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Sample records for general population results

  1. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

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    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects.

  2. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  3. PO-58 - Cardiovascular risk profile in survivors of adult cancer - results from the general population study.

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    Panova-Noeva, M; Hermanns, I M; Schulz, A; Laubert-Reh, D; Zeller, T; Blankenberg, S; Spronk, H M; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Ten Cate, H; Wild, P S

    2016-04-01

    The advancements in cancer treatment and detection of early cancer have resulted in steady increase of adult cancer survivors over the years. However, due to the long term toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increasing in survivors. Identifying risk factors and interventions to reduce the excess burden of CVD in this vulnerable population is urgently needed. To investigate the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), inflammation and coagulation profile in cancer survivors from a large population-based study. Presence of CVRFs and laboratory markers have been compared in individuals with (n=1,359) and without (n=13,626) history of cancer. Standard laboratory profile, including blood glucose and lipid profile, has been evaluated in 15,010 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Coagulation factors, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity were available in N=4,993. The individuals with history of cancer were older compared to no history of cancer with mean age of 61,5years and 54.4years, respectively (pprofile showed cancer survivors with lower erythrocyte, platelet and white blood cell counts and higher C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, HbA1c and triglycerides levels (pprofile in individuals with history of cancer from a well characterized population-representative adult sample. It gives evidence for higher prevalence of CVRFs, particularly diabetes in this vulnerable population. Markers of inflammation as CRP and fibrinogen and vWF activity were higher in cancer survivors independent of the cardiovascular risk profile. These results underline the increased risk of CVD and need for development of cardio-oncology programs offering cardiovascular prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Association of Albuminuria With Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid: Results From a General Population Cohort

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    Scheven, Lieneke; Joosten, Michel M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated albuminuria as well as an increased serum uric acid concentration is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. We questioned whether these 2 variables (albuminuria and serum uric concentration) may be interrelated via tubular uric acid reabsorption. Methods and Results Included were 7688 participants of the PREVEND Study, an observational, general population‐based cohort study. Linear regression analyses were used to test associations of baseline albuminuria with baseline serum uric acid concentration and tubular uric acid reabsorption (calculated as [100−fractional uric acid excretion]%). Cox regression analyses were used to study the association of baseline serum uric acid and albuminuria with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In cross‐sectional analyses, albuminuria was associated positively with serum uric acid concentration, both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid reabsorption, again both crude and after adjustment for potential confounders (both Puric acid were associated with incident cardiovascular events (Hazard Ratios 1.09 [1.03 to 1.17], P=0.01 and 1.19 [1.09 to 1.30], Puric acid being less predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the presence of high albuminuria and vice versa. Conclusions Albuminuria is strongly associated with tubular uric acid reabsorption, and consequently with serum uric acid concentration. This phenomenon may explain in part why albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular outcome. PMID:24772520

  5. Differences in labour participation between people living with HIV and the general population: Results from Spain along the business cycle.

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    Peña Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2018-01-01

    HIV/AIDS (Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) not only has a strong impact on the health of the worldwide population but also affects the labour status of HIV-positive people. The primary aim of this paper is to compare the labour participation of people living with HIV (PlwHIV) with the labour participation of the general population along the last business cycle in Spain. The data used are from the Hospital Survey on HIV-AIDS, with a total sample size of 4,651 PlwHIV and the Labour Force Survey from 2001 to 2010, with a total sample size of 660,674 individuals as general population. Propensity Score Matching method was used to analyse the differences between the labour participation of PlwHIV and the general population. Additionally, several specific models categorised into different subgroups (gender, education, source of infection and level of defences) were also performed. We identified a convergence in labour participation across the period in the two populations considered: PlwHIV was 23% less likely to have a job than the general population during 2001-2002 and 14% less likely during 2009-2010. This convergence is mainly explained by two facts: first, the positive evolution of people infected by sex; second, the change in the PlwHIV population composition with a decreasing weight of people infected by drug use throughout the decade. Thereby, at the end of period, there was no statistical difference in the employment rate between PlwHIV infected through sex and the general population but there was strongly difference in PlwHIV infected through drugs. Inmunological status, source of infection and level of education play a relevant role among the PlwHIV population when comparing their labour participation with the general population. In spite of this positive result, the likelihood of being employed in HIV-positive people continues to be different from that of non-carriers. Our study shows that institutional features of labour

  6. Comparison of diabetes management status between cancer survivors and the general population: results from a Korean population-based survey.

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    Ji-Yeon Shin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls.We analyzed data from 2,660 subjects with prevalent diabetes (aged ≥30 years, who had participated in the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Awareness was defined as a subject having been diagnosed with diabetes by a clinician. Treatment was defined as a subject who was taking anti-diabetic medicine. Adequate glycemic control was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of <7%. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins were used to evaluate whether awareness, treatment, or adequate glycemic control differed among cancer survivors and the two non-cancer control groups.Cancer survivors had greater awareness compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease and non-cancer, non-chronic disease control groups (85.1%, 80.4%, and 60.4%, respectively. Although the prevalences of treatment and adequate glycemic control were higher for survivors compared with the non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls, they were lower compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease controls. The prevalence of diabetes treatment was 67.5% for cancer survivors, 69.5% for non-cancer, chronic disease controls, and 46.7% for non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls; the prevalences of adequate glycemic control in these three groups were 31.7%, 34.6%, and 17.8%, respectively.Cancer survivors were less likely than the non-cancer chronic disease subjects to receive diabetes management and to achieve adequate glycemic targets. Special attention and education are required to ensure that this population receives

  7. Measurement error in the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: results from a general adult population in Japan.

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    Takada, Koki; Takahashi, Kana; Hirao, Kazuki

    2018-01-17

    Although the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is frequently used to measure social anxiety, data is lacking on the smallest detectable change (SDC), an important index of measurement error. We therefore aimed to determine the SDC of LSAS. Japanese adults aged 20-69 years were invited from a panel managed by a nationwide internet research agency. We then conducted a test-retest internet survey with a two-week interval to estimate the SDC at the individual (SDC ind ) and group (SDC group ) levels. The analysis included 1300 participants. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total fear subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 23.52 points (32.7%) and 0.65 points (0.9%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the total avoidance subscale (scoring range: 0-72) were 32.43 points (45.0%) and 0.90 points (1.2%), respectively. The SDC ind and SDC group for the overall total score (scoring range: 0-144) were 45.90 points (31.9%) and 1.27 points (0.9%), respectively. Measurement error is large and indicate the potential for major problems when attempting to use the LSAS to detect changes at the individual level. These results should be considered when using the LSAS as measures of treatment change.

  8. Attitudes of the German general population toward early diagnosis of dementia--results of a representative telephone survey.

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    Tobias Luck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer's dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. METHODS: A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002 was conducted in 2011. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (69% would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55% stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs' potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved.

  9. The value of vaccination: results of an Italian survey among Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General Population

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    Chiara Cadeddu

    2012-03-01

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    Abstract:

    Background: In the Italian context, evolving toward the abandonment of compulsory vaccination, the
    maintenance of adequate levels of coverage appears as essential. The promotion of a good vaccination
    knowledge, supported by strong scientific evidence, and the collaboration of all the involved stakeholders,
    appears hence fundamental. The aim of this survey was to understand why vaccination is not appreciated
    for its real value by different stakeholders.
    Methods: In collaboration with other Italian Universities and Health Districts, in Summer 2011 we submitted
    a survey of 17 questions to a convenience sample of Italian Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General
    Population. The main questions analyzed the importance of vaccination for health, actions to attain vaccination
    value and consequences of a free choice policy.
    Results: Of the 173 stakeholders interviewed, 78% of Medical Doctors, 82% Policy Makers and 46%
    General Population believe that vaccination is important for health. The most important actions suggested
    for strengthening vaccination were information about its efficacy and safety and studies on its impact on
    Public Health, according to most of General Population and of Medical Doctors and Policy Makers, respectively.
    According to 60.4% Medical Doctors, 72.8% Policy Makers and 56.3% General Population the abolition
    of compulsory vaccination would lead to a reduction of vaccinees in all the Italian regions.
    Conclusions: Our study confirms the need for a thorough “education in vaccination”. Among stakeholders
    there are still doubts that hinder the decision process about vaccination policies and programmes. On
    the other hand, a call for an “Alliance” for promoting and implementing vaccination to its full potential
    would be favoured, as

  10. Health-related quality of life of prostate cancer patients compared to the general German population: age-specific results.

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    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Rabenalt, Robert; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the age-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of prostate cancer patients (PCPs). 387 PCPs were asked to self-assess their HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Patients' data were compared with those of the general German population. The reported global health/QOL scores of the study group and the general German population are nearly equal. However, most of the subdomains of HRQOL are negatively affected in PCPs, especially in younger patients (

  11. Neuropathic pain is not adequately treated in the older general population: Results from the KORA F4 survey.

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    Meisinger, Christa; Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kowall, Bernd; Herder, Christian; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ziegler, Dan

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated the pharmacological treatment of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) among older subjects from the general population. The study included subjects aged 61 to 82 years from the KORA F4 survey (2006-2008). DSPN was defined as the presence of bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or bilaterally impaired foot-pressure sensation. Pain intensity was assessed with the painDETECT questionnaire. From the included 1076 older persons, 172 (16%) persons reported pain in the lower extremities and DSPN was present in 150 (14%) subjects. Forty-eight people with pain in the lower extremities reported DSPN. Only 38% of the subjects with DSPN reporting an average pain level of ≥4 during the past 4 weeks received medical treatment, predominantly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs 20% and opioids 12%). The medication of choice for neuropathic pain, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids was relatively being underused. However, opioids and neuropathy preparations were prescribed preferably for subjects with painful DSPN. In the older general population, only a small proportion of subjects with painful DSPN receive analgesic pharmacotherapy. Although not recommended by guidelines for the treatment of neuropathic pain, NSAIDs were the most frequently used class of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. New reference values for body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the general population: results from the UK Biobank.

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    Franssen, Frits M E; Rutten, Erica P A; Groenen, Miriam T J; Vanfleteren, Lowie E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Low fat-free mass (FFM) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly and patient populations. Therefore, measurement of FFM is important in nutritional assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a convenient method to assess FFM and FFM index (FFMI; FFM/height(2)). Although reference values have been established for individuals with normal body weight, no specific cutoff values are available for overweight and obese populations. Also, limited studies accounted for the age-related decline in FFM. To determine BMI- and age-specific reference values for abnormal low FFM(I) in white-ethnic men and women free of self-reported disease from the general population. The UK Biobank is a prospective epidemiological study of the general population from the United Kingdom. Individuals in the age category 45 to 69 years were analyzed. In addition to body weight, FFM and FFMI were measured using a Tanita BC-418MA. Also, self-reported chronic conditions and ethnic background were registered, and lung function was assessed using spirometry. After exclusion of all individuals with missing data, nonwhite ethnicity, self-reported disease, body mass index (BMI) less than 14 or 36 kg/m(2) or higher, and/or an obstructive lung function, reference values for FFM and FFMI were derived from 186,975 individuals (45.9% men; age: 56.9 ± 6.8 years; BMI: 26.5 ± 3.6 kg/m(2); FFMI 18.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)). FFM and FFMI were significantly associated with BMI and decreased with age. Percentiles 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 95 were calculated for FFM, FFMI, and fat mass (index), after stratification for gender, age, and BMI. Using the UK Biobank dataset, new reference values for body composition assessed with BIA were determined in white-ethnic men and women aged 45 to 69 years. Because these reference values are BMI specific, they are of broad interest for overweight and obese populations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. The prevalence of probable neuropathic pain in the US: results from a multimodal general-population health survey

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    DiBonaventura MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marco D DiBonaventura,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Kristen Concialdi,1 Markay Hopps,2 Ian Kudel,1 Bruce Parsons,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 Patrick Hlavacek,2 Andrea H Alexander,2 Brett R Stacey,4 John D Markman,5 John T Farrar6 1Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 2Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, 4University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 5University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, 6University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US Background: The prevalence of neuropathic pain (NeP has been estimated within specific health conditions; however, there are no published data on its broad prevalence in the US. The current exploratory study addresses this gap using the validated PainDetect questionnaire as a screener for probable NeP in a general-population health survey conducted with a multimodal recruitment strategy to maximize demographic representativeness. Materials and methods: Adult respondents were recruited from a combination of Internet panels, telephone lists, address lists, mall-based interviews, and store-receipt invitations using a random stratified-sampling framework, with strata defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Older persons and minorities were oversampled to improve prevalence estimates. Results were weighted to match the total adult US population using US Census data. Demographic information was collected, and respondents who experienced physical pain in the past 12 months completed the PainDetect and provided additional pain history. A cutoff score of 19 or greater on the PainDetect was used to define probable NeP. Results: A total of 24,925 respondents (average response rate 2.5% provided demographic data (52.2% female, mean age 51.5 years; 15,751 respondents reported pain (63.7%, of which 2,548 (15.7%, 95% confidence interval 14.9%–16.5% had probable NeP based on the PainDetect, which was 10% (95% confidence interval 9.5%–10.5% of all respondents. Among

  14. Prevalence of asthma among the adult general population of five Middle Eastern countries: results of the SNAPSHOT program.

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    Tarraf, Hesham; Aydin, Omur; Mungan, Dilsad; Albader, Mohammad; Mahboub, Bassam; Doble, Adam; Lahlou, Aaicha; Tariq, Luqman; Aziz, Fayaz; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2018-05-11

    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease leading to morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life worldwide. Information on asthma prevalence in the Middle East is fragmented and relatively out-dated. The SNAPSHOT program was conducted to obtain updated information. SNAPSHOT is a cross-sectional epidemiological program carried out in five Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, the latter three grouped into a Gulf cluster) to collect data on asthma, allergic rhinitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and bipolar disorder. The survey was carried out by telephone in a random sample of the adult general population with quotas defined according to country demographics. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on asthma. Subjects were screened for asthma based on criteria from the global Asthma Insights and Reality studies. Current prevalence (last 12 months) was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors related to asthma and the association with allergic rhinitis and other co-morbidities. Quality of life was assessed using the three-level EQ-5D questionnaire. 2124 out of the 33,486 subjects enrolled in the SNAPSHOT program fulfilled the criteria for asthma. The adjusted prevalence of asthma ranged from 4.4% [95% CI: 4.0-4.8%] in Turkey, to 6.7% [95% CI: 6.2-7.2%] in Egypt and 7.6% [95% CI: 7.1-8.0%] in the Gulf cluster. Prevalence was higher (p Middle East ranges from 4.4% to 7.6%, which is comparatively lower than the reported prevalence in Europe and North America. Asthma has a negative impact on quality of life, and is associated with high levels of co-morbid diseases, indicating a need for physicians to check for co-morbidities and ensure they are managed correctly in all asthma patients.

  15. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

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    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

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    2010-01-01

    Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65%) completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%). Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%), more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4%) and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17%) compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5). Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8) and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4). In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8). For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes. PMID:21118543

  17. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

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    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life of the General German Population in 2015: Results from the EQ-5D-5L.

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    Huber, Manuel B; Felix, Julia; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2017-04-16

    The EQ-5D-5L is a widely used generic instrument to measure health-related quality of life. This study evaluates health perception in a representative sample of the general German population from 2015. To compare results over time, a component analysis technique was used that separates changes in the description and valuation of health states. The whole sample and also subgroups, stratified by sociodemographic parameters as well as disease affliction, were analyzed. In total, 2040 questionnaires (48.4% male, mean age 47.3 year) were included. The dimension with the lowest number of reported problems was self-care (93.0% without problems), and the dimension with the highest proportion of impairment was pain/discomfort (71.2% without problems). Some 64.3% of the study population were identified as problem-free. The visual analog scale (VAS) mean for all participants was 85.1. Low education was connected with significantly lower VAS scores, but the effect was small. Depression, heart disease, and diabetes had a strong significant negative effect on reported VAS means. Results were slightly better than those in a similar 2012 survey; the most important driver was the increase in the share of the study population that reported to be problem-free. In international comparisons, health perception of the general German population is relatively high and, compared with previous German studies, fairly stable over recent years. Elderly and sick people continue to report significant reductions in perceived health states.

  19. The effect of Avoidant Personality Disorder on the persistence of Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in the general population: results from a longitudinal, nationally representative mental health survey.

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    Cox, Brian J; Turnbull, Danielle L; Robinson, Jennifer A; Grant, Bridget F; Stein, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role of Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) as a determinant in the outcome of Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (GSAD) using Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions 3 years later. This study analyzed data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC (n = 34,653). GSAD was operationalized based on the DSM-IV definitions of this SAD subtype. Logistic regression analyses indicated that AvPD significantly predicted the persistence of GSAD, even after adjusting for a number of important sociodemographic variables and other psychiatric comorbidity. AvPD did not significantly predict outcome in non-generalized SAD. AvPD can influence the course of GSAD in adulthood. Specific personality dimensions may underlie and explain the similarities between AvPD and GSAD. Self-criticism could be a shared feature of both AvPD and GSAD and could represent an important psychological marker of poor prognosis in comorbid GSAD and AvPD. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening in patients with spinal cord injury yields similar results to the general population with an effective bowel preparation: a retrospective chart audit.

