vidal, P; Marti-Soler, H; Andries, D; Tobback, N; Mooser, V; Preisig, M; Malhotra, A; Waeber, G; Vollenweider, P; Tafti, M; Haba-Rubio, J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with major morbidity and mortality. However, its prevalence has mainly been selectively studied in populations at risk for sleep-disordered breathing or cardiovascular diseases. Taking into account improvements in recording techniques and new criteria used to define respiratory events, we aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and associated clinical features in a large population-based sample. Methods Between Sept 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, we did a population-based study (HypnoLaus) in Lausanne, Switzerland. We invited a cohort of 3043 consecutive participants of the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study to take part. Polysomnography data from 2121 people were included in the final analysis. 1024 (48%) participants were men, with a median age of 57 years (IQR 49–68, range 40–85) and mean body-mass index (BMI) of 25·6 kg/m2 (SD 4·1). Participants underwent complete polysomnographic recordings at home and had extensive phenotyping for diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and depression. The primary outcome was prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, assessed by the apnoea-hypopnoea index. Findings The median apnoea-hypopnoea index was 6·9 events per h (IQR 2·7–14·1) in women and 14·9 per h (7·2–27·1) in men. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (≥15 events per h) was 23·4% (95% CI 20·9–26·0) in women and 49·7% (46·6–52·8) in men. After multivariable adjustment, the upper quartile for the apnoea-hypopnoea index (>20·6 events per h) was associated independently with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio 1·60, 95% CI 1·14–2·26; p=0·0292 for trend across severity quartiles), diabetes (2·00, 1·05–3·99; p=0·0467), metabolic syndrome (2·80, 1·86–4·29; p<0·0001), and depression (1·92, 1·01–3·64; p=0·0292). Interpretation The high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing recorded in our population-based sample might

  2. Early determinants for the development of undernutrition in an older general population: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilp, Janneke; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    2011-09-01

    Undernutrition may be an important modifiable risk factor for poor clinical outcomes in older individuals. To achieve earlier detection or prevention of undernutrition, more information is needed about risk factors for the development of undernutrition in community-dwelling older individuals. The objective was to identify early determinants of incident undernutrition in a prospective population-based study. Baseline data (1992-3) on socio-economic, psychological, medical, functional, lifestyle and social factors of 1120 participants aged 65-85 years of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Undernutrition, defined as a BMI weight loss ≥ 5 % in the last 6 months, was assessed every 3 years during a 9-year follow-up period. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to investigate the association between early determinants at baseline and incident undernutrition. In 9 years, 156 participants (13·9 %) developed undernutrition. In univariate analyses, female sex, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, multiple chronic diseases, high medication use (women), poor appetite, no alcohol use v. light alcohol use, loneliness, not having a partner, limitations in performing normal activities due to a health problem, low physical performance (participants aged stairs (participants aged stairs (participants aged < 75 years) remained early determinants. The results of the present study can be used to identify subgroups of older individuals with increased risk of undernutrition and to identify modifiable determinants for the purpose of prevention of undernutrition.

  3. Brain tissue volumes in the general population of the elderly: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Forsberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Jesper; Kjartansson, Olafur; Oskarsdottir, Bryndis; Jonsson, Palmi V; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Zijdenbos, Alex; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-02-15

    Imaging studies have reported conflicting findings on how brain structure differs with age and sex. This may be explained by discrepancies and limitations in study population and study design. We report a study on brain tissue volumes in one of the largest cohorts of individuals studied to date of subjects with high mean age (mean ± standard deviation (SD) 76 ± 6 years). These analyses are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired at baseline on 4303 non-demented elderly, and 367 who had a second MRI, on average 2.5 ± 0.2 years later. Tissue segmentation was performed with an automatic image analysis pipeline. Total brain parenchymal (TBP) volume decreased with increasing age while there was an increase in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in both sexes. A reduction in both normal white matter (NWM)- and gray matter (GM) volume contributed to the brain shrinkage. After adjusting for intra-cranial volume, women had larger brain volumes compared to men (3.32%, p < 0.001) for TBP volume in the cross-sectional analysis. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant age-sex interaction in TBP volume with a greater rate of annual change in men (-0.70%, 95%CI: -0.78% to -0.63%) than women (-0.55%, 95%CI: -0.61% to -0.49%). The annual change in the cross-sectional data was approximately 40% less than the annual change in the longitudinal data and did not show significant age-sex interaction. The findings indicate that the cross-sectional data underestimate the rate of change in tissue volumes with age as the longitudinal data show greater rate of change in tissue volumes with age for all tissues.

  4. The Association between Physical Health and Delusional-Like Experiences: A General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James; Varghese, Daniel; McGrath, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective Delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community. Recent community based studies have found that DLE are more common in those with depression and anxiety disorders, and in those with subclinical symptoms of depression and anxiety. Chronic physical disorders are associated with comorbid depression and anxiety; however, there is a lack of evidence about the association of DLE with common physical conditions. The aim of this study was to explore associations between the common physical disorders and DLE using a large population sample. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007, a national household survey of 8841 residents aged between 16 and 85 years. The presence of DLE, selected common physical disorders and symptoms were assessed using a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) schedule. We examined the relationship between DLE, and physical health-related variables using logistic regression, with adjustments for potential confounding factors. Results Of the 8771, 776 (8.4%) subjects positively endorsed one or more DLE. Of the six physical disorders examined, only diabetes and arthritis were significantly associated with the endorsement of DLE. Of the seven broad physical symptoms explored, only hearing problems were consistently associated with DLE. Conclusion Delusional-like experiences are common in the Australian community, and are associated with selected chronic physical disorders and with impaired hearing. The direction of causality between these variables warrants closer research scrutiny. PMID:21541344

  5. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  6. Exposure to manganese: health effects on the general population, a pilot study in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Rios, C; Mercado, L A; Arechiga-Serrano, R; Cano-Valle, F; Eden-Wynter, R A; Texcalac-Sangrador, J L; Villa-Barragan, J P; Rodriguez-Agudelo, Y; Montes, S

    2001-02-01

    To support a risk assessment of manganese exposure in two communities living within a manganese mining district a cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of the adult population of long-term residents. One community was exposed to a point source from an ore primary refining plant. Manganese is an essential mineral for human life. It is also the fourth in importance for industrial metal making. Data were collected on socioeconomic living conditions, emission sources, environmental media concentrations (air, water, soil, dust, food), respiratory symptomatology, and a neuropsychological examination (Mini-Mental Screening test, the Hooper Visual Organization test, the Ardila-Ostroski, and others). We examined 73 subjects (52 women), most of low socioeconomic status. Environmental air concentrations were 2 to 3 times higher than those in other urban concentrations. Manganese blood concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 88 microg/L, with a median concentration of 15, the upper quartile starting at 20 microg/L; the upper 10% was above 25 microg/L. Lead and manganese were highly correlated; there was an inverse relation to hemoglobin. Reduced levels of plasma lipid peroxidation were associated with blood manganese. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified B-Mn as increasing the risk of deficient cognitive performance 12 times (Mini-Mental score of less than 17).

  7. [Cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events in the general population of the sanitary area of Toledo. RICARTO Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Rodríguez-García, M L; Menchén-Herreros, A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Fernández-Conde, J A; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Hernández-Moreno, J; Fernández-Martín, J

    2017-05-26

    The main aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as life habits (physical exercise, alcohol consumption, and Mediterranean diet) in the population of a Health Area in Toledo, Spain, to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR). Epidemiological and observational study that will analyse a sample from the general population aged 18 years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards, and stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests will be performed. Aliquots of whole blood and serum samples will be stored at a temperature of-85°C to evaluate future genetic studies. CVR will be estimated by using SCORE project scales calibrated for Spanish population and the Framingham Heart Study scale. When the estimated sample size has been achieved and after a minimum follow-up of 5 years, a final visit will performed in which CVRF, TOD, CVD, CVRF control, and fatal and non-fatal outcomes will be evaluated. The RICARTO study is aimed to assess the prevalence of the main CVRF, TOD and CVD in order to determine the CVR in the general population of a health area of Toledo. An analysis will be repeated on the final sample after at least 5 years of follow-up to ascertain the incidence of CV outcomes and the temporal trends of life style, as well as the prevalence of CVRF, TOD, and CVD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Organisational determinants of production and efficiency in general practice: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kim Rose; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Sørensen, Torben Højmark

    2011-01-01

    assume that production and efficiency can be modelled using a behavioural production function. We apply the Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995) estimator to accomplish a decomposition of exogenous variables to determine the production frontier and variables determining the individual GPs......Shortage of general practitioners (GPs) and an increased political focus on primary care have enforced the interest in efficiency analysis in the Danish primary care sector. This paper assesses the association between organisational factors of general practices and production and efficiency. We...... distance to this frontier. Two different measures of practice outputs (number of office visits and total production) were applied and the results compared. The results indicate that nurses do not substitute GPs in the production. The production function exhibited constant returns to scale. The mean level...

  9. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  10. Bayesian inference for generalized linear mixed model based on the multivariate t distribution in population pharmacokinetic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available This article provides a fully bayesian approach for modeling of single-dose and complete pharmacokinetic data in a population pharmacokinetic (PK model. To overcome the impact of outliers and the difficulty of computation, a generalized linear model is chosen with the hypothesis that the errors follow a multivariate Student t distribution which is a heavy-tailed distribution. The aim of this study is to investigate and implement the performance of the multivariate t distribution to analyze population pharmacokinetic data. Bayesian predictive inferences and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm schemes are used to process the intractable posterior integration. The precision and accuracy of the proposed model are illustrated by the simulating data and a real example of theophylline data.

  11. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: A large community-based study in Mianyang, West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Li, Hong; Ji, Yulin; Ma, Yuanji; Hou, Fengsu; Yuan, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health problem. The objective of the current study was to reveal the seroepidemiology of HCV in the general population in Mianyang City. This study collected 438,575 blood samples from participants who had enrolled in the National Science and Technology Development Project and their demographic information, and then evaluated HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The overall anti-HCV positive rate was 0.80% (3,491/438,575) in the Mianyang general population, and it was 1.19% in rural population and 0.20% in urban. Anti-HCV positive rate increased with age, peaked at 45-54 years (2.01%), and then decreased. Anti-HCV prevalence was higher in males (0.89%) than that in females (0.73%). The prevalence of anti-HCV in participants with a history of blood transfusion, surgery, or with a previous diagnosis of hypertension was higher. The abnormal ALT levels (> 40 IU/L) were observed in 50.11% and 7.74% of anti-HCV positive and negative groups, respectively. In anti-HCV positive groups, the rate of abnormal ALT levels was higher in 55-64 age groups, male, and rural population. Though Mianyang was a low endemic area for HCV infection, the alarming fact was the large number of abnormal ALT levels in patients related to hepatitis C. This revealed delayed diagnosis and treatment of HCV infections. It is a necessity to promote early diagnosis and timely treatment of HCV infections.

  13. Lifestyle factors and contact to general practice with respiratory alarm symptoms-a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Elnegaard, Sandra; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prerequisite for early lung cancer diagnosis is that individuals with respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS) contact a general practitioner (GP). This study aims to determine the proportion of individuals in the general population who contact a GP with RAS and to analyse the association...... between lifestyle factors and contact to GPs with RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and prolonged hoarseness), GP contacts......, and lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol intake, and body mass index) were included. RESULTS: In total 49 706 (52.5 %) individuals answered the questionnaire. Overall 7870 reported at least one respiratory alarm symptom, and of those 39.6 % (3 080) had contacted a GP. Regarding specific symptoms...

  14. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %).

  15. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Geuskens, G.A.; Pronk, A.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on spec

  16. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Lando L J; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Pronk, Anjoeka; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; De Vroome, Ernest M M

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on

  17. Night work and breast cancer risk in a general population prospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.J.J.; Geuskens, G.A.; Pronk, A.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies in animals indicate that disruption of the circadian rhythm is carcinogenic, and night work has been suggested to be a probable breast cancer cause in humans. Findings among humans, however are inconsistent, often gathered with retrospective study designs, and only based on spec

  18. Accidental falls, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction: a prospective study of the general elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhagen, Magnus; Ekström, Henrik; Nordell, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2014-01-01

    As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=falls at the baseline predicted a significant reduction in the SF-12 physical component at the follow-up assessment (B-Coefficient -1.8, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.2). In conclusion, falls predict a long-term reduction in the physical component of HRQoL in the general elderly population. Over six years, fallers had a notable chronic lowered score in both HRQoL and LS, compared to non-fallers. This long-term depression of elderly fallers in these aspects may be more extent than previous assumed.

  19. Familial hypercholesterolemia in the danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) genes. Objective: We employed this tool to investigate the prevalence of FH and the associations between FH and coronary artery disease and cholesterol-lowering medication in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Setting: The study was of an unselected......, community-based population comprising 69,016 participants. Main Outcome Measures: FH (definite/probable) was defined as a Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score higher than 5. Coronary artery disease was myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. Results: The prevalence of FH was 0.73% (one in 137.......8-13.8). Conclusion: The prevalence of FH appears to be higher than commonly perceived in a general population of white Danish individuals, with at least half of affected subjects not receiving cholesterol-lowering medication. The very high risk of coronary artery disease irrespective of use of medication reflects...

  20. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of respiratory effect of air pollution: study design on general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, S; Carrozzi, L; Viegi, G; Giuntini, C

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an epidemiological model to investigate the relationship between respiratory diseases and environmental air pollution. In the Po Delta prospective study, subjects were investigated before and after a large thermoelectric power plant began operating, in 1980 to 1982 and in 1988 to 1991, respectively. The Pisa prospective study was performed in 1986 to 1988 and in 1991 to 1993, before and after the construction of a new expressway that encircles the city from the North to the Southeast. In each survey, subjects completed the interviewer-administered standardized CNR questionnaire on respiratory symptoms/diseases and risk factors, and performed lung function tests. In the second survey of each study, skin prick tests, total serum IgE determination, methacholine challenge test and biomarkers (such as sister chromatide exchanges, micronuclei, chromosomal abnormalities, DNA and hemoglobin adducts) were also performed. Concentrations of total suspended particulate and SO2 in both surveys were higher in urban than in rural areas, as well as symptom/disease prevalences and bronchial reactivity. Subgroups of subjects from the two samples were enrolled to perform a specific study on the acute respiratory effects of indoor pollution; the daily presence of symptoms and measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), daily activity pattern, and assessment of the indoor air quality (particulates particulates, especially asthmatics. In conclusion, these studies represent a basis for further analyses to better define the relationship between respiratory health and indoor/outdoor pollutant levels.

  2. An international prospective general population-based study of respiratory work disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toren, K.; Zock, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095184309; Kogevinas, M.; Plana, E.; Sunyer, J.; Radon, K.; Jarvis, D.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; d'Errico, A.; Payo, F.; Anto, J.M.; Blanc, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that job change due to breathing problems at the workplace (respiratory work disability) is common among adults of working age. That research indicated that occupational exposure to gases, dust and fumes was associated with job change due to

  3. Is nephrolithiasis an unrecognized extra-articular manifestation in ankylosing spondylitis? A prospective population-based Swedish national cohort study with matched general population comparator subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Krag Jakobsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is associated with several extra-articular manifestations. Nephrolithiasis (NL has not been recognized as one of those, however, several factors known to increase the risk of NL are at play in AS patients. The objective was to estimate rates and predictors of NL in Swedish patients with AS compared to the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective population-based nationwide cohort study based on linkage of data from Swedish registries. 8,572 AS patients were followed for 49,258 person-years (py and 39,639 matched general population comparators were followed for 223,985 py. Patients were followed prospectively together with comparator subjects from January 2001 through December 2009. The first occurrence of NL during follow-up was the primary outcome. Hazard Ratios (HR were used to compare these rates adjusting for comorbidities and treatment, and to assess predictors for NL. Mean age at study entry was 46 years (inter quartile range 36-56 years, 65% were males. Based on 250 vs. 466 NL events, the adjusted HR of NL in AS patients was 2.1 (95%CI 1.8 to 2.4. Predictors of NL within the AS group included prior diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (HR 2.3; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.3, prior diagnosis of NL (HR 16.4; 95%CI 11.5 to 23.4, and patients receiving anti-TNF treatment (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.1. Male sex was a risk factor for NL both in AS patients and in the general population. LIMITATIONS: The risk for residual confounding and inability to study the chemical nature of NL were considered the main limitations of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AS are at increased risk of NL, which may be considered a novel extra-articular manifestation. Previous history of NL, IBD, AS disease severity and male sex were identified as predictors of NL in AS.

  4. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne T

    2003-01-01

    consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... and excessive drinkers, compared to participants who had never smoked. Equivalent estimates among women were 1.76 (95% CI: 1.02-3.04) and 2.21 (95% CI: 1.00-4.58), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that tobacco use is associated quantitatively with later risk of heavier drinking....

  6. Cardiac Autonomic Alteration and Metabolic Syndrome: An Ambulatory ECG-based Study in A General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Ahn, Andrew; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Chen, Ming-Fong; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with chronic damage to the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to evaluate early stage cardiac autonomic dysfunction with electrocardiography (ECG)-based measures in MetS subjects. During 2012–2013, 175 subjects with MetS and 226 healthy controls underwent ECG recordings of at least 4 hours starting in the morning with ambulatory one-lead ECG monitors. MetS was diagnosed using the criteria defined in the Adult Treatment Panel III, with a modification of waist circumference for Asians. Conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, and complexity index (CI1–20) calculated from 20 scales of entropy (multiscale entropy, MSE), were compared between subjects with MetS and controls. Compared with the healthy controls, subjects with MetS had significantly reduced HRV, including SDNN and pNN20 in time domain, VLF, LF and HF in frequency domain, as well as SD2 in Poincaré analysis. MetS subjects have significantly lower complexity index (CI1–20) than healthy subjects (1.69 ± 0.18 vs. 1.77 ± 0.12, p < 0.001). MetS severity was inversely associated with the CI1–20 (r = −0.27, p < 0.001). MetS is associated with significant alterations in heart rate dynamics, including HRV and complexity. PMID:28290487

  7. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  8. Association between exposure to HSV1 and cognitive functioning in a general population of adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jonker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population. METHODS: This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6. At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP. Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use. RESULTS: Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = -0.272, 95% CI = -0.556 to -0.016, p = 0.047, while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is -0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075. The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.280 to -0.039, p = 0.014 and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046. Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.

  9. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  10. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

    2015-01-01

    phase, including 14,787 individuals, we have focused on suppressed TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and depression. AIMS: To evaluate to what extent suppressed TSH is associated with subclinical depression. METHODS: The total scores of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were used to evaluate...... subclinical depression, both by its total score and by an algorithm of the subthreshold depressed by presence of at least three of the 10 ICD-10 depression symptoms. Serum levels of TSH were used to classify the individuals into suppressed (TSH ...BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...

  11. Can work ability explain the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general population in Sweden

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    Löve Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the reasons for the social gradient in sickness absence might provide an opportunity to reduce the general rates of sickness absence. The complete explanation for this social gradient still remains unclear and there is a need for studies using randomized working population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if self-reported work ability could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. Methods The two study samples consisted of a randomized working population (n = 2,763 and a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees (n = 3,044, 19-64 years old. Both samples were drawn from the same randomized general population. Socioeconomic status was measured with occupational position and physical and mental work ability was measured with two items extracted from the work ability index. Results There was an association between lower socioeconomic status and belonging to the sick-listed sample among both women and men. In men the crude Odds ratios increased for each downwards step in socioeconomic status, OR 1.32 (95% CI 0.98-1.78, OR 1.53 (1.05-2.24, OR 2.80 (2.11-3.72, and OR 2.98 (2.27-3.90. Among women this gradient was not as pronounced. Physical work ability constituted the strongest explanatory factor explaining the total association between socioeconomic status and being sick-listed in women. However, among men, the association between skilled non-manual, OR 2.07 (1.54-2.78, and non-skilled manual, OR 2.03 (1.53-2.71 positions in relation to being sick-listed remained. The explanatory effect of mental work ability was small. Surprisingly, even in the sick-listed sample most respondents had high mental and physical work ability. Conclusions These results suggest that physical work ability may be an important key in explaining the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Hence, it is possible

  12. Hepatitis B virus infections and risk factors among the general population in Anhui Province, China: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoqing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among the general population and the risk factors associated with HBV infection in Anhui province, China. Methods A provincial serosurvey was conducted in four cities, and selected through stratified clustering sampling. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, and life history were collected, along with serum tested for HBsAg. Completed surveys were analysed from 8,875 participants. Results Overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.44%. Using multivariate analysis, older age was a risk factor for HBsAg infection among children younger than 15 years. Among adults 15-59 years old, the risk factors were male gender, a history of surgical operations, at least one HBsAg-positive family member, and non-vaccination. For adults older than 59 years, the risk factor was a blood transfusion history. Conclusions Though Anhui province has already reached the national goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among children younger than 5 years, there are still several risk factors for HBsAg infection among the older population. Immunization programs should continue to focus on adults, and interventions should be taken to reduce risk factors associated with being infected with Hepatitis B.

  13. Observationally and Genetically High YKL-40 and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in the General Population: Cohort and Mendelian Randomization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-05-01

    High baseline YKL-40 is associated with later development of ischemic stroke, but not with myocardial infarction. Whether high YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism is presently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically high YKL-40 is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the general population. Cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (N=21 647) and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (N=94 579). From 1977 to 2013, 1489 individuals developed pulmonary embolism, 2647 developed deep vein thrombosis, and 3750 developed venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis). For the 91% to 100% versus 0% to 33% YKL-40 percentile category, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio was 2.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.55) for pulmonary embolism, 1.98 (1.09-3.59) for deep vein thrombosis, and 2.13 (1.35-3.35) for venous thromboembolism. Compared with rs4950928 GG homozygosity, presence of C-allele was associated with a doubling (CG) or tripling (CC) in YKL-40 levels, but not with risk of venous thromboembolism. A doubling in YKL-40 was associated with a multifactorially adjusted observational hazard ratio for pulmonary embolism of 1.17 (1.00-1.38) and a genetic odds ratio of 0.97 (0.76-1.23). Corresponding risk estimates were 1.28 (1.12-1.47) observationally and 1.11 (0.91-1.35) genetically for deep vein thrombosis and 1.23 (1.10-1.38) observationally and 1.08 (0.92-1.27) genetically for venous thromboembolism. High YKL-40 levels were associated with a 2-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism, but the association was not causal. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  15. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognos...... differed according to age, substance abuse (alcohol abuse and injection drug use) and comorbidity....

  16. Are lower urinary tract symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease in the Dutch general population? Results from the Krimpen study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Inge I.; Blanker, Marco H.; Schouten, Boris W. V.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.; van der Heide, Wouter K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    To describe the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with adjustment for age and other confounders. We were specifically interested in the possible predictive value of LUTS to the incidence of CVD in the future in the general population. We

  17. Are lower urinary tract symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease in the Dutch general population? Results from the Krimpen study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Inge I.; Blanker, Marco H.; Schouten, Boris W. V.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Nijman, Rien J. M.; van der Heide, Wouter K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    PURPOSE: To describe the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with adjustment for age and other confounders. We were specifically interested in the possible predictive value of LUTS to the incidence of CVD in the future in the general population.

  18. Predictive factors of urinary tract infections among the oldest old in the general population. a population-based prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cools Herman JM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI are common among the oldest old and may lead to a few days of illness, delirium or even to death. We studied the incidence and predictive factors of UTI among the oldest old in the general population. Methods The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population-based prospective follow-up study of 86-year-old subjects in Leiden, The Netherlands. Information on the diagnosis of UTI was obtained annually during four years of follow-up from the medical records and interviews of treating physicians. A total of 157 men and 322 women aged 86 years participated in the study. Possible predictive factors were collected at baseline, including history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years, aspects of functioning (cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 4, disability in activities of daily living (ADL, and co-morbidities. Results The incidence of UTI from age 86 through 90 years was 11.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 9.4, 13.1 per 100 person-years at risk. Multivariate analysis showed that history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years (hazard ratio (HR 3.4 (95% CI 2.4, 5.0, impaired cognitive function (HR 1.9 (95% CI 1.3, 2.9, disability in daily living (HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.5 and urine incontinence (HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0, 2.1 were independent predictors of an increased incidence of UTI from age 86 onwards. Conclusions Within the oldest old, a history of UTI between the age of 85 and 86 years, cognitive impairment, ADL disability and urine incontinence are independent predictors of developing UTI. These predictive factors could be used to target preventive measures to the oldest old at high risk of UTI.

  19. The Canadian Systemic Sclerosis Oral Health Study IV: oral radiographic manifestations in systemic sclerosis compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Marie; MacDonald, David; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Tatibouet, Solène; Steele, Russell; Gravel, Sabrina; Mohit, Shrisha; Sayegh, Tarek El; Pope, Janet; Fontaine, Audrey; Masseto, Ariel; Matthews, Debora; Sutton, Evelyn; Thie, Norman; Jones, Niall; Copete, Maria; Kolbinson, Dean; Markland, Janet; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Robinson, David; Gornitsky, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare oral radiologic abnormalities associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) against abnormalities in the general population. Study Design Patients with SSc and healthy controls were enrolled in a multi-site cross-sectional study. Included in the radiology examination were a panoramic radiograph, four bitewings, and an anterior mandibular periapical radiograph. Radiographs were evaluated by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists tested for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and Mann Whitney U tests were used to summarize the radiologic manifestations of patients and controls. Results We assessed 163 SSc patients and 231 controls. Widening of the periodontal ligament space (PLS) (P < .001), with higher percentage of teeth with PLS widening (P < .001), was significantly more frequent in patients with SSc than in controls. The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the molars and premolars (P < .001). Moreover, 26% of the patients with SSc had a periapical PLS greater than 0.19 mm compared with 13% of the controls (P = .003). Patients with SSc had significantly more erosions compared with controls (14.5% vs. 3.6%; P < .001), mostly in the condyles (P = .022), coronoid processes (P = .005) and other locations (P = .012). Conclusion Patients with SSc had more teeth with PLS widening and erosions of the mandible compared with controls. PMID:25959972

  20. Epilepsy is associated with unmet health care needs compared to the general population despite higher health resource utilization--a Canadian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Aylin Y; Metcalfe, Amy; Patten, Scott B; Wiebe, Samuel; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Jetté, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    (1) To determine whether health resource utilization (HRU) and unmet health care needs differ for individuals with epilepsy compared to the general population or to those with another chronic condition (asthma, diabetes, migraine); and (2) to assess the association among epilepsy status, sociodemographic variables and HRU. Data on HRU were assessed using the 2001-2005 Canadian Community Health Surveys, a nationally representative population-based survey. Weighted estimates of association were produced as adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and HRU in those with epilepsy. All data on disease status, HRU, and unmet health care needs were self-reported. Individuals with epilepsy had the highest rate of hospitalizations and the highest mean number of consultations with physicians. Despite higher rates of consultation with psychologists and social workers compared to the general population, those with epilepsy were significantly more likely to say they had unmet mental health care needs. People with epilepsy were also less likely to use dental services compared to the general population. Epilepsy was a significant predictor of HRU in logistic regression models. Given the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in those with epilepsy, it is concerning that this group perceives unmet mental health care needs. It is also troublesome that there was decreased utilization of dental health care resources in those with epilepsy considering that these patients are more likely to have poor oral health. Although individuals with epilepsy use more health care services than the general population, this increase appears to be insufficient to address their health care needs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Specific fears and phobias in the general population: results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depla, Marja F I A; ten Have, Margreet L; van Balkom, Anton J L M; de Graaf, Ron

    2008-03-01

    To examine the prevalence rate, impairment, comorbidity, course of illness and determinants of eight specific phobia variants: animals (animal subtype); heights, water, storms (natural environment subtype); flying, enclosed spaces, being alone (situational subtype); and blood/injury (blood/injury subtype). Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a prospective study in the Dutch general population aged 18-65 (N = 7,076). The most prevalent condition was specific phobia with a fear of heights (4.9%). On all parameters except duration, specific phobia with a fear of being alone emerged as the most severe condition. Phobias with fear of enclosed spaces and phobias with fear of blood showed a slightly greater likelihood of impairment, comorbidity and personality problems than phobias with fear of animals, heights, water or storms. The situational and blood/injury phobia subtypes appear to be a more significant index for impairments and for comorbid psychiatric disorders than the animal and natural environment phobia subtypes.