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    Teng, Brandon J; Song, Shawn H; Svircev, Jelena N; Dominitz, Jason A; Burns, Stephen P

    2018-03-01

    Retrospective chart audit. To compare adequacy of colonoscopy bowel preparation and diagnostic findings between persons with SCI receiving an extended inpatient bowel preparation and the general population. Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, WA, USA. We reviewed an electronic database of all colonoscopies performed at a tertiary Veterans Affairs medical center between 7/12/13 and 15/10/15. Patients with SCI received a multi-day bowel preparation with magnesium citrate, and 8-10 liters of polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolyte colonic lavage solution (PEG-ELS) over two and one half days. The control population received a standard bowel preparation consisting of magnesium citrate and 4 liters of PEG-ELS over 1 day. Two hundred and fifty-five patients were included in the study, including 85 patients with SCI. Average risk screening was a more common colonoscopy indication in patients with SCI vs. the control population (24 vs. 13% p = 0.03). There was no difference in adequacy of bowel preparation (87 vs. 85%, p = 0.73) or adenoma detection rate (55 vs. 51%, p = 0.59) when comparing patients with SCI with the control population. No difference in polyp histopathology was detected (p = 0.748). Our study demonstrated that an extended bowel preparation for patients with SCI produces similar bowel preparation results and diagnostic yield when compared to patients without SCI undergoing colonoscopy.

  1. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

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    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  2. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  3. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey

  4. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  6. The Association Between Insomnia and Sleep Duration in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results From a General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynchank, Dora; ten Have, Margreet; Bijlenga, Denise; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Lamers, Femke; de Graaf, Ron; Kooij, J.J. Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia and short or long sleep duration are important comorbid conditions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but reports of the association vary. In a general population study, we evaluated the relationship between ADHD symptom severity, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration in adults. Methods: Data were from the third wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2; n = 4,618). ADHD symptom severity and symptom dimensions (hyperactivity and inattention) were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale screener. Self-reported insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Rating Scale; IRS) were defined as clinically relevant if IRS ≥ 9. Self-reported short sleep duration was defined as ≤ 6 hours, and long sleep duration as ≥ 10 hours. Results: Within the group with clinically relevant ADHD symptoms, 43% reported significant insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74–4.07); 41% short sleep duration (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31–2.85) and 6% long sleep (RRR = 5.87, 95% CI 1.97–17.45). Increased inattention symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9, short and long sleep duration in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14; RRR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.05–1.28, respectively). Increased hyperactivity symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9 (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.11–1.23) and short sleep duration (RRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19). Conclusions: Both clinically significant ADHD symptoms and inattention and hyperactivity symptom dimensions were consistently associated with insomnia symptoms and altered sleep duration. These associations confirm that sleep disturbances should be assessed and given appropriate clinical attention in adults with ADHD. Citation: Wynchank D, ten Have M, Bijlenga D, Penninx BW, Beekman AT, Lamers F, de Graaf R, Kooij JJ. The association between insomnia and sleep duration in adults with

  7. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Paranormal experiences in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C A; Joshi, S

    1992-06-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to a random sample of 502 adults in the general population of Winnipeg, a midwestern Canadian city. Results showed that paranormal/extrasensory experiences were common in the general population. They were linked to a history of childhood trauma and to other dissociative symptom clusters. A factor analysis of the paranormal experiences identified three factors which together accounted for 44.0% of the combined variance of the scores. A model is proposed in which paranormal experiences are conceptualized as an aspect of normal dissociation. Like dissociation in general, paranormal experiences can be triggered by trauma, especially childhood physical or sexual abuse. Such experiences discriminate individuals with childhood trauma histories from those without at high levels of significance.

  9. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  10. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...

  11. Prevalence and impact of fibromyalgia on function and quality of life in individuals from the general population: results from a nationwide study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, A J; Carmona, L; Valverde, M; Ribas, B

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) and to compare some descriptive epidemiological and quality of life data between persons with and without FM criteria in a representative sample of the general Spanish population. Cross sectional study of 2,192 Spaniards aged 20 or above, selected by cluster sampling. Subjects were invited to a structured interview carried out by trained rheumatologists to ascertain various musculoskeletal disorders. The visit included screening and examination, validated instruments for measuring function (HAQ) and quality of life (SF-12) and questions about socio-demographic characteristics and musculoskeletal, mental, and other general symptoms. FM was suspected in subjects with widespread pain for more than three months. FM was defined by theAmerican College of Rheumatology classification criteria. All estimates are adjusted to sampling scheme. The prevalence of FM in Spain is 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-3.2). FM is significantly more frequent in women (4.2%) than in men (0.2%), with an OR for women of 22.5 (95%CI: 7.2- 69.9), mainly in the 40-49 years age interval. It is more frequent in rural (4.1%) than in urban settings (1.7%), with an OR for rural settings of 2.5 (95%CI: 1.03-5.9). FM is associated with a low educational level, to a low social class, and to self-reported depression. The scores in the HAQ and in the SF-12 were significantly lower in FM subjects, despite adjustment by covariates. FM has a high prevalence in the general population. FM is associated to female gender, comorbidities, age between 40 and 59 years, and a rural setting. Persons fulfilling FM criteria show impaired functioning and quality of life.

  12. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, Janneke P.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B.; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the

  13. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  15. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  16. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  17. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikuan Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.

  18. Capillary blood islet autoantibody screening for identifying pre-type 1 diabetes in the general population: design and initial results of the Fr1da study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Jennifer; Haupt, Florian; Scholz, Marlon; Matzke, Claudia; Warncke, Katharina; Lange, Karin; Assfalg, Robin; Weininger, Katharina; Wittich, Susanne; Löbner, Stephanie; Beyerlein, Andreas; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Lang, Martin; Laub, Otto; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Bonifacio, Ezio; Achenbach, Peter; Winkler, Christiane; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2016-05-18

    Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed at an early presymptomatic stage by the detection of islet autoantibodies. The Fr1da study aims to assess whether early staging of type 1 diabetes (1) is feasible at a population-based level, (2) prevents severe metabolic decompensation observed at the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes and (3) reduces psychological distress through preventive teaching and care. Children aged 2-5 years in Bavaria, Germany, will be tested for the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies. Between February 2015 and December 2016, 100 000 children will be screened by primary care paediatricians. Islet autoantibodies are measured in capillary blood samples using a multiplex three-screen ELISA. Samples with ELISA results >97.5th centile are retested using reference radiobinding assays. A venous blood sample is also obtained to confirm the autoantibody status of children with at least two autoantibodies. Children with confirmed multiple islet autoantibodies are diagnosed with pre-type 1 diabetes. These children and their parents are invited to participate in an education and counselling programme at a local diabetes centre. Depression and anxiety, and burden of early diagnosis are also assessed. Of the 1027 Bavarian paediatricians, 39.3% are participating in the study. Overall, 26 760 children have been screened between February 2015 and November 2015. Capillary blood collection was sufficient in volume for islet autoantibody detection in 99.46% of the children. The remaining 0.54% had insufficient blood volume collected. Of the 26 760 capillary samples tested, 0.39% were positive for at least two islet autoantibodies. Staging for early type 1 diabetes within a public health setting appears to be feasible. The study may set new standards for the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and education. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Technische Universität München (Nr. 70/14). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Nicola J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; McGilchrist, Mark M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David J; Goebel, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  2. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  3. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Many people reach adulthood without acquiring significant music performance skills (singing or instrumental playing). A substantial proportion of these adults consider that this has come about because they are "not musical." Some of these people may be "true" congenital amusics, characterized by specific and substantial anomalies in the processing of musical pitch and rhythm sequences, while at the same time displaying normal processing of speech and language. It is likely, however, that many adults who believe that they are unmusical are neurologically normal. We could call these adults "false" amusics. Acquisition of musical competence has multiple personal, social, and environmental precursors. Deficiencies in these areas may lead to lack of musical achievement, despite the fact that an individual possesses the necessary underlying capacities. Adults may therefore self-define as "unmusical" or "tone-deaf" for reasons unconnected to any underlying anomaly. This paper reports on two linked research studies. The first is an interview study with adults defining themselves as tone-deaf or unmusical. The interview schedule was designed to discover what criteria are being used in their self-definitions. Preliminary results suggest that performance criteria (e.g., judging oneself as unable to sing) play a major role, even for people who claim and demonstrate no perceptual deficits. The second study reports progress on the development of new subtests for a revised version of the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz et al., 2003). This currently contains six tests that allow for the assessment of melodic perception: contour, intervals, scale, rhythm, meter, and recognition memory. The MBEA does not assess two capacities that are generally accepted as central to normal music cognition: harmony and emotion. The development and norming of the emotion subtest will be described. When completed, the MBEA(R) will form a robust screening device for use with

  4. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  5. DSM-IV personality disorders in Mexico: results from a general population survey Trastornos de personalidad DSM-IV en México: resultados de una encuesta de población general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Benjet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper reports the first population estimates of prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in the Mexican population. METHOD: Personality disorders screening questions from the International Personality Disorder Examination were administered to a representative sample of the Mexican urban adult population (n = 2,362 as part of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey, validated with clinical evaluations conducted in the United States. A multiple imputation method was then implemented to estimate prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in the Mexican sample. RESULTS: Multiple imputation method prevalence estimates were 4.6% Cluster A, 1.6% Cluster B, 2.4% Cluster C, and 6.1% any personality disorder. All personality disorders clusters were significantly comorbid with DSM-IV Axis I disorders. One in every five persons with an Axis I disorder in Mexico is likely to have a comorbid personality disorder, and almost half of those with a personality disorder are likely to have an Axis I disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Modest associations of personality disorders with impairment and strong associations with treatment utilization were largely accounted for by Axis I comorbidity suggesting that the public health significance of personality disorders lies in their comorbidity with, and perhaps effects upon, Axis I disorders rather than their direct effects on functioning and help seeking.OBJETIVO: Este trabajo presenta las primeras estimaciones poblacionales de la prevalencia de los trastornos de personalidad y sus correlatos en la población mexicana. MÉTODO: Se aplicó un tamizaje con base en el International Personality Disorder Examination a una muestra representativa de la población adulta mexicana en áreas urbanas (n = 2362 como parte de la Encuesta Mexicana Nacional de Epidemiología Psiquiátrica, validada con evaluaciones clínicas realizadas en los Estados Unidos. RESULTADOS: Se implementó un método de imputación m

  6. Attitudes of General Population and Physicians Towards Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mayda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess attitudes of general population and medical doctors towards alcohol addiction. Material and Method: 99 medical doctors who worked university hospitals, public hospitals or health centers and 101 people who selected from the community to represent the overall population enrolled in our study. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questinnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfullness. Results: Contrary to expectattions, there were not statistically significant differences in the attitudes of general poupulation and physicians towards alcohol dependences (all scales, p>0.05.Discussion: Both medical doctors and general population appear to have negative thoughts about alcohol dependence. New education strategies is developed in the field of general medical education and psychiatry in order to change negative attitudes towards alkohol addiction.

  7. Alexithymia in the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Matthias; Popp, Kerstin; Schaefer, Ralf; Sitte, Wolfgang; Schneider, Christine; Hardt, Jochen; Decker, Oliver; Braehler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    The Toronto-Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-20) is used worldwide as a valid measurement of alexithymia. Until now, population-based standardization and cut-off values of the German TAS-20 version have not been available. This study provides these by means of a representative German sample and by investigating the factorial structure of the TAS-20. Data were generated from a representative random sample of the German general population (1,859 subjects aged between 20 and 69). The TAS-20 sum score was normally distributed. The mean value was 49.5 (SD=9.3) in men and 48.2 (SD=9.2) in women. Divorce, single and low social status were associated with enhanced sum scores. Ten percent of the population exceeded the TAS-20 sum score threshold of >or=61. The 66th percentile reached 53 for men and 52 for women. Factor analysis identified three factors that match the scales of the English original version. An additional fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") was extracted. Total explanation of variance by these four factors was 52.27%. The sum score of the German TAS-20 version is suited for the standardized measure of alexithymia. For selecting alexithymic individuals in experimental studies, the cut-off >or=61 is possibly too restrictive. Therefore, we propose the 66th percentile for the identification of high alexithymics. The TAS-20 sum score is associated with important socio-demographic variables. The factorial structure is reliable; the fourth factor ("importance of emotional introspection") provides differentiation of content and allows for enhanced explanation of variance.

  8. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  9. Gender and age-specific first incidence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the general population - Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Ravelli, A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in the general population are needed to identify risk factors for mental disorders. Samples of sufficient size are needed, but large-scale studies that assess the incidence of psychopathology are rare. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month first

  10. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  11. Subset selection from generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1997-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. These generalized logistic distributions Type-I, Type-II and Type-III are indexed by a real valued parameter. They have been derived as mixtures with the standard logistic distribution and for discrete values of the

  12. Intake of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Longitudinal Association with HbA1c Levels in the General Non-Diabetic Population--Results from the MONICA/KORA S3/F3 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Schwab

    Full Text Available Lower levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate the association between the use of 11 vitamins and minerals (vitamins E, C, D, B1, folic acid, carotenoids, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and selenium and change in HbA1c levels over 10 years in non-diabetic individuals drawn from the general population.Baseline data were available from 4447 subjects included in the population-based "Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases" (MONICA Augsburg S3 survey (1994/95. Follow-up data were derived from 2774 participants in the follow-up survey named "Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg" (KORA F3 (2004/05. Vitamin/mineral intake from supplements and medications was assessed in a personal interview, where participants were asked to bring product packages of preparations that had been ingested during the last 7 days prior to the examination. Associations between regular vitamin/mineral intake amounts and HbA1c levels measured at baseline and follow-up were investigated using generalized estimating equation models. For carotenoids, analyses were stratified by smoking status.None of the investigated nutrients except for carotenoids was significantly associated with changes in HbA1c levels after 10 years. Regular intake of carotenoids from supplements and medications in amounts > 6.8 mg/d (upper tertile was associated with an absolute -0.26% (95% CI: -0.43 to -0.08 lower increase in HbA1c levels compared with no intake of carotenoids. An inverse association was observed in those who never smoked but not in (former smokers.Larger prospective and intervention studies in non-diabetic/non-smoking individuals are needed to confirm the results and to assess whether the observed associations between carotenoid intake and change in HbA1c levels are causal. If our results are

  13. Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Hans O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...

  14. Do impotent men with diabetes have more severe erectile dysfunction and worse quality of life than the general population of impotent patients? Results from the Exploratory Comprehensive Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction (ExCEED) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, David F; Latini, David M; Lubeck, Deborah P; Wallace, Katrine L; Henning, James M; Lue, Tom F

    2003-04-01

    Little is known regarding how diabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) differ from the general population of impotent men. The primary objective of this study was to compare disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and severity of ED in impotent men with and without diabetes. Validated functional and HRQOL questionnaires (including the International Index of Erectile Function, the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction scales) were administered to patients in an ED disease registry. Men with ED and a history of diabetes (n = 20) were compared with men with ED and no history of diabetes (n = 90) at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. Diabetic impotent men reported worse erectile function and intercourse satisfaction at baseline, and ED had a greater impact on their emotional life. Diabetic men with ED had significantly different trends over time in the Erectile Function (P Emotional Life-Psychological Impact domain (P < 0.067). Impotent men with diabetes present with worse ED than nondiabetic men with ED, resulting in worse disease-specific HRQOL in the diabetic men. Although diabetic patients initially respond well to ED treatment, responses do not appear to be durable over time. Therefore, clinicians must provide longer-term follow-up when treating ED in diabetic patients.

  15. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  16. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  17. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  18. Generalizations of the BMS group and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, E

    2006-01-01

    The ordinary Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic symmetry group of all radiating, asymptotically flat, Lorentzian space-times. As such, B is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity. However, in studying quantum gravity, space-times with signatures other than the usual Lorentzian one, and complex space-times, are frequently considered. Generalisations of B appropriate to these other signatures have been defined earlier. In particular, the generalization B(2, 2) appropriate to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+, +, -, -) has been described in detail, and the study of its irreducible unitary representations (IRs) has been initiated. The infinite little groups of B(2, 2) have been given explicitly but its finite little groups have only been partially described. All the information needed in order to construct the finite little groups is given. Possible connections with gravitational instantons are being put forward

  19. Personality disorders and smoking in Spanish general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, Elena; López Durán, Ana; Martinez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. Method: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the Inter...

  20. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  1. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  2. Tobacco addiction in the psychiatric population and in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the degree of tobacco addiction and identify independently associated factors by comparing the psychiatric population of secondary and tertiary care with the general population of the primary healthcare network. Method: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted in a municipality of São Paulo, with 134 smokers of a Mental Health Outpatient Unit (MHOU, a Psychiatric Hospital (PH, and a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU. Data were collected by means of individual interviews, recorded on a mobile device. Data were statistically processed using Stata/12 Results: Of the 134 participants, 54.5% were women. While 49.1% of the psychiatric population (MHOU/PH had medium/high nicotine addiction, 58.3% of smokers of the general population had very low/low dependency. The Poisson regression model indicated a higher prevalence of smokers with high dependence among men (PR = 1.41, people aged 49 years or less (15 - 29 years, PR = 4.06, 30 - 39 PR = 2.96 years, 40 - 49 years PR = 1.84, with severe mental disorders (PR = 3.05, with anxiety disorders/other (PR = 3.98, and with high suicide risk (PR = 1.55. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence was greater in the psychiatric population than in the general population. The independent factors associated with severe dependence were sex, age group, diagnosis, and current risk of suicide. These results trigger reflection among nurses on the need to focus more attention on a neglected subject in mental health services.

  3. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  4. Racial/ethnic disparities in service utilization for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in the general population: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Narrow, William E; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    This study sought to determine whether black/white disparities in service utilization for mental health and substance use disorders persist or are diminished among individuals with psychiatric comorbidity in the general population. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify individuals with lifetime co-occurring substance use disorders and mood/anxiety disorders (N = 4250; whites, N = 3597; blacks, N = 653). Lifetime service utilization for problems with mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drugs was assessed. Compared to whites, blacks with co-occurring mood or anxiety and substance use disorders were significantly less likely to receive services for mood or anxiety disorders, equally likely to receive services for alcohol use disorders, and more likely to receive some types of services for drug use disorders. Regardless of race/ethnicity, individuals with these co-occurring disorders were almost twice as likely to use services for mood/anxiety disorders than for substance use disorders. Despite the fact that comorbidity generally increases the likelihood of service use, black/white disparities in service utilization among an all-comorbid sample were found, although these disparities differed by type of disorder. Further research is warranted to understand the factors underlying these differences. Prevention and intervention strategies are needed to address the specific mental health needs of blacks with co-occurring disorders, as well as the overall lack of service use for substance use disorders among individuals with co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

  5. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Bhandarkar; Ajit Shah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. Methods: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. Results: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the pe...

  6. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  7. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  8. Impact of Multidetector Computerized Tomography (MDCT) On The General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, B.B.; Ribeiro, N.C. [Servico de Radiologia, Hospital de Curry Cabral, Rua da Beneficencia, 8, 1069-166 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) appeared in the early 1990s, as a technological evolution of computerized tomography. As one would expect, the evolution continues and, each year, more powerful equipments appear, with new medical applications. However, the general use of this technique has lead to the dramatic increase on the general population irradiation. Special concern is required regarding the most vulnerable groups, like the pediatric population, the pregnant and the young female. Due to a larger awareness of this irradiation risks, some initiatives have been developed, coming from different areas, aiming to maximize the benefit to risk ratio of MDCT. (author)

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  10. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benzodiazepine use in general population, the municipality of Berane, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzodiazepines can be classified as one of the most frequently prescribed categories of medication. This medication category is distinguished by a high risk of tolerance and dependence, in the case of long-term, excessive use. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyse the use of benzodiazepines in the general population, municipality of Berane, Montenegro, during the previous year. Methods: Research was based on the analysis of 1000 prescriptions of benzodiazepines, issued by physicians in Primary Health Care. The diagnostic manual utilised for the purpose of this research was International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The survey was conducted for a period of 40 days during January and February 2015. Results: The study was performed in the general population, age from 18 to 98 years (621 females and 379 males. The average age of all participants in the study was 64.1±13.1 years. Analysis of data confirmed that the most frequently prescribed from the group of benzodiazepines were: diazepam (42.2%, bromazepam (30.3%, lorazepam (16.4%, alprazolam (6.4%, nitrazepam (2.6% and clonazepam (2.1%. The significant statistical difference (x2=58.664; p<0.001 was found between female patients who used benzodiazepines in 62.1% of cases, compared to male patients who used benzodiazepines in 37.9% of cases. It was confirmed that benzodiazepines were usually prescribed for 17 different diagnoses, mostly for diagnoses from the group I, viz. cluster-diseases of the circulatory system (39.7%, group F-mental and behavioural disorders (31.1% and group E-endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (7.7%. Conclusion: Studies about drug utilisation provide plenty of useful information which can be further used with the aim of achieving more rational prescribing and more effective patient treating.

  12. Stroke Awareness in the General Population: A Study from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the awareness level of the Jordanian general population regarding the definition, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and consequences of stroke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was handed to participants by trained students, the participants were chosen randomly from ...

  13. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in autistic traits in early adulthood and to test if there is assortative mating (non-random partner choice) for autistic traits in the general population. Design: Twin family study using structural equation

  14. Sleep and psychopatholgy : in the general population and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate the relation between sleep and psychopathology. We examined two groups; bipolar patients and adolescents from the general population that are both characterized by mood fluctuations and are vulnerable for disturbances in sleep-wake pattern. Using wearables

  15. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  16. Working situation of cancer survivors versus the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.

  17. Groebner basis, resultants and the generalized Mandelbrot set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geum, Young Hee [Centre of Research for Computational Sciences and Informatics in Biology, Bioindustry, Environment, Agriculture and Healthcare, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: conpana@empal.com; Hare, Kevin G. [Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: kghare@math.uwaterloo.ca

    2009-10-30

    This paper demonstrates how the Groebner basis algorithm can be used for finding the bifurcation points in the generalized Mandelbrot set. It also shows how resultants can be used to find components of the generalized Mandelbrot set.

  18. Groebner basis, resultants and the generalized Mandelbrot set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geum, Young Hee; Hare, Kevin G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the Groebner basis algorithm can be used for finding the bifurcation points in the generalized Mandelbrot set. It also shows how resultants can be used to find components of the generalized Mandelbrot set.

  19. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  20. Separate physical tests of lower extremities and postural control are associated with cognitive impairment. Results from the general population study Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS-SNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenPurpose: To investigate whether separate physical tests of the lower extremities, that assess movement speed and postural control, were associated with cognitive impairment in older community-dwelling subjects.Subjects and methods: In this population-based, cross-sectional, cohort study, the following items were assessed: walking speed, walking 2 × 15 m, Timed Up and Go (TUG at self-selected and fast speeds, one-leg standing, and performance in step- and five chair-stand tests. The study comprised 2115 subjects, aged 60–93 years, with values adjusted for demographics, health-related factors, and comorbidity. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and cognitive impairment was defined by the three-word delayed recall task of the MMSE. Subjects who scored 0/3 on the three-word delayed recall task were defined as cases (n = 328, those who scored 1/3 were defined as intermediates (n = 457, and the others as controls (n = 1330.Results: Physical tests performed rapidly were significantly associated with cognitive impairment; this was the case in increased time of five chair stands (P = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, TUG (P < 0.001, OR = 1.11 and walking 2 × 15 m (P < 0.001, OR = 1.05. Inability to stand on one leg for 10 seconds was associated with increased risk of being a case (P < 0.001, OR = 1.78, compared to those able to stand for 30 seconds or longer. More steps during the step test (P < 0.001, OR = 0.95 and higher fast walking speed (P < 0.001, OR = 0.51 were associated with lower risk of being a case.Conclusion: Slower movements and reduced postural control were related to an increased risk of being cognitively impaired. All tests that were performed rapidly were able to separate cases from controls. These findings

  1. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... preclinical disease and may be of value in cancer screening. In colorectal cancer screening in particular, where the current need is to improve compliance, it suggests that p53 autoantibodies may contribute towards risk stratification.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi...

  2. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  3. Cortical processes of speech illusions in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, E; Bodar, L; van Os, J; Lousberg, R

    2016-10-18

    There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG. An auditory illusion was defined as hearing any speech in a sound fragment containing white noise. A total number of 256 speech illusions (SI) were observed over the two measurements, with a high degree of stability of SI over time. There were 7 main effects of speech illusion on the EEG alpha band-the most significant indicating a decrease in activity at T3 (t = -4.05). Other EEG frequency bands (slow beta, fast beta, gamma, delta, theta) showed no significant associations with SI. SIs are characterized by reduced alpha activity in non-clinical populations. Given the association of SIs with psychosis, follow-up research is required to examine the possibility of reduced alpha activity mediating SIs in high risk and symptomatic populations.

  4. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  5. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  6. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  7. Subset selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der M.J.; Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    We give an introduction to the logistic and generalized logistic distributions. We obtain exact results for the probability of correct selection from Type-I and Type-II generalized logistic populations which only differ in their location parameter. Some open problems are formulated.

  8. Modifiable factors associated with copeptin concentration: a general population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, Maatje D A; Meijer, Esther; Scheven, Lieneke E; Struck, Joachim; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-05-01

    Vasopressin plays an important role in maintaining volume homeostasis. However, recent studies suggest that vasopressin also may play a detrimental role in the progression of chronic kidney disease. It therefore is of interest to identify factors that influence vasopressin concentration, particularly modifiable ones. Cross-sectional analyses. Data used are from participants in a large general-population cohort study (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease [PREVEND]). Patients with a missing copeptin value (n=888), nonfasting blood sample (n=495), missing or assumed incorrect 24-hour urine collection (n=388), or heart failure (n=20) were excluded, leaving 6,801 participants for analysis. Identification of lifestyle- and diet-related factors that are associated with copeptin concentration. Copeptin concentration as surrogate for vasopressin. Copeptin was measured by an immunoluminometric assay as a surrogate for vasopressin. Associations were assessed in uni- and multivariable linear regression analyses. Median copeptin concentration was 4.7 (IQR, 2.9-7.6) pmol/L. When copeptin was studied as a dependent variable, the final stepwise backward model revealed associations with higher copeptin concentrations for lower 24-hour urine volume (P firm conclusions on cause-effect relationships. Important lifestyle- and diet-related factors associated with copeptin concentration are current smoking, alcohol use, protein and potassium intake, and particularly fluid and sodium intake. These data form a rationale to investigate whether intervening on these factors results in a lower vasopressin concentration with concomitant beneficial renal effects. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ORIGINAL Some Generalized Fixed Point Results on Compact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The goal of this research is to study some generalized fixed point results in compact metric space. It mainly focuses on the existence and unique fixed point of a selfmap on a compact metric space and its generalizations. In this study iterative techniques due to. Edelstein, Bhardwaj et al. and Sastry et al. are used to ...

  10. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  11. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Decker, Oliver; Müller, Stefanie; Brähler, Elmar; Schellberg, Dieter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-03-01

    The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a practical self-report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care. However, the GAD-7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far, normative data are not available. To investigate reliability, construct validity, and factorial validity of the GAD-7 in the general population and to generate normative data. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8, 2006. Five thousand thirty subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years. The survey questionnaire included the GAD-7, the 2-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and demographic characteristics. Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1-dimensional structure of the GAD-7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age. Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (alpha = 0.89). Intercorrelations with the PHQ-2 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were r = 0.64 (P < 0.001) and r = -0.43 (P < 0.001), respectively. As expected, women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD-7 anxiety scores compared with men [3.2 (3.5) vs. 2.7 (3.2); P < 0.001]. Normative data for the GAD-7 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD-7 scores of 10 or greater, and 1% had GAD-7 scores of 15 or greater. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD-7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population. The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject's GAD-7 score with those determined from a general population reference group.

  12. The association between hand eczema and nickel allergy has weakened among young women in the general population following the Danish nickel regulation: results from two cross-sectional studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan René; Menné, Torkil

    2009-01-01

    tested with nickel. Data were analysed by logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The prevalence of concomitant nickel contact allergy and a history of hand eczema decreased among 18-35-year-old women from 9.......0% in 1990 to 2.1% in 2006 (P women, no significant changes were observed in the association between...

  13. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    (General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  14. Generalizing Evidence From Randomized Clinical Trials to Target Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Properly planned and conducted randomized clinical trials remain susceptible to a lack of external validity. The authors illustrate a model-based method to standardize observed trial results to a specified target population using a seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment trial, and they provide Monte Carlo simulation evidence supporting the method. The example trial enrolled 1,156 HIV-infected adult men and women in the United States in 1996, randomly assigned 577 to a highly active antiretroviral therapy and 579 to a largely ineffective combination therapy, and followed participants for 52 weeks. The target population was US people infected with HIV in 2006, as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results from the trial apply, albeit muted by 12%, to the target population, under the assumption that the authors have measured and correctly modeled the determinants of selection that reflect heterogeneity in the treatment effect. In simulations with a heterogeneous treatment effect, a conventional intent-to-treat estimate was biased with poor confidence limit coverage, but the proposed estimate was largely unbiased with appropriate confidence limit coverage. The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results. PMID:20547574

  15. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  16. Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs

  17. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R. [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 25 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  18. Aldosterone and glomerular filtration--observations in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2014-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.

  19. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalizations of the results on powers of -hyponormal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a nice application of Furuta inequality, Aluthge and Wang (J. Inequal. Appl., 3 (1999, 279–284 showed that "if is a -hyponormal operator for , then is -hyponormal for any positive integer ," and Furuta and Yanagida (Scientiae Mathematicae, to appear proved the more precise result on powers of -hyponormal operators for . In this paper, more generally, by using Furuta inequality repeatedly, we shall show that "if is a -hyponormal operator for , then is -hyponormal for any positive integer " and a generalization of the results by Furuta and Yanagida in (Scientiae Mathematicae, to appear on powers of -hyponormal operators for .

  1. Some results associated with a generalized basic hypergeometric function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a q-extension of the new generalized hypergeometric function given by Saxena et al. in [13], and have investigated the properties of the above new function such as q-differentiation and q-integral representation. The results presented are of general character and the results given earlier by Saxena and Kalla in [14], Virchenko, Kalla and Al-Zamel in [15], Al-Musallam and Kalla in [2, 3], Kobayashi in [7, 8], Saxena et al. in [13], Kumbhat et al. in [11] follow as special cases.

  2. Validity of the Malaise Inventory in general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, B; Pickles, A; Power, C; Collishaw, S; Maughan, B

    1999-06-01

    The Malaise Inventory is a commonly used self-completion scale for assessing psychiatric morbidity. There is some evidence that it may represent two separate psychological and somatic subscales rather than a single underlying factor of distress. This paper provides further information on the factor structure of the Inventory and on the reliability and validity of the total scale and two sub-scales. Two general population samples completed the full Inventory: over 11,000 subjects from the National Child Development Study at ages 23 and 33, and 544 mothers of adolescents included in the Isle of Wight epidemiological surveys. The internal consistency of the full 24-item scale and the 15-item psychological subscale were found to be acceptable, but the eight-item somatic sub-scale was less reliable. Factor analysis of all 24 items identified a first main general factor and a second more purely psychological factor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the validity of the scale held for men and women separately and for different socio-economic groups, by reference to external criteria covering current or recent psychiatric morbidity and service use, and that the psychological sub-scale had no greater validity than the full scale. This study did not support the separate scoring of a somatic sub-scale of the Malaise Inventory. Use of the 15-item psychological sub-scale can be justified on the grounds of reduced time and cost for completion, with little loss of reliability or validity, but this approach would not significantly enhance the properties of the Inventory by comparison with the full 24-item scale. Inclusion of somatic items may be more problematic when the full scale is used to compare particular sub-populations with different propensities for physical morbidity, such as different age groups, and in these circumstances it would be a sensible precaution to utilise the 15-item psychological sub-scale.

  3. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Tak; Keenan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%), a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  4. Confidence intervals for population allele frequencies: the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Fung

    Full Text Available The estimation of population allele frequencies using sample data forms a central component of studies in population genetics. These estimates can be used to test hypotheses on the evolutionary processes governing changes in genetic variation among populations. However, existing studies frequently do not account for sampling uncertainty in these estimates, thus compromising their utility. Incorporation of this uncertainty has been hindered by the lack of a method for constructing confidence intervals containing the population allele frequencies, for the general case of sampling from a finite diploid population of any size. In this study, we address this important knowledge gap by presenting a rigorous mathematical method to construct such confidence intervals. For a range of scenarios, the method is used to demonstrate that for a particular allele, in order to obtain accurate estimates within 0.05 of the population allele frequency with high probability (> or = 95%, a sample size of > 30 is often required. This analysis is augmented by an application of the method to empirical sample allele frequency data for two populations of the checkerspot butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L., occupying meadows in Finland. For each population, the method is used to derive > or = 98.3% confidence intervals for the population frequencies of three alleles. These intervals are then used to construct two joint > or = 95% confidence regions, one for the set of three frequencies for each population. These regions are then used to derive a > or = 95%% confidence interval for Jost's D, a measure of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Overall, the results demonstrate the practical utility of the method with respect to informing sampling design and accounting for sampling uncertainty in studies of population genetics, important for scientific hypothesis-testing and also for risk-based natural resource management.

  5. Insomnia and hypnotic use in Campo Grande general population, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.

  6. Comparison of aesthetic perception of smile between dentists and general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, H.A.; Qazi, F.U.R.; Jat, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    To compare aesthetic perception of smile between general population and dentists by varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisors. Introduction: Patient perception and expectation of their smile plays a very important role when providing an anterior tooth restoration. The aim of conducting the study was to compare the perception of esthetic smile between general population and dentists by varying length of maxillary lateral incisors. Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A photograph of a female smile from frontal view was digitally altered to produce images with varying lengths of maxillary lateral incisor. These images were arranged in descending order; from most attractive to least attractive by the participants. The participants of the study included two groups; first group comprised of Dental Surgeons where as second group consisted of general population. Results: Evaluation of the results showed a significant difference in aesthetic perception of smile between the Dentist and general population. Conclusion: Perception of aesthetics is not similar between the dentists and the general population. (author)

  7. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Bhandarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. METHODS: The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. RESULTS: General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.

  8. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  9. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  10. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  11. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  12. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  13. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  14. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience.

  15. Napping and associated factors: a Japanese nationwide general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bénard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  17. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Marc; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Etilé, Fabrice; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Reach, Gérard; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71) were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women) compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85). This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  18. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Yen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual’s activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. Method: A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system. Using probability proportional to size (PPS sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD, 1500 adults from Taiwan’s general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction. Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and

  19. Some Results on Graded Generalized Local Cohomology Modules

    OpenAIRE

    F. Dehghani-Zadeh; H. Zakeri

    2010-01-01

    . Let R = ⊕n>0Rn be a graded Noetherian ring with local base ring R0 and let R+ = ⊕n>1Rn. Let M and N be finitely generated graded R-modules. In this paper we extend some of the known results about ordinary local cohomology modules Hi R+ (M) to generalized local cohomology modules Hi R+ (M, N). Indeed, among other things, we prove that certain submodules and factor modules of Hi R+ (M, N) are Artinian for some i. Also we obtain some results on the asymptoti...