  2. Sleep quality and health service utilization in Chinese general population: a cross-sectional study in Dongguan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Shan; Mai, Yan-Bing; Li, Wei-Da; Xi, Wen-Tao; Wang, Jin-Ming; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    The aims of this study were to explore the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and health service utilization in Chinese general population, to investigate the association between PSQI and health service utilization and to identify the independent contributions of social demographic variables, health related factors and PSQI to health service utilization. In a cross-sectional community-based health survey using a multi-instrument questionnaire, 4067 subjects (≥15 years old) were studied. The Chinese version of the PSQI was used to assess sleep quality. Health service utilization was measured by recent two-week physician visit and annual hospitalization rates. Higher PSQI scores were associated with more frequent health service utilization. Higher scores in subjective sleep quality were associated with higher rate of recent two-week physician visit (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.015). Higher scores in habitual sleep efficiency (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.038) and sleep disturbances (adjusted OR = 2.09 per SD increase, P quality predicted more frequent health service utilization. The independent contribution of PSQI on health service utilization was smaller than social demographic variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. General symptom reporting in female fibromyalgia patients and referents: a population-based case-referent study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Saga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and palpation tenderness. In addition to these classic symptoms, fibromyalgia patients tend to report a number of other complaints. What these other complaints are and how often they are reported as compared with related referents from the general population is not very well known. We therefore hypothesized that subjects with fibromyalgia report more of a wide range of symptoms as compared with referents of the same sex and age from the general population. Methods 138 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia in primary health care and 401 referents from the general population matched to the cases by sex, age and residential area responded to a postal questionnaire where information on marital status, education, occupational status, income level, immigrant status, smoking habits physical activity, height and weight history and the prevalence of 42 defined symptoms was sought. Results The cases had lower educational and income levels, were more often unemployed, on sick leave or on disability pension and were more often first generation immigrants than the referents. They were also heavier, shorter and more often had a history of excessive food intake and excessive weight loss. When these differences were taken into account, cases reported not only significantly more presumed fibromyalgia symptoms but also significantly more of general symptoms than the referents. The distribution of symptoms was similar in subjects with fibromyalgia and referents, indicating a generally higher symptom reporting level among the former. Conclusion Subjects with fibromyalgia had a high prevalence of reported general symptoms than referents. Some of these differences may be a consequence of the disorder while others may reflect etiological processes.

  4. Adults with mild to moderate depression exhibit more alcohol related problems compared to the general adult population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhlin, Julia; Hallgren, Mats; Öjehagen, Agneta; Källmén, Håkan; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-06-09

    Alcohol use has been shown to interfere with treatment for depression, but consumption habits are not routinely screened in primary care. To date, few studies have compared the alcohol consumption habits of patients with depression to the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare alcohol habits in adults diagnosed with depression in primary care to the general adult population in Sweden. Nine hundred fourty six patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression, without a primary substance use disorder, in primary care settings located across Sweden completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Consumptions habits and alcohol related problems in the depressed sample were compared to those in the general adult population (n = 663). Analyses were stratified by gender and age. Ratings of alcohol problems and measures of hazardous drinking and binge drinking were significantly higher among patients seeking treatment for depression in primary care compared to the general population. Male patients scored higher on the AUDIT total and AUDIT-C (consumption) subscale than men in the general population. Compared to younger adults (aged 17-27) older depressed adults (aged 28-50 and 51-71) exhibited higher rates of consumption and problems related to alcohol. Compared to the general adult population, consumption and problems related to alcohol use were substantially higher among patients with mild to moderate depression in primary care. Routine screening of alcohol use in primary care is recommended for patients presenting with depression.

  5. Anemia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Andersson, Charlotte; Andell, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Low hemoglobin concentration is associated with increased mortality, but there is disagreement with regard to the clinical definition of anemia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical correlates and association with total and cause-specific long-term mortality across the hemoglobin...... distribution and for previously proposed definitions of anemia. Blood hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume was measured in participants of the Malmö diet and cancer study-a prospective cohort study, and related to baseline characteristics and outcomes during follow-up. Primary endpoints were...... of anemia, hazard ratio: 1.36, 1.94 and 2.16 for hemoglobin

  6. [Road-rage in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Alvarez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. One-third (31.1%) of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion). Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52), decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975), and was highest in men (OR=1.287), university graduates (OR=1.408), and persons living in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (OR=1.25). The results of this study show that road rage affects almost a third of the general population of Castile and Leon, which would amply justify the adoption of prevention and/or reduction measures. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal associations between physical load and chronic low back pain in the general population: the Doetichem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, S.H.; Verschuren, M.; Vet, de H.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Picavet, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. We explored long-term associations between physical load exposure and chronic low back pain (LBP) using data from an ongoing population-based cohort study. Summary of Background Data. Physical load in work or daily life is often studied in relation

  8. Psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems: a longitudinal study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2017-04-20

    A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems. Randomly drawn from the general working-age population, the cohort comprised respondents with an active employee relationship in 2009 and 2013 (N = 5760). Exposures and outcome were measured on two occasions separated by 4 years. We computed several sex-stratified logistic regression models with adjustments for various plausible confounders. We found support for the commonly hypothesized unidirectional forward associations between psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems among women only. Among men, psychosocial stressors at work and sleep problems were reciprocally and reversely related. Nevertheless, reduced exposure levels across time pertaining to effort-reward imbalance (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69) and lack of social support (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.93) among men, and work-family imbalance (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.15-0.46) among women were associated with a robust significant lower risk of sleep problems compared to those in the stable high exposure groups. The study results suggest that preventive measures targeting effort-reward imbalance and lack of social support among men, and work-family imbalance among women, might contribute to reduce the risk of troubled sleep among employees.

  9. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study. SLEEP 2010;33(4):459-465. PMID:20394314

  10. Total and cause-specific mortality by elevated transferrin saturation and hemochromatosis genotype in individuals with diabetes - two general population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveMortality is increased in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, in individuals from the general population with increased transferrin saturation(TS), and also in patients with diabetes type 1 and increased TS from a highly specialised diabetes clinic. Thus, we have recommended targeted...... screening for TS in specialised diabetes clinics. Whether mortality is also increased in individuals ascertained from the general population with diabetes and increased TS is unknown.Research design and methodsIn two Danish population studies(N=84,865), we examined mortality according to baseline TS...

  11. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Linda E; Hurenkamp, Gerard JB; ter Riet, Gerben; Schellevis, François G; Grundmeijer, Hans G; van Weert, Henk C

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001). Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP) with upper GI symptoms) and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints), matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psycho)pharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year). Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.37 to 3.45). Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90), including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or social co

  12. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, psychosocial co-morbidity and health care seeking in general practice: population based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms is still poorly understood. Psychological symptoms were found to be more common in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, but it is debated whether they are primarily linked to GI symptoms or rather represent motivations for health-care seeking. Purpose of our study was to compare co-morbidity, in particular psychological and social problems, between patients with and without upper GI symptoms. In addition, we investigated whether the prevalence of psychological and social problems is part of a broader pattern of illness related health care use. Methods Population based case control study based on the second Dutch National Survey of general practice (conducted in 2001. Cases (adults visiting their primary care physician (PCP with upper GI symptoms and controls (individuals not having any of these complaints, matched for gender, age, PCP-practice and ethnicity were compared. Main outcome measures were contact frequency, prevalence of somatic as well as psychosocial diagnoses, prescription rate of (psychopharmacological agents, and referral rates. Data were analyzed using odds ratios, the Chi square test as well as multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 13,389 patients with upper GI symptoms and 13,389 control patients were analyzed. Patients with upper GI symptoms visited their PCP twice as frequently as controls (8.6 vs 4.4 times/year. Patients with upper GI symptoms presented not only more psychological and social problems, but also more other health problems to their PCP (odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.37 to 3.45. Patients with upper GI symptoms more frequently used drugs of any ATC-class (ORs ranging from 1.39 to 2.90, including psychotropic agents. The observed differences were less pronounced when we adjusted for non-attending control patients. In multivariate regression analysis, contact frequency and not psychological or

  13. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF: study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants, and also by review of medical records. Discussion This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and

  14. Cognitive processes and their association with persistence and remission of insomnia: findings from a longitudinal study in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell-Clarke, Annika; Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Tillfors, Maria; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem that affects about 10% of the population. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between cognitive processes and the persistence and remission from insomnia in the general population. In a longitudinal design, 2333 participants completed a survey on night time and daytime symptoms, and cognitive processes. Follow-up surveys were sent out six months and 18 months after the first assessment. Participants were categorised as having persistent insomnia, being in remission from insomnia or being a normal sleeper. Cognitive processes distinguished between people with persistent insomnia and normal sleepers. Specifically, worry, dysfunctional beliefs, somatic arousal, selective attention and monitoring, and safety behaviours increased the likelihood of reporting persistent insomnia rather than normal sleep. For people with insomnia, more worry about sleep at baseline predicted persistent insomnia but not remission later on. Lower selective attention and monitoring, and use of safety behaviours over time increased the likelihood of remission from insomnia. In general, these results remained, when psychiatric symptoms and medical complaints were added to the models. The findings support that certain cognitive processes may be associated with persistence and remission of insomnia. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods:  This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report ques

  16. Lumbar Sagittal Shape Variation Vis-à-Vis Sex During Growth: A 3-Year Follow-up Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Children From the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masharawi, Y; Kjær, Per; Manniche, C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Study Design. A longitudinal descriptive MRI study on the changes of the supine lumbar lordosis (SLL), supine sacral slope (SSS), and sagittal wedging of the vertebral body (VB) and intervertebral discs (IVD) in children from the general population.Objective. To compare the shape variat...

  17. Lumbar facet and interfacet shape variation during growth in children from the general population: a three-year follow-up MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masharawi, Youssef M; Kjaer, Per; Bendix, Tom

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study on the growth of the lumbar zygapophyseal facets and interfacet area in children from the general population. OBJECTIVE: To characterize lumbar facet and interfacet shape variation during growth. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The gr...

  18. High-normal diastolic blood pressure is a risk for development of microalbuminuria in the general population: the Watari study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Satoshi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Miura, Yukio; Ito, Sadayoshi; Munakata, Masanori

    2013-04-01

    Although hypertension is a well known risk factor for microalbuminuria, it is unclear whether blood pressure less than 140/90 mmHg could be a risk for microalbuminuria. We assessed the relationship between baseline blood pressure and the future onset of microalbuminuria in the general population. We studied 2603 town inhabitants of Watari, located in the southeastern part of Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Demographic data, medical history, sitting blood pressure, fasting blood chemistry, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were measured at baseline and were followed annually during the next 3 years. Among 2338 individuals who were normoalbuminuric at baseline (albumin-creatinine ratio <30 mg/g Cr), 161 developed microalbuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio 30-299 mg/g Cr) during a mean follow-up period of 2.4 years. Incident microalbuminuria patients were older (63.7 ± 8.6 vs. 61.4 ± 10.5 years; P < 0.01), included fewer men (31.1 vs. 40.1%; P < 0.05), had a greater BMI (23.8 ± 3.6 vs. 23.1 ± 3.1 kg/m²; P < 0.01), higher blood pressures (133.5 ± 18.1/75.8 ± 11.9 vs. 127.6 ± 18.1/73.4 ± 11.0 mmHg; P < 0.01 for both systolic and diastolic), higher triglycerides (median 1.18 vs. 1.02 mmol/l; P < 0.01), higher fasting blood glucose (median 5.05 vs. 4.94 mmol/l; P < 0.01), higher urinary albumin excretion (median 13.0 vs. 5.9 mg/g Cr; P < 0.001), and lower serum creatinine concentrations (59.2 ± 12.8 vs. 61.4 ± 13.2 μmol/l; P < 0.05) compared to persistent normoalbuminuric individuals. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis including all covariates revealed that only baseline urinary albumin excretion was an independent predictor for future microalbuminuria, whereas high-normal DBP, triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose concentrations were all significant predictors in the model excluding urinary albumin excretion. High-normal DBP associated with metabolic disorders could initiate glomerular damage, leading to future microalbuminuria.

  19. Measuring social class differences in cancer patient survival: is it necessary to control for social class differences in general population mortality? A Finnish population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickman, P W; Auvinen, A; Voutilainen, E. T.; Hakulinen, T

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Estimation of cancer patient survival by social class has been performed using observed, corrected (cause specific), and relative (with expected survival based on the national population) survival rates. Each of these measures are potentially biased and the optimal method is to calculate relative survival rates using social class specific death rates to estimate expected survival. This study determined the degree to which the choice of survival measure affects the esti...

  20. The association between self-efficacy and sick-leave among men and women: a cross-sectional study of the general working population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina E M Holmgren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if low self-efficacy was associated with increased risk for sickness absence, in a general population of employed women and men. The aim was also to analyse differences in self-efficacy concerning age, education, income, and socio-economic position.Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data collected in western Sweden, 2008. The study population consisted of 2,900 employed sick-listed individuals (E-SL and 2,649 random working population individuals (R-WP. Both mailed questionnaire, including the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE and register data on age, education, income and socio-economic position were used. A continuous mean score of the total GSE was calculated for each individual. A low GSE-score indicated low general self-efficacy.Results: Lower general self-efficacy had an increased odds ratio (OR of belonging to a sick-listed general working population among both men (OR=1.60; 95% CI 1.32–1.94 and women (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.08–1.47. The OR remained significant after adjustments for socio-demographic variables. Yet, men in the R-WP and women in both the R-WP and E-SL with lower education, income or socio-economic position had lower general self-efficacy compared with those in each cohort with higher education, income or socio-economic position.Conclusions: Low self-efficacy was associated with increased probability to belong to a sick-listed general working population. Although more research is needed, it seems highly relevant to take both self-efficacy and socio-economic factors into account, in preventive and rehabilitation work targeting persons on sickness absence.

  1. The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA: a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Michelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain in the hand affects an estimated 12–21% of the population, and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and osteoarthritis. The association between symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail, although there is evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability. Despite the high prevalence of hand problems and the limitations they cause in older adults, little attention has been paid to the hand by health planners and policy makers. We plan to conduct a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study designed in parallel with our previously reported cohort study of knee pain, to describe the course of musculoskeletal hand problems in older adults and investigate the relative merits of different approaches to classification and defining prognosis. Methods/Design All adults aged 50 years and over registered with two general practices in North Staffordshire will be invited to take part in a two-stage postal survey. Respondents to the survey who indicate that they have experienced hand pain or problems within the previous 12 months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed assessment. This will consist of clinical interview, hand assessment, screening test of lower limb function, digital photography, plain x-rays, anthropometric measurement and brief self-complete questionnaire. All consenting clinic attenders will be followed up by (i general practice medical record review, (ii repeat postal questionnaire at 18-months, and (iii repeat postal questionnaire at 3 years. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA, a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study of community-dwelling older adults with hand pain and hand problems based in North Staffordshire.

  2. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  3. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Silke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65% completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%. Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%, more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4% and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17% compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5. Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8 and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4. In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8. For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes.

  4. Association between exposure to HSV1 and cognitive functioning in a general population of adolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Iris; Klein, Hans C.; Duivis, Hester E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general a

  5. Determinants of health-related quality of life in school-aged children: A general population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Houben-van Herten (Marieke); G. Bai (Guannan); E. Hafkamp (Esther); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants

  6. Determinants of health-related quality of life in school-aged children: A general population study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Houben-van Herten (Marieke); G. Bai (Guannan); E. Hafkamp (Esther); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants

  7. Association between exposure to HSV1 and cognitive functioning in a general population of adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, I.; Klein, H.C.; Duivis, H.E.; Yolken, R.H.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general

  8. Smell training increases cognitive smell skills of wine tasters compared to the general healthy population. The WINECAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sanchez, F S; Alobid, I; Cantellas, S; Alberca, C; Guilemany, J M; Canals, J M; De Haro, J; Mullol, J

    2010-09-01

    Wine experts show higher accuracy than novices in selecting a wine that matches a sample. Only one study has compared wine experts with non-trained healthy controls on smell. The aim of this study was to compare the smell characteristics, both sensorial and cognitive, of wine tasters with Spanish healthy population using the Barcelona Smell Test-24. Wine tasters were tested for smell and compared with a control group of healthy volunteers, by tasting 20 odours and scoring smell detection, identification, intensity, irritability, freshness, pleasure and forced choice. Wine tasters performed significantly better on identification and forced choice than healthy controls. In addition, wine tasters perceived more odours as intense, but fewer as irritating than controls. Probably linked to smell education, wine tasters show better cognitive but not sensorial smell skills than a non-trained healthy population.

  9. The Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K. A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Elaine

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee pain affects an estimated 25% of the adult population aged 50 years and over. Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis made in older adults consulting with knee pain in primary care. However, the relationship between this diagnosis and both the current disease-based definition of osteoarthritis and the regional pain syndrome of knee pain and disability is unclear. Expert consensus, based on current evidence, views the disease and the syndrome as distinct entities but the clinical usefulness of these two approaches to classifying knee pain in older adults has not been established. We plan to conduct a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study to investigate the relative merits of disease-based and regional pain syndrome-based approaches to classification and prognosis of knee pain in older adults. Methods All patients aged 50 years and over registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire will be invited to take part in a two-stage postal survey. Respondents to this survey phase who indicate that they have experienced knee pain within the previous 12 months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed assessment. This will consist of clinical interview, physical examination, digital photography, plain x-rays, anthropometric measurement and a brief self-complete questionnaire. All consenting clinic attenders will be followed up by (i general practice medical record review, (ii repeat postal questionnaire at 18-months.

  10. Does life course socio-economic position influence chronic disabling pain in older adults? A general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rosie J; Belcher, John; Croft, Peter R

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in developed countries. Prevalence is linked with socio-economic position (SEP), but little is known about the influence of SEP on disabling pain over the life course. We have investigated the influence of different life course trajectories of SEP on disabling pain ('pain interference') in postal surveys of adults aged ≥50 years sampled from the general population of adults registered with three UK general practices. Current pain interference was measured using the dichotomized 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) health survey. Three recalled SEP measures (age left school, longest job and current/most recent job) were dichotomized into low SEP (left school at or before minimum school leaving age; reported routine or manual occupations) and high SEP, from which eight life course SEP trajectories were constructed. Associations of (i) eight SEP trajectories and (ii) three individual SEP measures adjusted for each other, with pain interference, adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 2533 individuals provided data on all three SEP measures. A consistently low life course SEP trajectory was significantly associated with current pain interference compared with a high trajectory [odds ratio (OR) = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.19-3.47], even after adjustment for age and gender. Further adjustment reduced the association but it remained significant (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.55-2.68). In the model with individual measures, low age left school (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15-1.82) and manual longest job (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) were independently associated with pain interference. Our results highlight the potential for reducing chronic disabling pain in later life by addressing inequalities in both childhood education and adult occupational opportunities.

  11. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  12. Normal values of left ventricularmass and cardiac chamber volumes assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Andreas; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Kühl, J Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal values of left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac chamber sizes are prerequisites for the diagnosis of individuals with heart disease. LVM and cardiac chamber sizes may be recorded during cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and thus modality specific normal values are needed....... Methods and results We studied 569 healthy subjects undergoing 320-detector CCTA as a part of the Copenhagen General Population Study. LVM as well as ventricular and atrial volumes was assessed with semi-automated software stratified by gender and age decades and indexed by body surface area (BSA). Mean...... blood pressure, and hard physical activity accounted for 63% of variance in LVM. Conclusion In this cross-sectional general population study, men have greater indexed LVM and chamber volumes than women, and cardiac indexed volumes vary between age groups in both genders. These findings demonstrate...

  13. Air pollution and general practitioner access and utilization: a population based study in Sarnia, 'Chemical Valley,' Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atari Dominic O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impacts of poor environmental quality have been identified in studies around the world and in Canada. While many of the studies have identified associations between air pollution and mortality or morbidity, few have focused on the role of health care as a potential moderator of impacts. This study assessed the determinants of health care access and utilization in the context of ambient air pollution in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Methods Residents of Sarnia participated in a Community Health Study administered by phone, while several ambient air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulphur dioxide (SO2 and the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, mp- and o-xylene (BTEX were monitored across the city. Land Use Regression models were used to estimate individual exposures to the measured pollutants and logistic regression models were utilized to assess the relative influence of environmental, socioeconomic and health related covariates on general practitioner access and utilization outcomes. Results The results show that general practitioner use increased with levels of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2- Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.16, p 2- OR: 1.61, p 2 and SO2. Respondents without regular care living in high pollution areas were also more likely to report travelling or waiting for care in excess of 20 minutes (OR: 3.28, p p > 0.05. Conclusions This study provides evidence for inequitable health care access and utilization in Sarnia, with particular relevance to its situation as a sentinel high exposure environment. Levels of exposure to pollution appears to influence utilization of health care services, but poor access to primary health care services additionally burden certain groups in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada.

  14. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  16. Lumbar Sagittal Shape Variation vis-à-vis Gender During Growth: A Three-Year Follow-Up Mri Study in Children from the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masharawi, Y; Kjaer, P; Manniche, C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Study Design. A longitudinal descriptive MRI study on the changes of the supine lumbar lordosis (SLL), supine sacral slope (SSS), and sagittal wedging of the vertebral body (VB) and intervertebral discs (IVD) in children from the general population.Objective. To compare the shape...... variation during growth of the SLL, SSS and sagittal wedging of the VB and IVD in boys and girls.Summary of Background Data. The normal shape variation of the VB, IVD, SLL and SSS during growth vis-à-vis gender in children from the general population is poorly clarified in the literature as it is usually...... reported in relation to pathological conditions.Methods. The SLL, SSS and sagittal wedging of all lumbar (L1-S1) VB's and IVD's, were measured twice from T2-weighted MRIs of 100 healthy children (51 boys and 49 girls), mean age 12-13 years (t0) and following almost three years later (t1) using the i...

  17. Gender Differences in Lifestyle Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Preliminary Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Watari Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tomomi; Konno, Satoshi; Munakata, Masanori

    2017-09-01

    Objective In Japan, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and preliminary metabolic syndrome (preMetS) are more prevalent in men; however, it remains unclear whether the relationship between these metabolic disorders and lifestyle factors is similar between genders. Methods We examined waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood, and various lifestyle factors in 3,166 individuals aged from 30-79 years of age from the Japanese general population. MetS was diagnosed on the basis of central obesity - assessed by waist circumference - plus two or more of the following cardio-metabolic risks according to Japanese criteria: high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and lipid abnormality. Central obesity plus one of the risks was defined as preMetS. Results Men had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS (23.3% vs. 8.7%, p<0.001) and preMetS (21.2% vs. 10.2%, p<0.001) than women. An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that heavy drinkers were associated with an increased probability of MetS (odds ratio, 1.91: 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.83) and preMetS (1.69: 1.11-2.58); fast eaters were also related to preMetS (1.83: 1.33-2.55) and MetS (1.55: 1.12-2.15) in men. Lacking regular exercise was significantly associated with preMetS (1.38: 1.03-1.85), but not MetS. In women, preMetS was significantly associated with fast eaters and lacking regular exercise (1.44: 1.01-2.07 and 1.41: 1.02-1.96, respectively); a stepwise increase in each odds ratio (2.02: 1.40-2.91 and 1.47: 1.03-2.09, respectively) was also observed for MetS. Conclusion The relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS or preMetS differed between men and women, which suggests the need for gender-specific lifestyle modification to effectively prevent MetS.

  18. A nationwide study of serous “borderline” ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978–2002: Centralized pathology review and overall survival compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaerbye-Thygesen, Anette; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Tabor, Ann; Kurman, Robert J.; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the study population and estimate overall survival of women with a serous “borderline” ovarian tumor (SBT) in Denmark over 25 years relative to the general population. Methods The Danish Pathology Data Bank and the Danish Cancer Registry were used to identify 1487 women diagnosed with SBTs from 1978 to 2002. The histologic slides were collected from Danish pathology departments and reviewed by expert pathologists and classified as SBT/atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST) or noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC). Associated implants were classified as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. Results A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I had an overall survival similar to the overall survival expected from the general population (p = 0.3), whereas women with advanced stage disease had a poorer one (p < 0.0001). This was evident both in women with non-invasive (p < 0.0001) and invasive implants (p < 0.0001). Only among women with advanced stage, overall survival of women with SBT/APST (p < 0.0001) and noninvasive LGSC (p < 0.0001) was poorer than expected from the general population. Conclusions To date this is the largest nationwide cohort of SBTs where all tumors have been verified by expert pathologists. Only in women with advanced stage SBT, overall survival is poorer than in the general population which applies both to women with noninvasive and invasive implants as well as to women with SBT/APST and noninvasive LGSC. PMID:24924123

  19. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Menz Hylton B; D'Cruz Deborah; Marshall Michelle; Thomas Martin J; Myers Helen; Roddy Edward; Belcher John; Muller Sara; Peat George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational co...

  20. The association of depressive symptoms and physical diseases in Switzerland: a cross-sectional general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donja eRodic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the association between depressive symptoms and physical diseases in Switzerland, as respective findings might inform about future estimates of mental and physical health care costs.Methods: A population-based study, using data from the Swiss Health Survey collected by computer assisted telephone interviews and additional written questionnaires during the year 2007 (n = 18,760 in Switzerland. The multistage stratified random sample included subjects aged 15 and older, living in a private Swiss household with a telephone connection. Complete data was available for 14,348 subjects (51% of all subjects reached by telephone. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and any physical disease, or a specific physical disease out of 13 non-communicable physical diseases assessed with a self-report checklist on common physical diseases. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, education, occupation and household income. Results: In the adjusted models depressive symptoms were associated with arthrosis and arthritis (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.28−2.50 and any physical disease (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.33−2.10 after controlling for multiple testing.Conclusion: Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity of depressive symptoms and arthrosis and arthritis in Switzerland and might have implications for more precise future estimates of mental and physical health care costs.