  20. Preoperative stoma site marking in the general surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.

  1. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, psleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least three insomnia symptoms (OR: 1.4) and women (OR: 1.4). The highest probability of the appearance of concentration difficulties was found in subjects younger than 65 Years, having a depressive disorder and using a psychotropic (15-44 years: OR 19.1; 45-64 years

  2. Development of Activity and Participation Norms among General Adult Populations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liang, Chung-Chao; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2017-06-06

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult version (FUNDES-Adult) began development in 2011. The FUNDES-Adult was designed to assess the difficulty level of an individual's activities and participation in daily life. There is a lack of research regarding the profile of activity and participation for the general adult population. The purposes of this study were to establish activity and participation norms for the general adult population in Taiwan and to describe, discuss, and compare the activity and participation profile with other population. A population-based survey was administered in 2013 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (CATI system). Using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling and systematic sampling with random digit dialing (RDD), 1500 adults from Taiwan's general population were selected to participate in the survey. The FUNDES-Adult with six domains and two dimensions (performance and capability) was used to obtain data on activities and participation levels. A higher domain score indicated higher participation restriction. Approximately 50% of the respondents were male, and the average age of the respondents was 45.23 years. There were no significant differences in the demographic features between the sample and the population. Among the six domains, the self-care domain score was the lowest (least restriction) and the participation domain score was the highest (most restriction). Approximately 90% of the sample scored were less than 15, and only 0.1% scored more than 80. This is the first cross-national population-based survey to assess norms of activity and participation relevant to the general population of Taiwan. As such, the results of this survey can be used as a reference for comparing the activity and participation (AP) functioning of

  3. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Torben, Jørgensen; Schröder, Andreas Bak

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population....... The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health. RESULTS: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0%) had a profile characterized......, and self-perceived health. CONCLUSION: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The profiles have the potential to be used in further epidemiological studies on risk factors and prognosis of somatic symptoms but should be confirmed in other...

  4. Do general practitioners adhere to the guideline on infectious conjunctivitis? Results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 the guideline 'The Red Eye' was first published by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. The extent to which general practitioners adhere to this guideline is unclear. Recently, data on the management of infectious conjunctivitis by general practitioners became available from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. We measured the age-specific incidence of infectious conjunctivitis, described its management by Dutch general practitioners, and then compared these findings with the recommendations made in the guideline. Methods In 2001, over a 12-month period, data from all patient contacts with 195 general practitioners were taken from electronic medical records. Registration was episode-oriented; all consultations dealing with the same health problem were grouped into disease episodes. Data concerning all episodes of infectious conjunctivitis (ICPC-code F70 and sub codes were analysed. Results Over one year, 5,213 new and recurrent episodes of infectious conjunctivitis were presented to general practitioners from a population of N = 375,899, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 13.9 per 1000 person-years, varying from more than 80/1000 py in children up to one-year old, to less than 12/1000 py in children over the age of 4. Topical ophthalmic ointments were prescribed in 87% of the episodes, of which 80% was antibiotic treatment. Fusidic acid gel was most frequently prescribed (69%. In most episodes general practitioners did not adhere to the guideline. Conclusion In 2001, the management of infectious conjunctivitis by Dutch general practitioners was not in accordance with the recommendations of the consensus-based guideline published five years previously, despite its wide distribution. In 2006 this guideline was revised. Its successful implementation requires more than distribution alone. Probably the most effective way to achieve this is by following a model for systemic implementation.

  5. Prayer Attendance and General Health in the Iranian Adult Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotodehasl, Nemat; Ghorbani, Raheb; Mahdavi-Nejad, Gholamhosein; Haji-Aghajani, Saeed; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between prayer attendance and general health among adult urban population in Iran. A total of 470 males older than 17 years, chosen by multistage sampling, were investigated. The results showed that people who did not perform prayers compared to those who said prayers on time and performed Nafilahs (supererogatory prayers) were 2.87 (OR 2.87, 95 % CI 1.23-6.70, p = 0.015) times at risk of general health problems. In conclusion, the findings show that increasing the degree of people's belief in prayer can lead to improve general health.

  6. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  7. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  8. A Structure for Population Education: Goals, Generalizations, and Behavioral Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mary Turner; Wileman, Ralph E.

    This book is written to assist anyone who wants to learn about, teach, or plan curricula for population education. A structure is provided that educators can use for first graders or for high school students. Chapter 1 identifies the population phenomenon and the need to study it. Chapter 2 gives the elements of the structure: goals,…

  9. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  10. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  11. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  12. Results of the General Atomic deposition loop program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The transport behavior of fission products in flowing helium streams has been studied to determine their deposition and re-entrainment characteristics. Such information is required for the design and safety analysis of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). A small high-pressure, high-temperature loop was constructed for deposition studies at near-HTGR conditions. Five loop experiments were performed to determine the plateout distribution of iodine, strontium, and cesium. In general, the plateout activity showed an exponential decrease with distance from the source with enhanced plateout at flow disturber locations (contractions, bends, etc.) and especially in a chill section where the surface was cooled. Blowdown tests were performed on selected loop specimens to determine the amount of re-entrainment caused by abnormally high wall shear stresses. The liftoff fraction (fractional amount removed) was shown to vary approximately linearly with the shear ratio (defined as the ratio of the steady state wall shear stress under blowdown conditions to that under normal operating conditions). Blowdown results are also reported for pipe sections taken from the GAIL-IV in-pile loop. Attempts were made to correlate these plateout data with the PAD code (Plateout Activity Distribution) which was developed for prediction of plateout distribution in an HTGR primary circuit. Because of inadequate modeling of the effects of the chill section, the agreement was generally poor. Consequently, to test further the PAD code, a review of the available plateout literature was made. Plateout distributions in the Peach Bottom and Dragon HTGRs and the Battelle Memorial Institute out-of-pile loop were successfully modeled

  13. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  14. Evaluation of LLNL BSL-3 Maximum Credible Event Potential Consequence to the General Population and Surrounding Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-16

    The purpose of this evaluation is to establish reproducibility of the analysis and consequence results to the general population and surrounding environment in the LLNL Biosafety Level 3 Facility Environmental Assessment (LLNL 2008).

  15. Differences Between Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal Between Heart Disease and Generalal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mirlohi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Heart disease and emotional disorders often co-occur, but effective role in dysregulation of heart disease that is often overlooked. Evidence suggests that people with heart disease are more problems in regulating their emotions. The study compared the re-evaluation of cognitive emotion regulation commonly used two strategies- and suppression- between heart disease and the general population. Methods: Sixty men (30 with heart complaints and 30 without the condition were selected by convenience sampling method and they responded to the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John and a demographic questionnaire responded. To analyze the results and descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and inferential statistics, independent T-test was used SPSS software was used. Results: The result shows that heart disease and general population re-evaluation strategies groups (P<0.01. This is not only different from the strategy reassessment, but in different repression, too. (P <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that heart disease and general population used different strategies to regulate their emotions. The key to finding the heart disease group prefer repression to regulate their emotions.

  16. Antidepressants and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, B.; Tielemans, M.M.; Aaldering, B.R.; Eikendal, T.; Jaspers Focks, J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Oijen, M.G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently reported adverse effects of antidepressants, but antidepressants are also a treatment modality in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to assess the association between antidepressant use and gastrointestinal symptoms in the general

  17. Diagnostic devices for osteoporosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...... have been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials was performed for population-based studies that focused on technical methods that could either indicate bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, substitute for DXA...

  18. Thermal conductivity of water: Molecular dynamics and generalized hydrodynamics results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Davide; Tani, Alessandro

    1997-10-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out in the microcanonical ensemble at 300 and 255 K on the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model of water [Berendsen et al., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987)]. In addition to a number of static and dynamic properties, thermal conductivity λ has been calculated via Green-Kubo integration of the heat current time correlation functions (CF's) in the atomic and molecular formalism, at wave number k=0. The calculated values (0.67+/-0.04 W/mK at 300 K and 0.52+/-0.03 W/mK at 255 K) are in good agreement with the experimental data (0.61 W/mK at 300 K and 0.49 W/mK at 255 K). A negative long-time tail of the heat current CF, more apparent at 255 K, is responsible for the anomalous decrease of λ with temperature. An analysis of the dynamical modes contributing to λ has shown that its value is due to two low-frequency exponential-like modes, a faster collisional mode, with positive contribution, and a slower one, which determines the negative long-time tail. A comparison of the molecular and atomic spectra of the heat current CF has suggested that higher-frequency modes should not contribute to λ in this temperature range. Generalized thermal diffusivity DT(k) decreases as a function of k, after an initial minor increase at k=kmin. The k dependence of the generalized thermodynamic properties has been calculated in the atomic and molecular formalisms. The observed differences have been traced back to intramolecular or intermolecular rotational effects and related to the partial structure functions. Finally, from the results we calculated it appears that the SPC/E model gives results in better agreement with experimental data than the transferable intermolecular potential with four points TIP4P water model [Jorgensen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)], with a larger improvement for, e.g., diffusion, viscosities, and dielectric properties and a smaller one for thermal conductivity. The SPC/E model shares

  19. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of

  20. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  2. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horim Yi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  3. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  4. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan AO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  5. Further results on a family of generalized radiation integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galue, Leda; Kiryakova, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we continue an investigation of a family of generalized radiation integrals. Several recurrence relations are presented. By differentiation of these integrals with respect to the parameters λ and μ we obtain also various integrals that include the logarithmic function in the integrand. Finally, we propose an algorithm for numerical evaluation of the generalized radiation integrals and illustrate it by tables of their values computed for selected values of the parameters. (author)

  6. General results for the Marshall and Olkin's family of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAGNER BARRETO-SOUZA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marshall and Olkin (1997 introduced an interesting method of adding a parameter to a well-established distribution. However, they did not investigate general mathematical properties of their family of distributions. We provide for this family of distributions general expansions for the density function, explicit expressions for the moments and moments of the order statistics. Several especial models are investigated. We discuss estimation of the model parameters. An application to a real data set is presented for illustrative purposes.

  7. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  8. Mortality Rates in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis Compared With the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Ladelund, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about mortality rates (MRs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with cirrhosis is limited. This study aimed to estimate all-cause MRs among patients with CHC with or without cirrhosis in Denmark compared with the general population. Methods: Patients registered...... in the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C with CHC and a liver fibrosis assessment were eligible for inclusion. Liver fibrosis was assessed by means of liver biopsy, transient elastography, and clinical cirrhosis. Up to 20 sex- and age-matched individuals per patient were identified in the general population....... Data were extracted from nationwide registries. Results: A total of 3410 patients with CHC (1014 with cirrhosis), and 67 315 matched individuals were included. Adjusted MR ratios (MRRs) between patients with or without cirrhosis and their comparison cohorts were 5.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4...

  9. Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor’s law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giometto, A.; Formentin, Marco; Rinaldo, A.; Cohen, J.; Maritan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 25 (2015), s. 7755-7760 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fluctuation scaling * multiplicative growth * power law * environmental stochasticity * Markovian environment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/formentin-0444162.pdf

  10. General siting regulation and population distribution criteria for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new national regulation for nuclear power plant siting is described. The main body of the regulation is similar in contents to the IAEA Code of Practice in siting, but exceeds its scope in certain areas and covers all aspects of the impact of the plant on the population and the environment of the region, including non-radiological effects. The regulation is accompanied by appendices which refer to site suitability criteria with respect to the radiological consequences from the operational states of the plant and with respect to accidents, including core-melt accidents; these reflect the particular geographic and demographic situation of Greece

  11. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  12. Health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and the general population in South Korea: Rainbow Connection Project I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.

  13. Obesity and central fat pattern among Greenland Inuit and a general population of Denmark (Inter99)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Glümer, C; Bjerregaard, P

    2003-01-01

    pressure, triglyceride, and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than the Danish participants at any given level of obesity. Fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels within obesity categories were not different in the two populations. Adjustment for physical activity, smoking, school education, and alcohol......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the obesity observed among the Inuit of Greenland and in a general Danish population was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances. DESIGN: Comparison of data from two population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999-2001. SUBJECTS...... received a standard 75 g OGTT. s-Triglyceride, s-HDL cholesterol, fasting and 2 h p-glucose and s-insulin were analysed. Blood pressure was measured. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by a questionnaire and interview. RESULTS: The Inuit had lower levels of 2-h glucose and insulin, blood...

  14. General practitioners and national health insurance results of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.

  15. Adding risks: Some general results about time diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, L.; Kin, L.

    2000-01-01

    We show in general that risky investments become more attractive asthe investment horizon (n) lengthens.Specifically, any investor's maximal expected utility directlyincreases with n, as well as the investor's willingness toallocate more capital to the risky assets if his optimal strategy isbounded

  16. A Duality Result for the Generalized Erlang Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanpeng Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the generalized Erlang risk model and its dual model. By using a conditional measure-preserving correspondence between the two models, we derive an identity for two interesting conditional probabilities. Applications to the discounted joint density of the surplus prior to ruin and the deficit at ruin are also discussed.

  17. A Combinatorial Proof of a Result on Generalized Lucas Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laugier Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We give a combinatorial proof of an elementary property of generalized Lucas polynomials, inspired by [1]. These polynomials in s and t are defined by the recurrence relation 〈n〉 = s〈n-1〉+t〈n-2〉 for n ≥ 2. The initial values are 〈0〉 = 2; 〈1〉= s, respectively.

  18. Prevalence of constipation among the general population: a community-based survey from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Mamta; Saini, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent health problem leading to great discomfort to the person and affects his or her quality of life. It is considered to be highly prevalent in the general population, but there is little data supporting the findings. This study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence of constipation and its associated factors among the general population of Dadu Majra Colony, UT, Chandigarh, India. A total of 505 individuals were interviewed through structured questionnaire based on ROME II criteria for constipation. Results revealed that the prevalence of self-reported constipation within the last 1 year was 24.8% whereas 16.8% of participants had constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Most of the subjects (83%) were within the age group of 18-59 years with mean age (years) of 38.64 ± 15.57. Constipation was significantly more frequent in females than in males (20% vs. 13%) and in nonworking population than in working population (20% vs. 12%). Poor dietary habits, lesser fluid intake per day, and lesser physical activity were found to be significant factors leading to the constipation. About 18% of constipated subjects reported physicians' consultation, whereas 8% reported the use of laxatives to relieve their constipation.

  19. Global existence result for the generalized Peterlin viscoelastic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; Nečasová, Šárka; Renardy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2017), s. 2950-2964 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Peterlin viscoelastic equations * global existence * weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/16M1068505

  20. Parenting behaviour described by mothers in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret J J; Raynor, Alex; Cornah, Deborah; Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2002-03-01

    To collect mothers' reports of the range of behaviours used by them in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. A cross-sectional study using an interview with both semi-structured and open-ended question routes. SAMPLING FRAME: The population of mothers with 10-year-old children living in the New Forest region of Hampshire, UK. Mothers (n=67), selected from the sampling frame, were interviewed about the range of parenting behaviours they used in the management of their children's difficult behaviour. Mothers reported a wide range of behaviours. Both authoritative (e.g. reasoning was mentioned by 42%) and authoritarian (e.g. the use of physical punishment was mentioned by 37%) behaviours were mentioned frequently. Although the different behaviours within these domains were intercorrelated, there was little overlap between the two domains. The use of praise for good behaviour seemed to be independent of other behaviours. There was no association between mothers' parenting behaviours and the behaviour problems of their children. These data suggest that parenting takes many forms, with variations of behaviour across the 'normal' range being unlikely to represent a significant risk to children's development. Public funding for parenting education should be targeted at those children who are at significant risk from extreme forms of parenting.

  1. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Wojtczak

    2017-09-01

    The authors present the first Polish neurootologic survey of epidemiology of dizziness in the general population. This condition is common in the general population, and this study indicates its prevalence in 16.4% of the inhabitants of the town and district of Bytów. It is recommendable that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  3. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A

  4. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  5. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  6. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  7. Subset selection for an epsilon-best population : efficiency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    An almost best or an \\epsilon-best population is defined as a population with location parameter on a distance not larger than \\epsilon (\\geq 0) from the best population (with largest value of the location parameter). For the subset selection tables with the relative efficiency of selecting an

  8. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalinin in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , human studies of plasma NGAL are still limited. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed 5599 randomly selected men and women from the community in the fourth Copenhagen Heart Study. Plasma NGAL was measured at study entry. Participants were followed for 10 years. During follow-up, 20% died (n...

  10. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  11. Epidemiology of vestibular vertigo: a neurotologic survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K; von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T

    2005-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of vestibular vertigo in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors. The neurotologic survey had a two-stage general population sampling design: nationwide modified random digit dialing sampling for participation in the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) with screening of a random sample of 4,869 participants for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by detailed neurotologic interviews developed through piloting and validation (n = 1,003, response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for vestibular vertigo were rotational vertigo, positional vertigo, or recurrent dizziness with nausea and oscillopsia or imbalance. Vestibular vertigo was detected by our interview with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 84[corrected]% in a concurrent validation study using neurotology clinic diagnoses as an accepted standard (n = 61). The lifetime prevalence of vestibular vertigo was 7.4[corrected]%, the 1-year prevalence was 4.9[corrected]%, and the incidence was 1.4[corrected]%. In 80% of affected individuals, vertigo resulted in a medical consultation, interruption of daily activities, or sick leave. Female sex, age, lower educational level, and various comorbid conditions, including tinnitus, depression, and several cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, were associated with vestibular vertigo in the past year in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, only female sex, self-reported depression, tinnitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia had an independent effect on vestibular vertigo. Vestibular vertigo is common in the general population, affecting [corrected] 5% of adults in 1 year. The frequency and health care impact of vestibular symptoms at the population level have been underestimated.