  1. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety, dep...... ratesof detectable gambling risk groups, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  2. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  3. Anatomic variants of the pancreatic duct and their clinical relevance: an MR-guided study in the general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Robin; Thiel, Robert; Thamm, Patrick; Messner, Philip; Hosten, Norbert; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Division of Gastroenterology and Department of Medicine A, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate the frequency of pancreatic duct (PD) variants and their effect on pancreatic exocrine function in a population-based study using non-invasive secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (sMRCP). Nine hundred and ninety-five volunteers, 457 women and 538 men, aged 51.9 ± 13.4 years, underwent navigator-triggered, T2-weighted, 3D turbo spin echo MRCP on a 1.5 T system after 1 unit/kg secretin administration. Two readers evaluated images for PD variants. Pancreatic exocrine function and morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis such as abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were evaluated and related to PD variants using a Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc analysis. Of all sMRCP, 93.2 % were of diagnostic quality. Interobserver reliability for detection of PD variants was found to be kappa 0.752 (95 %CI, 0.733 - 0.771). Normal PD variants were observed in 90.4 % (n = 838/927). Variants of pancreas divisum was identified in 9.6 % (n = 89/927). Abnormalities of the main PD, side branch dilatation, and pancreatic cysts were observed in 2.4 %, 16.6 %, and 27.7 %, respectively, and were not significantly different between pancreas divisum and non-divisum group (P = 0.122; P = 0.152; P = 0.741). There was no association between PD variants and pancreatic exocrine function (P = 0.367). PD variants including pancreas divisum are not associated with morphological signs of chronic pancreatitis or restriction of pancreatic exocrine function. (orig.)

  4. Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease:A general population-based study in Xi'an of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hai Wang; Jin-Yan Luo; Lei Dong; Jun Gong; Ming Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in the Western population, but detailed populationbased data in China are limited. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (SGER) in adults of Xi′an, a northwestern city of China,and to explore the potential risk factors of GERD.METHODS: Symptoms suggestive of GERD, functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), upper respiratory diseases and some potential risk factors were investigated in a face-to-face manner in a region-stratified random samples of 2 789 residents aged 18-70 years in Xi′an by using a standardized questionnaire.METHODS: With a response rate of 91.8%, the prevalence of SGER was 16.98% (95% CI, 14.2-18.92) in Xi′an adults,and no gender-related difference was observed (P<0.05).SGER was more common among subjects aged 30-70 years than in those aged 18-29 years (P<0.01). The prevalence of SGER in rural, urban and suburban subjects was 21.07%,17.44% and 12.12%, respectively, and there was a significant difference between rural, urban and suburban regions (P<0.05). Compared with subjects without SGER,the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of FD and IBS,pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis,chronic cough, wheeze, globus sensation, oral ulcer and snore was significantly increased in subjects with SGER (P<0.01). Heavy smoking (OR=5.76; CI, 3.70-6.67), heavy alcohol use (OR=2.85; CI, 1.67-4.49), peptic ulcer (OR=5.76;CI, 3.99-8.32), cerebral palsy (OR=3.97; CI, 1.97-8.00),abdominal operation (OR=2.69; CI, 1.75-4.13), obesity (OR=2.16; CI, 1.47-3.16), excessive food intake (OR=1.43;CI, 1.17-1.15), sweet food (OR=1.23; CI, 0.89-1.54),and consumption of coffee (OR=1.23; CI, 0.17-2.00) were independently associated with SGER. The episodes of GERD were commonly precipitated by dietary factors (66.05%),followed by body posture (26.54%), iii temper (23.72%),fatigue (22.32%) and stress (10

  5. A prospective study of seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in general population, and in HIV/AIDS patients in Bombay, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisheri Y

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and seventy nine sera (age group 13-50 years were tested for antitoxoplasma IgG/IgM antibodies by ELISA techniques; the diagnostic titer for positive test is 10 iu/ml or > 1:100. Sera were obtained from (i 165 (100 men/65 women healthy adult voluntary blood donors (HIV, HBsAg, VDRL negative; (ii 89 consecutive HIV/AIDS patients (82 men/7 women; and (iii 25 patients (HIV negative: 12 men/13 women treated for cerebral Tuberculoma or Neurocysticercosis during this study from January 1996-June 1997. The overall seroprevalence was 30.9% (51/165 in the immunocompetent adult (group i 34% (34/100 men and 26.2% (17/65 in women [range: 10-899 iu/ml; (mean: 376.8]. In HIV infected hosts the seroprevalence [range: 21-340 iu/ml; (mean; 180] was 67.8% (56/82 men, 04/07 women. The seroprevalence was 20.5% (8/39, 32.8% (22/67, 34.8% (16/46 and 38.4% (5/13 in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th decades respectively in healthy adults. In HIV/AIDS patients, 69% (29/42 in the 3rd and 70.6% (24/34 in 4th decade were seropositive. The risk of cerebral Toxoplasmosis (encephalitis-02, granuloma-24 was 43.3% (26/60, mean 250 iu/ml. The seroprevalence was 28% in group iii (range 12-80 iu/ml, mean 21 iu/ml. Anti-toxo IgM was negative in all. Primary Toxoplasma infection appears to be subclinical and prevalent throughout life. T. gondii has emerged as an important opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients in Bombay. Recrudescence of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX is observed with low IgG response during mid-late stage of the disease, as seen in our patients (mean IgG 250 iu/ml, CD4+ = 283/cmm (range 43-504 in 5 patients. Primary prophylaxis for CTOX seems rationale and can be targeted to asymptomatic HIV/AIDS population at risk who are seropositive for T. gondii (mean IgG 111.5 iu/ml in our study. The very high predictive value of a negative test for TOX remains the best serological parameter for excluding acute episode of TOX.

  6. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van daele, Caroline M; De Meyer, Tim; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Denil, Simon L I J; Bekaert, Sofie; Chirinos, Julio A; Segers, Patrick; De Backer, Guy G; De Bacquer, Dirk; Rietzschel, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the importance of family history (FH) is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH): presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH), also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. Longitudinal population study. Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care). 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound) and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations). Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components) and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted pprofiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  7. Spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study of younger women from the general population in Denmark. Validation, occurrence and risk determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, comparing two different data sources. To estimate the rate of spontaneous abortion over a 2-year period, and examine potential predictors of the risk for incident spontaneous abortion. METHODS: We used interview data from a population-b...

  8. Overweight and obesity prevalence and its predictors in a general population: A community-based study in Kerman, Iran (Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Forood, Afsaneh; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Shadkam, Mitra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to present age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as central obesity and its associated variables in an adult population of Iran. METHODS Around 5900 adult individuals aged 15-75 years enrolled to the study from 2009 to 2011 applying randomized cluster household survey in Kerman, southeastern of Iran. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m2, obesity was considered as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and central obesity was regarded as waist circumference (WC) > 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. RESULTS The overall age-sex standardized prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 29.6% (29.5% men, 29.7% women), 13.0% (9.3% men, 16.9% women) and 14.4% (7.5% men, 21.5% women), respectively. “Overweight/obesity” increased by age, [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 7.9 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8, 10.7)] for 65-75 years old, 11.7 (95% CI: 9, 15.3) for 55-65 years old, 10.1 (95% CI: 7.8, 13) for 45-54 years old compared with the first age group), female gender [AOR: 1.5 (1.3, 1.8); P 1.5 compared with illiterate individuals; P opium using [AOR: 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 0.7); P 7 for age groups ≥ 35 years old; P < 0.001) positively, while smoking [AOR: 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); P = 0.004] negatively were the most significant predictors for abnormal WC. CONCLUSION Our data reveal that overweight and obesity affected almost half of the adult population (43.0%), and central obesity was around 15.0%, which reflect the high prevalence of this abnormality. In addition, several demographic, social and lifestyle factors were associated with obesity. Appropriate interventions and strategies with a concentration of the general population are needed to deal with its potential subsequent consequences. PMID:27114733

  9. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  10. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  11. Temperament and character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS: comparison to the general population, and genetic structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1 to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2 to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3 to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. METHOD: Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs. RESULTS: The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. CONCLUSIONS: Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence. This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no

  12. Temperament and character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): comparison to the general population, and genetic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared environmental effects on character among adults

  13. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in

  14. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in Gen

  15. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    -minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of disordered eating in a general population sample: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, F.; Hatch, S. L.; Hotopf, M; Treasure, J.; Micali, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Disordered eating has been shown to be more prevalent than full eating disorders diagnoses. However, research on its prevalence, socio-demographic, psychological correlates, and patterns of service use in multi-ethnic samples is still limited. This paper explores these associations in a South London-based (UK) sample. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a general population survey (N = 1,698) of individuals aged 16+. Disordered eating was defined as ≥2 pos...

  17. Hypertension and Prehypertension and Prediction of Development of Decreased Estimated GFR in the General Population: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Borrelli, Silvio; Pacilio, Mario; Minutolo, Roberto; Chiodini, Paolo; De Nicola, Luca; Conte, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Whether blood pressure (BP) plays an independent predictive role in the onset of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remains ill-defined because existing meta-analyses have incorporated data from studies that included individuals with low GFRs at baseline. This question is critical to optimize chronic kidney disease prevention in the general population. Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Adults from general population. We identified in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database all cohort studies evaluating the role of BP in the incidence of decreased estimated GFR (eGFR; defined as eGFR140/90 mmHg), prehypertension (systolic BP of 120-139 and/or diastolic BP of 80-89 mmHg), and BP as a continuous variable. Risk for decreased eGFR reported as relative risk (RR) and 95% CI. Heterogeneity (I2) was also evaluated. Data from 16 cohorts (315,321 participants) were analyzed. All studies had a Newcastle-Ottawa score in the range of 6 to 8, denoting high quality. During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, decreased eGFR occurred in 6.6% of participants. The presence of prehypertension and hypertension increased renal risk (RRs of 1.19 [95% CI, 1.07-1.33; I2=23.8%] and 1.76 [95% CI, 1.58-1.97; I2=37.7%], respectively). Similarly, we found that every 10-mm Hg increase in systolic and diastolic BPs associated with higher risk for decreased eGFR (RRs of 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.11; I2=60.0%] and 1.12 [95% CI, 1.04-1.20; I2=51.4%], respectively). Metaregression analysis showed greater risk with older age (P=0.03), whereas other covariates were not significant. No individual patient-level data. Prehypertension and hypertension, as BP levels, are independent predictors of decreased GFR in the general population, with the effect being more pronounced in the elderly. These findings are important for improving risk stratification in the general population. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Predictors of health related job loss: a two-year follow-up study in a general working population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Frost, P.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    employees. METHODS: A total of 39 workplaces with 5,604 employees aged from 18 to 67 years participated. Questionnaires were obtained at baseline and follow up. Participants reported reason for job loss whilst employers' information provided the date. Hazard Ratios (HR) for HRJL with 95% confidence.......1-6.6), one or more contacts to the general practitioner in the year previous to baseline (2.2;1.4-3.6), and reported poor leadership quality at work (1.8;1.2-2.9). Among males, HRJL was associated with high levels of health anxiety (2.5; 1.0-6.2) and repetitive work (2.7; 1.4-5.4). CONCLUSION: About 4...

  19. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

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    Caroline M Van daele

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Whereas the importance of family history (FH is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH: presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH, also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. DESIGN: Longitudinal population study. SETTING: Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care. SUBJECTS: 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations. RESULTS: Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05. Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  20. Health related quality of life in trauma patients. Data from a one-year follow up study compared with the general population

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    Skogstad Laila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma patients have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL after trauma. The aim of the study was to assess HRQOL during the first year after trauma and hospital stay in trauma patients admitted to an intensive-care unit (ICU for >24 hours compared with non-ICU trauma patients and the general population, and to identify predictors of HRQOL. Methods A prospective one-year follow-up study of 242 trauma patients received by the trauma team of a trauma referral centre in Norway was performed. HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 at 3 and 12 months. Results The mean age of the cohort was 42.3 years (95% CI, 40.4-44.3 years. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS was 10, interquartile range 16. The HRQOL improved significantly from the 3 to the 12 months follow up in the trauma patients. However their scores were significantly lower for most subscales of SF-36 compared to the general population. Significant differences between ICU and non-ICU patients at 12 months were observed only for physical functioning and role physical subscales. Optimism was an independent predictor of good HRQOL at 12 months, in all dimensions (beta, 0.95-2.45. A higher depression score at baseline predicted lower HRQOL in four of eight dimensions (beta -1.1 to -1.70. In addition, better physical functioning was predicted by lower age (beta, -0.20, and having head injury (reference as the most severe injury vs. spine or extremity injuries (beta, -9.49 and -10.85, and better mental health by higher age (beta, 0.21 and being employed or studying before the trauma (beta, 12.27. In addition to optimism good general health was predicted by lower score for post-traumatic stress (PTS symptoms at baseline (beta, -0.27 and lower ISS score (beta -10.59. Conclusions The HRQOL improved significantly from the 3 to the 12 months follow up in our sample. However their scores were significantly lower for most subscales of SF-36

  1. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

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    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  2. Moderately increased albuminuria is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population under 75 years of age: the Watari study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Satoshi; Munakata, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Moderately increased albuminuria (formerly called microalbuminuria) is widely recognized as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether this observation is applicable to the Asian population, as studies leading to this conclusion were conducted on Western populations. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis if moderately increased albuminuria could be an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the Japanese population. The study population consisted of 3093 inhabitants of Watari, Miyagi Prefecture, who participated in an annual health check-up in 2009. We examined anthropometry, sitting blood pressure, fasting blood sample, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). After baseline assessment, subjects were followed prospectively for up to 60 months. The incidence of major cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and cardiovascular death) was determined based on death certificate records or medical claims sent to the National Health Insurance of Japan. Follow-up was discontinued for those who reached 75 years of age because they were moved to a different medical insurance system. We observed 57 cardiovascular events during a mean follow-up period of 47.8 months. The cumulative incidence rate for major cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with moderately increased albuminuria (UACR 30-299 mg/gCr) than in those with normoalbuminuria (UACR <30 mg/gCr) (6.4% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.0002 by log-rank test). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses have revealed that moderately increased albuminuria is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (HR 2.386, 95% CI: 1.120-4.390). Moderately increased albuminuria is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population under 75 years of age.

  3. Moderately increased albuminuria is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population under 75 years of age: the Watari study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Konno

    Full Text Available Moderately increased albuminuria (formerly called microalbuminuria is widely recognized as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether this observation is applicable to the Asian population, as studies leading to this conclusion were conducted on Western populations. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis if moderately increased albuminuria could be an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the Japanese population.The study population consisted of 3093 inhabitants of Watari, Miyagi Prefecture, who participated in an annual health check-up in 2009. We examined anthropometry, sitting blood pressure, fasting blood sample, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR. After baseline assessment, subjects were followed prospectively for up to 60 months. The incidence of major cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and cardiovascular death was determined based on death certificate records or medical claims sent to the National Health Insurance of Japan. Follow-up was discontinued for those who reached 75 years of age because they were moved to a different medical insurance system. We observed 57 cardiovascular events during a mean follow-up period of 47.8 months. The cumulative incidence rate for major cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with moderately increased albuminuria (UACR 30-299 mg/gCr than in those with normoalbuminuria (UACR <30 mg/gCr (6.4% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.0002 by log-rank test. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses have revealed that moderately increased albuminuria is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (HR 2.386, 95% CI: 1.120-4.390.Moderately increased albuminuria is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the general Japanese population under 75 years of age.

  4. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition.......Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  5. Evidence for a persistent, environment-dependent and deteriorating subtype of subclinical psychotic experiences : a 6-year longitudinal general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J.T.; van, Winkel R.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van, Os J.; Vollebergh, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that subclinical psychotic experiences during adolescence represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychosis. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal trajectory of liability in general population samples. Method. Growth mixture modeling was used to

  6. Evidence for a persistent, environment-dependent and deteriorating subtype of subclinical psychotic experiences : a 6-year longitudinal general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigman, J.T.; van, Winkel R.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van, Os J.; Vollebergh, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that subclinical psychotic experiences during adolescence represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychosis. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal trajectory of liability in general population samples. Method. Growth mixture modeling was used to

  7. From epidemiology to daily life : Linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collip, Dina; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Wichers, Marieke; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an

  8. Functional Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the General Population: Data from the GECCO Study

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    Paul Enck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of constipation in the (German population has been shown to be 14.9% in a telephone survey, but more detailed data are required to characterize the sociographics and clinical characteristics of persons with different types of functional constipation, either constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C or functional constipation with or without meeting Rome criteria. Methods. Of 2239 constipated individuals identified during the telephone interview, 1037 (46.3% were willing to provide a postal address for a questionnaire, of which 589 (56.8% returned the questionnaire, inquiring about sociographic data, clinical symptoms, and health care behavior related to constipation, as well as health-related quality-of-life (SF12. Subgroups of functionally constipated individuals were compared. Results. More than 50% of the respondents reported a somatic comorbid condition and/or regular medication intake that may contribute to constipation. We split the remaining individuals (N=214 into three groups, matching Rome-criteria for IBS (IBS-C, n=64 and for functional constipation (FC-R, n=36 and FC not matching Rome criteria (n=114. Nearly all sociographic and clinical characteristics were equal among them, and all individuals with constipation had similar and lowered QOL on the SF-12 physical health domain, but in IBS-C the scores were also significantly lower in comparison to FC-R and FC, in both the physical health and the mental health domain. Conclusion. Only a fraction of individuals with chronic constipation match Rome criteria for IBS-C or FC, but subgroups do not differ with respect to most other measures except quality-of-life profiles.

  9. A prospective study of low back pain in a general population. III. Medical service--work consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, F

    1983-01-01

    Of participants with low back pain (LBP) at some time, about 60% said the pain had led them to consult their general practitioner, about 25% a specialist, and about 15% a chiropractor. About 30% had had an X-ray taken of their lumbar spine. Physiotherapy was the most common treatment given for the LBP. Manipulative therapy was the treatment which most often seemed to satisfy those with LBP although these cases might have been the milder acute attacks of LBP. Of the LBP complainers, 4.5% had been admitted to hospital and 1% operated on because of LBP. Work absence because of LBP occurred by 22.5% of the participants who were gainfully employed at some time. An additional 10% found it necessary to take special care on the job. Change of job or work function because of LBP was accomplished by 6.3%. Among those gainfully employed at the time of the examination, 6.7% had taken days-off within the past year because of LBP, an absence rate which corresponded to about two days per year per person. Previous, particularly recent use of medical services turned out to be a prognostic indicator for LBP in the follow-up year, while none of the work related parameters seemed to be good predictors, which may be because of the uncertainties related to these parameters.

  10. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1-2) and sexual risk groups (S3-4). S1-Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2-Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3-Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4-STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and about the pros

  11. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population--a meta-analysis of 31 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Laeber, Lisa Tabata

    2014-05-10

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. A total of N = 267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p = .006; N = 15 studies) or CUD (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p = .001; N = 13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety + depression and cannabis use (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p = .004; N = 5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N = 5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p = .01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries.

  12. Personalization of Mail Surveys for General Public and Populations with a Group Identity: Results from Nine Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Don A.; Lesser, Virginia; Mason, Robert; Carlson, John; Willits, Fern; Robertson, Rob; Burke, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of personalization on mail survey response rates was examined in nine studies that included 17 comparisons under several research conditions. A study of this variable across multiple experiments in five agricultural experiment stations was undertaken because of conflicting results from previous research and from concern that the…

  13. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk and persistence of hand eczema in subjects with atopic dermatitis: results from a general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Carlsen, B C; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Hand eczema is prevalent in the general population. It remains unclear whether or not filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations increase the overall risk of hand eczema or only increase the risk of hand eczema in subjects with atopic dermatitis.......Hand eczema is prevalent in the general population. It remains unclear whether or not filaggrin gene (FLG) null mutations increase the overall risk of hand eczema or only increase the risk of hand eczema in subjects with atopic dermatitis....

  14. Alexithymia is associated with greater risk of chronic pain and negative affect and with lower life satisfaction in a general population: the Hisayama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Shibata

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is a significant health problem worldwide, with a prevalence in the general population of approximately 40%. Alexithymia -- the personality trait of having difficulties with emotional awareness and self-regulation -- has been reported to contribute to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and health conditions, and limited research indicates a potential role for alexithymia in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. However, no study has yet examined the associations between alexithymia and chronic pain in the general population. METHODS: We administered measures assessing alexithymia, pain, disability, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction to 927 adults in Hisayama, Japan. We classified the participants into four groups (low-normal alexithymia, middle-normal alexithymia, high-normal alexithymia, and alexithymic based on their responses to the alexithymia measure. We calculated the risk estimates for the criterion measures by a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Controlling for demographic variables, the odds ratio (OR for having chronic pain was significantly higher in the high-normal (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.07-2.09 and alexithymic groups (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.47-4.45 compared to the low-normal group. Approximately 40% of the participants belonged to these two high-risk groups. In the subanalyses of the 439 participants with chronic pain, the levels of pain intensity, disability, depression, and anxiety were significantly increased and the degree of life satisfaction was decreased with elevating alexithymia categories. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that, in the general population, higher levels of alexithymia are associated with a higher risk of having chronic pain. The early identification and treatment of alexithymia and negative affect may be beneficial in preventing chronic pain and reducing the clinical and economic burdens of chronic pain. Further research is needed to

  15. Cannabis, tobacco smoking, and lung function: a cross-sectional observational study in a general practice population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, John; Robertson, Roy; Copeland, Lorraine; McKenzie, James; Elton, Rob; Reid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health concerns around cannabis use have focused on the potential relationship with psychosis but the effect of cannabis smoking on respiratory health has received less attention. Aim To investigate the association between tobacco-only smoking compared with tobacco plus cannabis smoking and adverse outcomes in respiratory health and lung function. Design and setting The design was cross-sectional with two groups recruited: cigarette smokers with tobacco pack-years; cannabis smokers with cannabis joint-years. Recruitment occurred in a general practice in Scotland with 12 500 patients. Method Exposures measured were tobacco smoking (pack-years) and cannabis smoking (joint-years). Cannabis type (resin, herbal, or both) was recorded by self-report. Respiratory symptoms were recorded using NHANES and MRC questionnaires. Lung function was measured by spirometry (FEV1/FVC ratio). Results Participants consisted of 500 individuals (242 males). Mean age of tobacco-only smokers was 45 years; median tobacco exposure was 25 pack-years. Mean age of cannabis and tobacco smokers was 37 years; median tobacco exposure was 19 pack-years, rising to 22.5 when tobacco smoked with cannabis. Although tobacco and cannabis use were associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms, this was higher among those who also smoked cannabis. Both tobacco and cannabis users had evidence of impaired lung function but, in fully adjusted analyses, each additional joint-year of cannabis use was associated with a 0.3% (95% confidence interval = 0.0 to 0.5) increase in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion In adults who predominantly smoked resin cannabis mixed with tobacco, additional adverse effects were observed on respiratory health relating to cannabis use. PMID:25624312

  16. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  17. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  18. A general semi-parametric approach to the analysis of genetic association studies in population-based designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sharon; Yip, Wai-Ki; Hokanson, John; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph

    2013-02-28

    For genetic association studies in designs of unrelated individuals, current statistical methodology typically models the phenotype of interest as a function of the genotype and assumes a known statistical model for the phenotype. In the analysis of complex phenotypes, especially in the presence of ascertainment conditions, the specification of such model assumptions is not straight-forward and is error-prone, potentially causing misleading results. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach that treats the genotype as the random variable and conditions upon the phenotype. Thereby, the validity of the approach does not depend on the correctness of assumptions about the phenotypic model. Misspecification of the phenotypic model may lead to reduced statistical power. Theoretical derivations and simulation studies demonstrate both the validity and the advantages of the approach over existing methodology. In the COPDGene study (a GWAS for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)), we apply the approach to a secondary, quantitative phenotype, the Fagerstrom nicotine dependence score, that is correlated with COPD affection status. The software package that implements this method is available. The flexibility of this approach enables the straight-forward application to quantitative phenotypes and binary traits in ascertained and unascertained samples. In addition to its robustness features, our method provides the platform for the construction of complex statistical models for longitudinal data, multivariate data, multi-marker tests, rare-variant analysis, and others.

  19. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  20. Predictive value of a profile of routine blood measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population: the Leiden 85-plus Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various questionnaires and performance tests predict mortality in older people. However, most are heterogeneous, laborious and a validated consensus index is not available yet. Since most older people are regularly monitored by laboratory tests, we compared the predictive value of a profile of seven routine laboratory measurements on mortality in older persons in the general population with other predictors of mortality; gait speed and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study, we followed 562 participants aged 85 years for mortality over five years. At baseline (age 85 years high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, alanine transaminase, hemoglobin, creatinin clearance, C-reactive protein and homocysteine were measured. Participants were stratified based on their number of laboratory abnormalities (0, 1, 2-4 and 5-7. The predictive capacity was compared with gait speed (6-meter walking test and disability in IADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale by C-statistics. At baseline, 418 (74% 85-year old participants had at least one laboratory abnormality. All cause mortality risk increased with increasing number of laboratory abnormalities to a hazard ratio of 5.64 [95% CI 3.49-9.12] for those with 5-7 laboratory abnormalities (p<0.001 compared to those without abnormalities. The c-statistic was 0.66 [95% CI 0.59-0.69], similar to that of gait speed and disability in IADL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the general population of oldest old, the number of abnormalities in seven routine laboratory measurements predicts five-year mortality as accurately as gait speed and IADL disability.

  1. Risk factors for more severe regional musculoskeletal symptoms: a two-year prospective study of a general working population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Haahr, J. P.; Frost, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative contribution of work-related physical and psychosocial factors, individual factors, and health-related factors to the development of more severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck and upper limbs and the back and lower limbs. METHODS: In this cohort study of 5......,604 workers from industrial and service companies, we collected information on work-related physical and psychosocial exposures and on individual and health-related factors. Questionnaires were completed at baseline by 4,006 participants (71.5%) and after 24 months by 3,276 (82%). At followup, participants....... Highly repetitive work predicted arm pain, heavy lifting and prolonged standing predicted low back pain, and heavy pushing or pulling predicted lower limb pain. Low job satisfaction predicted neck/shoulder pain and lower limb pain, whereas other psychosocial work place factors were only of marginal...

  2. Electrocardiographic J Wave and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the General Population (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Wang, Yi Grace; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Li, Yabing; Tereshchenko, Larisa G; Estes, E Harvey; Daubechies, Ingrid; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-09-15

    The association between the J wave, a key component of the early repolarization pattern, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Inconsistencies have stemmed from the different methods used to measure the J wave. We examined the association between the J wave, detected by an automated method, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in 14,592 (mean age = 54 ± 5.8 years; 56% women; 26% black) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. The J wave was detected at baseline (1987 to 1989) and during follow-up study visits (1990 to 1992, 1993 to 1995, and 1996 to 1998) using a fully automated method. Sudden cardiac death, coronary heart disease death, and cardiovascular mortality were ascertained from hospital discharge records, death certificates, and autopsy data through December 31, 2010. A total of 278 participants (1.9%) had evidence of a J wave. Over a median follow-up of 22 years, 4,376 of the participants (30%) died. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and potential confounders, the J wave was not associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.50), coronary heart disease death (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.32), or cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.56). An interaction was detected for cardiovascular mortality by gender with men (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.19) having a stronger association than women (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.25; P-interaction = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the J wave is a benign entity that is not associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest in middle-aged adults in the United States.

  3. Relationships between values of antibodies to several connective tissue disease autoantigens and pulmonary function in a Japanese general population: the Takahata study.