  12. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  14. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  15. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  16. Generalized information theory: aims, results, and open problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klir, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The principal purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of generalized information theory (GIT): a research program whose objective is to develop a broad treatment of uncertainty-based information, not restricted to classical notions of uncertainty. After a brief overview of classical information theories, a broad framework for formalizing uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information of a great spectrum of conceivable types is sketched. The various theories of imprecise probabilities that have already been developed within this framework are then surveyed, focusing primarily on some important unifying principles applying to all these theories. This is followed by introducing two higher levels of the theories of imprecise probabilities: (i) the level of measuring the amount of relevant uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive, prescriptive, diagnostic, etc.) in any situation formalizable in each given theory, and (ii) the level of some methodological principles of uncertainty, which are contingent upon the capability to measure uncertainty and the associated uncertainty-based information. Various issues regarding both the measurement of uncertainty and the uncertainty principles are discussed. Again, the focus is on unifying principles applicable to all the theories. Finally, the current status of GIT is assessed and future research in the area is discussed

  17. Elevated plasma YKL-40, lipids and lipoproteins, and ischemic vascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically elevated YKL-40 is associated with elevated lipids and lipoproteins and with increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. METHODS: We conducted cohort and Mendelian randomization studies in 96 110 individuals from...... the Danish general population, with measured plasma levels of YKL-40 (n=21 647), plasma lipids and lipoproteins (n=94 461), and CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype (n=94 579). RESULTS: From 1977 to 2013, 3256 individuals developed ischemic stroke, 5629 ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 4183 myocardial infarction...

  18. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding proteins...... in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene...

  19. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial neural network models for prediction of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in general Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for cardiovascular autonomic (CA) dysfunction in the general population. Methods We analyzed a previous dataset based on a population sample consisted of 2,092 individuals aged 30–80 years. The prediction models were derived from an exploratory set using ANN analysis. Performances of these prediction models were evaluated in the validation set. Results Univariate analysis indicated that 14 risk factors showed statistically significant association with CA dysfunction (P < 0.05). The mean area under the receiver-operating curve was 0.762 (95% CI 0.732–0.793) for prediction model developed using ANN analysis. The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were similar in the prediction models was 0.751, 0.665, 0.330 and 0.924, respectively. All HL statistics were less than 15.0. Conclusion ANN is an effective tool for developing prediction models with high value for predicting CA dysfunction among the general population. PMID:23902963

  1. General two-species interacting Lotka-Volterra system: Population dynamics and wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoqi; Wang, Mao-Xiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2018-05-01

    The population dynamics of two interacting species modeled by the Lotka-Volterra (LV) model with general parameters that can promote or suppress the other species is studied. It is found that the properties of the two species' isoclines determine the interaction of species, leading to six regimes in the phase diagram of interspecies interaction; i.e., there are six different interspecific relationships described by the LV model. Four regimes allow for nontrivial species coexistence, among which it is found that three of them are stable, namely, weak competition, mutualism, and predator-prey scenarios can lead to win-win coexistence situations. The Lyapunov function for general nontrivial two-species coexistence is also constructed. Furthermore, in the presence of spatial diffusion of the species, the dynamics can lead to steady wavefront propagation and can alter the population map. Propagating wavefront solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. The steady wavefront speeds are obtained analytically via nonlinear dynamics analysis and verified by numerical solutions. In addition to the inter- and intraspecific interaction parameters, the intrinsic speed parameters of each species play a decisive role in species populations and wave properties. In some regimes, both species can copropagate with the same wave speeds in a finite range of parameters. Our results are further discussed in the light of possible biological relevance and ecological implications.

  2. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work....... Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand...

  3. Serum chemerin levels are inversely associated with renal function in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zylla, Stephanie; Rettig, Rainer; Völzke, Henry

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemerin has been found to be highly expressed in the kidneys of rodents and has been suggested to affect metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related phenotypes which are in turn related to kidney damage. Only few clinical studies have addressed the relation between circulating chemerin and renal...... function in humans, and no population-based analyses have yet been performed. The potential influence of MetS-related phenotypes on the assumed association has been largely neglected. We aimed to investigate the association of serum chemerin with renal function in a general population with special regard......GFR and revealed that each increase in chemerin per 25 ng/mL was associated with an about threefold higher odds of chronic kidney disease [odds ratio 2.72 (95% confidence interval 2.26-3.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong inverse association between serum chemerin levels and renal function...

  4. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

     Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... than age and sex, classical socioeconomic factors do not play a great a role in determining drinking patterns. Social integrative factors in particular influence women's drinking. Conclusions: With respect to the rest of Europe and North America, Danes consume high levels of alcohol with a large...

  5. Rapid Population Growth-Cause or Result of Global Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    Explosive population growth is a symptom of the world's unjust and inequitable social, political, and economic conditions. The current rate of growth is staggering, particularly in the cities of the underdeveloped countries. While some progress has been made in slowing population growth, several factors still contribute to its momentum. One of…

  6. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  7. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  8. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence...... of RAS in the general population, and to analyse possible associations between lifestyle factors and experiencing RAS. METHODS: A web-based survey comprising 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish Civil Registration System. Items regarding experience of RAS (prolonged coughing, shortness...

  9. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  10. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic Compression Experiment at General Fusion with Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlea, Carl; Khalzov, Ivan; Hirose, Akira; Xiao, Chijin; Fusion Team, General

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic compression experiment at GF was a repetitive non-destructive test to study plasma physics applicable to Magnetic Target Fusion compression. A spheromak compact torus (CT) is formed with a co-axial gun into a containment region with an hour-glass shaped inner flux conserver, and an insulating outer wall. External coil currents keep the CT off the outer wall (levitation) and then rapidly compress it inwards. The optimal external coil configuration greatly improved both the levitated CT lifetime and the rate of shots with good compressional flux conservation. As confirmed by spectrometer data, the improved levitation field profile reduced plasma impurity levels by suppressing the interaction between plasma and the insulating outer wall during the formation process. We developed an energy and toroidal flux conserving finite element axisymmetric MHD code to study CT formation and compression. The Braginskii MHD equations with anisotropic heat conduction were implemented. To simulate plasma / insulating wall interaction, we couple the vacuum field solution in the insulating region to the full MHD solution in the remainder of the domain. We see good agreement between simulation and experiment results. Partly funded by NSERC and MITACS Accelerate.

  12. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  14. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hannich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Methods. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25–85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and HbA1c. Results. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p=0.03 and non-HDL-C (β-coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p=0.01 as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C (β-coefficient = −0.022, standard error = 0.011, p=0.04. Conclusions. The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  15. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam H Shah

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches.Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population.In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09-1.24 with myocardial infarction (MI. Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07-3.78; P = 0.031 increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000.Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation.

  16. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  17. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  18. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  19. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...... on lipid traits in 9,259 individuals from the general population. Heterozygosity for ABCA1 mutations was identified in 10% of individuals with low HDL-C only. Three of 6 nonsynonymous SNPs (V771M, V825I, and R1587K) were associated with increases or decreases in HDL-C in women in the general population...

  20. Detection of sequential activation of left atrium and coronary sinus musculature in the general population

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    Masaki Ota, MD

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Far-field LA potentials are often recorded in the CS during sequential LA and CSM activation in the general population. The timing of LA potentials in CS recordings reflected the direction of conduction across the CSM.

  1. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  2. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  3. Genetic variation in ABCA1 predicts ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, BG; Jensen, Gorm B

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population.......We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....

  4. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  5. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...

  6. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...

  7. Views on life and death of physicians, nurses, cancer patients and general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Noriyasu; Kuroda, Yujiro; Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kanai, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kotani, Midori; Kitazawa, Yutaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan and examine factors affecting these views. We targeted 3,140 physicians, 470 nurses, 450 cancer patients, and 3,000 individuals from the general population. We used the Death Attitudes Inventory (DAI) to measure attitudes toward life and death. The collection rates were 35% (1,093/3,140), 78% (366/470), 69% (310/450), and 39% (1,180/3,000) for physicians, nurses, patients, and the general population, respectively. We found that age, sex, social role (i.e., physician, nurse, cancer patient, and general population) were significantly correlated with DAI subscales. Compared with general population, attitudes toward death of physicians, nurses and cancer patients differed significantly even after adjusted their age and sex. Our study is the first to analyze differences in views on life and death among physicians, nurses, cancer patients, and the general population in Japan.

  8. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a

  9. Autistic Traits in the General Population: What Mediates the Link with Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…

  10. Thyroid status and mortality in nonagenarians from long-lived families and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A.; van der Spoel, Evie; Beekman, Marian

    2017-01-01

    (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured. In nonagenarians from long-lived families and from the general population, associations between thyroid parameters and mortality were similar. We found no interaction between study population and parameters of thyroid status...

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in

  12. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...

  13. Quality of life and associated factors in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....

  14. Hepatitis B, C, and D virus infection showing distinct patterns between injection drug users and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Fengfan; Wen, Bo; Luo, Shan; Yuan, Dongping; Lin, Yingbiao; Ou, Wensheng; Tang, Ping; Dai, Guozhi; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Wenpei; Qu, Xiaowang

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are known to be prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs); however, the relationship between the molecular epidemiologic features of hepatitis virus infection in high-risk individuals and the general population has not yet been established. In total, 1049 IDUs and 672 individuals who underwent physical examinations at Chenzhou hospital, Hunan Province, China, were enrolled. HBV, HCV, and HDV infections were screened with serologic tests in both populations. HBsAg-positive, anti-HCV IgG-positive, and anti-HDV IgG-positive samples were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing. Significantly higher HBV (21.54 vs 16.52%, P = 0.01), HCV (45.95% vs 1.34%, P infections were detected in IDUs compared with the general population. The dual infection of HBV/HCV or HBV/HDV was also significantly higher in IDUs than in the general population. HBV genotype B and HDV genotype II were dominants in both populations. HCV infection showed genotype 6a (49.52%) dominant in IDUs, but genotype 1b accounted for 50% infection, which was followed by genotype 6a (33.33%) in the general population. Higher viral loads were associated with HBV genotype B and HCV genotype 6a compared with non-dominant genotypic infections. HBV and HDV infections shared similar patterns by IDUs and the general populations, and HCV infection exhibited distinct features between two populations. Our results suggest different molecular epidemiologic characteristics of HBV, HCV, and HDV infection in two populations. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  16. A clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) in general population studies (Denmark, Norway, and Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Vassend, Olav; Bjørndal, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    the factor structure. The scalability of the traditional SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, hostility, and interpersonal sensitivity) as well as the affective subscales (depression and anxiety and ADHD) were tested by Mokken’s item response theory model. Results: Across the three general population studies...... the traditional scaled SCL-90-R factor including 83 items was identified by PCA. The Mokken analysis accepted the scalability of both the general factor and the clinical SCL-90-R subscales under examination. Conclusion: The traditional, scaled, general 83 item SCL-90-R scale is a valid measure of general...

  17. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  18. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  19. Unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms: A Japanese general adult population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  1. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  2. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K; Eisenhofer, G; Greenberg, B D; George, T; Berlin, F; Zametkin, A; Ernst, M; Breakefield, X O

    1998-01-01

    Lack of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) due to either Xp chromosomal deletions or alterations in the coding sequence of the gene for this enzyme are associated with marked changes in monoamine metabolism and appear to be associated with variable cognitive deficits and behavioral changes in humans and in transgenic mice. In mice, some of the most marked behavioral changes are ameliorated by pharmacologically-induced reductions in serotonin synthesis during early development, raising the question of possible therapeutic interventions in humans with MAO deficiency states. At the present time, only one multi-generational family and a few other individuals with marked MAO-A deficiency states have been identified and studied in detail. Although MAO deficiency states associated with Xp chromosomal deletions were identified by distinct symptoms (including blindness in infancy) produced by the contiguous Norrie disease gene, the primarily behavioral phenotype of individuals with the MAO mutation is less obvious. This paper reports a sequential research design and preliminary results from screening several hundred volunteers in the general population and from putative high-risk groups for possible MAO deficiency states. These preliminary results suggest that marked MAO deficiency states are very rare.

  3. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides: testing in general populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemos, J.A. de; Hildebrandt, P.

    2008-01-01

    Screening of general populations with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) holds promise for the detection of significant underlying cardiac structural and functional abnormalities, as well as for the early detection of the propensity to develop future cardiovascular events....... In comparative studies to date, NT-proBNP performs at least as well as BNP in the detection of heart disease and prognostication in the general population. In some studies and subgroups, NT-proBNP appears to outperform BNP in population screening. More needs to be learned about noncardiac sources of NT...

  4. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-07-20

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity. In this study, we investigate 20,152 general-population serum samples from southern Vietnam collected between 2009 and 2013 from which we report antibody titers to the influenza virus HA1 protein using a continuous titer measurement from a protein microarray assay. We describe the distributions of antibody titers to subtypes 2009 H1N1 and H3N2. Using a model selection approach to fit mixture distributions, we show that 2009 H1N1 antibody titers fall into four titer subgroups and that H3N2 titers fall into three subgroups. For H1N1, our interpretation is that the two highest-titer subgroups correspond to recent and historical infection, which is consistent with 2009 pandemic attack rates. Similar interpretations are available for H3N2, but right-censoring of titers makes these interpretations difficult to validate.

  5. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  6. Knowledge about urology in the general population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Although significant proportion of our population know little about the field of urology, the overall result is better when compared to North American population. The clarity of Arabic terminology related to the field may explain the difference.

  7. General self-efficacy in the Norwegian population: Differences and similarities between sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K; Schou-Bredal, Inger

    2018-02-01

    General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly used in health research with clinical populations, but are less explored in relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in general populations. This study investigated GSE in relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the general population in Norway. As part of a larger national survey, the GSE scale was administered to a general population sample, and 1787 out of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) completed the scale. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to examine factors independently associated with GSE. GSE was lower for older compared to younger participants ( p employment were independently associated with higher GSE. Age moderated the associations between gender and employment on one hand, and GSE on the other. The association between being male and having higher GSE was more pronounced in younger age, as was the association between being employed and having higher GSE. Male gender and being employed were related to higher GSE among persons in the general population in Norway, and these associations were stronger among persons of younger age. The findings are considered fairly representative for the Norwegian population.

  8. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  9. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  10. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  11. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  12. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  13. Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population

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    Smit Henriëtte A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focused on respiratory symptoms due to occupational exposures in a contemporary general population cohort. Subjects were from the Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (MORGEN. The composition of this population enabled estimation of respiratory risks due to occupation from the recent past for both men and women. Methods The study subjects (aged 20–59 were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status. Results Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27, 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28, 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80, and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48 were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69. Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.

  14. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000's: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV's unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34-1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59-2.67). These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

  15. Creatinine, eGFR and association with myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease and early death in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that moderately elevated plasma creatinine levels and decreased levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and early death in the general population. METHODS: We...... studied 10,489 individuals with a plasma creatinine measurement and calculated eGFR from the Danish general population, of which 1498 developed myocardial infarction, 3001 ischemic heart disease, and 7573 died during 32 years follow-up. RESULTS: Cumulative incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic...... heart disease as a function of age increased with increasing levels of creatinine, and survival decreased (log-rank trends: creatinine levels

  16. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Bracci, Massimo [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Mangano, Dario [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ricceri, Vincenzo [Division of Radiology - Hospital of Biancavilla “Maria SS. Addolorata”, ASP Catania, Biancavilla (Italy); Musumeci, Andrea [Division of Radiology – University Hospital “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnology Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30 km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9 cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2 cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1 cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1 cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were

  17. Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipimo Peter J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was

  18. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. Material and Methods: A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Results: Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score ≥15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Discussion: Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients’ well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital. PMID:20628652

  19. Elevated C-reactive protein and late-onset bipolar disorder in 78 809 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    is causal. METHOD: We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses with a median follow-up time of 5.9 years (interquartile range: 4.4-7.6) in 78 809 individuals from the general population, and used genetic variants influencing CRP levels to perform a Mendelian randomisation study. RESULTS: Elevated...

  20. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Traditional Chinese version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Ling; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Huang, Ying-Zu; Wong, Alice M. K.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a common symptom in the general population and has a substantial effect on individuals’ quality of life. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) has been widely used to quantify the impact of fatigue, but no Traditional Chinese translation has yet been validated. The goal of this study was to translate the MFI from English into Traditional Chinese (‘the MFI-TC’) and subsequently to examine its validity and reliability. Methods The study recruited a convenience sample of 123 people from various age groups in Taiwan. The MFI was examined using a two-step process: (1) translation and back-translation of the instrument; and (2) examination of construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measurement error. The validity and reliability of the MFI-TC were assessed by factor analysis, Spearman rho correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman analysis. All participants completed the Short-Form-36 Health Survey Taiwan Form (SF-36-T) and the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) concurrently to test the convergent validity of the MFI-TC. Test-retest reliability was assessed by readministration of the MFI-TC after a 1-week interval. Results Factor analysis confirmed the four dimensions of fatigue: general/physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. A four-factor model was extracted, combining general fatigue and physical fatigue as one factor. The results demonstrated moderate convergent validity when correlating fatigue (MFI-TC) with quality of life (SF-36-T) and sleep disturbances (PSQI) (Spearman's rho = 0.68 and 0.47, respectively). Cronbach’s alpha for the MFI-TC total scale and subscales ranged from 0.73 (mental fatigue subscale) to 0.92 (MFI-TC total scale). ICCs ranged from 0.85 (reduced motivation) to 0.94 (MFI-TC total scale), and

  2. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem. 

  3. Prevalence and cost of hospital medical errors in the general and elderly United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.

  4. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites level in urine of general population in eight provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Chunguang; Liu, Cuilan; Wang, Gang; Song, Xinkui; Huang, Hanlin; Zhu, Baoli; Shao, Hua; Zhao, Chunxiang; Han, Changcheng; Peng, Shanzhuo; Jiang, Xianlong; Yu, Shanfa; Ji, Hongrong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Sun, Ran; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2014-02-01

    To assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monohydroxy metabolites in urine of general population in China among 8 provinces, provide the baseline of the metabolites in the general population. From 2009 to 2010, 18 120 subjects of general population aged 6-60 years old were recruited from 24 areas among 8 provinces in east, west and central areas of China mainland by cluster random sampling. The information of the living environment and health condition were collected by questionnaire and spot urine samples were collected, 4 680 urine samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and monohydroxy metabolites distribution in urine among groups of gender and ages were analysed. Geometric means (GM) of 2-naphthol, 1-naphthol, 3-phenanthrol and 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in urine (95%CI) were 1.85 (1.75-1.95), 1.55 (1.50-1.61), 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.82 (0.78-0.85) µg/L, respectively;and median are 2.44, population were significantly different (P population aged 6-12, 13-16, 17-20, 21-30, 31-45 and 46-60 years old were 1.60, 1.56, 1.69, 2.23, 1.91 and 1.86 µg/L (χ(2) = 17.90, P population were different, it provided a basic data for the further study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomonitoring in the population.

  5. Self-reported Sleep Duration and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a General Population of Japanese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sentaro; Arima, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Zaid, Maryam; Torii, Sayuki; Horie, Minoru; Murata, Kiyoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Aim: There are few data regarding associations between sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis in Japan. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of self-reported sleep duration with calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Japanese men. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1093 randomly selected men from Kusatsu City, Japan. Average sleep duration on weekdays was estimated through questionnaire; CAC by computed tomography; and carotid IMT by ultrasonography. Results: The prevalence of CAC was 50.0% for participants with sleep duration 0.1). Conclusion: Self-reported sleep duration was not associated with increased CAC or carotid IMT in a general population of Japanese men. PMID:28747590

  6. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation, and renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes encoding...... in the ACE gene; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa...... proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...

  7. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  8. Serum soluble CD163 predicts risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger J; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Moestrup, Søren K

    2011-01-01

    has developed. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 8849 study participants from the general population, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, was followed for 18 years for incidence of type 2 diabetes. Risk of disease was calculated according to age- and sex-adjusted percentile categories of serum s......BACKGROUND: Activation of adipose tissue macrophages with concomitant low-grade inflammation is believed to play a central role in the development of type 2 diabetes. We tested whether a new macrophage-derived biomarker, soluble CD163 (sCD163), identifies at-risk individuals before overt disease......CD163 concentrations: 0%-33%, 34%-66%, 67%-90%, 91%-95%, and 96%-100%. RESULTS: A total of 568 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The cumulative incidence increased with increasing baseline sCD163 (trend P

  9. A General Framework for Setting Quantitative Population Objectives for Wildlife Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art8Quantitative population objectives are necessary to successfully achieve conservation goals of secure or robust wildlife populations. However, existing methods for setting quantitative population objectives commonly require extensive species-specific population viability data, which are often unavailable or are based on estimates of historical population sizes, which may no longer represent feasible objectives. Conservation practitioners require an alternative, science-based method for setting long-term quantitative population objectives. We reviewed conservation biology literature to develop a general conceptual framework that represents conservation biology principles and identifies key milestones a population would be expected to pass in the process of becoming a recovered or robust population. We then synthesized recent research to propose general hypotheses for the orders of magnitude at which most populations would be expected to reach each milestone. The framework is structured as a hierarchy of four population sizes, ranging from very small populations at increased risk of inbreeding depression and extirpation (< 1,000 adults to large populations with minimized risk of extirpation (> 50,000 adults, along with additional modifiers describing steeply declining and resilient populations. We also discuss the temporal and geographic scales at which this framework should be applied. To illustrate the application of this framework to conservation planning, we outline our use of the framework to set long-term population objectives for a multi-species regional conservation plan, and discuss additional considerations in applying this framework to other systems. This general framework provides a transparent, science-based method by which conservation practitioners and stakeholders can agree on long-term population objectives of an appropriate magnitude, particularly when the alternative approaches are

  10. Glyphosate in the general population and in applicators: a critical review of studies on exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R

    2016-09-01

    The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10  -   6  mg/kg body mass (b.m.)/d was estimated. Assuming consumption of surface water without treatment, the 90th centile measured concentration would result in a consumed dose of 2.25 × 10  -   5  mg/kg b.m./d. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) of consumed doses in food provided a median exposure of 0.005 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.002-0.013). Based on tolerance levels, the conservative estimate by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for exposure of the general population via food and water was 0.088 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.058-0.23). For applicators, 90th centiles for systemic exposures based on biomonitoring and dosimetry (normalized for penetration through the skin) were 0.0014 and 0.021 mg/kg b.m./d, respectively. All of these exposures are less than the reference dose and the acceptable daily intakes proposed by several regulatory agencies, thus supporting a conclusion that even for these highly exposed populations the exposures were within regulatory limits.

  11. The relationship of quality of life and distress in prostate cancer patients compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Lehmann-Laue, Antje; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ried, Alexander; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-06-30

    The aim of this study is two-fold. The first part compares quality of life (QoL) data of prostate cancer patients with those of a representative and age-specific sample of the general population and analyzes the influence of cancer related as well as socio-demographic parameters on QoL. Secondly, differences in QoL depending on the experienced psychological distress will be shown both in prostate cancer patients and in the general population. A sample of 265 prostate cancer patients completed both the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during their stay in the hospital. A total HADS cut off score of 15 was used to indicate psychological distress and significant emotional concerns in patients and men of the general population. The results of the patients were compared with those of the general population (N=444). Prostate cancer patients reported significantly worse levels of social and emotional functioning as well as more symptoms like insomnia, constipation and diarrhea compared to the general population. Patients and men of the general population with a total HADS score >/=15 reported lower QoL in all sub-scales except for diarrhea in comparison to people without distress. Psychological distress is accompanied by lower QoL and therefore should be taken into consideration when QoL is assessed. Furthermore, clinicians should be trained by professionals to detect distress in their patients and to pay more attention to their emotional concerns, which are strongly associated with the patients' well-being and QoL during their stay in hospital.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms among rural Northeast general population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous researches aiming to estimate the association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms come out with inconsistent results. Besides, most of them are conducted in the developed areas. There is lack of the data from rural China. The aim of this study is to confirm whether gender difference exists among the relationship between MetS, metabolic components and depressive symptoms in the rural Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis enrolled 11430 subjects’ aged ≥35 from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6% among rural Northeast general population and the prevalence of MetS and its components were 39.0% for MetS, 42.9% for abdominal obesity, 67.1% for elevated blood pressure, 47.1% for hyperglycemia, 32.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 29.5% for low HDL-C. Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01 but not MetS (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94–1.30, P = 0.23. Moreover, depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47, P = 0.05 in women only. But once adjusted for menopause status, depressive symptoms were no longer statically associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99–1.46, P = 0.07. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component but not MetS in rural Chinese population. Routine lipid screening should be recommended among rural depressed residents especially among female.

  13. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  14. Low Use and Adherence to Maintenance Medication in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...... with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and classified them according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow limitation grades 1-4. Dispensing of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta2-agonists, long-acting anti...... for COPD in the general population was associated with the severity of COPD as defined by GOLD, but even in severe and very severe COPD, use and adherence was low....

  15. Associations between urinary phthalate concentrations and semen quality parameters in a general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M.S.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Chen, Z.; Ye, A.; Kannan, K.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are urinary phthalate concentrations associated with altered semen quality parameters among males recruited from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary levels of metabolites of phthalate diesters are associated with lower total sperm counts, larger sperm head sizes, and higher percentages of morphologically abnormal sperm. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY High dose experiments in rats implicate phthalates as anti-androgens. Studies involving infertile men seeking care suggest that phthalates influence measures of semen quality raising concern about the implications for men in the general population. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective cohort study comprised 501 male partners in couples discontinuing contraception to become pregnant, who were recruited from 16 US counties using population-based sampling frameworks from 2005 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Urine and semen samples were obtained at baseline from 473 (94%) men, of whom 378 (80%) men provided a second sample the following month. Urine was analyzed for 14 monoester metabolites of phthalate diesters by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Semen samples were analyzed for 34 quality parameters categorized as general, motility, morphology, sperm head and sperm chromatin structure. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary mono-[2-(carboxymethyl) hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isononyl phthalate (MNP) were significantly associated with lower total sperm counts and concentrations, larger sperm head sizes, higher proportions of megalo head sperm morphology, and/or other morphological changes. Urinary mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCPP) were significantly associated with lower sperm motility, and urine mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was significantly associated with higher sperm motility. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR

  16. Health Effects of Job Insecurity among Employees in Swiss General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...

  17. Food Addiction: Its Prevalence and Significant Association with Obesity in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...

  18. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  19. [Relationship between subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, Oscar; Suazo, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, Alberto; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Valcárcel, César; Díez, Álvaro; Grau, Adriana; Domínguez, Cristina; Gallardo, Ricardo; Molina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated to negative life outcomes in the general population, but their relationship with cognitive performance is still not well understood. Assessing the relationship between performance in cognitive domains and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population may also help understand the handicap attributed to clinical psychosis, in which these alterations are present. Subclinical and cognitive assessments were obtained in 203 participants from the general population by means of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The positive and negative subclinical symptoms and their relationship with age and cognition were examined, followed by assessing the influence of subclinical depression scores on the possible relationships between those subclinical psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits. Inverse relationships were found between frequency in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences positive dimension and motor speed, and frequency and distress in the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences negative dimension and motor speed. A direct relationship was also found between distress scores of the positive dimension and executive functions. Both positive and negative subclinical symptoms were related to depression scores. Psychotic symptoms, similar to those in the clinical population, may be associated with cognitive deficits in the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; ppolice officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; ppolice officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  1. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  2. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  3. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  4. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...... risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population....

  5. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rask

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. Methods We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29–64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing. The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 % and Kurdish origin men (32 % and women (57 % compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5–12 %. In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7–17 % was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish, were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07–6.29, Kurds

  6. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  7. Functional Investigations of HNF1A Identify Rare Variants as Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Laeya Abdoli; Aukrust, Ingvild; Flannick, Jason; Molnes, Janne; Burtt, Noel; Molven, Anders; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Variants in HNF1A encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1A) are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young form 3 (MODY 3) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether functional classification of HNF1A rare coding variants can inform models of diabetes risk prediction in the general population by analyzing the effect of 27 HNF1A variants identified in well-phenotyped populations (n = 4,115). Bioinformatics tools classified 11 variants as likely pathogenic and showed no association with diabetes risk (combined minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.22%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 0.73–5.60; P = 0.18). However, a different set of 11 variants that reduced HNF-1A transcriptional activity to diabetes in the general population (combined MAF 0.22%; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.99–12.80; P = 0.0007). Our functional investigations indicate that 0.44% of the population carry HNF1A variants that result in a substantially increased risk for developing diabetes. These results suggest that functional characterization of variants within MODY genes may overcome the limitations of bioinformatics tools for the purposes of presymptomatic diabetes risk prediction in the general population. PMID:27899486

  8. Predictors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders in a general population in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromaa, Esa; Tolvanen, Asko; Tuulari, Jyrki; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-04-01

    For planning effective and well-targeted initiatives to reduce stigma, we need to identify which factors are associated with stigmatizing of people with mental disorders. This study examined how well a combination of variables predicts stigmatizing attitudes and discrimination in a general population. A survey questionnaire was sent to 10,000 persons aged 15-80 years residing in western Finland. Attitudes were measured using a scale consisting of negative stereotypes about people with depression and stereotypical beliefs connected with mental problems, while discrimination was measured by a social distance scale. Predictors included demographic variables, mental health resources, personal experience of depression or psychological distress, knowing someone who suffers from mental health problems, and negative stereotypical beliefs. Although 86% of the population thought that depression is a real medical condition, the majority of respondents believed that people with depression are responsible for their illness. Social discrimination was significantly associated with respondents' age, gender, native language, sense of mastery, depression, stereotypical beliefs and familiarity with mental problems. The results suggest that the need to address stigma is higher among men, older people and those without familiarity with mental problems. When planning interventions to shape stereotypes, the need for change is highest among those with a low sense of life control and poor social networks. Direct interactions with persons who have mental problems may change the stereotypical beliefs and discriminative behaviour of those who do not have familiarity with mental problems.

  9. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  10. General seroprevalence of hepatitis and hepatitis B virus infections in population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokar, N.; Gill, M.L.; Malik, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by detection of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) in general population of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Sera of healthy adult individuals who presented for medical evaluation as a pre-employment criteria in the Gulf region were examined for presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody. Alanine aminotransferase levels were also determined. Results: A total of 47,538 individuals were examined. Out of these, 2528 (5.31%) were positive for anti-HCV and 1221 (2.56%) individuals had positive HBsAg. Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV both were found in 92 (0.19%) individuals. Mean age of subjects, positive for HCV antibody was 44 years and 40.5 years for HBV. Ninety-four percent individuals were males and 6% were females. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was normal in 56% of subjects with positive HCV and 84% of individuals with HBV. Conclusion: This study which evaluated predominantly a healthy male population, showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV and average seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. A large majority of these patients was young and had normal ALT. (author)

  11. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  12. Gender differences in a resources-demands model in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Klapp, Burghard F; Albani, Cornelia; Brähler, Elmar

    2014-09-01

    The population-based study examined postulated effects, derived from a resources-demands-model about gender-related aspects of self-efficacy, optimism, chronic stress, and exhaustion. Data acquisition was carried out by a market research institute with a multi-topic questionnaire in the general population (N = 2,552). Instruments administered were the Questionnaire for Self-Efficacy and Optimism, the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress, and the Chalder-Fatigue-Scale. Households and target persons were selected randomly. The analyses focused on structural equation modeling. There were significant differences in structural relations among the resource paths. In particular, significant gender differences were found with respect to self-efficacy, and among the exhaustion paths, namely in the mental dimension of exhaustion. The observed measures of chronic stress were found to be operating equivalently for both genders. Results suggest that resources play an important role in the understanding of how chronic stress is preceded and may lead to exhaustion in both genders. Personal resources seem to be more expressed by men than by woman, for whom the relation of resources to health is of greater importance than for men.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: moyercheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: pausheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: moyer20361@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: hwhuang660@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: moyermiming@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.

  14. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Magiria, Matina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop

    2014-04-01

    The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their mean age was 40.80±11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The analysis included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, the calculation of the threshold to define dominant temperaments (+2 standard deviations or 95th percentile), confirmatory factor analysis and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the temperament scales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and post-hoc t-test was used to search for differences in temperament scores between males and females. Also a table of percentile values corresponding to a raw score was created. Internal consistency was excellent for the various temperaments (0.72-0.88). The factor analysis confirmed the five factor solution as the best factor solution. All TEMPS items were included in the final version of the scale in the Greek language. The study sample included subjects from the general population, but it is a convenient and not representative sample. Although the authors tried to select them on the basis of being mentally healthy and without a psychiatric history, there is always a degree of uncertainty. There is also always the possibility some of them to manifest a mental disorder in the future, thus being currently in a premorbid state. The Greek version of the TEMPS-A, has good internal consistency and factor structure similar to what was found in other translations. Overall our results are in accord with the literature and in line with theoretical considerations as well as with empirical evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming; Chang, Pau-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Wen; Lee, Chau-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema

  16. The associations of morningness-eveningness with anger and impulsivity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Seung-Gul; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among morningness-eveningness, impulsivity and anger in the general population. A total of 1000 community-dwelling subjects (500 males) aged 20-77 years (mean± SD age: 39.6 ± 11.6 years) completed the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed to determine whether the relationship between two variables depended on the third variable, referred to as a moderator, and whether the third variable, known as a mediator, was associated with the other two variables establishing causation. The MEQ scores exhibited significant negative associations with BIS (p moderator (p moderator (p = 0.030) in the association between MEQ and BIS. However, after controlling for the interaction of the BIS and MEQ, the MEQ scores did not significantly predict STAXI scores (p = 0.070). Additionally, the effect size of the mediating effect of the BIS scores on the relationship between the MEQ and STAXI (percent mediation: 53.2%) was larger than that of the STAXI scores on the association between the MEQ and BIS (percent mediation: 31.8%). The present results demonstrate that morningness-eveningness was closely related with both impulsivity and anger in the general population. Furthermore, these findings suggest that impulsivity may exercise a great influence on the association between morningness-eveningness and anger in two ways: as a moderator by modulating this relationship based on the level of impulsivity and as a mediator by acting as an intermediary factor.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RELATION BETWEEN MICROALBUMINURIA AND ISCHEMIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAM IN IRANIAN GENERAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khosravi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Enhancement of albumin exertion in urine increases the risk of renal and ischemic heart diseases (IHD. We assessed the association of urine albumin and sub-clinical IHD in a random sample of Iranian general population.    METHODS: The random sample in general population in Isfahan County was recruited to the cross-sectional study. From the all sample blood pressure and lipid profile were assessed and morning urine spot was measured for albumin and Creatinine. Microalbuminuria was defined either Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR was 30-300mg. Also, the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out for all participants. The ECG pattern was divided to two categories; normal or ECG with ischemia. The logistic regression model was determined the odds of albuminuria for ischemic changes in ECG.    RESULTS: 999 subjects, age 35-70 years, participated to study. From all, 40.8% were male. Microalbuminuria was detected in 8% and sub-clinical ECG ischemic changes were found in 23.4%. The most frequent ischemic change was T wave inversion. The mean urine albumin levels in subjects with normal ECG was 9.6±14.6 mg/ml and in ischemic group was 8.5±12.2 mg/ml and they did not have statistically different. The odds ratios of neither Albumin-Creatinine ratio nor microalbuminuria were in significant range for risk to ischemic changes in ECG of apparently healthy participants. They was consecutively OR=0.9 (0.51-1.6, OR=0.99 (0.98-1.004.     CONCLUSION: Our finding didn’t declare any association between ACR and IHD. Because of showing this association in the other study; it needs more exploration regarding to association between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular diseases incidence.      Keywords: Ischemic heart diseases, electrocardiogram, Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Urine Albumin

  18. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-08-24

    Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443-2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221-3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063-2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146-2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults.