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    Hiroshi Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of respiratory dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function and serum antibodies to several connective tissue disease autoantigens (ACTDA levels, which has not been investigated in a general population. METHODS: Blood sampling and spirometry were performed for subjects (n = 3,257 aged ≥40 years who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 to 2006. ACTDA was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and subjects with ACTDA values ≥20 were defined as positive. RESULTS: In males, there were significant inverse relationships between logarithmically transformed ACTDA values and spirometric parameters, including % predicted values for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMF as well as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that except for the relationship between ACTDA and FEV1/FVC, these relationships were still significant after adjustment for Brinkman index (a measure of inhaled cigarette consumption. The prevalence of positive ACTDA was greater in male never-smokers with mixed ventilation disorders and relatively severe airflow obstruction (% predicted FEV1 below the median value. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity may be involved in the mechanism of impaired pulmonary function in the general population.

  4. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

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    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  5. Knowledge about Anaesthesia and Anaesthesiologist Amongst General Population in India

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    S K Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesiologists are playing a decisive role in patient management. Present day anaesthesiology is based on the use of newer and safer drugs, better patient monitoring, pain management and critical care. But the general public knows little of these developments. The study was undertaken to assess the perception regarding the anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologists among the general population. The present study was conducted on 300 persons (patient, patient′s attendant and medical undergraduates between 18-75 years of age to assess the knowl-edge regarding anaesthesiology and the anaesthesiologists. All collected data were categorized into 5 groups as per the educational status of the study population. Perception of anaesthesiologist as a doctor in illiterate, graduate and postgraduate population was 19.51%, 58.57% and 87.88% respectively. Anaesthesiology as a separate medical discipline was not known to 100%, 73.87%, 64.29% and 51.52% of the illiterate, upto matriculation, graduate and postgraduate population respectively. Among the population who knew something about general anaesthesia, none from upto matriculation and 33.87%, 44.83% and 100% from the graduate, post graduate and medical undergraduate groups respectively knew that anaesthesia is administered with specialized equipments along with monitoring. Illiter-ates did not know about regional anaesthesia, while most of others had some knowledge about it. The results of the study reflect the wide spread ignorance and misconceptions about anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologists still preva-lent in public in India.

  6. Prevalence of symptomatic heart failure with reduced and with normal ejection fraction in an elderly general population-the CARLA study.

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    Daniel Tiller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic heart failure (CHF is one of the most important public health concerns in the industrialized world having increasing incidence and prevalence. Although there are several studies describing the prevalence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF in selected populations, there are few data regarding the prevalence and the determinants of symptomatic heart failure in the general population. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of a population-based German sample (1,779 subjects aged 45-83 years were analyzed to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic SHF and HFNEF defined according to the European Society of Cardiology using symptoms, echocardiography and serum NT-proBNP. Prevalence was age-standardized to the German population as of December 31st, 2005. RESULTS: The overall age-standardized prevalence of symptomatic CHF was 7.7% (95%CI 6.0-9.8 for men and 9.0% (95%CI 7.0-11.5 for women. The prevalence of CHF strongly increased with age from 3.0% among 45-54- year-old subjects to 22.0% among 75-83- year-old subjects. Symptomatic HFREF could be shown in 48% (n = 78, symptomatic HFNEF in 52% (n = 85 of subjects with CHF. The age-standardized prevalence of HFREF was 3.8 % (95%CI 2.4-5.8 for women and 4.6 % (95%CI 3.6-6.3 for men. The age-standardized prevalence of HFNEF for women and men was 5.1 % (95%CI 3.8-7.0 and 3.0 % (95%CI 2.1-4.5, respectively. Persons with CHF were more likely to have hypertension (PR = 3.4; 95%CI 1.6-7.3 or to have had a previous myocardial infarction (PR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.8-3.5. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of symptomatic CHF appears high in this population compared with other studies. While more women were affected by HFNEF than men, more male subjects suffered from HFREF. The high prevalence of symptomatic CHF seems likely to be mainly due to the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population.

  7. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time...... no additional years as frequent exacerbators, while the minority (6%) remained in this category each year. In conclusion, the rate of exacerbations shows considerable variation over time among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the general population. This might hold implications for chronic...... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...

  8. Cohort study of the seasonal effect on nasal carriage and the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in an endemic area in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, M; Turankar, R P; Karri, S; Chaitanya, V S; Sengupta, U; Jadhav, R S

    2013-10-01

    Leprosy continues to be a significant health problem in certain pockets in developing countries. Better understanding of the transmission and source of the infection would help to decipher the transmission link, leading to control of the spread of the disease. The nose is considered to be a portal of entry, suggesting an aerial route for transmission through droplet infection. The evidence suggests that many individuals from endemic countries carry Mycobacterium leprae in their nasal cavities without having obvious symptoms of leprosy. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of M. leprae on the nasal mucosa in the general population from a leprosy-endemic pocket. M. leprae detection was carried out using PCR targeting RLEP. Four hundred subjects from an area highly endemic for leprosy were included in the study and followed up during three different seasons--winter, summer, and monsoon--for evidence of nasal exposure to M. leprae. PCR positivity for M. leprae was observed in 29%, 21% and 31% of the samples collected in winter, summer and the monsoon season, respectively. Twenty-six individuals from the cohort showed amplification for M. leprae for all seasons. Our results are consistent with reports in the literature showing widespread exposure to M. leprae in the endemic community. The results also suggest possible association of the environmental conditions (climate) with the transmission pattern and levels of exposure to M. leprae. However, the present study indicated that the population from highly endemic pockets will have exposure to M. leprae irrespective of season.

  9. The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA): a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall Michelle; Wood Laurence; Duncan Rachel; Thomas Elaine; Peat George; Handy June; Nicholls Elaine; Myers Helen; Tyson Catherine; Hay Elaine; Dziedzic Krysia

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Pain in the hand affects an estimated 12–21% of the population, and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and osteoarthritis. The association between symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail, although there is evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability. Despite the high prevalence of hand problems and the limitations they cause in older adults, little at...

  10. Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Spanish Adult Population (Aged 25-64 Years) 2014-2015: The ENPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi-Aresti, Goiuri; Ramos-Carrera, Natalia; Lázaro-Masedo, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    According to the 2013 analysis of the Institute of Health Metrics, high body mass index values are the most important risk factor for disease in Spain. Consequently, we describe the prevalence of total obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) for 2014-2015. The sample was taken from the ENPE study, a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population (n = 6800) carried out between May 2014 and May 2015. This analysis refers to the population between age 25 and 64 years (n = 3966). The anthropometric measurements were performed by trained observers at participants' homes according to standard international protocols. Body mass index ≥ 25 was defined as overweight and ≥ 30 as obesity. Abdominal obesity was classified as waist > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. The estimated prevalence of overweight in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) was 39.3% 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 35.7%-42.9%). The prevalence of general obesity was 21.6% (95%CI, 19.0%-24.2%) and, more specifically, was 22.8% (95%CI, 20.6%-25.0%) among men and 20.5% (95%CI, 18.5%-22.5%) among women, and rose with age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was estimated at 33.4% (95%CI, 31.1%-35.7%) and was higher among women (43.3%; 95%CI, 41.1%-45.8%) than among men (23.3%; 95%CI, 20.9%-25.5%), and also rose with age. The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity in Spain is high, although the distribution differs according to autonomous community. A comparison with earlier data reveals a considerable increase in overweight, indicating the need for routine monitoring and comprehensive initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: a general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution

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    Brage Sören

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses from 1994–2000, and the distribution across gender, age groups, diagnostic groups and regions in a general population. Methods The population at risk was defined as all individuals aged 16–66 years who were entitled to sickness benefits in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 2000 (n = 2,282,761 in 2000. All individuals with a full-time disability pension were excluded. The study included approximately 77% of the Norwegian population aged 16–66 years. For each year, the study base started on 1 January and ended on 31 December. Individuals that were sick-listed for more than 14/16 consecutive days with a psychiatric diagnosis on their medical certificate were selected as cases. Included in this study were data for Norway, the capital city Oslo and five regions in the southeast of the country. Results Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased in all age groups, in women and men, and in all regions. At the national level, the cumulative incidence increased in women from 1.7% in 1994 to 4.6% in 2000, and in men from 0.8% in 1994 to 2.2% in 2000. The highest cumulative incidence was found in middle-aged women and men (30–59 years. Women had a higher incidence than men in all stratification groups. The cumulative incidences in 2000 varied between 4.6% to 5.6% in women in the different regions, and for men the corresponding figures were 2.1% to 3.2%. Throughout the four years studied, women in Oslo had more than twice as high incidence levels of sickness absence with alcohol and drug diagnoses as the country as a whole. There were some differences between regions in sickness absence with specific psychiatric diagnoses, but they were small and most comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion Sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses increased between 1994 and 2000 in Norway. The increase was highest in the middle-aged, and in women

  12. Epidemiological Profile of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Iran in the Past 25 years; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of General Population Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Eghtesad, Sareh; Jeddian, Alireza; Pourfatholah, Ali Akbar; Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Zadsar, Maryam; Mahmoudi, Zahra; Shayanrad, Amaneh; Poustchi, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most important health problems worldwide with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is a major risk factor for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Currently, Iran is located in the intermediate HBV zone; however, recent studies have provided some evidence indicating an epidemiological change in the country. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV in Iran. METHODS A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the studies performed in the past 25 years that have reported the prevalence of HBV infection and its associated factors in the Iranian general population (1990-2014). Any study assessing and reporting serum Hbs Ag levels was included in this review. RESULTS After excluding all impertinent studies, 19 eligible studies were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of HBV was 3% (95% CI 2% to 3%). Its distribution showed that the prevalence of HBV varies in different provinces from 0.87% to 8.86%. The HBV rate was highest in the Golestan (8.86%) and lowest in the Kurdistan (0.87%) provinces. CONCLUSION This study provides some evidence about the prevalence of HBV in Iran. However, the collected data was very heterogenic, even within a single province, which made it hard to estimate a single-point prevalence. High quality studies are needed to find reliable information about HBV prevalence and to decrease the heterogeneity of results in the country.

  13. Relation of Prolonged P-Wave Duration to Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the General Population (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ankit; Norby, Faye L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alraies, M Chadi; Adabag, Selcuk; O'Neal, Wesley T; Alonso, Alvaro; Chen, Lin Y

    2017-02-09

    Prolonged P-wave duration, a marker of left atrial abnormality, is associated with myocardial fibrosis, atrial fibrillation, and all-cause death. It is not known if prolonged P-wave duration is associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the general population. We aimed to evaluate whether prolonged P-wave duration is independently associated with SCD risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a community-based prospective cohort study. We included 15,321 participants in our analysis (age 54.2 ± 5.7 years, 55.2% women, 26.4% black). Prolonged P-wave duration was defined as maximum P-wave duration >120 ms and was determined from 12-lead electrocardiograms obtained during 4 exams (1987 to 1999). SCD was physician adjudicated and defined as a sudden, pulseless condition in a previously stable patient without evidence for noncardiac cause of death. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association between prolonged P-wave duration and SCD, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and conditions including atrial fibrillation. During a mean follow-up of 12.5 years (1987 to 2001), 268 SCDs were identified. The multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of prolonged P-wave duration for SCD was 1.70 (1.31 to 2.20). This association was attenuated but remained significant after updating covariates to the end of follow-up with a hazard ratio of 1.35 (1.04 to 1.76). In conclusion, prolonged P-wave duration is independently associated with an increased risk of SCD in the general population. This association is independent of atrial fibrillation and is only partially mediated by shared cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N = 267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p = .006; N = 15 studies) or CUD (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p = .001; N = 13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety + depression and cannabis use (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p = .004; N = 5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N = 5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p = .01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries. PMID:24884989

  15. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... samples). The four most informative peptides identified 25.8% of colorectal cancer patients with a specificity of 95%. The median lead time was 1.4 (range 0.12-3.8) years before clinical diagnosis.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that in the general population, autoantibody signatures are detectable during...

  16. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  17. The lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) isoenzymes in plasma: study of distribution in a general population by a simple routine chromatofocusing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, G; Bairati, C; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L; Tettamanti, G; Meloni, C; Lombardo, A

    1993-11-30

    We have adapted for routine analysis a pre-existing method for separating the three major N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) isoenzyme forms--A, B+I1 and I2--by chromatofocusing followed by fluorimetric assay of the enzyme activity. This method combines good resolution, accurate quantification of the different isoenzymes and high reproducibility with an acceptable degree of analytical precision. We have applied it to studying the isoenzyme levels in the plasma of a general population of 417 subjects and have analysed these enzyme activities as functions of age, sex, body mass and declared alcohol consumption. Unlike the levels of unfractionated enzyme, levels of all the isoenzymes were higher in men than in women at all ages except in the 20-29 year group. Isoenzyme I2 showed the greatest sex difference. On the whole, with increasing age, both sexes showed more or less regular increases in plasma levels of all the isoenzymes. We also found significant correlations for the population as a whole with age and with body mass index. The only significant correlation with alcohol consumption was for B+I1 in men.

  18. Healthy life styles and perceived health status in the general population of a Northern Italian health district: a cross-sectional study

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    Edoardo Colzani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Evidence should drive public health initiatives to better address the most important health issues. Chronic diseases represent the main burden of healthcare expenditure in Western countries and are determined by risk factors related to behaviour. Population-based surveys should lead to well informed decision making in this field.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the general population aged between 18 and 69 in the district of Monza-Brianza in Northern Italy through phone interviews. A validated questionnaire investigating health-related lifestyles and behaviours was used. The questionnaire was divided into the following parts: general health status, physical activity, smoking habit, nutrition, alcohol consumption, driving safety, cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, mental health, domestic safety and socio-economic status.

    Results: In total, 308 interviews were carried out (response rate=76%. Almost 40% reported a body mass index >25, 64.9% had high school or university degrees, 60.4% worked full-time, 26.2% were assessed as physically inactive, and 13.3% were on a weight –loss diet. In addition, 19.7% had an “at risk” alcohol consumption , especially among younger age groups. Symptoms of depression were identified in 4.9% of the study subjects, particularly in women.

    Conclusions: Age, body mass index, education, and occupation were significantly associated with the likelihood of reporting poor health status. Young subjects were more likely to be smokers and drinkers at risk. Psychological health and appropriate prescription of anti-cholesterol and anti-hypertensive drugs areì areas deserving further investigations. Nutrition, physical activity, driving safety and youth health, especially concerning drinking

  19. Associations of common variants in HFE and TMPRSS6 with iron parameters are independent of serum hepcidin in a general population: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesloot, Tessel E; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J; den Heijer, Martin; Sweep, Fred C G J; Fleming, Robert E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Vermeulen, Sita H; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies have convincingly shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HFE and TMPRSS6 are associated with iron parameters. It was commonly thought that these associations could be explained by the intermediate effect on hepcidin concentration. A recent study in an isolated Italian population, however, concluded that these associations were not exclusively dependent on hepcidin values. We report here the second study to investigate the role of hepcidin in the associations between common variants in HFE and TMPRSS6 with iron parameters. We extracted 101 SNPs in HFE and TMPRSS6 from genome-wide imputed SNP data of 1832 individuals from the general population (Nijmegen Biomedical Study). Single locus and haplotype associations with serum iron parameters and hepcidin were studied using linear regression analyses. We found that HFE rs1800562 and TMPRSS6 rs855791 are the main determinants of HFE and TMPRSS6 related variation in serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and total iron binding capacity. These SNPs are associated with the ratios hepcidin/ferritin (pserum hepcidin (p>0.2). Adjustment for hepcidin or the ratio hepcidin/ferritin did not decrease the strength of the SNP-iron parameter associations. Our results do not support an intermediate role for hepcidin in the SNP-iron parameter associations, which confirms previous findings, and indicate a pleiotropic SNP effect on the hepcidin ratios and the iron parameters. Taken together, this suggests that there might be other, yet unknown, serum hepcidin independent mechanisms which play a role in the association of HFE and TMPRSS6 variants with serum iron parameters.

  20. Cross-sectional study on attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged and elderly population in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancelot W H Mui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged (50-64 and elderly population (over 65 in Hong Kong and the factors affecting their decision to advise pneumococcal vaccination for those age groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of general practitioners in private practice in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Members of Hong Kong Medical Association delivering general practice services in private sector. MEASURING TOOL: Self-administered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intention to recommend pneumococcal vaccination, barriers against pneumococcal vaccination. RESULTS: 53.4% of the respondents would actively recommend pneumococcal vaccination to elderly patients but only 18.8% would recommend for middle-aged patients. Consultation not related to pneumococcal vaccine was the main reason for not recommending pneumococcal vaccine (43.6%. Rarity of pneumonia in their daily practice was another reason with 68.4% of respondents attending five or less patients with pneumonia each year. In multivariate analysis, factors such as respondents would get vaccination when reaching age 50 (ORm 10.1, and attending 6 pneumonia cases or more per year (ORm 2.28 were found to be associated with increasing likelihood for recommending vaccination to the middle-aged. While concerns of marketing a product (ORm 0.41, consultation not related to vaccination (ORm 0.45 and limited time (ORm 0.38 were factors that reduced the likelihood. CONCLUSION: Public policy is needed to increase the awareness of impact of pneumococcal pneumonia and the availability of preventive measures.

  1. Association of Repeatedly Measured High-Sensitivity-Assayed Troponin I with Cardiovascular Disease Events in a General Population from the MORGAM/BiomarCaRE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Maria F; Ojeda, Francisco; Saarela, Olli;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentrations reflect myocardial stress. The role of hs-cTnI in predicting long-term changes in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations is not clearly defined. METHODS: We investigated whether the change in 3 repeated meas...

  2. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Have, M. ten; Nolen, W.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. METHOD: The Netherlands Men

  3. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey a

  4. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey a

  5. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  6. Depression and anxiety in relation to catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in the general population: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart John-Anker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met, which has been linked to anxiety and depression, but previous results are not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Val158Met COMT gene polymorphism and anxiety and depression measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS in the general adult population. Methods In the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT the association between the Val158Met polymorphism and anxiety and depression was evaluated in a random sample of 5531 individuals. Two different cut off scores (≥ 8 and ≥ 11 were used to identify cases with anxiety (HADS-A and depression (HADS-D, whereas controls had HADS-A Results The COMT genotype distribution was similar between controls and individuals in the groups with anxiety and depression using cut-off scores of ≥ 8. When utilizing the alternative cut-off score HADS-D ≥ 11, Met/Met genotype and Met allele were less common among men with depression compared to the controls (genotype: p = 0.017, allele: p = 0.006. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and heart disease, depression (HADS-D ≥ 11 was less likely among men with the Met/Met genotype than among men with the Val/Val genotype (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18–0.76. Conclusion In this population-based study, no clear association between the Val158Met polymorphism and depression and anxiety was revealed. The Met/Met genotype was less likely among men with depression defined as HADS-D ≥ 11, but this may be an incidental finding.

  7. Validity of physician-diagnosed COPD in relation to spirometric definitions of COPD in a general population aged 50–64 years – the SCAPIS pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Torén,1,2 Nicola Murgia,1,2 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Jan Hedner,3 John Brandberg,4 Annika Rosengren,5 Göran Bergström51Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Section of Occupational Medicine, Respiratory Diseases and Toxicology, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Department of Medicine/Lung Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 4Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 5Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden Background: In epidemiological studies, items about physician-diagnosed COPD are often used. There is a lack of validation and standardization of these items.Materials and methods: In a general population-based study, 1,050 subjects completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. COPD was defined as the ratio of FEV1/FVC <0.7 after bronchodilation. Physician-diagnosed COPD was defined as an affirmative answer to the single item: “Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?”, physician-diagnosed COPD/emphysema as an affirmative answer to any of the two single items; “Have you ever had COPD diagnosed by a physician?” or “Have you ever been told by a physician that you have emphysema?”, physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis as an affirmative answer to; “Have you ever been told by a physician that you have chronic bronchitis?” and physician-diagnosed COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis was defined as an affirmative answer to either of the three items above.Results: For the single item about physician-diagnosed COPD, the sensitivity was around 0.11 and the specificity was almost 0.99 in relation to COPD. The sensitivity of the combined items about COPD

  8. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although

  9. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dib, Regina P; Silva, Edina M K; Morais, José F; Trevisani, Virgínia F M

    2008-05-07

    Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians). A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry) using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although the possibility of residual confounding due to unmeasured factors

  10. Genome-wide study of percent emphysema on computed tomography in the general population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J.M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Stukovsky, Karen D. Hinckley; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josee; O'Connor, George T.; Boezen, Hendrika; Rich, Stephen S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed tomogr

  11. Impact on knowledge and behaviour of the general population of two different methods of solid waste management: An explorative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cimmuto, Angela; Mannocci, Alice; Ribatti, Domenico; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate knowledge among general population about the risks factors of waste management, to estimate the feeling of anxiety concerning the waste, and to compare knowledge of two different methods for collecting municipal solid waste (MSW): a street separate collection system and a door-to-door separate collection system. A cross-sectional study was performed, administering an anonymous questionnaire to 180 inhabitants in Aprilia, Latium, Italy. The study sample consisted of 183 citizens: 64 in the intervention group and 119 in the control group. The intervention was represented by a campaign of door-to-door collection. The correct implementation of separate collection of waste was 87.5% in the intervention group and 63% in the control group (pwaste collection was door-to-door (p=0.013); a high difference concerning the quality of information was found (pmanagement of waste and household waste. The door-to-door collection was appreciated and preferred by both groups. The adoption of a door-to-door scheme seems to be a winning option mostly because it is supported by an information and education system for the citizens.

  12. DSCA: General Population Evacuation of Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    USNORTHCOM produced a planning guide titled, “General Population Evacuation by Air.” Rear Admiral 8 Lilli , who served as the director of the...standalone entity is not possible when military assets are employed in any other worldwide operation. However, in times of peace it may be possible to...and recent history, periods of “ peace ” will not exist for quite some time. For the purposes of this study it is assumed that the 26 military

  13. A comparative correlational study of coping strategies and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and the general Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Annika; Carlsson, Marianne; Lindqvist, Ragny; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to compare coping strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with such strategies and QOL in persons from two general Swedish populations and to investigate relationships between personal characteristics and coping strategies. A cross-sectional, comparative and correlational design was used to examine data from three sources. The patient group (n = 124), defined using ICD-10, was selected consecutively from two hospitals in central Sweden. The population group (n = 515) consisted of persons drawn randomly from the Swedish population. Data were collected with questionnaires in 2011; regarding QoL, Swedish population reference data from 1994 were used. Overall, women used more coping strategies than men did. Compared with the general population data from SF-36, patients with CHF rated lower QoL. In the regression models, perceived low "efficiency in managing psychological aspects of daily life" increased use of coping. Other personal characteristics related to increased use of coping strategies were higher education, lower age and unsatisfactory economic situation.

  14. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  15. An extended assessment of bowel habits in a general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Massimo Bellini; Filippo Pucciani; Renato Bocchini; Antonio Bove; Pietro Alduini; Edda Battaglia; Paolo Bruzzi; Italian Constipation Study Group

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bowel habits are difficult to study, and most data on defecatory behaviour in the general population have been obtained on the basis of recalled interview. The objective assessment of this physiological function and its pathological aspects continues to pose a difficult challenge. The aim of this prospective study was to objectively assess the bowel habits and related aspects in a large sample drawn from the general population.METHODS: Over a two-month period 488 subjects were prospectively recruited from the general population and asked to compile a daily diary on their bowel habits and associated signs and symptoms (the latter according to Rome II criteria). A total of 298 (61%) participants returned a correctly compiled record, so that data for more than 8 000 patient-days were available for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The average defecatory frequency was once per day (range of 0.25-3.25) and was similar between males and females. However, higher frequencies of straining at stool (P=0.001), a feeling of incomplete emptying and/or difficult evacuation (P=0.0001), and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation (P=0.046) were reported by females as compared to males.CONCLUSION: This study represents one of the first attempts to objectively and prospectively assess bowel habits in a sample of the general population over a relatively long period of time. The variables we analyzed are coherent with the criteria commonly used for the clinical assessment of functional constipation, and can provide a useful adjunt for a better evaluation of constipated patients.

  16. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  17. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognmo Kamilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

  18. Onset and persistence of person-perceived participation restriction in older adults: a 3-year follow-up study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peat George

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation restriction is defined as "problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations" and refers to the personal and societal consequences of health conditions. There is a growing interest in participation restriction because (i problems with work or looking after others may be more concerning to individuals than the signs and symptoms of health conditions and (ii even when poor health persists, participation may still be maintained. The natural history of participation restriction in the general population is unknown and the aim of this report is to describe change in status of person-perceived participation restriction over three years in community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and over. Method Prospective cohort study (baseline and 3-year follow-up using postal questionnaires mailed to a population-based sample of older adults. Responders were included in this study if they completed all items of the Keele Assessment of Participation at baseline (n = 6965. Estimates of onset and persistence of person-perceived participation restriction at 3-year follow-up were calculated for any and for each aspect of life in the sample as a whole, and then by age and gender using attrition re-weighted logistic regression to take account of sample attrition. Results In the whole sample of 6965 persons, overall participation status at three years was unchanged in 69%, and changed in 31%. Of 3431 persons with no restriction at baseline, it is estimated that 29.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.6%, 32.0% would report restriction in at least one aspect of life at 3-year follow-up. Of 3534 persons who had baseline restriction, it is estimated that 68.8% (66.2%, 71.3% would report continuing restriction in at least one aspect of life after 3 years. Onset and persistence both increased with age, and were most frequently recorded for restricted mobility outside the home. Conclusion Although most older persons do not

  19. Diet, exercise, obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption in cancer survivors and the general population: a comparative study of 16 282 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; McLoone, P; Morrison, D S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer survivors may be particularly motivated to improve their health behaviours. Methods: We compared health behaviours and obesity in cancer survivors with the general population, using household survey and cancer registry data. Results: Cancer survivors were more likely than those with no history of cancer to eat fruit and vegetables (ORadj 1.41, 95% CI 1.19–1.66), less likely to engage in physical activity (ORadj 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.93) and more likely to have stopped smoking (ORadj 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.44). Conclusions: Most health-related behaviours were better in cancer survivors than the general population, but low physical activity levels may be amenable to health promotion interventions. PMID:25429527

  20. Association of cigarette smoking with a past history and incidence of herpes zoster in the general Japanese population: the SHEZ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, J; Takao, Y; Okuno, Y; Mori, Y; Asada, H; Yamanishi, K; Iso, H

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk for herpes zoster. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study is a community-based prospective cohort study over 3 years in Japan aiming to clarify the incidence and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster. We investigated the associations of smoking status with past history and incidence of herpes zoster. A total of 12 351 participants provided valid information on smoking status and past history of herpes zoster at baseline survey. Smoking status was classified into three categories (current, former, never smoker), and if currently smoking, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was recorded. The participants were under the active surveillance for first-ever incident herpes zoster for 3 years. We used a logistic regression model for the cross-sectional study on the association between smoking status and past history of herpes zoster, and a Cox proportional hazards regression model for the cohort study on the association with risk of incidence. The multivariable adjusted odd ratios (95% CI) of past history of herpes zoster for current vs. never smokers were 0·67 (0·54-0·80) for total subjects, 0·72 (0·56-0·93) for men and 0·65 (0·44-0·96) for women. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) of incident herpes zoster for current vs. never smokers were 0·52 (0·33-0·81) for total subjects, 0·49 (0·29-0·83) for men and 0·52 (0·19-1·39) for women. Smoking status was inversely associated with the prevalence and incidence of herpes zoster in the general population of men and women aged ⩾50 years.