  19. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  20. Phthalate exposure and reproductive parameters in young men from the general Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    In animals, exposure to certain phthalates negatively affects the male reproductive function. Human results are conflicting and mostly based on subfertile males, in whom the association between exposure and reproductive function may differ from the general population. To study if levels of phthalate metabolites were associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in general Swedish men. We recruited 314 young men delivering semen, urine and blood samples at the same visit. We analyzed reproductive hormones and several semen parameters including progressive motility and high DNA stainability (HDS)-a marker for sperm immaturity. In urine, we analyzed metabolites of phthalates, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). We studied associations between urinary levels of the metabolites and seminal as well as serum reproductive parameters, accounting for potential confounders. DEHP metabolite levels, particularly urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), were negatively associated with progressive sperm motility, which was 11 (95% CI: 5.0-17) percentage points lower in the highest quartile of MECPP than in the lowest. Further, men in the highest quartile of the DEHP metabolite monoethylhexyl phthalate had 27% (95% CI: 5.5%-53%) higher HDS than men in the lowest quartile. DEHP metabolite levels seemed negatively associated with sperm motility and maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. IgE and risk of cancer in 37 747 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, J; Bojesen, S E; Nielsen, S F

    2015-01-01

    E are associated with overall risk of cancer and with risk of specific cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma total IgE was measured in 37 747 individuals from the general population, and the participants were followed prospectively for up to 30 years. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean...... follow-up of 7 years, a first cancer was diagnosed in 3454 participants. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-fold higher level of IgE was 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.11; P = 0.04] for any cancer, 0.44 (0.30-0.64; P = 0.00002) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 0.53 (0.......33-0.84; P = 0.007) for multiple myeloma, 1.54 (1.04-2.29; P = 0.03) for other non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1.38 (1.04-1.84; P = 0.03) for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and 1.12 (1.00-1.25; P = 0.05) for lung cancer. The findings for CLL and multiple myeloma were generally robust; however, after correcting...

  2. Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Contact sensitization to fragrances in the general population: a Koch's approach may reveal the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Linneberg, A

    2009-01-01

    subjects were tested in total. The median prevalence of FM and MP sensitization among adults was 2.3% (women, 1.7%; men, 1.3%) and 1.1% (women, 1.4%; men, 0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the reliability of patch test data from the general population and exposure data obtained from patients...... the prevalence of fragrance sensitization in the general population, and to suggest how future population-based studies and questionnaires should be constructed, better to assess the prevalence and burden of fragrance sensitization. This is of relevance as it is often difficult to establish causality...... in biological systems. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Pubmed-Medline, Biosis and contact dermatitis textbooks. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified, of which 13 were performed among adults. Sample sizes varied between 82 and 2545 tested subjects, and 11 648...

  4. Drinking Distilled. Onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data

  5. Chronic depression : Determinants and consequences of chronic major depression in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is chronicity of major depressive disorder (MDD). The main aims of the study are to examine: 1. the duration of a major depressive episode (MDE) and the rate of a chronic duration of MDE in the general population, 2. the determinants of (chronic) duration of

  6. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  7. Nonallergic rhinitis and its association with smoking and lower airway disease: A general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F

    2011-01-01

    The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....

  8. Comorbid Disorders and Sociodemographic Variables in Temporomandibular Pain in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M.; Ligthart, Lannie; Schuller, Annemarie A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline M. H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  9. Comorbid disorders and sociodemographic variables in temporomandibular pain in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Ligthart, L.; Schuller, A.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to

  10. Validating the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Indonesia's general population and coronary heart disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginting, H.; Näring, G.W.B.; Veld, W.M. van der; Srisayekti, W.; Becker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the validity and determines the cut-off point for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (the BDI-II) among Indonesians. The Indonesian version of the BDI-II (the Indo BDI-II) was administered to 720 healthy individuals from the general population, 215 Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

  11. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  12. The prevalence and clinical significance of maxillary sinus mucous retention cysts in a general clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, N L

    1990-02-01

    Previous studies have documented the occurrence and potential clinical significance of MSMR cysts. Studies also have alluded to a relationship between the MSMR cyst and certain signs or symptoms of disease. We determined the prevalence of MSMR cysts in a general clinic population and identified some important correlations with clinical signs and symptoms.

  13. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66 ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  14. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  15. Do Class III patients have a different growth spurt than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sik; Lee, Shin-Jae; An, Hongseok; Donatelli, Richard E; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the timing and length of the growth spurt of Class III prognathic patients is fundamental to the strategy of interceptive orthopedic orthodontics as well as to the timing of orthognathic surgery. Consequently, this study was undertaken to determine whether there are any significant differences in the stature growth pattern of Class III subjects compared with non-Class III subjects and the general population. Twelve-year longitudinal stature growth data were collected for 402 randomly selected adolescents in the general population, 55 Class III mandibular prognathic patients, and 37 non-Class III patients. The growth data were analyzed by using the traditional linear interpolation method and nonlinear growth functions. The 6 stature growth parameters were measured: age at takeoff, stature at takeoff, velocity at takeoff, age at peak height velocity, stature at peak height velocity, and velocity at peak height velocity. Comparisons in the stature growth parameters and 15 cephalometric variables among the general population, Class III subjects, and non-Class III subjects were made with multivariate analysis. Patients with Class III prognathism did not have different growth parameters compared with Class II subjects or the general population. This study does not allow meaningful conclusions with regard to the relationship of mandibular size and stature growth pattern. The application of nonlinear growth curves vs the traditional linear interpolation method was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  17. Prevalence of double incontinence, risk and influence on quality of life in a general female population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker- ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, MJ; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, CW; Vierhout, ME

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  18. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual

  19. Predictors of suicide, accidental death, and premature natural death in a general-population birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Wadsworth, M

    1998-01-01

    Background Whether putative suicide risk factors, such as conduct and emotional disorders, are specific to suicide or are general associations of a continuum between subintentional and intentional self-destruction is not clear. We undertook an investigation of this issue in a UK population-based

  20. Associations between dietary factors and markers of NAFLD in a general Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Sluik, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The objective of this sudy was to assess the relationship between dietary intake and fatty liver as scored by the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in a large cross-sectional study among a general Dutch adult population. Diet is known to affect liver fat accumulation in

  1. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  2. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch

  3. Syncope prevalence in the ED compared to general practice and population: a strong selection process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; van Dijk, Nynke; Ganzeboom, Karin S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Dekker, Lukas R. C.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wieling, Wouter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either

  4. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  5. Profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Ana Paula Costa; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2017-07-01

    This paper aimed to compare the profile of mortality from external causes among Seventh-day Adventists and the general population of Espírito Santo from 2003 to 2009. A search of Adventists was performed in the nominal database of the Mortality Information System containing data on Adventists provided by the administrative offices of the institution. Deaths from external causes occurred during the study period were then divided into two groups: Adventists and the general population. Adventists had lower proportional mortality from external causes (10%) than the general population (19%), and males were the main reason for this difference. In both groups, deaths prevailed in the 20-29 years age group. Deaths from accidental causes were most significant among Adventists (68.08%), while deaths from intentional causes related to assault and self-inflicted injuries were more significant in the general population (53.67% of all deaths). The standardized mortality ratio for external causes was 41.3, thus, being Adventist reduced mortality by 58.7%. It is believed that the benefit of Adventists observed for mortality from external causes is related to this group's abstinence from alcohol consumption.

  6. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  7. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Vet, Henrica C W de; Picavet, H Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Many studies report a female predominance in the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) but the mechanisms explaining these sex differences are poorly understood. Data from a random postal questionnaire survey in the Dutch general population were used to examine whether sex differences in

  8. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: An EORTC-GELA general population case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); L.C. Moser (Lotte); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); B. Dubois (Brice); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); C. Sebban (Catherine); W.G. Smit (Wilma); S. Bologna (Serge); J.M. Roesink (Judith); F. Ong (Francisca); J.-L. André (Jean-Luc); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. Patients and Methods: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors

  9. Parenthood in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: an EORTC-GELA general population case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, L.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Dubois, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Sebban, C.; Smit, W.G.; Bologna, S.; Roesink, J.M.; Ong, F.; Andre, M.P.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on parenthood, including factors influencing parenthood probability, by comparing long-term HL survivors with matched general population controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 3,604 survivors treated

  10. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  11. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  12. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  13. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  14. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognosis...

  15. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; S. Andersen, John; K. Jacobsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...... screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......-screening of psychological status did not influence the psychological impact of screening. Conclusions: This large, randomised intervention study supports that screening for risk factors to IHD does not increase mental distress, not even in the mentally or socioeconomically most vulnerable persons.This study included...

  16. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...... occasions 8 years apart (1990 and 1998) for the presence of antibodies against C. difficile in serum. The overall seroprevalence of C. difficile increased significantly from 19% in 1990 to 27% in 1998 (P... was about four times higher in 1998 than in 1990. In conclusion, the observed increase in seroprevalence suggests a higher exposure to C. difficile in the general Danish adult population....

  17. Attitudes toward genetic testing among the general population and relatives of patients with a severe genetic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, M; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R

    1995-01-01

    evaluated attitudes toward gene tests in general and also respondents' preparedness to undergo gene tests for predictive testing, carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and selective abortion, in theoretical situations. The results of the study indicate that both the Finnish population in general and family...... members of AGU patients have a favorable attitude toward genetic testing. However, a commonly expressed reason against testing was that test results might lead to discrimination in employment or insurance policies. Based on the responses, we predict that future genetic testing programs will most probably...

  18. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection

  1. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  2. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  3. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  4. Perception and image of dermatology in the German general population 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M; Eissing, L; Elsner, P; Strömer, K; Schäfer, I; Enk, A; Reusch, M; Kaufmann, R

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to other European countries, dermatologists in Germany provide health care for a broad spectrum of diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. Current population-based data on the perception of dermatology were lacking to date. Analysis of the perception of dermatology from the general population's perspective with regard to utilization, satisfaction and responsibility. Nation-wide survey on awareness, utilization, rating and image of dermatology in October 2014 through computer-assisted telephone interviews on a representative sample of the adult general population (n = 1015), performed by the FORSA institute. Dermatologists as a medical specialist group are familiar to 88% of the population (2002: 65%), and approx. 82% of respondents underwent dermatological treatment in the past. Satisfaction with this treatment is high to very high in 80-90% of respondents. The majority (60-80%) name dermatologists as the desired primary provider of care for the largest share of common skin diseases. For allergic diseases, mucous membrane diseases, venous disorders and paediatric skin diseases, this rate is significantly below 50%. In Germany, dermatologists are perceived and valued as providers of care. In the case of skin cancer and chronic inflammatory skin diseases, they are experienced as primary care givers, whereas they are associated less frequently than their competence would justify with providing treatment for allergic and mucous membrane diseases and venous disorders. Further education of the general public and medical profession is required. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarannum, Fouzia; Prasad, R K Shiva; Shobha, R; Kumar, B B Santosh; Ebenezer, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Preterm low birth weight (PTLBW) is a public health issue which needs to be dealt with by educating the general female population. One of the major contributing factors is periodontal disease and treatment of the same could reduce the occurrence of PTLBW babies. Therefore, awareness of this among the female population is highly essential. Hence, this survey was planned with the aim to explore the awareness of the general female population regarding the association of periodontal disease and PTLBW. This survey consisted of nine close-ended questions answered by 1284 females. Younger individuals had higher knowledge scores as compared to the older individuals (r = -0.161) and the more educated group had a higher knowledge score as compared to the less educated groups (r = 0.322). Furthermore, married women seemed to be more aware of the relation of PTLBW to periodontal disease as compared to unmarried women. Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  6. Urinary phthalate metabolites and male reproductive function parameters in Chongqing general population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Niya; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Li, Yafei; Lin, Hui; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the phthalates exposure levels in general population in Chongqing City of China, and to determine the possible associations between phthalate exposure and male reproductive function parameters. We recruited 232 general men through Chongqing Family Planning Research Institute and Reproductive Center of Chongqing. In a single spot urine sample from each man, phthalate metabolites, including mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), phthalic acid (PA), and total PA were analyzed using solid phase extraction and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry. Semen parameters were dichotomized based on World Health Organization reference values. Sperm DNA damage were analyzed using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Reproductive hormones were determined in serum by the radioimmunoassay kit. We observed a weak association between urinary MBP concentration and sperm concentration in Chongqing general population. MBP levels above the median were 1.97 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-4.04) more likely to have sperm concentration below the reference value. There were no other associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive function parameters after adjusted for potential risk factors. Our study suggested that general population in Chongqing area of China exposure to the environmental level of phthalate have weak or without adverse effects on the reproduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  8. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  9. The estimate reproductive health status of populations exposured in low doses in result of Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljaginskaja, A.M.; Izhewskij, P.W.; Golovko, O.V.

    1996-01-01

    In general the results achieved show that in the population living on the territories contaminated with radionuclides the most distinct negative dynamic of reproductive health than in the control areas is observed dourly the post-accidental period. The highest intensively of the negative dynamic and for certain the lower (than in the control) absolute indices of the reproductive health are revealed in the population living on the territory with 137 Cs contamination from 5 Ci/km 2 to 15 Ci/km 2 Under the equal conditions of 137 Cs contamination of soil the most distinct decrease of indices of the reproductive health was revealed in the areas with the most original level of the reproductive health that witness about the important role of the original level of the reproductive health in forming the effects of the exposure of the population. In the structure of the chosen indices of the reproductive health the loading place according to the intensively of the negative dynamic takes the indices characterising UPO and the status of the newborns, that is the indices reflecting the somatic stochastic effects of radiation influence. (author)

  10. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.

  11. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  12. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    measles virus into a pocket of susceptible persons (e.g. vaccination opponents or sceptics) may lead to large outbreaks in the general population, if the general population's vaccination coverage is below the WHO recommended level. Education on the safety of measles vaccine needs to be strengthened to increase measles vaccination coverage. Early intervention may limit spread in schools or kindergartens. Suspected measles has to be reported immediately to the local health authorities in order to allow intervention as early as possible. PMID:21676265

  13. A study of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hair dye use among general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair dye usage is extremely common all over the world. Hair dyes have been reported to cause a wide range of adverse effects, therefore, the consumer’s knowledge about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of general population towards the use of hair dyes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty consecutive persons using hair dyes were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 250 patients comprised 141 men (56.4% and 109 women (43.6% (M: F 1.29:1, aged between 16 and 74 (mean 47.13 years. The majority, 212 patients (84.8% were aged between 20–60 years and 66.4% (n=166 belonged to an urban background. When asked about the reason for using hair color, the principle reason was “to look younger” (59.6%, n=149. Most of the respondents were using synthetic hair dye preparations (55.2%, n=138 and when asked about the brand of hair dye being used, 25.2% (n=63 did not know about the brand they were using. When asked about their perception regarding safety of HD, 61% (n=152 respondents agreed that hair dyes are not safe and on being asked about the carcinogenic potential of HD, only 24% (n=60 respondents agreed. When enquired about the safest variety of HD, majority of respondents (52.4%, n=131 believed that plant based hair colors are the safest. When asked about the safety of HD during pregnancy and lactation, 68% (n=168 of the respondents were unaware regarding this aspect. 14.4% of the respondents reported suffering from some adverse effects due to hair dye use but only 11.11% (n=4 of those stopped using hair dyes. Conclusions: There is lack of awareness about the hair dyes and their adverse effects in the general population. There is an urgent need to increase awareness among consumers regarding the adverse effects of hair dyes and the available safer alternatives. Limitations: Small number of respondents and

  14. IDOL N342S Variant, Atherosclerosis Progression and Cardiovascular Disorders in the Italian General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Dhyani

    Full Text Available Inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively modulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R expression. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS indicated that genetic variants in IDOL gene contributes to variation in LDL-C plasma levels and the detailed analysis of a specific locus resulted in the identification of the functional common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9370867 (c.G1025A, p.N342S associates with increased LDL-R degradation and increased LDL-C levels. These findings, however, were not confirmed in two other independent cohorts and no data about the impact of this variant on atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular risk are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between a functional variant in IDOL and atherosclerosis progression in an Italian general population. 1384 subjects enrolled in the PLIC study (Progression of Lesions in the Intima of Carotid were genotyped by Q-PCR allelic discrimination and the association with anthropometric parameters, plasma lipids and the carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and the impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence were investigated. The N342S variant was not associated with changes of the plasma lipid profile among GG, AG or AA carriers, including total cholesterol (249±21, 249±19 and 248±21 mg/dl respectively, LDL-C (158±25, 161±22 and 160±23 mg/dL, cIMT (0.74±0.14, 0.75±0.17 and 0.77±0.15 mm and CVD incidence. In agreement, the expression of LDLR and the uptake of LDL was similar in macrophages derived from GG and AA carriers. Taken together our findings indicate that the N342S variant does not impact plasma lipid profile and is not associated with atherosclerosis progression and CVD in the general population, suggesting that other variants in the IDOL gene might be functionally linked with cholesterol metabolism.