  1. Screening families of patients with premature coronary heart disease to identify avoidable cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study of family members and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen J; Pell, Alastair Ch; Anderson, Judith; Chow, Clara K; Pell, Jill P

    2010-05-11

    Primary prevention should be targeted at individuals with high global cardiovascular risk, but research is lacking on how best to identify such individuals in the general population. Family history is a good proxy measure of global risk and may provide an efficient mechanism for identifying high risk individuals. The aim was to test the feasibility of using patients with premature cardiovascular disease to recruit family members as a means of identifying and screening high-risk individuals. We recruited family members of 50 patients attending a cardiology clinic for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We compared their cardiovascular risk with a general population control group, and determined their perception of their risk and current level of screening. 103 (36%) family members attended screening (27 siblings, 48 adult offspring and 28 partners). Five (5%) had prevalent CHD. A significantly higher percentage had an ASSIGN risk score >20% compared with the general population (13% versus 2%, p family members were aware they were at increased risk and only 50% had had their blood pressure and serum cholesterol level checked in the previous three years. Patients attending hospital for premature CHD provide a mechanism to contact family members and this can identify individuals with a high global risk who are not currently screened.

  2. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Nilsson, Emma Julia P; Sigvardsen, Per Ejlstrup; Køber, Lars; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2017-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with cardiovascular complications and the geometry is important for prognosis. In some cardiovascular diseases, myocardial hypertrophy or dilation occurs regionally without modifying the global size of the heart. It is therefore relevant to determine regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm) and thinnest in the mid-ventricular anterior wall (segment 7; men = 5.6 mm; women = 4.5 mm) for both men and women. However, the regional LVMD differed between men and women, with the LV being most heterogenic in women. The normal human LV is morphologically heterogenic, and showed same overall pattern but different regional distribution for men and women. This study introduces LVMD and provides gender specific reference values for regional LVMT, LVMM, and LVMD.

  3. Comparative Study of Malathion Toxicity and General Esterases in Larvae and Adults from a Field Population of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg)(Orthoptera:Acridoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-hua; YANG Mei-ling; GUO Ya-ping; MA En-bo

    2004-01-01

    The susceptibility of Oxya chinensis to malathion was compared in larvae and adults from a field population, collected from Jinyuan outskirt, Shanxi Province. The results showed that Oxya chinensis was more susceptible to malathion in the adult stage than in the larval stage. The LD50 values for malathion susceptibility of Oxya chinensis were 4.94 and 2.44 mg g-1 body weight in the larvae and adults respectively. The results indicated that the larvae were 2.02-fold less susceptible to malathion than the adults. The general esterases and the kinetics were characterized and compared between the two life stages and between females and males. Larval preparations of Oxya chinensis were more active than adult preparations in females and males. The larvae showed 1.18-, 1.49-, and 1.17-fold higher specific activities than the adults in females with α -NA, α -NB and β -NA respectively. In males, the ratios were 1.34-, 1.70-, and 1.06-fold. Female preparations were more active than those of males in the adults. The reverse results were observed in the larvae where male preparations were more active than female preparations. Kinetic studies showed that Km values of general esterases hydrolyzing α -NA, α -NB, and β -NA in the adult stage were 1.36-, 1.32- and 1.39-fold respectively, higher than those in the larval stage in females. In males, the ratios were 1.24-, 2.14-, and 1.20-fold. The esterase from male insects had a higher affinity (lower Km value) to the substrate than those from females. The results also showed that the Vmax values of general esterase hydrolyzing α -NA, α -NB, and β -NA in the two stages were similar. From the results of bioassays and biochemical analyses, it has been inferred that a higher level of resistance to malathion in larvae than in adults would appear to result from differences in the expression of resistance mechanisms in these two life stages. Enhanced esterase activities appeared to play a major role in resistance to malathion in

  4. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: A study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels

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    Nawaf Al-Mutairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. Aims: To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. Methods: The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Results: Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001. Conclusion: Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all

  5. Uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired glucose regulation in women than in men from the general population: the KORA F4-Study.

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    Christa Meisinger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High serum uric acid (UA levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is largely unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the association between UA and prediabetic states. We examined the possible association between UA levels and known as well as newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD, isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG, isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT, and combined IFG/IGT in a population-based sample of 32-to-81-year-old men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in all 2,740 participants without known diabetes of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany. Serum UA was analysed by the uricase method. RESULTS: In women after multivariable adjustment the associations between UA and i-IFG (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15-2.14, IFG/IGT (OR 1.52, 1.07-2.16, NDD (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.17, and known diabetes (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.82 remained significant, but the association with i-IGT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95-1.36 lost significance. In contrast in men, after multivariable adjustment there was only a significant association between UA levels and i-IFG (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.84, all other associations were non-significant (i-IGT: OR 1.09, IFG/IGT: OR 1.06, NDD: OR 0.91, known diabetes: OR 1.04; all p-values>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Serum UA concentrations were associated with different categories of impaired glucose regulation in individuals from the general population, particularly in women. Further studies investigating the role of UA in the development of derangements in glucose metabolism are needed.

  6. Measures of bronchodilator response of FEV1, FVC and SVC in a Swedish general population sample aged 50–64 years, the SCAPIS Pilot Study

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    Torén K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available K Torén,1 B Bake,1 A-C Olin,1 G Engström,2 A Blomberg,3 J Vikgren,4 J Hedner,5 J Brandberg,4 HL Persson,6,7 CM Sköld,8 A Rosengren,9 G Bergström,9 C Janson10 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 2Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Malmö, 3Division of Medicine/Respiratory Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, 4Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 5Department of Internal Medicine/Lung Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, 7Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 8Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 9Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 10Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology and Lung, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Data are lacking from general population studies on how to define changes in lung function after bronchodilation. This study aimed to analyze different measures of bronchodilator response of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and slow vital capacity (SVC. Materials and methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study (SCAPIS Pilot study. This analysis comprised 1,050 participants aged 50–64 years from the general population. Participants were investigated using a questionnaire, and FEV1, FVC and SVC were recorded before and 15 minutes after inhalation of 400 µg of salbutamol. A bronchodilator response was defined as the relative change from baseline value expressed as the difference in units of percent predicted normal

  7. Importance of glomerular filtration rate change as surrogate endpoint for the future incidence of end-stage renal disease in general Japanese population: community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Usui, Tomoko; Kashihara, Naoki; Iseki, Chiho; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2017-09-07

    Because of the necessity for extended period and large costs until the event occurs, surrogate endpoints are indispensable for implementation of clinical studies to improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients' prognosis. Subjects with serum creatinine level for a baseline period over 1-3 years were enrolled (n = 69,238) in this community-based prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan, and followed up for 15 years. The endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The percent of estimated glomerular filtration rate (%eGFR) change was calculated on the basis of the baseline period. Subjects had a mean ± SD age, 55.59 ± 14.69 years; eGFR, 80.15 ± 21.15 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Among the subjects recruited, 15.81% had a low eGFR (changes over 2 or 3 years in the high- and low-eGFR groups. The specificities and positive predictive values for ESRD based on a cutoff value of %eGFR change of less than -30% over 2 or 3 years were high in the high- and low-eGFR groups. %eGFR change tends to be associated with the risk of ESRD. %eGFR change of less than -30% over 2 or 3 years can be a candidate surrogate endpoint for ESRD in the general Japanese population.

  8. Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α as a marker of metabolic risks in the general Japanese population: The ROAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mure, Kanae; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashimoto, Marowa; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Oka, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Sakae; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Akune, Toru; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a reliable biomarker of the accumulation of metabolic risks [e.g., overweight, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and dyslipidemia]. This was a cross-sectional study of the baseline characteristics of a Japanese general population cohort study: Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD). Of 1,690 participants, 1,527 fulfilled all questionnaires and examinations. Free and conjugated urinary 8-iso-PGF2α levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components including blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and non-HDL-C were analyzed. The data were analyzed by ANCOVA, multiple regression analysis, and multinomial logistic analysis. 8-iso-PGF2α was significantly associated with HbA1c and significantly inversely associated with total cholesterol and non-HDL-C. Notably, IGT with an HbA1c cut-off of 5.5% was significantly associated with 8-iso-PGF2α level in participants aged ≤50 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed 8-iso-PGF2α level was significantly associated with a greater number of MetS risks present; this association was stronger in younger participants. In participants aged ≥71 years, 8-iso-PGF2α was significantly associated with a greater number of MetS risks with higher IGT cut-offs. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α can be a reliable marker of IGT and the accumulation of MetS risks, especially in younger people. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Paternal and maternal bonding styles in childhood are associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in a general adult population: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2015-07-31

    Previous research has suggested that extraordinary adverse experiences during childhood, such as abuse, are possible risk factors for the development of chronic pain. However, the relationship between the perceived parental bonding style during childhood and chronic pain has been much less studied. In this cross-sectional study, 760 community-dwelling Japanese adults were asked if they had pain that had been present for six months or more. They completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a self-administrated questionnaire designed to assess perceived parental bonding, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess current depressive symptoms. The PBI consists of care and overprotection subscales that are analyzed by assigning the parental bonding style to one of four quadrants: Optimal bonding (high care/low overprotection), neglectful parenting (low care/low overprotection), affectionate constraint (high care/high overprotection), and affectionless control (low care/high overprotection). Logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the contribution of the parental bonding style to the risk of chronic pain, controlling for demographic variables. Compared to the optimal bonding group, the odds ratios (ORs) for having chronic pain were significantly higher in the affectionless control group for paternal bonding (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27) and for maternal bonding (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36). After adjusting for depression, significance remained only for paternal bonding. The results demonstrate that the parental bonding style during childhood is associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in adults in the general population and that the association is more robust for paternal bonding than for maternal bonding.

  10. Use of replacement blood donors to study the epidemiology of major blood-borne viruses in the general population of Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Lina; Plouzeau, Chloé; Ingrand, Pierre; Gudo, Joël Paulo Samo; Ingrand, Isabelle; Mondlane, José; Beauchant, Michel; Agius, Gérard

    2007-12-01

    The seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Mozambique are poorly documented. The epidemiology of these infections was studied in the Maputo region. All donors attending the blood bank during the study period were interviewed and underwent serological and molecular tests for markers of virus exposure. Thus, 1,578 consecutive replacement blood donors were investigated, as they undergo no selection (other than their relation with a patient needing a transfusion), and may thus provide reliable estimates of the prevalence rates in the general population. The age-standardized prevalence rates among 15- to 49-year-old men and women were, respectively, 12.3 and 15.4% for HIV and 0.9 and 1.2% for HTLV. Low educational status (P = 0.014) and tattooing/scarification (P = 0.023) were predictive of HIV infection in multivariate analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of markers of hepatotropic virus among men and women were, respectively, 10.6 and 4.5% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 1.2 and 1.0% for anti-HCV, and 0 and 0% for anti-HDV. Two percent of donors had viral co-infections, involving most frequently the combination of HIV and HBsAg +. A significant association was found between anti-HIV and anti-HBc (P = 0.012). HBsAg was associated with the place of birth (P = 0.011) and a history of transfusion (P = 0.069). Smokers had higher seroprevalence rates than nonsmokers for HIV (P Mozambique. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. PMID:27706032

  12. 5C.08: AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC CARDIO-METABOLIC RISKS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO LIFE STYLE DISORDER IN THE GENERAL POPULATION: THE WATARI STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, M; Hattori, T; Konno, S

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries, systolic blood pressure is known to increase with age. Metabolic risks may generally worse with increasing age. But this trend may be modified by environmental factors which are different between gender and generation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between age and gender-related difference in cardio-metabolic risks and life style factors in the Japanese general population. We studied 3628 inhabitants of Watari (mean age 63.9 yrs, 42.5% men), Miyagi prefecture, who participated in a health check-up in 2009. Anthropometry, sitting blood pressures, fasting blood samples were examined. Unhealthy dietary behaviors (night meal, late dinner, fast eating, skipping breakfast, smoking, heavy drinking, lack of regular exercise) were evaluated by standard questionnaire. Presence or absence of each behavior was scored 0 or 1 and total score was calculated as healthy life style score (range 0 to 7, higher the better). Gender difference in age-related changes in blood pressures, BMI, lipid and glucose metabolism were examined by two way ANOVA. Systolic blood pressure was continuously increased from age 30 s to 70 s in both genders. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in men than in women in age 30 s (122.0 ± 13.9 vs. 113.3 ± 12.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) but the difference decreased with an increase in age. Similar gender interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (all p < 0.001) but was not for HbA1c. The healthy life style score was lowest in men age 30 s (5.1 ± 1.5) and it increased with an increase in age. Women demonstrated significantly higher healthy life style score than men in all generations. The gender difference in the score was largest in age 30 s and decreased with an increase in age. Cardio-metabolic risks are worse in men than in women in young generation but this gender difference diminishes with age. The gender

  13. Body Mass Index and Mortality in the General Population and in Subjects with Chronic Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study (2002-2010.

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    Nam Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years. Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2. The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97. In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea

  14. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  15. Drinking motives in clinical and general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ruipérez, María A; Villa, Helena; Moya, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2011-01-01

    This paper had three aims: (1) to validate a Spanish adaptation of the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R), (2) to explore the relationship of each drinking motive with different patterns of alcohol use, and (3) to compare the drinking motives of moderate drinkers, heavy drinkers, and alcohol abusing/dependent individuals. Two studies were carried out. In Study 1, a sample of 488 participants completed the M DMQ-R and a self-report scale of alcohol consumption in order to study the factor structure and different indices of reliability and validity of the Spanish M DMQ-R. In Study 2, we compared the drinking motives of moderate and heavy drinkers from Study 1 and an additional sample of 59 clinical drinkers. The M DMQ-R demonstrated sound reliability and validity indices. Coping-with-anxiety, social, and enhancement motives predicted higher alcohol use on weekends, but only coping-with-anxiety and social motives were related to consumption on weekdays. Furthermore, moderate drinkers had the lowest scores for all motives, whereas alcohol-dependent participants obtained the highest scores for negative reinforcement drinking motives. The Spanish M DMQ-R is a reliable and valid measure of drinking motives and has potential for assisting with treatment planning for problem drinkers. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

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    Aline Ramond-Roquin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21 and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6 and (b using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6. Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men. Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions. The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21 to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6 and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21 to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6. Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life.

  17. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  18. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  19. The Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K). A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay Elaine; Duncan Rachel; Wilkie Ross; Myers Helen; Dziedzic Krysia; Wood Laurence; Handy June; Thomas Elaine; Peat George; Hill Jonathan; Croft Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Knee pain affects an estimated 25% of the adult population aged 50 years and over. Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis made in older adults consulting with knee pain in primary care. However, the relationship between this diagnosis and both the current disease-based definition of osteoarthritis and the regional pain syndrome of knee pain and disability is unclear. Expert consensus, based on current evidence, views the disease and the syndrome as distinct entities b...

  20. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  1. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such

  2. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  3. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H.; Hansdottir, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    . We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N= 657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N= 3804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure...

  4. HPA-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems in early adolescents from the general population : the role of comorbidity and gender The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Contradictory findings on the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and externalizing behavior problems could be due to studies not accounting for issues of comorbidity and gender. In a population-based cohort of 1768 (10- to 12-year-old) early adolescents, we used

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  7. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benninga Marc A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194. The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on

  8. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  9. Serum uric acid distribution according to SLC22A12 W258X genotype in a cross-sectional study of a general Japanese population

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    Okada Rieko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although SLC22A12 258X allele was found among those with hypouricemia, it was unknown that serum uric acid distribution among those with SLC22A12 258X allele. This study examined serum uric acid (SUA distribution according to SLC22A12 W258X genotype in a general Japanese population. Methods Subjects were 5,023 health checkup examinees (3,413 males and 1,610 females aged 35 to 69 years with creatinine SLC22A12 W258X was genotyped with a polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers. Results The genotype frequency was 4,793 for WW, 225 for WX, and 5 for XX, which was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.164 with X allele 0.023 (95% confidence interval [0.021-0.027]. Mean (range SUA was 6.2 (2.1-11.4 mg/dL for WW, 3.9 (0.8-7.8 mg/dL for WX, and 0.8 (0.7-0.9 mg/dL for XX among males, and 4.5 (1.9-8.9 mg/dL, 3.3 (2.0-6.5 mg/dL, and 0.60 (0.5-0.7 mg/dL among females, respectively. Six individuals with SUA less than 1.0 mg/dL included two males with XX genotype, one male with WX genotype, and three females with XX genotype. Subjects with WX genotype were 14 (77.8% of 18 males with a SUA of 1.0-2.9 mg/dL, and 28 (34.6% of 81 females with the same range of SUA. The corresponding values were 131 (25.1% of 522 males and 37 (3.5% of 1,073 females for SUA 3.0-4.9 mg/dL, and 8 (0.4% of 2,069 males and 5 (1.1% of 429 females for SUA 5.0-6.9 mg/dL. The X allele effect for SUA less than 3 mg/dL was significantly (p Conclusions Although SLC22A12 W258X was a determining genetic factor on SUA, SUA of those with WX genotype distributed widely from 0.8 mg/dL to 7.8 mg/dL. It indicated that other genetic traits and/or lifestyle affected SUA of those with WX genotype, as well as those with WW genotype.

  10. JAK2V617F Somatic Mutation In The General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased JAK2V617F somatic mutation burden is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate in the general population. Among 49,488 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, 63 (0.1%) tested positive for the JAK2V617F mutation...

  11. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A

  12. From epidemiology to daily life: linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Collip

    Full Text Available Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an endophenotype for psychotic disorders. We examined, in a longitudinal framework, whether baseline momentary assessment markers of stress reactivity would predict persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences over time. In a general population sample of female twins (N = 566, the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions, psychotic experiences and context was used to assess (emotional and psychotic daily life stress reactivity. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE, assessed three times over 14 months post-baseline. It was investigated whether baseline daily life emotional and psychotic stress reactivity predicted persistence of psychotic experiences over time. Higher levels of emotional stress reactivity (a decrease in positive and an increase in negative affect in response to stress, and increased psychotic reactivity to daily stress was found in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences over time compared to individuals with transient psychotic experiences. The results suggest that markers of daily life stress reactivity may predict "macro-level" persistence of normally transient expression of psychotic liability over time. Linking daily life markers of altered reactivity in terms of emotions and psychotic experiences to longitudinal persistence of psychotic experiences, associated with increased risk of transition to overt mental disorder, may contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of risk.

  13. Has Sperm Count Declined in the General Male Danish Population during the Last Several Decades? A Study on the Relation of Sperm Count and Birth Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晔; 丁训诚; BondeJensPeter; ErnstErik; MortensenJensTolbol; EgenseJohan

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that during the last several decades human sperm count has declined because of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals. We examined the relation between semen.quality and birth year among 8608 men born from 1922 to 1971 and who from 1968 to t992 consulted 4 Danish medical centers because of barren marriage, Data were obtained from medical records and by a postal questionnaire to a subset of the population. The sperm concentration was significantly declining with increasing year of birth in 2 of the 4 centers, but this association disappeared when confounders were adjusted for. Within the subset of men born during 1955--1970 comprising 36% of the entire poputatlon we revealed a decrease of the average sperm concentration by 1.6 millionlml (95% CI: 0.7-2.5) per one advancing year of birth. This finding was consistent across all the 4 centers and robust to adjustment for effects of calendar period, season and duration of sexual abstinence. Effects of age were accounted for by restriction of the sample to men between 20 and 45 years. The findings are compatible with environmental impact in the prenatal period after 1955 but are far from unequivocal evidence that the sperm count in the general male Danish population has changed during the past decades.

  14. Are target-shooters more aggressive than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, Thorsten M; Barth, Niklas; Kälke, Friederike; Duttler, Gabriel; Lange, Harald; Petko, Andreas; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological research shows that guns are aggressive cues, proponents of liberal gun control argue that people rather than guns are to blame for gun-related violence. For instance, athletic target-shooters might classify guns as athletic rather than aggressive stimuli and thus should not be more aggressive than the general population. The present work investigated aggression and emotion-regulation in target-shooters. A longitudinal study found that initial self-reported aggression in target-shooters was higher than in the general population and further increased over 1 year. Additionally, the sample exhibited deficient emotion-regulation strategies, and this was related to self-reported aggression. In contrast, their implicit self-construct became more peaceful over time but was unrelated to all other measures. Two further cross-sectional experiments explored the causal impact of athletic target-shooting and other athletic activities (shooting a basketball) on aggression. Target-shooters and basketball players were tested before and after their regular team practice and aggressive thoughts and feelings were measured. Target-shooting but not basketball practice activated aggressive and anxiety-related thought more strongly than positive thought. Future research avenues, implications for the indirect measurement of aggression, and possible interventions to decrease aggression in target-shooters are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:3-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nightmares: risk factors among the Finnish general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-04-01

    To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y. N/A. Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. A twelve year follow-up study on osteoarthritis of the knee in the general population : an epidemiological study of classification criteria, risk factors and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.A.G. Schouten (Jan S.A.G.)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCriteria to diagnose the disease or assess the outcome need to be considered in every epidemiological study . The criteria are needed to classify participants as those having the disease or outcome and those who have not. Classification criteria are not always uniformly accepted and comm

  17. Comparing Results of Five Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations in the Korean General Population: MDRD Study, Revised Lund-Malmö, and Three CKD-EPI Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Misuk; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyesun; Cho, Han-Ik; Yang, Hyun Suk; Navarin, Silvia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malmö equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population. Methods The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malmö, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPICysC and -20.5 for CKD-EPICr-CysC). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPICysC). Conclusions Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings. PMID:27578504

  18. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  19. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadle Joelle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

  20. Discrepancies between survey and administrative data on the use of mental health services in the general population: findings from a study conducted in Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drapeau Aline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population surveys and health services registers are the main source of data for the management of public health. Yet, the validity of survey data on the use of mental health services has been questioned repeatedly due to the sensitive nature of mental illness and to the risk of recall bias. The main objectives of this study were to compare data on the use of mental health services from a large scale population survey and a national health services register and to identify the factors associated with the discrepancies observed between these two sources of data. Methods This study was based on the individual linkage of data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.2 and from the health services register of the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ. The RAMQ is the governmental agency managing the Quebec national health insurance program. The analyses mostly focused on the 637 Quebecer respondents who were recorded as users of mental health services in the RAMQ and who were self-reported users or non users of these services in the CCHS-1.2. Results Roughly 75%, of those recorded as users of mental health services users in the RAMQ's register did not report using mental health services in the CCHS-1.2. The odds of disagreement between survey and administrative data were higher in seniors, individuals with a lower level of education, legal or de facto spouses and mothers of young children. They were lower in individuals with a psychiatric disorder and in frequent and more recent users of mental health services according to the RAMQ's register. Conclusions These findings support the hypotheses that social desirability and recall bias are likely to affect the self-reported use of mental health services in a population survey. They stress the need to refine the investigation of mental health services in population surveys and to combine survey and administrative data, whenever possible, to obtain

  1. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Murase

    Full Text Available Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population.Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality.Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01 and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01. The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01 Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01 and poor sleep quality (either of knee or low back pain: OR

  2. Effect of general health screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of diabetes in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine J; Pisinger, Charlotta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of a large population-based multifactorial screening and lifestyle intervention programme on 10-year incidence of diabetes. In a randomised trial of the general Danish population initiated in 1999-2001 59,616 men and women aged 30-60years were assigned to a five yea...

  3. The prevalence and relevance of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram in the Danish general population: data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Cedergreen, Pernille Kallerup; Theilade, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known.......The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known....

  4. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  5. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betina C Pezzani; Marta C Minvielle; María M de Luca; María A Córdoba; María C Apezteguía; Juan A Basualdo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal,sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis ( E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses.METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families.RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309)of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140)among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169)among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter)and housing (satisfactory) among others.CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural,and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite. An

  6. Attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target in the French general population according to levels of cardiovascular risk: Insights from the MONA LISA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Vanina; Dallongeville, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Amouyel, Philippe; Wagner, Aline; Ferrières, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration is of tremendous importance to reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the attainment of LDL-cholesterol targets recommended in French and European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention, according to levels of cardiovascular risk. Participants aged 35 to 74 years (n=4609) were randomly selected from the general population of three French regions. A standardized data collection was performed to assess cardiovascular risk as described in the French and European guidelines. Overall, 17.5% of participants were considered to be at high risk and 25.4% at high or very high risk, according to the French and European guidelines, respectively. Only 1.2% of participants with no cardiovascular risk factors according to the French guidelines had an LDL-cholesterol concentration above the recommended target, whereas 82.5% of high-risk subjects did not attain their goal (70.8% among high-risk subjects receiving lipid-lowering therapy). Among untreated people, the median reduction in LDL-cholesterol needed to reach target ranged from 6.6% (lowest-risk groups) to 36.0% (highest-risk subjects). When risk was classified according to the European guidelines, the majority of participants did not reach the recommended LDL-cholesterol targets, irrespective of their level of risk or lipid-lowering therapy. In a majority of primary prevention candidates with multiple risk factors and in most high-risk subjects, LDL-cholesterol targets recommended by French guidelines are not being achieved, either because of insufficient treatment or because subjects are not recognized as being at risk. More stringent targets proposed by the European guidelines are not being achieved in most cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Menstrual disorders in adolescence: a marker for hyperandrogenaemia and increased metabolic risks in later life? Finnish general population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinola, P; Lashen, H; Bloigu, A; Puukka, K; Ulmanen, M; Ruokonen, A; Martikainen, H; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Morin-Papunen, L

    2012-11-01

    Are self-reported menstrual disorders associated with hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic disturbances as early as in adolescence? Menstrual disorders at the age 16 are a good marker of hyperandrogenaemia, and an adverse lipid profile was associated with higher androgen levels. Hyperandrogenism per se has been suggested to be a significant metabolic risk factor in women and a cause of physical and psychological morbidity in adolescent girls. A weak positive correlation has been described between hyperandrogenaemia and obesity in adolescent girls, but the clinical consequences are still poorly understood. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are also key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and women with PCOS are consequently at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome, and may have increased cardiovascular morbidity. Our findings confirm that the association between menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism, obesity and metabolic risks is already evident in adolescence. This population-based, cross-sectional study used postal questionnaires to targeting 15-16-year-old girls in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n= 4567). There were 3669 girls who answered the postal questionnaire and out of 3373 girls who also underwent clinical examinations and blood tests, 2448 were included in the analyses. The questionnaire included one question about the regularity and length of the menstrual cycle: 'Is your menstrual cycle (the interval from the beginning of one menstrual period to the beginning of the next period) often (more than twice a year) longer than 35 days?' The girls who answered 'yes' to this question were considered to be suffering from menstrual disorders and were classified as 'symptomatic'. The girls who answered 'no' were defined as 'non-symptomatic'. There were 709 (29%) girls who reported menstrual disorders (symptomatic girls) and 1739 who had regular periods (non-symptomatic girls). In the whole

  8. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalinin in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    , when both markers were added to the Framingham risk score, NGAL conferred 3× to 4× the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NGAL is strongly associated with inflammation in the general population. NGAL independently associated with 10-year outcome, and when added to the Framingham risk score, NGAL both improves c...

  9. Genetic testing of the general population: ethical and informatic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K

    2000-01-01

    Whether we like it or not, genetic testing will almost certainly become routine medical practice within the next 25 years. Integrated circuit chips already exist that can perform 400 genetic tests simultaneously, thus greatly reducing the costs. At least one company is already working on a prototype for a handheld genetic tester that would allow primary care physicians to perform hundreds or thousands of genetic tests on a simple blood smear in just a few minutes. "Genetic report cards" for children are not very far off at all. The use of such widespread testing poses a variety of ethical dilemmas. One problem that has not been appreciated sufficiently, however, is the question of how to interpret the test results. Because of the ways the genes implicated in diseases are discovered and marketed, quantitative analysis of the tests can be extremely misleading. The difficulty is that we simply do not have sufficient information about variance in genetic and other factors in the general population to make accurate projections of a patient's risk, given the presence of a gene. This uncertainty is obscured, however, when we provide the patient with a numerical analysis of risk because it is well established that people tend to overestimate the information content of numerical projections. This situation is made far worse by the fact that we do not have enough adequately trained genetic counselors to handle the load that will soon be placed on them (and studies have shown that physicians are generally very poorly prepared to act as accurate sources of information on complex genetic issues). For these reasons, I argue that access to genetic testing should be treated the same way as access to new medical procedures and medications--namely, withheld from the general public until proven safe and effective in large-scale trials. This is certain to be an unpopular policy, but it seems the only way to prevent a great deal of abuse of genetic tests.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a general population sample compared to a sample recruited for a study on the genetics of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Jonsson, Fridrik H; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Almarsdottir, Anna B; Heimisdottir, Maria; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur A; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E

    2014-02-01

    Personality traits are major determinants of social behavior influencing various diseases including addiction. Twin and family studies suggest personality and addiction to be under genetic influence. Identification of DNA susceptibility variants relies on valid and reliable phenotyping approaches. We present results of psychometric testing of the Icelandic NEO-FFI in a population sample (N=657) and a sample recruited for a study on addiction genetics (N=3,804). The Icelandic NEO-FFI demonstrated internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analyses supported the five-factor structure. Icelandic norms were compared to American norms and language translations selected for geographical and cultural proximity to Iceland. Multiple discriminant function analysis using NEO-FFI trait scores and gender as independent variables predicted membership in recruitment groups for 47.3% of addiction study cases (N=3,804), with accurate predictions made for 69.5% of individuals with treated addiction and 43.3% of their first-degree relatives. Correlations between NEO-FFI scores and the discriminant function suggested a combination of high neuroticism, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness predicted membership in the Treated group.

  11. Eating disorders behaviours and diagnoses: epidemiology and comorbidity in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies investigating prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders (ED) and disordered eating in large general population samples are limited. This thesis adds to the existing literature by employing general population studies to investigate prevalence and comorbidity of disordered eating and ED in adults and adolescents. Secondary aims were to explore occurrence of ED in relation to ethnicity and patterns of service use. Methods: The studies included in this thesis employed t...

  12. C-reactive protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Saisho

    Full Text Available AIMS: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP and high-molecular-weight (HMW adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria and 53 (7.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.

  13. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. Methods Using the health improvement network (THIN) UK primary care database, we estimated the incidence of gout based on 24,768 newly diagnosed gout patients among a cohort of 1,775,505 individuals aged 20 to 89 years between 2000 and 2007. We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. We calculated odds ratios (OR) by means of unconditional logistic regression adjusting for demographic variables, lifestyle variables, relevant medical conditions and drug exposures. Results The incidence of gout per 1,000 person-years was 2.68 (4.42 in men and 1.32 in women) and increased with age. Conventional risk factors were significantly and strongly associated with the risk of gout, with multivariate ORs of 3.00 (95% confidence interval (CI)) for excessive alcohol intake (that is, more than 42 units per week), 2.34 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.47) for obesity (body mass index > = 30 kg/m2), 2.48 (95% CI 2.19 to 2.81) for chronic renal impairment, and 3.00 (95% CI 2.85 to 3.15) for current diuretic use. For other medical conditions the multivariate OR were 1.84 (95% CI 1.70 to 2.00) for heart failure, 1.45 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.79) for hypertriglyceridemia and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22) for psoriasis. Use of cyclosporine was associated with an OR of 3.72 (95% CI, 2.17 to 6.40). Among gout-specific therapies, allopurinol was the most frequently used with a one-year cumulative incidence of 28% in a cohort of incident gout diagnosed from 2000 to 2001. Use of gout-specific treatment has not changed over recent years except for an increase of colchicine. Conclusions The contemporary incidence of gout in UK remains substantial. In this general population cohort, associations with previously

  14. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  15. Quality of life and associated factors in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....

  16. Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvik, Maria; Olsen, Renate Slind; Olsen, Karina; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers risk autoinfection; however, knowledge about the factors that make specific strains successful colonizers is limited. This study was undertaken to identify the most successful S. aureus clones in nasal carriers and compare their distribution among host groups. The population structure of S. aureus isolates from healthy adults was investigated by spa typing 1,981 isolates from persistent and intermittent nasal carriers participating in a health survey. In the baseline screening (1,113 isolates), the most common spa types were t012 (8.4%), t084 (7.6%), and t065 (4.9%). Three large spa clonal complexes (spa CC012, spa CC065, and spa CC084) comprised 62.4% of the isolates. In multivariate models adjusted for age and smoking status, male sex was associated with higher risk for spa type t084 (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.77), and lower risk of spa type t012 (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.92) colonization. The prevalence of spa type t012 decreased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03), with a prevalence almost twice as high in the youngest group (age 30 to 44 years, prevalence = 11.1%) as in the oldest group (age, 60 to 87 years; prevalence = 5.6%). Among baseline isolates, spa type t084 had a twofold-higher prevalence among intermittent carriers than among persistent carriers (10.6% versus 5.5%; P = 0.04). In summary, the two most prevalent spa types found in this study were significantly associated with age and/or gender. This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus.

  17. Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with intellectual disability differ from the general population: a cross-sectional observational nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Máire; Peklar, Jure; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary; Henman, Martin C

    2016-04-04

    (1) To evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines) and (2) to determine associated demographic and clinical characteristics in an ageing population with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Observational cross-sectional study. Wave One (2009/2010) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). A nationally representative sample of 753 persons with ID, aged between 41 and 90 years. Participants/proxy reported medicines (prescription and over the counter) taken on a regular basis; medication data was available for 736 participants (98%). Participants were divided into those with no polypharmacy (0-4 medicines), polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines). Medication use patterns were analysed according to demographic variables and reported chronic conditions. A multinomial logistic regression model identified factors associated with polypharmacy (5-9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (≥10 medicines). Overall, 90% of participants reported use of medicines. Polypharmacy was observed in 31.5% of participants and excessive polypharmacy in 20.1%. Living in a residential institution, and reporting a mental health or neurological condition were strongly associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy after adjusting for confounders, but age or gender had no significant effect. Polypharmacy was commonplace for older adults with ID and may be partly explained by the high prevalence of multimorbidity reported. Review of appropriateness of medication use is essential, as polypharmacy places ageing people with ID at risk of adverse effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project – NorStOP: Prospective, 3-year study of the epidemiology and management of clinical osteoarthritis in a general population of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Krysia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical syndrome of joint pain and stiffness in older people is the commonest cause of disability and health care consultation in this age group. Yet there have been few prospective studies of its course over time and its impact on personal and social life. We plan a cohort study in the general population aged 50 years and over to determine the course and prognosis of hand, hip, knee and foot pain, and the impact of these syndromes on participation levels and health care use. Methods All patients aged 50 years and over registered with 3 local general practices are to be recruited to a population-based cohort study through the use of a two-stage mailing process. Participants will initially complete a "Health Survey" questionnaire. This will collect information on several areas of life including socio-demographics, general health, physical function, participation, and bodily pain. Those who state that they have experienced any hand problem or any pain in their hands, hips, knees, or feet in the previous 12 months, and also give permission to be re-contacted, will be mailed a "Regional Pains Survey" questionnaire which collects detailed information on the four selected body regions (hand, hips, knees, feet. Follow-up data for the three-year period subsequent to cohort recruitment will be collected through two sources: i general practice medical records and ii repeat mailed survey.

  19. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  20. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Andersen, John S; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2015-01-01

    screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  1. Relationship between smoking and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 499,504 middle-aged adults in the UK general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrach Dare

    Full Text Available There is a general perception that smoking protects against weight gain and this may influence commencement and continuation of smoking, especially among young women.A cross-sectional study was conducted using baseline data from UK Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between smoking and obesity; defined as body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking was examined in terms of smoking status, amount smoked, duration of smoking and time since quitting and we adjusted for the potential confounding effects of age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes.The study comprised 499,504 adults aged 31 to 69 years. Overall, current smokers were less likely to be obese than never smokers (adjusted OR 0.83 95% CI 0.81-0.86. However, there was no significant association in the youngest sub-group (≤40 years. Former smokers were more likely to be obese than both current smokers (adjusted OR 1.33 95% CI 1.30-1.37 and never smokers (adjusted OR 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.15. Among smokers, the risk of obesity increased with the amount smoked and former heavy smokers were more likely to be obese than former light smokers (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% 1.56-1.64, p<0.001. Risk of obesity fell with time from quitting. After 30 years, former smokers still had higher risk of obesity than current smokers but the same risk as never smokers.Beliefs that smoking protects against obesity may be over-simplistic; especially among younger and heavier smokers. Quitting smoking may be associated with temporary weight gain. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions should include weight management support.

  2. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

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    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  3. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bénard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  4. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Benn, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population. A total of 7,579 women and 6,372 men from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with measurements of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol at baseline in 1976-1978 were followed for up to 33 years; of these, 837 women and 837 men developed ischemic stroke during follow-up, which was 100% complete. The fluctuation of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol over 15 years was similar. In both women and men, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Compared to women with triglycerides triglyceride levels of 1.00-1.99 mmol/liter to 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) for triglyceride levels ≥ 5 mmol/liter (trend: p cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke except in men with cholesterol levels ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter vs triglycerides were associated with increasing risk of ischemic stroke while increasing cholesterol levels were not. In men, these results were similar except that cholesterol ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  5. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  6. The Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K. A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population: baseline recruitment and retention at 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Rachel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective non-participation at baseline (due to non-response and non-consent and loss to follow-up are important concerns for longitudinal observational research. We investigated these matters in the context of baseline recruitment and retention at 18 months of participants for a prospective observational cohort study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general population. Methods Participants were recruited to the Knee Clinical Assessment Study – CAS(K – by a multi-stage process involving response to two postal questionnaires, consent to further contact and medical record review (optional, and attendance at a research clinic. Follow-up at 18-months was by postal questionnaire. The characteristics of responders/consenters were described for each stage in the recruitment process to identify patterns of selective non-participation and loss to follow-up. The external validity of findings from the clinic attenders was tested by comparing the distribution of WOMAC scores and the association between physical function and obesity with the same parameters measured directly in the target population as whole. Results 3106 adults aged 50 years and over reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were identified from the first baseline questionnaire. Of these, 819 consented to further contact, responded to the second questionnaire, and attended the research clinics. 776 were successfully followed up at 18 months. There was evidence of selective non-participation during recruitment (aged 80 years and over, lower socioeconomic group, currently in employment, experiencing anxiety or depression, brief episode of knee pain within the previous year. This did not cause significant bias in either the distribution of WOMAC scores or the association between physical function and obesity. Conclusion Despite recruiting a minority of the target population to the research clinics and some evidence of selective non-participation, this

  7. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  8. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...

  9. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vojinovic (Dina); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); S. van der Lee (Sven); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); M.C.G.N. van den hout (Mirjam); E. Oole (Edwin); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. Aartsma-Rus (Annemieke); G.-J.B. Van Ommen (Gert-Jan B.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); N. Amin (Najaf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterd

  10. Somatic symptoms beyond those generally associated with a whiplash injury are increased in self-reported chronic whiplash. A population-based cross sectional study: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtveit Solbjørg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash leads to considerable patient suffering and substantial societal costs. There are two competing hypothesis on the etiology of chronic whiplash. The traditional organic hypothesis considers chronic whiplash and related symptoms a result of a specific injury. In opposition is the hypothesis that chronic whiplash is a functional somatic syndrome, and related symptoms a result of society-induced expectations and amplification of symptoms. According to both hypotheses, patients reporting chronic whiplash are expected to have more neck pain, headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression than the general population. Increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond those directly related to a whiplash neck injury is less investigated. The aim of this study was to test an implication derived from the functional hypothesis: Is the prevalence of somatic symptoms as seen in somatization disorder, beyond symptoms related to a whiplash neck injury, increased in individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash? We further aimed to explore recall bias by comparing the symptom profile displayed by individuals self-reporting chronic whiplash to that among those self-reporting a non-functional injury: fractures of the hand or wrist. We explored symptom load, etiologic origin could not be investigated in this study. Methods Data from the Norwegian population-based “Hordaland Health Study” (HUSK, 1997–99; N = 13,986 was employed. Chronic whiplash was self-reported by 403 individuals and fractures by 1,746. Somatization tendency was measured using a list of 17 somatic symptoms arising from different body parts and organ systems, derived from the research criteria for somatization disorder (ICD-10, F45. Results Chronic whiplash was associated with an increased level of all 17 somatic symptoms investigated (p Conclusions The increased prevalence of somatic symptoms beyond symptoms expected according to the organic injury model

  11. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  12. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...... with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting...... of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more...

  13. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  14. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  15. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors. 40.9% of all participants carried S. aureus at least once while 0.7% of the participants carried MRSA (mainly spa t011). MSSA isolates (n=1359) were associated with 331 different spa types; t084 (7.7%), t091 (6.1%) and t012 (71, 5.2%) were predominant. Of 206 participants carrying S. aureus at all three sampling time points, 14.1% carried the same spa type continuously; 5.3% carried different spa types with similar repeat patterns, but 80.6% carried S. aureus with unrelated spa types. MSSA isolates frequently harboured genes encoding enterotoxins (sec: 16.6%, seg: 63.1%, sei: 64.5%) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst: 17.5%), but rarely Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV/lukF-PV: 0.2%). MSSA colonizing human nares in the community are clonally highly diverse. Among those constantly carrying S. aureus, clonal lineages changed over time. The proportion of persistent S. aureus carriers was lower than reported elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 1 1/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.

    2008-01-01

    2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...

  18. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 11/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E;

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....

  19. Agresividad vial en la población general Road-rage in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Fierro

    2010-10-01

    graduates (OR=1.408, and persons living in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (OR=1.25. Conclusions: The results of this study show that road rage affects almost a third of the general population of Castile and Leon, which would amply justify the adoption of prevention and/or reduction measures.

  20. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60) and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60). The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ) and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments bet...

  1. Habitual coffee but not green tea consumption is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome: an epidemiological study in a general Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Asuka; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Furuki, Kumiko; Shigetoh, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsuka, Maki; Kumagae, Shun-Ichi; Hirai, Yuji; Jalaldin, Ali; Satoh, Akira; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2007-06-01

    In Japan, metabolic syndrome used to be rare, and the level of coffee consumption was low. However, the Japanese life style has been changing rapidly, and these changes have been associated with a steady increase in the frequency of metabolic syndrome and with greater consumption of coffee. We examined the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the consumption of coffee or green tea. A total of 1902 Japanese aged over 40 years (785 men and 1117 women) received population-based health check-up in 1999. We measured components of metabolic syndrome (blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles). Eating and drinking patterns were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to clarify the association between coffee or green tea consumption and the components of metabolic syndrome. All components of metabolic syndrome except for HDL-cholesterol were significantly (pcoffee but not green tea consumption by multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounding factors. The larger was the number of components of metabolic syndrome, the lower was the level of coffee consumption (pcoffee drinkers. Thus, coffee but not green tea consumption was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome.

  2. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromso, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromso, Northern Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administe...

  3. Paternal and maternal bonding styles in childhood are associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in a general adult population: the Hisayama Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that extraordinary adverse experiences during childhood, such as abuse, are possible risk factors for the development of chronic pain. However, the relationship between the perceived parental bonding style during childhood and chronic pain has been much less studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 760 community-dwelling Japanese adults were asked if they had pain that had been present for six months or more. They completed the Parental Bondin...

  4. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with cardiovascular complications and the geometry is important for prognosis. In some cardiovascular diseases, myocardial hypertrophy or dilation occurs regionally without modifying the global size of the heart. It is therefore relevant to determine...... myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range...... but different regional distribution for men and women. This study introduces LVMD and provides gender specific reference values for regional LVMT, LVMM, and LVMD....

  5. Anxiety and depression are risk factors rather than consequences of functional somatic symptoms in a general population of adolescents: The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Ormel, Johan; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Background: It is well known that functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are associated with anxiety and depression. However, evidence is lacking about how they are related to FSS. The aim of this study was to clarify these relationships and examine whether anxiety and depression are distinctly related

  6. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in the Netherlands : A prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in The Netherlands. Methods: The subjects (n = 5356), randomly selected from community registers, were given the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Centre for Epidemiological

  7. Associations of common variants in HFE and TMPRSS6 with iron parameters are independent of serum hepcidin in a general population: a replication study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galesloot, T.E.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Heijer, M. den; Sweep, F.C.; Fleming, R.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vermeulen, S.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have convincingly shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HFE and TMPRSS6 are associated with iron parameters. It was commonly thought that these associations could be explained by the intermediate effect on hepcidin concentration. A recent

  8. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: a 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenhagen M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Stenhagen, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Objectives: To determine the relationship between long-term change in activities of daily living (ADL and falls in the elderly and to identify characteristics of groups at risk for falls.Methods: This was a 6-year, prospective cohort study using data from the Good Aging in Skåne study in southern Sweden, involving 1,540 elderly subjects, including the oldest-old (age, 60–93 years. The subjects were recruited from the general population. ADL was measured at a baseline and follow-up assessment, using Sonn and Åsberg’s revised scale and the ADL staircase. Falls were recorded in a period of 6 months before the follow-up assessment. The association between falls and change in ADL was calculated using adjusted, multiple logistic regression analysis and presented in odds ratios (ORs.Results: Thirteen percent of the study population reported one or several falls in the measured period. Over the course of 6 years, one in four participants changed their ADL status, and parts of this category had an increased risk for falls compared with those who stayed independent in ADL or who had no change in the ADL staircase. Groups with different characteristics had a prominent risk for falls: those with a reduction of two to eight steps in the ADL staircase (OR, 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.11 and those becoming independent from dependency in instrumental ADL (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.89–9.00. The former group had advanced age with a greater burden of cognitive impairment, gait disability, arrhythmia, and fall risk medications. The latter group had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease and low walking speed. Conclusion: Both deterioration and improvement in ADL over the course of 6 years increased the risk for falls in a general elderly population

  9. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  10. The role of unhealthy lifestyles in the incidence and persistence of depression: a longitudinal general population study in four emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Maria; Miret, Marta; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul; D'Este, Catherine; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2017-03-20

    Unhealthy lifestyles and depression are highly interrelated: depression might elicit and exacerbate unhealthy lifestyles and people with unhealthy lifestyles are more likely to become depressed over time. However, few longitudinal evidence of these relationships has been collected in emerging countries. The present study aims i) to analyse whether people with unhealthy lifestyles are more likely to develop depression, and ii) to examine whether depressed people with unhealthy lifestyles are more likely to remain depressed. A total of 7908 participants from Ghana, India, Mexico and Russia were firstly evaluated in the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 0 (2002-2004) and re-evaluated in 2007-2010 (Wave 1). Data on tobacco use, alcohol drinking and physical activity, were collected. Logistic regressions models were employed to assess whether baseline unhealthy lifestyles were related to depression in Wave 1, among people without 12-month depression in Wave 0 and any previous lifetime diagnosis of depression, and to 12-month depression at both study waves (persistent depression). Baseline daily and non-daily smoking was associated with depression in Wave 1. Low physical activity and heavy alcohol drinking were associated with persistent depression. Unhealthy lifestyles and depression are also positively related in emerging countries. Smoking on a daily and non-daily basis was longitudinally related to depression. Depressed people with low physical activity and with heavy drinking patterns were more likely to become depressed over time. Several interpretations of these results are given. Further studies should check whether a reduction of these unhealthy lifestyles leads to lower depression rates and/or to a better clinical prognosis of depressed people.

  11. Gender difference in symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the Knee Clinical Assessment – CAS(K: A prospective study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Rachel C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study of adults aged ≥50 years reporting knee pain found an excess of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (knee ROA in symptomatic males compared to females. This was independent of age, BMI and other clinical signs and symptoms. Since this finding contradicts many previous studies, our objective was to explore four possible explanations for this gender difference: X-ray views, selection, occupation and non-articular conditions. Methods A community-based prospective study. 819 adults aged ≥50 years reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were recruited by postal questionnaires to a research clinic involving plain radiography (weight-bearing posteroanterior semiflexed, supine skyline and lateral views, clinical interview and physical examination. Any knee ROA, ROA severity, tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TJOA and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PJOA were defined using all three radiographic views. Occupational class was derived from current or last job title. Proportions of each gender with symptomatic knee ROA were expressed as percentages, stratified by age; differences between genders were expressed as percentage differences with 95% confidence intervals. Results 745 symptomatic participants were eligible and had complete X-ray data. Males had a higher occurrence (77% of any knee ROA than females (61%. In 50–64 year olds, the excess in men was mild knee OA (particularly PJOA; in ≥65 year olds, the excess was both mild and moderate/severe knee OA (particularly combined TJOA/PJOA. This male excess persisted when using the posteroanterior view only (64% vs. 52%. The lowest level of participation in the clinic was symptomatic females aged 65+. Within each occupational class there were more males with symptomatic knee ROA than females. In those aged 50–64 years, non-articular conditions were equally common in both genders although, in those aged 65+, they occurred more frequently in symptomatic

  12. Gender difference in symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the Knee Clinical Assessment--CAS(K): a prospective study in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rosie J; Thomas, Elaine; Duncan, Rachel C; Peat, George

    2008-06-11

    A recent study of adults aged >or=50 years reporting knee pain found an excess of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (knee ROA) in symptomatic males compared to females. This was independent of age, BMI and other clinical signs and symptoms. Since this finding contradicts many previous studies, our objective was to explore four possible explanations for this gender difference: X-ray views, selection, occupation and non-articular conditions. A community-based prospective study. 819 adults aged >or=50 years reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were recruited by postal questionnaires to a research clinic involving plain radiography (weight-bearing posteroanterior semiflexed, supine skyline and lateral views), clinical interview and physical examination. Any knee ROA, ROA severity, tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TJOA) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PJOA) were defined using all three radiographic views. Occupational class was derived from current or last job title. Proportions of each gender with symptomatic knee ROA were expressed as percentages, stratified by age; differences between genders were expressed as percentage differences with 95% confidence intervals. 745 symptomatic participants were eligible and had complete X-ray data. Males had a higher occurrence (77%) of any knee ROA than females (61%). In 50-64 year olds, the excess in men was mild knee OA (particularly PJOA); in >or=65 year olds, the excess was both mild and moderate/severe knee OA (particularly combined TJOA/PJOA). This male excess persisted when using the posteroanterior view only (64% vs. 52%). The lowest level of participation in the clinic was symptomatic females aged 65+. Within each occupational class there were more males with symptomatic knee ROA than females. In those aged 50-64 years, non-articular conditions were equally common in both genders although, in those aged 65+, they occurred more frequently in symptomatic females (41%) than males (31%). The excess of knee

  13. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, U.; Salzbrunn, A.; Glander, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression...... of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic......--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences...

  15. No association between nickel allergy and reporting cosmetic dermatitis from mascara or eye shadow: a cross-sectional general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2010-01-01

    dermatitis and nickel in make-up products remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional patch test study investigated whether the frequency of self-reported cosmetic dermatitis from mascara or eye shadow use was higher among nickel allergic Danish women than women without nickel allergy. METHODS......: In 2006, a total of 1843 18-69 year old women completed a postal questionnaire including questions on cosmetic dermatitis and were patch tested with nickel sulphate. Data were analysed by logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs......). RESULTS: The prevalence of nickel allergy was similar among women who reported cosmetic dermatitis from eye shadow or mascara and among women who did not report such symptoms. Cosmetic dermatitis was positively associated with self-reported atopic dermatitis and age. CONCLUSION: Overall, no association...

  16. The filaggrin null genotypes R501X and 2282del4 seem not to be associated with psoriasis: results from general population study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina;

    2012-01-01

    Background Psoriasis vulgaris could be associated with the filaggrin null genotype since certain known susceptibility loci for psoriasis are shared with susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, filaggrin expression is lowered in psoriatic skin lesions but normally expressed...... in uninvolved skin. So far five relatively small patient-based case-control studies have rejected a possible association between psoriasis and the two most prevalent filaggrin null mutations, 2282del4 and R501X. Objectives To reinvestigate a possible association between psoriasis and filaggrin null mutation...... and R501X mutations. A meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the relation between filaggrin gene mutations and psoriasis vulgaris. Results The prevalence of self-reported psoriasis was 6.7% among the 3240 respondents. The prevalence of the R501X and 2282del4 filaggrin null genotypes was 9...

  17. Blood microbiota dysbiosis is associated with the onset of cardiovascular events in a large general population: the D.E.S.I.R. study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Amar

    Full Text Available AIM: We recently described a human blood microbiome and a connection between this microbiome and the onset of diabetes. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between blood microbiota and incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: D.E.S.I.R. is a longitudinal study with the primary aim of describing the natural history of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Participants were evaluated at inclusion and at 3-, 6-, and 9-yearly follow-up visits. The 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial gene sequence, that is common to the vast majority of bacteria (Eubac and a sequence that mostly represents Proteobacteria (Pbac, were measured in blood collected at baseline from 3936 participants. 73 incident cases of acute cardiovascular events, including 30 myocardial infarctions were recorded. Eubac was positively correlated with Pbac (r = 0.59; P<0.0001. In those destined to have cardiovascular complications, Eubac was lower (0.14±0.26 vs 0.12±0.29 ng/µl; P = 0.02 whereas a non significant increase in Pbac was observed. In multivariate Cox analysis, Eubac was inversely correlated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, (hazards ratio 0.50 95% CI 0.35-0.70 whereas Pbac (1.56, 95%CI 1.12-2.15 was directly correlated. CONCLUSION: Pbac and Eubac were shown to be independent markers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. This finding is evidence for the new concept of the role played by blood microbiota dysbiosis on atherothrombotic disease. This concept may help to elucidate the relation between bacteria and cardiovascular disease.

  18. MTNR1B G24E variant associates With BMI and fasting plasma glucose in the general population in studies of 22,142 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ehm A; Holst, Birgitte; Sparsø, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    , type 2 diabetes, or related metabolic traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: MTNR1B was sequenced in 47 probands with clinical maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), in 51 probands with early-onset familial type 2 diabetes, and in 94 control individuals. Six nonsynonymous variants (G24E, L60R, V124......OBJECTIVE: Common variants in the melatonin receptor type 1B (MTNR1B) locus have been shown to increase fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether nonsynonymous variants in MTNR1B associate with monogenic forms of hyperglycemia......I, R138C, R231H, and K243R) were genotyped in up to 22,142 Europeans. Constitutive and melatonin-induced signaling was characterized for the wild-type melatonin receptor type 1B (MT2) and the 24E, 60R, and 124I MT2 mutants in transfected COS-7 cells. RESULTS: No mutations in MTNR1B were MODY...

  19. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  20. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who presented for routine medical checks. We also investigated the relationship between LS and age, body mass index (BMI, liver function (LF, alcohol consumption, and fatty liver determined by ultrasonography. We identified individuals at high-risk for ALD and NAFLD as having a higher LS value than the normal upper limit detected in 171 healthy controls. Results The LS value for all individuals was 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (mean +/- SD and LS significantly and positively correlated with BMI and LF test results. The LS was significantly higher among individuals with, than without fatty liver. Liver stiffness in the 171 healthy controls was 4.3 +/- 0.81 kPa and the upper limit of LS in the normal controls was 5.9 kPa. We found that 60 (14.3% of 416 study participants had abnormal LS. The proportion of individuals whose LS values exceeded the normal upper limit was over five-fold higher among those with, than without fatty liver accompanied by abnormal LF test results. Conclusions Liver stiffness could be used to non-invasively monitor the progression of chronic liver diseases and to discriminate individuals at high risk for ALD and NAFLD during routine health assessments.

  1. Awareness Regarding Anaesthesiology and Anaesthesiologists among General Population in Developing Country- A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Khyati Pandya; Dr.Kamla Mehta; Dr. Kirti Patel

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Anaesthesiologists are playing decisive role in patient management. Nowadays, they are involved in pain clinic and critical care also but the general public know little about them. So this study was undertaken to assess the perception of general population from poor socioeconomic area regarding the anaesthesiology and role of anaesthesiologists. Methods: The study was carried out at Shardaben Hospital, Saraspur, in 200 participants, between the age group of 18-75 yrs of age t...

  2. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Sahar Amiri Baghni; Maryam Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were an...

  3. Insomnia and hypnotic use in Campo Grande general population, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.

  4. Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Salzbrunn, Andrea; Glander, Hans Juergen; Plambeck, Kai; Salzbrunn, Harald; Grunewald, Sonja; Stucke, Julia; Vierula, Matti; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2008-04-01

    Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic-Baltic region. Three hundred and thirty-four young men representative of the general population from Hamburg, and 457 from Leipzig delivered semen samples, underwent physical examinations and provided information on life-style and reproductive health parameters. The study period in Hamburg was February 2003--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences for morphologically normal spermatozoa (9.4 and 8.4%) and motile spermatozoa (67 and 81%) were significantly different. Previously published studies have shown reduced fertility with decreasing sperm concentrations below 40-55 millions/mL and normal sperm morphology below 9-19%. Thus, a large fraction of young German men seem to have impaired semen quality that may reduce their natural fertility. However, it remains to be investigated to what extent poor semen quality contributes to the low German fertility rates.

  5. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources....... This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...

  6. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  7. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...... risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population....

  8. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  9. Randomized questionnaire based cross-sectional research study on awareness of sexually transmitted diseases amongst the general population between those who completed their high school education and those who have not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. V. Narasimhalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a very important health challenge for adolescents. Educational level, especially sex education in school, prevents the adolescents falling prey to these diseases.Objective: To compare the awareness of STDs among general population with below and above high school qualification. Materials and Methods: A simple randomized, cross-sectional, questionnaire based study on the awareness of STDs on out-patients and in-patients of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital of 6 months duration was conducted. About 150 subjects participated in the study. Results: About 77.8% of those who completed schooling had good awareness of STDs. Statistical analysis had shown the formal education to high school level is statistically significantP= 0.0068 (P < 0.05 in people falling prey to the STDs. Conclusion: The initiation of formal education about sex education at the school level can improve the present status and lead to better prevention of STDs.

  10. The association between hand eczema and nickel allergy has weakened among young women in the general population following the Danish nickel regulation: results from two cross-sectional studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan René; Menné, Torkil

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between nickel contact allergy and hand eczema has previously been demonstrated. In 1990, Denmark regulated the extent of nickel release in the ear-piercing process as well as nickel release from consumer products. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect...... of the Danish nickel regulation by comparing the prevalence of concomitant nickel allergy and hand eczema observed in two repeated cross-sectional studies performed in the same general population in Copenhagen. MATERIALS: In 1990 and 2006, 3881 18-69 year olds completed a postal questionnaire and were patch...... tested with nickel. Data were analysed by logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The prevalence of concomitant nickel contact allergy and a history of hand eczema decreased among 18-35-year-old women from 9...

  11. Surgical interventions for nephrolithiasis in ankylosing spondylitis and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ane Krag; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Patschan, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate rates and type of definitive surgical interventions for nephrolithiasis in Swedish patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared to the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This national prospective cohort study linked data from Swedish...

  12. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population : Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Johanna A A G; Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M.; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A.; Heus, Pauline; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Peelen, Linda M.; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase until June 2013. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the development or external validation

  13. Pelvic floor muscle function in a general population of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.P. Slieker-ten Hove (Marijke); A.L. Pool-Goudzwaard (Annelies); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); C.W. Burger (Curt); M.E. Vierhout (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and hypothesis: This study aims to examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle function (PFMF) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in a general female population. Methods: Cross-sectional study on women aged 45-85 years. Validated questionnaires were used to assess pelv

  14. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1...

  15. Asthma prevalence in Olympic summer athletes and the general population: an analysis of three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.; Mason, C.; Mueller, N.; Ohlander, J.; Zock, J.P.; Drobnic, F.; Wolfarth, B.; Heinrich, J.; Omenass, E.; Stensrud, T.; Nowak, D.; Radon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of asthma in elite athletes as compared to the general population. It is inconclusive to what extent certain sport categories are especially affected. The present study offered a unique opportunity to assess these differences in asthma prevalen

  16. Apolipoprotein B levels, APOB alleles, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    . The present review examines, with focus on general population studies, apolipoprotein B levels as a predictor of ischemic cardiovascular disease, as well as the association of mutations and polymorphisms in APOB with plasma apolipoprotein B levels, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. The studies can......, or ischemic stroke in the general population....

  17. A general approach for population games with application to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reluga, Timothy C; Galvani, Alison P

    2011-04-01

    Reconciling the interests of individuals with the interests of communities is a major challenge in designing and implementing health policies. In this paper, we present a technique based on a combination of mechanistic population-scale models, Markov decision process theory and game theory that facilitates the evaluation of game theoretic decisions at both individual and community scales. To illustrate our technique, we provide solutions to several variants of the simple vaccination game including imperfect vaccine efficacy and differential waning of natural and vaccine immunity. In addition, we show how path-integral approaches can be applied to the study of models in which strategies are fixed waiting times rather than exponential random variables. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of decision problems with population-dynamic feedbacks.

  18. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  19. Salt, endogenous ouabain and blood pressure interactions in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Manunta, P.; Wang,JG; G. Bianchi; Messaggio, E.; Fagard, Robert; Nawrot, Tim; Staessen, Jan A.; Hamlyn, JM

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental data show that ouabain is a modulator of the sodium-potassium pump, which plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the distribution of plasma ouabain in the general population in relation to blood pressure and other determinants of sodium homeostasis. METHODS: In 379 subjects enrolled in a Belgian population study, we measured plasma ouabain, clinical characteristics including blood pressure, serum and urinary electro...

  20. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  1. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem. 

  2. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  3. Experience of aging in patients with rheumatic disease: A comparison with the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Taal, E.; Westerhof, G.J.; Gessel, van L.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Self-perceptions of aging have been shown to predict mental and physical health and even longevity. This study examined the aging perceptions of patients with rheumatic disease and compared them with the general Dutch population. Methods: Consecutive patients visiting a rheumatology cl

  4. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  5. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Voshaar, R.C. Oude; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, van A.J.L.M.; Lisdonk, van de E.H.; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  6. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  7. Type D personality : Application of DS14 French version in general and clinical populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batselé, Elise; Denollet, J.; Lussier, Axele; Loas, Gwenolé; Vanden Eynde, Sophie; Van de Borne, Philippe; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the French-language version of the Type D personality scale-14 among general and clinical populations (acute coronary syndrome and breast cancer patients). The two-factor structure of the Type D personality scale-14 was confirmed by factorial and confirmatory an

  8. Overweight and obesity are progressively associated with lower work ability in the general working population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with many diseases and functional limitations. Workplaces are not always designed to accommodate this challenge. This study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and work ability in the general working population. METHODS: Currently employed wage...

  9. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...

  10. Improving prediction of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population using apolipoprotein B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Nordestgaard, B; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Methods and Results- We studied 9231 asymptomatic women and men from the Danish general population followed prospectively for 8 years and observed the following incident events: ischemic heart disease 591, myocardial infarction 278, ischemic...

  11. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  12. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  13. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

    in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... percentage of youth drinking in a binge pattern. Classical socioeconomic factors play a lesser role in determining drinking patterns compared to other Western countries. Longitudinal studies and studies of alcohol-related consequences in the Danish general population should be conducted to better formulate...

  14. Population estimates of persons presenting to general practitioners with influenza-like illness, 1987-96: a study of the demography of influenza-like illness in sentinel practice networks in England and Wales, and in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Zambon, M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Incidence data by age of new episodes of influenza-like illness reported by sentinel general practice networks in England and Wales and in The Netherlands over a 10-year period were examined to provide estimates of the consulting population during influenza epidemic periods. Baseline levels of recor

  15. Population estimates of persons presenting to general practitioners with influenza-like illness, 1987-96: a study of the demography of influenza-like illness in sentinel practice networks in England and Wales, and in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Zambon, M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.

    2000-01-01

    Incidence data by age of new episodes of influenza-like illness reported by sentinel general practice networks in England and Wales and in The Netherlands over a 10-year period were examined to provide estimates of the consulting population during influenza epidemic periods. Baseline levels of

  16. Acceptance of genetic testing in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Hakonen, A; Hietala, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze effects of age, education and gender on acceptance of genetic testing. Subjects, n = 1967 aged 15-69, were a stratified random sample of the Finnish population. One thousand, one hundred and sixty nine subjects, 530 men and 639 women, returned the questionnaire....... The majority of the respondents approved of the availability of genetic testing. Young, aged 15-24, were more favourable towards testing and more willing to undergo suggested tests, but they were also more worried than others about the misuse of test results. Men aged 45-69 with only basic education were more...... in favour of mandatory genetic testing than other respondents. Respondents with university education were more critical towards genetic testing and expressed their worry about eugenics more often than other education groups. In conclusion, there are age, education and gender related differences...

  17. A genome-wide association study of social and non-social autistic-like traits in the general population using pooled DNA, 500 K SNP microarrays and both community and diagnosed autism replication samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Butcher, Lee M; Docherty, Sophia; Davis, Oliver S P; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Craig, Ian W; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Two separate genome-wide association studies were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with social and nonsocial autistic-like traits. We predicted that we would find SNPs associated with social and non-social autistic-like traits and that different SNPs would be associated with social and nonsocial. In Stage 1, each study screened for allele frequency differences in approximately 430,000 autosomal SNPs using pooled DNA on microarrays in high-scoring versus low-scoring boys from a general population sample (N = approximately 400/group). In Stage 2, 22 and 20 SNPs in the social and non-social studies, respectively, were tested for QTL association by individually genotyping an independent community sample of 1,400 boys. One SNP (rs11894053) was nominally associated (P < .05, uncorrected for multiple testing) with social autistic-like traits. When the sample was increased by adding females, 2 additional SNPs were nominally significant (P < .05). These 3 SNPs, however, showed no significant association in transmission disequilibrium analyses of diagnosed ASD families.

  18. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Epidemiologic. A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. N/A. The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050.

  19. Reactive attachment disorder in the general population: a hidden ESSENCE disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Pritchett, Jennifer; Marshall, Emma; Davidson, Claire; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  20. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive attachment disorder (RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  1. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used.

  2. Intake of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Longitudinal Association with HbA1c Levels in the General Non-Diabetic Population--Results from the MONICA/KORA S3/F3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Schwab

    Full Text Available Lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the association between the use of 11 vitamins and minerals (vitamins E, C, D, B1, folic acid, carotenoids, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium and change in HbA1c levels over 10 years in non-diabetic individuals drawn from the general population.Baseline data were available from 4447 subjects included in the population-based "Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases" (MONICA Augsburg S3 survey (1994/95. Follow-up data were derived from 2774 participants in the follow-up survey named "Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg" (KORA F3 (2004/05. Vitamin/mineral intake from supplements and medications was assessed in a personal interview, where participants were asked to bring product packages of preparations that had been ingested during the last 7 days prior to the examination. Associations between regular vitamin/mineral intake amounts and HbA1c levels measured at baseline and follow-up were investigated using generalized estimating equation models. For carotenoids, analyses were stratified by smoking status.None of the investigated nutrients except for carotenoids was significantly associated with changes in HbA1c levels after 10 years. Regular intake of carotenoids from supplements and medications in amounts > 6.8 mg/d (upper tertile was associated with an absolute -0.26% (95% CI: -0.43 to -0.08 lower increase in HbA1c levels compared with no intake of carotenoids. An inverse association was observed in those who never smoked but not in (former smokers.Larger prospective and intervention studies in non-diabetic/non-smoking individuals are needed to confirm the results and to assess whether the observed associations between carotenoid intake and change in HbA1c levels are causal. If our results are

  3. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F. [Institut National d`Etudes Demographiques, Paris (France)

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yu Liu; Yu-Ching Chou; Jane C-J Chao; Chien-Yeh Hsu; Tai-Lung Cha; Chih-Wei Tsao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary ques...

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Bangladeshi general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al Mahtab; Salimur Rahman; Md. Fazal Karim; Mobin Khan; Graham Foster; Susannah Solaiman; Shahrin Afroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is encountered sporadically the year round in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range of liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis at one end to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the other end of the spectrum. METHODS: All 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for HBsAg by ELISA. The positive samples were further tested by ELISA for HBeAg. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at-20℃. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. RESULTS: Of the 1018 individuals, 5.5%tested positive for HBsAg. None were tested positive for anti-HCV. Among the HBsAg-positive population, 58.93% were HBeAg-positive and the rest 41.07% HBeAg-negative. There was a male predominance and those who were tested positive were mostly between 16 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualiifed, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. CONCLUSION: HBV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and we have a long way to go before we may bid farewell to this deadly menace.

  6. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and paired t-test. Results: There was a significant difference between pre- and post-test results in terms of general health score (t= 3.138, P= 0.002, i.e., fasting could increase the population’s general health. There was a significant positive relationship between fasting and four subscales of general health including somatic symptoms (t=2.138, P=0.035, insomnia/anxiety (t=2.587, P=0.011, and social dysfunction (t=2.627, P=0.010. However, fasting had no significant effect on severe depression and suicidal tendencies (t=1.700, P=0.092. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that fasting has a positive effect on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah. Thus, more attention should be paid to fasting and its impact on people’s mental health.

  7. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  8. Gender differences in perceptions and attitudes of general population towards organ donation: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Sunitha, T S; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2017-01-01

    Globally, shortage of organs available for organ transplantation is a major problem. Studies assessing awareness and attitudes towards organ donation are limited from India. The aim of this study is to assess gender differences in the perceptions and attitude of general population toward organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected patient relatives (n = 193) at the outpatient department of a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that majority of men than women were aware and in favor of promoting organ donation (χ2 = 10.428, P donate their organs after death (χ2 = 18.080, P organ donation card. There is an urgent need to uncover the myths and misconceptions of the general population toward organ donation. Further, healthcare providers and governmental and nongovernmental agencies should take active initiation in motivating the public to give their consent for organ donation.

  9. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Kittel, Jörg; Karoff, Marthin; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the range of 50 to 60 years, with decreasing mean values for older patients. This effect was observed in both sexes and was proved by an ANOVA interaction between age category and population (P<0.001). In the age range over 70 years the mean depression scores of the patients were even lower than those of the general population. Especially high anxiety and depression scores were found for retired males under 60 years of age. Conclusion: Premature retirement is associated with anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients which partly accounts for the different age effects of the samples. Longitudinal studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms of the age effects in more detail. PMID:19742054

  10. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons.

  11. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  12. Distribution Characteristics and Combined Effect of Polymorphisms Affecting Alcohol Consumption Behaviour in the Hungarian General and Roma Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diószegi, Judit; Fiatal, Szilvia; Tóth, Réka; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; McKee, Martin; Ádány, Róza

    2017-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking habits, even among Roma children and adolescents, are more common than in the majority population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of Roma to hazardous alcohol consumption compared to the Hungarian general population. A total of 1273 samples from the population of segregated Hungarian Roma colonies and 2967 samples from the Hungarian general population were genotyped for 25 polymorphisms. Differences in genotype and allele distributions were investigated. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated to estimate the joint effect of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After unweighted and weighted GRS were calculated the distribution of scores in study populations was compared. The allele frequencies differed significantly between the study populations for 17 SNPs (P Roma population. The distribution of unweighted GRS in Roma population was left shifted compared to general population (P = 0.0013). The median weighted genetic risk score was lower among the subjects of Roma population compared to the subjects of general population (0.53 vs 0.65, P = 3.33 × 10(-27)) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Differences in alcohol consumption habits between the Hungarian Roma and Hungarian general populations do not appear to be linked to genetic constitution, this behaviour may occur as a result of different cultural values and environmental exposures. Population-based measures to tackle the fundamental drivers of consumption, which take account of cultural acceptability, are needed to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in the Roma population. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. M...

  14. Study on influenc factors of fatigue in the general population in Daqing%大庆地区一般人群疲乏感的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚大志; 张全志; 庄永志; 孙淑娟; 张润芝

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence and influencing factors of fatigue inthe general population in Daqing,so as to provide a fundamental basis for the implementation of psychological intervention. Methods:600 general population were investigated with the general situationquestionnaire, fatigue scale-14(FS-14), trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and so on. Results: The body fatigue, mental fatigue and total fatigue generally existed. Farmers and medical personnel had a higher fatigue level than the others. The fatigue was influenced by coping style, interpersonal relationship,somatization and the like. Conclusions: The incidence of the fatigue in the general population is high; and the fatigue is associated with coping styles,men-tal health and other factors.%目的:探讨大庆地区一般人群疲乏感的发生率及影响因素,为实施心理干预提供依据。方法:运用一般状况调查问卷、疲劳量表 FS-14、特质应对方式量表、SCL-90量表等对600名一般人群进行调查分析。结果:躯体疲劳、心理疲劳、总的疲劳普遍存在,农民及医护人员疲乏感程度重于其它各职业人群;疲乏感受应对方式、人际关系、躯体化等因素影响。结论:一般人群疲乏感普遍存在,疲乏感与应对方式、心理健康状况等因素有关。

  15. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  16. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  17. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund

    2014-01-01

    of the three conditions in a Western general population. Material and methods. A nationwide study of 100,000 individuals 20 years and above, randomly selected in the general population. A web-based questionnaire survey formed the basis of this study. Questions regarding FD and IBS were extracted from the ROME...... III adult questionnaire. Questions regarding GERD were developed based on the Montreal definition. Prevalence estimates for GERD, FD IBS were calculated in total and for each sex separately and for four age groups. A Venn diagram was constructed, illustrating the overlap between the three conditions....... Results. The overall response rate was 52.2%. The prevalence of GERD, FD and IBS was 11.2%, 7.7% and 10.5%, respectively, and overlap between two or three of these conditions was seen among 6.5% of the respondents. Among individuals meeting the criteria of one or more of the conditions GERD, FD and IBS...

  18. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  20. HLA-B*5701 frequency in Chilean HIV-infected patients and in general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Poggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that HLA-B*5701 screening reduces the risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in HIV-infected patients. Since B*5701 prevalence varies among different populations, it is important to determine the carrier frequency prior to its use for the screening of HIV-infected patients.The aim of this study was to determine HLA-B*5701 carrier frequency in Chilean general population and HIV-infected patients referred for B*5701 typing. For that purpose 300 blood bank donors and 492 abacavir-naïve HIV-infected patients from Chile were screened for B*5701 by a sequence specific primer PCR.We detected 14/300 (4.7% B*57-positive individuals in the Chilean general population, 11 (3.7% were B*5701 positive, and 3 (1% had another subtype.All were heterozygous,thus a B*5701 allele frequency of 2% was determined.Eleven of 492 (2.2 % HIV-patients carried a B*5701 allele. The difference between these frequencies is probably due to slow progression of HIV infection in HLA-B*5701 carriers, thus less patients would require antiretroviral therapy and B*5701 typing. Considering the usefulness of B*5701 screening, its prevalence in the Chilean general population,and the availability of a validated method,we conclude that HLA-B*5701 typing in Chilean HIV-infected patients about to initiate abacavir treatment is strongly recommended

  1. The Risk Attitudes of U.S. Farmers: Comparisons to the General Population and Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    I compare the risk attitudes of a large, representative sample of farmers to representative samples of the general population and of non-farm small business owners using a robust survey measure of risk tolerance. I find no difference between farmers and the general population in average risk tolerance while small business owners are significantly more risk tolerant than farmers. If farmers shared the same demographic profile as the general population, farmers would be significantly more risk ...

  2. TRIB1 and GCKR polymorphisms, lipid levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population.......The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population....

  3. TRIB1 and GCKR polymorphisms, lipid levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer;

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population.......The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population....

  4. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influen

  5. Diagnostic devices for osteoporosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...

  6. Albuminuria : Is it Time to Screen the General Population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crews, Deidra C.; Boulware, L. Ebony; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Albuminuria has been associated with increased risk of multiple adverse outcomes, including ESRD, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, and death. Some clinicians advocate for population-based screening of this condition, as a means of identifying individuals at high risk for morbidity and mo

  7. A General Discrete Time Model of Population Dynamics in the Presence of an Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Izzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of difference equations which generalizes that proposed in the work of G. Izzo and A. Vecchio (2007 and represents the discrete counterpart of a larger class of continuous model concerning the dynamics of an infection in an organism or in a host population. The limiting behavior of this new discrete model is studied and a threshold parameter playing the role of the basic reproduction number is derived.

  8. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  9. Adalimumab improves health-related quality of life in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis compared with the United States general population norms: Results from a randomized, controlled Phase III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnam Neesha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of adalimumab on health-related quality of life (HRQOL for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Background Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that has a significant impact on patients' HRQOL. Adalimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks tumor necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and is effective and well-tolerated for patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Methods Data were obtained for a secondary analysis of patients in a randomized, controlled Phase III trial evaluating the effect of adalimumab in patients with psoriasis (N = 1,205. Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to adalimumab 80 mg (two 40 mg injections administered subcutaneously at baseline followed by one 40 mg injection every other week from Week 1 to Week 15 or placebo. Short Form-36 (SF-36 Health Survey scores of psoriasis patients were used to assess HRQOL and were compared with United States (US population norms at baseline and Week 16. Results Baseline Physical Component Summary (PCS scores for the placebo and adalimumab groups were similar to the general US population. Baseline mean Mental Component Summary (MCS scores were significantly lower for the adalimumab and placebo groups compared with the general population (47.4, 47.7, and 50.8 points, respectively; p Conclusion Psoriasis has a broad impact on patient functioning and well-being. Improvement in skin lesions and joint symptoms associated with adalimumab treatment was accompanied by improvements in HRQOL to levels that were similar to or greater than those of the general US population. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00237887

  10. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians.

  11. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Yan; HU Zhi-qiu; TANG Zai-xiang; WANG Xue-feng; XU Chen-wu

    2009-01-01

    It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  12. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55,568 individuals, but not with short telomeres: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-10-01

    High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We studied 55,568 individuals including 32,823 ever smokers from the Danish general population, of whom 3430 died during 10 years of follow-up. All had telomere length measured, detailed information on smoking history, and CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype, which is associated with tobacco consumption, determined. In a Mendelian randomization study, we conducted observational, genetic, and mediation analyses. First, tobacco consumption was 21.1 pack-years in non-carriers, 22.8 in heterozygotes and 24.8 in homozygotes (P-trendMendelian randomization analysis, the hazard ratio was 1.08 (1.02, 1.14) per minor CHRNA3 allele in ever smokers. Third, in observational analysis telomeres shortened with -13 base pairs (-18, -8) per doubling in tobacco consumption. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the estimate was +3 base pairs (-10, +15) per minor CHRNA3 allele. Finally, individuals with the shortest vs longest telomeres had a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) for all-cause mortality; however, in mediation analysis short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres observationally, but there is no clear genetic association. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated with social interaction anxiety and the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was associated with high social anxiety, above and beyond the main NA and

  14. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, Ppersonality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  15. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence......: ORmen=1.42, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.56; ORwomen=1.25, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36; current smoking: ORmen=2.58, 95% CI 2.35 to 2.83; ORwomen=2.45, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.68). Individuals who were underweight or obese were significantly more likely to report at least one RAS. Odds of reporting at least one RAS increased...... with increasing alcohol intake for both genders (Ptrendobese are positively associated with experiencing RAS...

  16. [The Quality of Life Questionnaire EQ-5D: modelling and norm values for the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut

    2006-02-01

    The EQ-5D is a short questionnaire for measuring health related quality of life. The aim of the present study is to test psychometric properties of this instrument when applied to the general population. 2022 subjects between 16 and 93 years of age were randomly selected and tested with the EQ-5D. 60 % of the sample reported no health problems in all items, that is, there was a great ceiling effect. The comparison between two models with preference based index measurement and one simple sum score showed that the sum score is at least as appropriate as the two other more sophisticated models. The visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D proved to be practicable and useful for the application in the general population. Norm values for the visual analogue scale and the EQ-5D are presented.

  17. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.;

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  18. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  19. HEV prevalence in the general population and among workers at zoonotic risk in Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.

  20. Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed.

  1. Effectiveness of 2012–2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debin, Marion; Colizza, Vittoria; Blanchon, Thierry; Hanslik, Thomas; Turbelin, Clement; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Most of the methods used for estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) target the individuals who have an influenza-like illness (ILI) rather than virologically-proven influenza and access the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to estimate the 2012–2013 IVE in general French population, using a cohort of volunteers registered on GrippeNet.fr, an online surveillance system for ILI. The IVE estimations were obtained through a logistic regression, and analyses were also performed by focusing on at-risk population of severe influenza, and by varying inclusion period and ILI definition. Overall, 1996 individuals were included in the analyses. The corrected IVE was estimated to 49% (20 to 67) for the overall population, and 32% (0 to 58) for the at-risk population. Three covariables appeared with a significant effect on the occurrence of at least one ILI during the epidemic: the age (P = 0.045), the presence of a child in the household (P < 10−3), and the frequency of cold/flu (P < 10−3). Comparable results were found at epidemic peak time in the hypothesis of real-time feed of data. In this study, we proposed a novel, follow-up, web-based method to reveal seasonal vaccine effectiveness, which enables analysis in a portion of the population that is not tracked by the health care system in most VE studies. PMID:24343049

  2. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR)...

  3. A morphometric study of antral G-cell density in a sample of adult general population: comparison of three different methods and correlation with patient demography, helicobacter pylori infection, histomorphology and circulating gastrin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2008-01-01

    whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general...... population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G...

  4. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  5. Erythropoietin in the General Population : Reference Ranges and Clinical, Biochemical and Genetic Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote Beverborg, Niels; Verweij, Niek; Klip, IJsbrand T.; van der Wal, Haye H.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although erythropoietin has been used for decades in the treatment of anemia, data regarding endogenous levels in the general population are scarce. Therefore, we determined erythropoietin reference ranges and its clinical, biochemical and genetic associations in the general population. M

  6. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S; Paiva, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants). Methods: Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general po

  7. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S; Paiva, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants). Methods: Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general

  8. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  9. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  10. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  11. The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Murphy, James G; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard; Gaume, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol purchase task (APT), which presents a scenario and asks participants how many drinks they would purchase and consume at different prices, has been used among students and small clinical samples to obtain measures of alcohol demand but not in large, general population samples. We administered the APT to a large sample of young men from the general population (Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors). Participants who reported drinking in the past year (n=4790), reported on past 12 months alcohol use, on DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria and on alcohol related consequences were included. Among the APT's demand parameters, intensity was 8.7 (SD=6.5) indicating that, when drinks are free, participants report a planned consumption of almost 9 drinks. The maximum alcohol expenditure (Omax) was over 35CHF (1CHF=1.1USD) and the demand became elastic (Pmax) at 8.4CHF (SD=5.6). The mean price at which the consumption was suppressed was 15.6CHF (SD=5.4). Exponential equation provided a satisfactory fit to individual responses (mean R(2): 0.8, median: 0.8). Demand intensity was correlated with alcohol use, number of AUD criteria and number of consequences (all r≥0.3, pelasticity parameter was weakly correlated with alcohol use in the expected direction. The APT measures are useful in characterizing demand for alcohol in young men in the general population. Demand may provide a clinically useful index of strength of motivation for alcohol use in general population samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder in a general intensive care population - a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Cecilie Bræin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: 1) To investigate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) in a general intensive care patient population, and risk factors for post ICU-PTSD/PTSS. 2) To investigate how instruments and loss to follow-up could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. Background: Studies have found a wide variance of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. A number of risk factors were associated with developing post-ICU ...

  13. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HOMA insulin sensitivity index and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease events in the general population: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, E L M; Cameron, A J; Balkau, B; Zimmet, P Z; Welborn, T A; Tonkin, A M; Shaw, J E

    2010-01-01

    We assessed whether the relationships between insulin sensitivity and all-cause mortality as well as fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are independent of elevated blood glucose, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and body composition in individuals without diagnosed diabetes. Between 1999 and 2000, baseline fasting insulin, glucose and lipids, 2 h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), anthropometrics, blood pressure, medication use, smoking and history of CVD were collected from 8,533 adults aged >35 years from the population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S). Deaths and fatal or non-fatal CVD events were ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index and medical records adjudication. After a median of 5.0 years there were 277 deaths and 225 CVD events. HOMA-%S was not associated with all-cause mortality. Compared with the most insulin-sensitive quintile, the combined fatal or non-fatal CVD HR (95% CI) for quintiles of decreasing HOMA-%S were 1.1 (0.6-1.9), 1.4 (0.9-2.3), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1), adjusting for age and sex. Smoking, CVD history, hypertension, lipid-lowering medication, total cholesterol and waist-to-hip ratio moderately attenuated this relationship. However, the association was rendered non-significant by adding HDL. Fasting plasma glucose, but not HOMA-%S significantly improved the prediction of CVD, beyond that seen with other risk factors. In this cohort, HOMA-%S showed no association with all-cause mortality and only a modest association with CVD events, largely explained by its association with HDL. Fasting plasma glucose was a better predictor of CVD than HOMA-%S.

  15. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  16. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veugelers (Rebekka); E.A. Calis (Elsbeth); C. Penning (Corine); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J. Bouquet (Jan); M.A. Benninga (Marc); P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); H.G. Arets (Hubertus); D. Tibboel (Dick); H.M. Evenhuis (Heleen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution

  17. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  18. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  19. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  20. German Anxiety Barometer – Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Adolph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g.,economic,political,personalanxieties.Furthermore,factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N= 2229.Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within one year (women > men, 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms.Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected.A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include,in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking and leisure behaviour, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors,such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  1. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method: A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individua...

  2. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits...

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

    . Fourteen per cent of men and 9% of women are heavy drinkers; 38% of men and 18% of women are heavy episodic drinkers. Youth of both sexes drink heavily, and especially in a binge drinking style. Regular, more temperate drinking is associated with increasing age. Multivariate analyses suggest that other...... percentage of youth drinking in a binge pattern. Classical socioeconomic factors play a lesser role in determining drinking patterns compared to other Western countries. Longitudinal studies and studies of alcohol-related consequences in the Danish general population should be conducted to better formulate...

  4. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Eileen; Gale, Sara; Tager, Ira; Kincl, Laurel; Bradley, Julie; Coull, Brent; Hecker, Steve

    2014-03-10

    Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants than the general population. Longer

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms in an adolescent athlete population: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Legault, Élise P; Descarreaux, Martin; Cantin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain, symptoms or injuries are prevalent in the adolescent athlete population as well as in the general adolescent population, and often have significant consequences on their future musculoskeletal health. However, differences between these two populations in regards to their musculoskeletal health are not known and have not yet been explored. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to 1) compare the 6-month prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their...

  6. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  7. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  8. Determinants of serum tryptase in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mast cells are more abundant in the obese state. Total serum tryptase (ST) is a marker of mast cell numbers or activity. Since obesity and asthma have been consistently linked in epidemiological studies, a possible higher mast cell activity in obesity could be a factor...... between the two conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of ST and whether a potential association between obesity and allergic respiratory disease would be influenced by levels of ST in obese persons....

  9. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  10. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  11. Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark

    This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males. The biggest difference on the money types was on money being associated with generosity (money representing love) where men scored much lower than females, and autonomy (money representing freedom) where men scored higher than women. For men, more than women, money represented Power and Security. Men were more likely to be Hoarders while women did more emotional regulatory purchasing. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  12. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  13. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirard, Catherine; Sagot, Clémence; Deville, Marine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55 μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70 μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39 year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels.

  14. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2010-02-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources. This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand eczema. Moderate to severe extension of hand eczema was the strongest risk factor for persistence of hand eczema. Other risk factors included early onset of hand eczema and childhood eczema. The aetiology of hand eczema is multifactorial and includes environmental as well as genetic factors. Future studies should focus on unresolved areas of hand eczema, for example, genetic predisposition.

  15. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya;

    2016-01-01

    implication of statin therapy based on troponin concentration in 12 956 individuals free of cardiovascular disease in the JUPITER study. Troponin I remained an independent predictor with a hazard ratio of 1.37 for cardiovascular mortality, 1.23 for cardiovascular disease, and 1.24 for total mortality......-index discrimination and NRI increment. In individuals above 6 ng/L of troponin I, a concentration near the upper quintile in BiomarCaRE (5.9 ng/L) and JUPITER (5.8 ng/L), rosuvastatin therapy resulted in higher absolute risk reduction compared with individuals

  16. YKL-40 levels and atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marott, Sarah C W; Benn, Marianne; Johansen, Julia S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is associated with inflammation. In contrast to inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen produced in the liver, YKL-40 is produced at the site of inflammation including in the myocardium. We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels...... associate with increased risk of atrial fibrillation. METHOD AND RESULTS: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8731 participants from the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study including 896 individuals who developed atrial fibrillation during up to 18years of follow-up. Additionally, we measured YKL-40 in 6621...

  17. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  18. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  19. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination.

  20. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  1. Rubella Seroprevalence among the General Population in Dongguan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weiyan; Wang, Dong; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Liao, Zhengfa; Ni, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity to rubella infection in Dongguan, China, we conducted a seroprevalence survey on rubella and used ELISA to measure rubella-specific IgG in serum samples. A total of 1,017 individuals aged 0-59 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Among them, 904 (88.9%) were seropositive for rubella. Two groups (20-29 and ≥40 years) had seropositivity rates of rubella immunization rates were higher in those aged rubella-protective antibody levels. Our results suggest that in the study area, women of childbearing age had a greater serological susceptibility to rubella. Additional vaccinations for rubella of susceptible young adults should be considered, particularly in women of childbearing age.

  2. Incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann; González-Pérez, Antonio;

    2013-01-01

    and assessed the incidence of these events. METHODS: Patients aged 20-89 years were identified and followed until (i) ICH or SAH was detected, (ii) the patient reached 90 years old (iii) death, or (iv) the end of the study. Computerized patient profiles were reviewed manually; those not discarded became......: A total of 4330 patients with a READ code suggesting hemorrhagic stroke were identified. Computerized profiles with free-text comments were reviewed manually to identify 3633 potential cases. Responses to the PCP questionnaire were received for 306 potential cases and 63 discarded cases (92% response rate...... stroke in THIN followed by manual review of clinical profiles is a valid method. The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke increases sharply with age. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  3. Heart failure in the general Danish population and among individuals with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    MI. Yet, the treatment of heart failure has also improved. It is unknown to what extent the incidence, prevalence and survival with heart failure in the general population and among patients with ischemic heart disease has changed over time. Aim The aim of this study is to estimate incidence...... and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the Danish population and among individuals with ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 1996-2006, applying register data from the national patient register (NPR) and the national dispensing register (NDR). Data and methods All Danish inhabitants (aged >15) by January 1996......Background The incidence and fatality of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has decreased during the last decade - due to both improved medical treatment and a shift toward a healthier lifestyle. The consequence of the improved treatment is likely to be a falling incidens of heart failure following...

  4. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... find genome-wide genetic links between ASDs and typical variation in social behavior and adaptive functioning. This finding is evidenced through both LD score correlation and de novo variant analysis, indicating that multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs influence a continuum of behavioral...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  5. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    , Inter99, KORA S4/F4) were combined to predict HbA1c levels at six year follow-up. Using backward selection, age, BMI, waist circumference, use of anti-hypertensive medication, current smoking and parental history of diabetes remained in sex-specific linear regression models. To minimize overfitting......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study...... of coefficients, we performed internal validation using bootstrapping techniques. Explained variance, discrimination and calibration were assessed using R2, classification tables (comparing highest/lowest 50% HbA1c levels) and calibration graphs. The model was externally validated in 2,765 non-diabetic subjects...

  6. NOD2/CARD15 genotype, cardiovascular disease and cancer in 43 600 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    from two large Danish general population cohorts followed for 31 years: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10 597) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 32 999). We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (2743 and 3890, respectively, in the two studies) and cancer (2144 and 3241...... the general population. J Intern Med 2010; 268: 162-170. Objectives. The NOD2/CARD15 gene is involved in the innate immune response, and thus in inflammation. Three polymorphisms in this gene (Arg702Trp rs2066844, Gly908Arg rs2066845 and Leu1007fsinsC rs5743293) have been associated with increased risk...... variants pooled with compound heterozygotes for two variants. Results. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease and cancer in NOD2/CARD15 heterozygotes or homozygotes/compound heterozygotes versus noncarries did not differ from 1.0 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study...

  7. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  8. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin) in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670). More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex) that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias. PMID:19402895

  9. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´"non-episodes", by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being...

  11. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  12. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Virviciute, Dalia; Vensloviene, Jone; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bobak, Martin; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use 300 m from a green space and who used the space ≥4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park 300 m. The results of our study confirmed an association between use of the green space, residential proximity, and depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health among women only. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

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    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  14. Plasma YKL-40 and total and disease-specific mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with short-term survival in patients with cardiovascular disease and cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with total and disease-specific mortality in the general population....

  15. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  16. Genetic variation in ABCA1 predicts ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....

  17. Multiple positive periodic solutions for a generalized delayed population model with an exploited term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-qiu ZHANG; Zhi-cheng WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the existence of two positive periodic solutions for a generalized delayed population model with an exploited term is established by using the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory.

  18. Estudio transversal basado en la población sobre la aceptabilidad de la vacuna y la percepción de la gravedad de la gripe A/H1N1: opinión de la población general y de los profesionales sanitarios Population-based cross sectional study about vaccine acceptability and perception of the severity of A/H1N1 influenza: Opinion of the general population and health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antxon Apiñaniz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la intención de la población general y de los profesionales sanitarios de vacunarse contra la gripe A/H1N1, así como la percepción que tienen de la gravedad de la gripe A/H1N1 en comparación con la gripe estacional. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante encuesta telefónica a una muestra de población general, a partir de la guía telefónica, y electrónica a profesionales sanitarios de los centros asistenciales públicos de Vitoria-Gasteiz, entre los días 6 y 16 de noviembre de 2009. En ambos colectivos se calcularon las frecuencias absolutas y relativas de los que se querían vacunar y de los que perciben la gripe como un riesgo alto para la vida. Resultados: Contestaron al cuestionario el 33% (n=219 de las 637 personas contactadas y se obtuvieron 109 respuestas de profesionales. El 63,0% (n=138 de la población general y el 73,4% (n=80 de la población sanitaria no se vacunaría si la vacuna fuese gratis (p=0,595. En caso de pertenecer a alguno de los grupos de riesgo no se vacunaría el 14,6% (n=32 de la población ni el 40,4% (n=44 de los sanitarios (pObjectives: To determine the intention of general population and health professionals to vaccinate against the H1N1 influenza A virus. To determine the perception of severity of the H1N1 influenza A in both groups compared to that of seasonal influenza. Methods: Cross-sectional telephone survey performed to a sample of population (obtained randomly from the Vitoria-Gasteiz telephone directory and cross-sectional electronically-administered survey to a sample of health professionals from public health centres in Vitoria-Gasteiz, conducted between 6th and 16th November 2009. The relative and absolute frecuency of persons willing to be vaccinated and the proportion of those considering the H1N1 influenza A as a life-threatening risk were calculated in both groups. Results: 219 (33% persons out of 637 contacted telephone numbers answered the questionnaire, as well as

  19. Responses of FEV6, FVC, and FET to inhaled bronchodilator in the adult general population

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    Lundbäck Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of bronchodilator-induced change in forced vital capacity (FVC is dependent on forced expiratory time (FET in subjects with airflow limitation. Limited information is available on the concurrent responses of FVC, forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6, and FET in the bronchodilation test among patients with obstructive airways disease or in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in FEV6, FVC, and FET, and their relationships in a standardized bronchodilation test in the general population. Methods We studied bronchodilation response in a general adult population sample of 628 individuals (260 men, 368 women with flow-volume spirometry. The largest FVC, the corresponding FET and the largest FEV6 both at the baseline and after 0.4 mg of inhaled salbutamol were selected for analysis. Results After administration of salbutamol FEV6 decreased on average -13.4 (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5 ml or -0.2% (-0.4% to 0.0% from the baseline. The 95th percentile of change in FEV6 was 169.1 ml and 5.0%. FVC decreased on average -42.8 (-52.4 to -33.3 ml or -1.0% (-1.2% to -0.7%. Concurrently FET changed on average -0.2 (-0.4 to 0.0 seconds or 0.4% (-1.4% to 2.3%. There were four subjects with an increase of FVC over 12% and only one of these was associated with prolonged FET after salbutamol. Changes in FEV6 and FVC were more frequently positive in subjects with reduced FEV1/FVC in baseline spirometry. Conclusion In general adult population, both FEV6 and FVC tended to decrease, but FET remained almost unchanged, in the bronchodilation test. However, those subjects with signs of airflow limitation at the baseline showed frequently some increase of FEV6 and FVC in the bronchodilation test without change in FET. We suggest that FEV6 could be used in assessment of bronchodilation response in lieu of FVC removing the need for regulation of FET during bronchodilation testing.

  20. Double product reflects the predictive power of systolic pressure in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutte, Rudolph; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown.......The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown....

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  2. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    The natriuretic peptides, especially the B-type peptide (BNP) and its inactive split-product N-terminal proBNP (Nt-proBNP) are increasingly used in screening for heart failure, primarily with reduced systolic function, in patients with symptoms suggestive of heart failure, as well in the stable......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  3. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed leprosy in the general population of northwest Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Moet (Fake); R.P. Schuring (Ron); D. Pahan (David); L. Oskam (Linda); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of previously undiagnosed leprosy (PPUL) in the general population was determined to estimate the background level leprosy in the population and to compare this with registered prevalence and the known PPUL in different levels of contacts of leprosy patients.

  4. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  5. The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G A; Deurenberg, R H; Driessen, C; Sebastian, S; Nys, S; Stobberingh, E E

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal

  6. The population structure of Staphylococcus Aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Driessen, C.; Sebastian, S.; Nijs, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal

  7. Characteristics and natural course of vertebral endplate signal (Modic changes in the Danish general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorensen Joan S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC are more common among patients with low back pain (LBP and/or sciatica than in people who are not seeking care for back pain. The distribution and characteristics of VESC have been described in people from clinical and non-clinical populations. However, while the clinical course of VESC has been studied in patients, the natural course in the general population has not been reported. The objectives of this prospective observational study were to describe: 1 the distribution and characteristics of VESC in the lumbar spine, 2 its association with disc degeneration, and 3 its natural course from 40 to 44 years of age. Methods Three-hundred-and-forty-four individuals (161 men and 183 women sampled from the Danish general population had MRI at the age of 40 and again at the age of 44. The following MRI findings were evaluated using standardised evaluation protocols: type, location, and size of VESC, disc signal, and disc height. Characteristics and distribution of VESC were analysed by frequency tables. The association between VESC and disc degeneration was analysed by logistic regression analysis. The change in type and size of VESC was analysed by cross-tabulations of variables obtained at age 40 and 44 and tested using McNemar's test of symmetry. Results Two-thirds (67% of VESC found in this study were located in the lower part of the spine (L4-S1. VESC located at disc levels L1-L3 were generally small and located only in the anterior part of the vertebra, whereas those located at disc levels L4-S1 were more likely to extend further into the vertebra and along the endplate. Moreover, the more the VESC extended into the vertebra, the more likely it was that the adjacent disc was degenerated. The prevalence of endplate levels with VESC increased significantly from 6% to 9% from age 40 to 44. Again, VESC that was only observed in the endplate was more likely to come and go over the four

  8. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  9. Premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; Berti, Alessandra; Rossi, Elisa; Roverato, Alberto; Palella, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may have a greater risk of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) compared with the general population. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for NICMs in a large cohort of HIV-infected adults and compared these findings with data from matched control subjects. We performed a case-control study involving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients treated at Modena University, Italy, from 2002 through 2009. These patients were compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched adults (control subjects) from the general population included in the CINECA ARNO database. NICMs included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Polypathology (Pp) was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICMs. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICMs and Pp. There were 2854 patients and 8562 control subjects. The mean age was 46 years, and 37% were women. Individual NICM and Pp prevalences in each age stratum were higher among patients than among controls (all P <.001). Pp prevalence among patients aged 41-50 years was similar to that among controls aged 51-60 years (P value was not statistically significant); diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, and renal failure were statistically independent after adjustment for sex, age, and hypertension. Logistic regression models showed that independent predictors of Pp in the overall cohort were (all P < .001) age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11), male sex (OR, 1.77), nadir CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 4.46), and ART exposure (OR, 1.01). Specific age-related NICMs and Pp were more common among HIV-infected patients than in the general population. The prevalence of Pp in HIV-infected persons anticipated Pp prevalence observed in the general population among persons who were 10 years older, and HIV-specific cofactors (lower nadir CD4 cell count and more prolonged

  10. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  11. Use of general practice, diagnostic investigations and hospital services before and after cancer diagnosis - a population-based nationwide registry study of 127,000 incident adult cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina Garnier; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Flarup, Kaare Rud;

    2012-01-01

    ,272,100 controls. Monthly consultation frequencies, monthly proportions of persons receiving health services and three-month incidence rate ratios for one year before and one year after the cancer diagnosis were calculated. Data were analysed separately for women and men. RESULTS: Three months before...... one month after diagnosis and the number of hospital contacts three months after diagnosis. The proportion of cancer patients receiving each of these three types of health services remained more than 10% above that of the reference population from two months before diagnosis until the end of the study...

  12. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  13. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients : comparison with the general population and other diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Raat, H.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: To date no studies have compared generic health-related quality of life (HRQL) of food allergic patients from childhood to adulthood with that of the general population or patients with other chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare generic HRQL of food allergic patients

  14. Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Moysidou, Stefania; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Mobayed, Nisreen; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop; Costa, Paul; McCrae, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was to validate the Greek translation of the NEO-PI-3 in the general Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population of whom 59.4% were females and 40.6% males aged 40.80 ± 11.48. The NEO-PI-3 was translated into Greek and back-translated into English, and the accuracy of the translation was confirmed and established. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, and the calculation of Pearson product-moment correlations. Sociodemographics groups were compared by ANOVA. Most facets had Cronbach's alpha above 0.60. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable loading of the facets on their own hypothesized factors and very good estimations of Cronbach's alphas for the hypothesized factors, so it was partially supportive of the five-factor structure of the NEO-PI-3.The factors extracted with Procrustes rotation analysis can be considered reasonably homologous to the factors of the American normative sample. Correlations between dimensions were as expected and similar to those reported in the literature. The literature suggests that overall, the psychometric properties of NEO-PI-3 scales have been found to generalize across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement. In accord with this, the results of the current study confirm the reliability of the Greek translation and adaptation of the NEO-PI-3. The inventory has comparable psychometric properties in its Greek version in comparison to the original and other national translations, and it is suitable for clinical as well as research use.

  15. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  16. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population : results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general

  17. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  18. Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and mortality among 64,637 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with older age and age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that short telomeres are associated with both increased cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Individuals (n = 64637) were recruited from 1991...... onwards from two Danish prospective cohort studies: the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. All had telomere length measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the genotypes rs1317082 (TERC), rs7726159 (TERT), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined. The sum...... of telomere-shortening alleles from these three genotypes was calculated. We conducted Cox regression analyses and instrumental variable analyses using the allele sum as an instrument. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among 7607 individuals who died during follow-up (0-22 years, median = 7 years...

  19. Prevalence of insomnia and its clinical correlates in a general population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbir, Gulcin; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Aksu, Murat; Ardic, Sadik; Firat, Hikmet; Itil, Oya; Ozgen, Fuat; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Karadeniz, Derya

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey. This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021 who participated in the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders II and the DSM-IV-TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded. Insomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years, 9.8%; 25-44 years, 11.7%; 45-64 years, 13.8%; 65 years or older, 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD, 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 h or more, 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses, 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker, both 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and sex groups. Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in the working age group and those of lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. A relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests that this condition and its clinical correlates are possibly under-recognized. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Hlevicka, Solveiga; Zayakin, Pawel; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Tomas Preiksa, Romualdas; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-06-01

    What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. Previous studies have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology the cohort was classified into three categories: low, intermediate or high semen quality. Comparisons between groups (including subgroups of Estonian men of Russian versus Estonian ethnicity) were tested, adjusting for ejaculation abstinence and age. The median sperm concentration of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian populations of Baltic men was 63 mill/ml. Low semen quality was detected in 11-15% of the men, intermediate in 37-50% and high in 38-52%. No crucial differences between national subgroups were detected, except that a higher percentage (9.6%) of the subgroup of Russian Estonians reported having had cryptorchidism compared to the other men (2.5-3.6%, P 10 years ago. Thus, a recent change in semen quality cannot be excluded. Owing to the study design, it is assumed, but unproven, that the men were representative of the general populations. Some men were very young (16 years), however, this was also the case for other European studies of similar populations. Assessment of sperm motility is associated with inter-observer variation, and no quality control was undertaken for sperm motility assessment to account for that. Thus, estimates of sperm motility should be

  1. Comparing neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population: research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Metraux, Stephen; Salzer, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health emphasizes the importance of assessing the impact of environmental factors on functioning and disability. Drawing on this emphasis, this study used a set of objective measures to compare the characteristics of neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population. It also examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. The sample comprised 15,246 adults who were treated for serious mental illness in Philadelphia between 1997 and 2000. Principal-components analysis of 22 neighborhood characteristics resulted in an ideal-factor solution of six components. The mean values of each component in neighborhoods of persons with serious mental illness were compared with values in an equally sized group of neighborhoods created by randomly generated addresses representative of the city's general population. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to assess the association between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. Neighborhoods in which adults with serious mental illness resided had higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, drug-related activity, and crime than comparison neighborhoods. Higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, crime, drug-related activity, social instability, and social isolation were associated with higher concentration of persons with serious mental illness in the neighborhood's adult population. The differences in neighborhood characteristics identified in this study point to factors that merit closer attention as potential barriers or facilitators in the functioning, participation, and community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

  2. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  3. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  4. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  5. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  6. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  7. Mitochondrial haplogroups - Ischemic cardiovascular disease, other diseases, mortality, and longevity in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M.; Schwartz, M.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    from other causes, mortality, and longevity in a general population of European descent. Methods and Results-We followed 9254 individuals from the Danish general population, in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, prospectively for risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity from other causes......, and mortality during 25 and 11 years, respectively. Haplogroup frequencies were as follows: H (45.9%), U (15.9%), T (9.9%), J (9.1), K (6.2%), V (4.5%), W/I (3.8%), and Z (3.5%). Hazard ratios for hospitalization due to all cardiovascular disorders (haplogroup U: 1.0 [95% confidence interval{CI}, 0.9 to 1.1]; T......: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.0]; J: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.1]; K: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; V: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; W/I: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; Z: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.2(), ischemic heart disease (U: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.1]; T: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; J: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; K: 1.1 [95% CI...

  8. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn's disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn's activation, none of those with Crohn's disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  9. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...

  10. BLOOD PRESSURE AWARENESS AMONG GENERAL POPULATION: A RURAL WEST BENGAL EXPERIENCE WITH LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Sadhukhan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was conducted with an objective to find out the awareness of self blood pressure in a rural community of West Bengal and factors associated with it. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study on self BP awareness among adults (≥18 years was carried out in a rural community of West Bengal through house to house visits. Total study subjects were1201 (Male=598; Female=603 of which 132 (11% were hypertensive. Results: Only 17.2% of all study subjects were aware of their own BP readings with no male-female difference. This awareness was significantly associated with age, education, economic status and hypertension, which remained significant, even after multiple logistic regressions. Even among hypertensives, only 38% were aware of their self BP. Nearly 67.11% of the study subjects had no knowledge about complications of hypertension. About 86.92% of the study subjects were ignorant about the life style changes required to prevent hypertension. Regarding hypertension control/treatment, 72.85% of study subjects were unaware. In general, males had better knowledge compared to females,although not always statistically significant. Conclusion: Self BP awareness among this study population was very poor even among the hypertensives leading to a high risk of cerebrovascular accidents and coronary heart diseases. Interpersonal communication in medical facilities as well as other strategies like group-discussions (general and focal, mass media and general education system can be utilized to improve the situation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 55-58

  11. CYP2C9 genotype does not affect risk of tobacco-related cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Bojesen, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    tolbutamide and warfarin, while this has not been investigated for PAHs. We hypothesised that these two variants in the CYP2C9 gene influence risk of tobacco-related cancer. Methods: In a prospective study of the general population (n = 10 392) with 60 years of follow-up, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we.......9/1.1 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and below/above 0.8/1.3 and 0.9/1.1 in the Copenhagen General Population Study for tobacco-related cancer and all cancer, respectively. Conclusion: Genetic variations in CYP2C9 do not affect risk of tobacco-related cancers. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...... associated two variants of CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) with risk of tobacco-related cancer and all cancer. All results were re-tested in a cross-sectional study of the general population (n = 36 856), the Copenhagen General Population Study. Results: We found no association between any of the CYP2C9...

  12. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  13. The necessity of female population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  14. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  15. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  16. Health-risk behaviour among residents in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those of the general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Ekholm, Ola; van Lenthe, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study compares health-risk behaviours (including the co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours) of residents in the deprived neighbourhoods with those of the general population of Denmark. It also examines associations between sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics and health-risk...... behaviours in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics there were large differences in health-risk behaviours between residents in deprived neighbourhoods and the general population. In the deprived neighbourhoods large sociodemographic and socioeconomic...... differences in health-risk behaviours were found among the residents. Our findings highlight the need for health p