  15. Scoring the Icecap-A Capability Instrument. Estimation of a UK General Population Tariff†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a best–worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that ‘attachment’ and ‘stability’ each account for around 22% of the space, and ‘autonomy’, ‘achievement’ and ‘enjoyment’ account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally. © 2013 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24254584

  16. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia...... adjustment for ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype, plasma apoE tertiles remained associated with Alzheimer disease (p for trend = 0.007) and all dementia (p for trend = 0.04). Plasma apoE tertiles did not interact with ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype on risk of Alzheimer disease (p = 0.53) or all dementia (p = 0...

  17. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  18. Understanding support for complementary and alternative medicine in general populations: use and perceived efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Proponents of complementary and alternative medicine argue that these treatments can be used with great effect in addition to, and sometimes instead of, conventional medicine, a position which has drawn sustained opposition from those who advocate an evidence-based approach to the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Using recent survey data from the United Kingdom, this article seeks to establish a clearer understanding of the nature of the public's relationship with complementary and alternative medicine within the general population by focusing on beliefs about the perceived effectiveness of homeopathy, in addition to its reported use. Using recent data from the United Kingdom, we initially demonstrate that reported use and perceived effectiveness are far from coterminous and argue that for a proper understanding of the motivations underpinning public support of complementary and alternative medicine, consideration of both reported use and perceived effectiveness is necessary. We go on to demonstrate that although the profile of homeopathy users differs from those who support this form of medicine, neither outcome is dependent upon peoples' levels of knowledge about science. Instead, the results suggest a far greater explanatory role for need and concerns about conventional medicine.

  19. Footedness is associated with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population

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    Ulrich S Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  20. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

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    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  1. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Coêlho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversities (CAs comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Methods: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Results: Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment – encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence – was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. Conclusion: CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  2. Morphinofobia: the situation among the general population and health care professionals in North-Eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapin Charles-Henri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphinofobia among the general population (GP and among health care professionals (HP is not without danger for the patients: it may lead to the inappropriate management of debilitating pain. The aim of our study was to explore among GP and HP the representation and attitudes concerning the use of morphine in health care. Methods A cross-sectional study was done among 412 HP (physicians and nurses of the 4 hospitals and 10 community health centers of Beira Interior (Portugaland among 193 persons of the GP randomly selected in public places. Opinions were collected through a translated self-administered questionnaire. Results A significant difference of opinion exists among GP and HP about the use of morphine. The word morphine first suggests drug to GP (36,2% and analgesia to HP (32,9%.. The reasons for not using morphine most frequently cited are: for GP morphine use means advanced disease (56%, risk of addiction (50%, legal requirements (49,7%; for HP it means legal risks (56,3% and adverse side effects of morphine such as somnolence - sedation (30,5% The socio-demographic situation was correlated with the opinions about the use of morphine. Conclusions False beliefs about the use of morphine exist among the studied groups. There seems to be a need for developing information campaigns on pain management and the use of morphine targeting. Better training and more information of HP might also be needed.

  3. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment.

  4. Scoring the Icecap-a capability instrument. Estimation of a UK general population tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a best-worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that 'attachment' and 'stability' each account for around 22% of the space, and 'autonomy', 'achievement' and 'enjoyment' account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally. © 2013 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Psychological Profile in a General Population in Central Part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of demographic features and associated risk factors provides a perspective for the development of health and prevention policies for psychological screening or referrals. Thus, updated data on epidemiologic profile of depression and anxiety in the society are necessary. This study aims to describe the psychological profile of a general population in central Iran.Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed as part of the SEPAHAN project (Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological‐Alimentary Health and Nutrition. The participants were working in 50 different centers across Isfahan Province, Iran. The data on 4628 adults who had completeddemographic questionnaires and psychological questionnaires for depression and anxiety, coping styles,and stressful life events were included in the analysis. The data collection tools were the Demographicinformation questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Coping Strategies Scale(Cope, and Stressful Life Event (SLE questionnaire.Results: The frequency and intensity of all considered stressors were found to be significantly associated withboth depression and anxiety. Adaptive coping strategies were found to function as protective factors against bothdepression and anxiety. However, avoidance, as a maladaptive coping strategy, was found to be a risk factor.Conclusion: The present survey reveals that the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28% and 14%,respectively. Scholastic education plays a protective role against both depression and anxiety. All coping strategies, except avoidance, function to protect against depression and anxiety.

  6. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

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    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  7. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER: prevalence and risk factors in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicheto Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain. Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4, (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2, females 5.3% (4.6-6.0; p Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44; inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68 for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16 for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58 for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58 for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65; diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83; previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15; hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18; hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19. Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87 and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94 were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.

  8. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  10. Internet Activities During Leisure: A Comparison Between Adolescents With ADHD and Adolescents From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2015-11-25

    Adolescents' leisure activities are increasingly focusing on Internet activities, and today, these coexist with traditional leisure activities such as sport and meeting friends. The purpose of the present study was to investigate leisure activities, particularly Internet activities, among boys and girls with ADHD, and compare these with boys and girls from the general population. The objective was also to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) were compared with adolescents from the general population on leisure activities and Internet use. Leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD tended to focus on Internet activities, particularly online games. Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Internet activities may provide adolescents with ADHD accessible means of social interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Prevalence and Typologies of Controlling Behaviors in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.

  12. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  13. Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hoang Le, Quynh Ngoc; Tran, Tung Thanh; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-10-11

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a vital benchmark to assess the effects of health interventions and policies. Measuring HRQOL of the general population is essential to establish a reference for health outcomes evaluations. However, evidence on HRQOL of general populations in low and middle income countries is very limited. This study aimed to measure HRQOL of the Vietnamese population by using the EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) instrument and determine its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Hanoi with 1571 residences in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. EQ-5D-5L and EQ- visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were used to assess HRQOL. Potential covariates included socio-demographic characteristics, having acute symptoms in the last four weeks, chronic diseases in the last three months, having multiple health issues, and health service utilisation in the last twelve months. A generalized linear model was employed to identify the association between HRQOL and covariates. Overall, the mean EQ-5D utility index was 0.91 (SD = 0.15), and the mean EQ-VAS score was 87.4 (SD = 14.3). The highest proportion of respondents reporting any problems was in Usual activities (24.3%), followed by Anxiety/Depression (15.2%) and Pain/Discomfort (10.0%), while the lowest percentage was in Self-care (2.5%). Lower HRQOL composite scores were related to unemployment, lower income, higher education, living in urban areas, having chronic diseases, having multiple health issues and using health service. For any health problem self-reported by respondents, the health utility reduced by 0.02 (respiratory diseases) to 0.15 (musculoskeletal diseases). Health utility of the general population and reductions for self-reported health problems in this study are useful for future population health evaluations and comparisons. It also informs the development of interventions to reduce health problems of the general population.

  14. Causes of death in rheumatoid arthritis: How do they compare to the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdifield, Jessica; Paterson, J Michael; Huang, Anjie; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2018-03-07

    To compare mortality rates, underlying causes of death, excess mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients relative to the general population. We studied an inception cohort of 87,114 Ontario RA patients and 348,456 age/sex/area-matched general population comparators over 2000 to 2013. All-cause, cause-specific, and excess mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and YPLL were estimated. A total of 11,778 (14% of) RA patients and 32,472 (9% of) comparators died during 508,385 and 1,769,365 person-years (PY) of follow-up, respectively, for corresponding mortality rates of 232 (95% CI 228, 236) and 184 (95% CI 182, 186) per 10,000 PYs. Leading causes of death in both groups were diseases of the circulatory system, cancer, and respiratory conditions. Increased mortality for all-cause and specific causes was observed in RA relative to the general population. MRRs were elevated for most causes of death. Age-specific mortality ratios illustrated a high excess mortality among RA patients under 45 years of age for respiratory disease and circulatory disease. RA patients lost 7,436 potential years of life per 10,000 persons, compared with 4,083 YPLL among those without RA. Mortality rates were increased in RA patients relative to the general population across most causes of death. The potential life years lost (before the age of 75) among RA patients was roughly double that among those without RA, reflecting higher rate ratios for most causes of death and RA patients dying at earlier ages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, A.; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    to symptoms than less severely affected individuals, and the number of symptoms was more predictive for severity than the number of exposures. Most predictive for the severity of reported symptoms were CNS-symptoms other than headache (OR = 3.2, P ... (OR = 2.0, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CNS-symptoms except from headache were a main characteristic of individuals severely affected by common chemical exposures in a general population-based sample...

  16. Prognostic Value of Echocardiography in Hypertensive Versus Nonhypertensive Participants From the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Daniel; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension may be the most significant cardiovascular risk factor. Few studies have assessed the prognostic value of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals. This study examines the incremental prognostic value of adding echocardiographic parameters to established risk factors in individuals...... of echocardiography in predicting cardiovascular outcomes in the general population is altered by hypertension. In hypertensive individuals, left ventricular mass index added incremental prognostic value in addition to established risk factors. In nonhypertensive individuals, global longitudinal strain added...

  17. Developing a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix in the Absence of Sufficient Exposure Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tmannetje, AM; McLean, DJ; Eng, AJ; Kromhout, H; Kauppinen, T; Fevotte, J; Pearce, NE

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand, there is a need for a comprehensive and accessible database with national occupational exposure information, such as a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM). However, few New Zealand-specific exposure data exist that could be used to construct such a GPJEM. Here, we present the methods used to develop a GPJEM for New Zealand (NZJEM), by combining GPJEMs from other countries with New Zealand-specific exposure information, using wood dust as an example to illustrate thi...

  18. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....

  19. Level of understanding of Alzheimer disease among caregivers and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, C; Cetó, M; Arias, A; Blasco, E; Gil, M P; López, R; Dakterzada, F; Purroy, F; Piñol-Ripoll, G

    2018-05-11

    Understanding of Alzheimer disease is fundamental for early diagnosis and to reduce caregiver burden. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease among informal caregivers and different segments of the general population through the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale. We assessed the knowledge of caregivers in different follow-up periods (less than one year, between 1 and 5 years, and over 5 years since diagnosis) and individuals from the general population. Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores were grouped into different items: life impact, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, disease progression, and caregiving. A total of 419 people (215 caregivers and 204 individuals from the general population) were included in the study. No significant differences were found between groups for overall Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale score (19.1 vs. 18.8, P = .9). There is a scarce knowledge of disease risk factors (49.3%) or the care needed (51.2%), while symptoms (78.6%) and course of the disease (77.2%) were the best understood aspects. Older caregiver age was correlated with worse Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale scores overall and for life impact, symptoms, treatment, and disease progression (P < .05). Time since diagnosis improved caregivers' knowledge of Alzheimer disease symptoms (P = .00) and diagnosis (P = .05). Assessing the degree of understanding of Alzheimer disease is essential to the development of health education strategies both in the general population and among caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Population Analysis of Three-Center Two-Electron Bonding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponec, Robert; Cooper, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2004), s. 1002-1011 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072006; GA MŠk OC D9.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : multicenter bonding * generalized population analysis * post-Hartree Fock wave functions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2004

  1. Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician population: results of the pilot Spanish EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alfonso; Gayoso, Pilar; Garcia, Fernando; de Francisco, Angel L

    2005-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major social health problem because of the aging of the population, the high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the epidemic of silent CKD resulting from inadequate diagnosis of early chronic renal insufficiency The sociodemographic, baseline characteristics and CKD prevalence measured by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula were studied in a randomly selected sample of people aged 20 years or older in the general population. We report the results of the analysis of the EPIRCE (Estudio Epidemiológico de la Insuficiencia Renal en España) pilot study performed in Galicia, Spain, in the last quarter of 2004. Baseline characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics, and results of a clinical examination and blood variables were collected from 237 patients who fulfilled the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age of the sample was 49.58 years (95% confidence interval, 47.39-51.76). The prevalence of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative grade 3 CKD was 5.1%, but the coexistence of an albumin/creatinine ratio>30 mg/g with grade 1 to 2 CKD raised the final rate to 12.7% in this population. We found a high prevalence of hypertension (31.5%), isolated systolic hypertension (20.1%), diabetes mellitus (8%), obesity (13.1%), smoking habit (22.7%), high atherogenic index (30.8%), and high alcohol intake (24%). Risk factors significantly associated with renal disease were age [P=0.018; odds ratio (OR) 2.7], hypertension (P=0.023; OR 2.13), pulse pressure (P=0.04; OR 0.10), diabetes mellitus (P=0.08; OR 4.48), obesity (P=0.000; OR 7.7), and insulin resistance index (P=0.04; OR 4.95). The prevalence of CKD and conventional cardiovascular risk factors is high in this randomly selected sample of the general population. Secondary preventive measures are needed to detect chronic kidney impairment as early as possible and to reduce the incidence and mortality arising from the associated comorbidities.

  2. [Analysis of the definitive statistics of the 11th General Population and Housing Census].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1992-01-01

    The 11th General Census of Population and Housing conducted in March 1990 enumerated 2,204,054 inhabitants in Sinaloa, for a density of 37.9 per sq. km. Sinaloa's population thus increased sevenfold from 297,000 in 1900. The proportion of Sinalioans in Mexico's population increased from 2.2% in 1900 to 2.7% in 1990. 38.4% of the population was under age 14, 57.0% was 14064, and 4.6% as over 65. The greatest challenge for the year 2010 will be to meet the demand for educational facilities, employment, and services for the growing elderly population. Sinaloa's population grew at an annual rate of 1.1 between 1980-90. 17 of its 18 municipios showed slowing growth rates between 1980-90, with only Escuinapa increasing its rate. Sinaloa's growth rate of 1.8% is still relatively high, and the population in the year 2000 is projected at 2.6 million. Population distribution and migration present problems that should be more actively addressed. Urban-urban migration is increasing in importance. In 1990, Sinaloa had 5247 localities of which only 85 had more than 2500 inhabitants and 4717 had fewer than 500. Growth of midsize localities with 500-2499 inhabitants may constitute an alternative allowing the demographic deconcentration and decentralization that Sinaloa urgently requires. The lack of jobs, infrastructure, educational and health services, housing, and food in the dispersed 4717 communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants makes them sources of emigration. Sinaloa's population is concentrated along the coast and in the 3 valleys of the north and central regions, which contain 80.8% of the population. One-third of the population lives on 12.1% of the territory in 2 municipios, while 12 municipios covering 67% of the territory contain just 24% of the population. Sinaloa's growth rate has declined from 4.3% between 1960-70 to 3.7% from 1970-80 and 1.8% in 1980-90.

  3. Vitamin D and health care costs: Results from two independent population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Marschall, P; Flessa, S; Grabe, H J; Schmidt, C O; Baumeister, S E

    2017-10-31

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher morbidity. However, there is few data regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration (25OHD) and direct health care costs and hospitalization in two independent samples of the general population in North-Eastern Germany. We studied 7217 healthy individuals from the 'Study of Health in Pomerania' (SHIP n = 3203) and the 'Study of Health in Pomerania-Trend' (SHIP-Trend n = 4014) who had valid 25OHD measurements and provided data on annual total costs, outpatient costs, hospital stays, and inpatient costs. The associations between 25OHD concentrations (modelled continuously using factional polynomials) and health care costs were examined using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and a log link. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of hospitalization. In cross-sectional analysis of SHIP-Trend, non-linear associations between the 25OHD concentration and inpatient costs and hospitalization were detected: participants with 25OHD concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml had 226.1%, 51.5% and 14.1%, respectively, higher inpatient costs than those with 25OHD concentrations of 20 ng/ml (overall p-value = 0.001) in multivariable models. We found a relation between lower 25OHD concentrations and increased inpatient health care costs and hospitalization. Our results thus indicate an influence of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. MACROD2 gene associated with autistic-like traits in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel M; Cadby, Gemma; Blangero, John; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Moses, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    There is now substantial evidence that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical autism spectrum disorders (ASD) representing the extreme end of this distribution. In this study, we sought to evaluate five independently identified genetic associations with ASD with autistic-like traits in the general population. In the study cohort, clinical phenotype and genomewide association genotype data were obtained from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The outcome measure used was the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a quantitative measure of autistic-like traits of individuals in the cohort. Total AQ scores were calculated for each individual, as well as scores for three subscales. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with ASD, reported in previously published genomewide association studies, were selected using a nominal cutoff value of P less than 1.0×10. We tested whether these five SNPs were associated with total AQ and the subscales, after adjustment for possible confounders. SNP rs4141463 located in the macro domain containing 2 (MACROD2) gene was significantly associated with the Communication/Mindreading subscale. No other SNP was significantly associated with total AQ or the subscales. The MACROD2 gene is a strong positional candidate risk factor for autistic-like traits in the general population.

  5. Joint Hypermobility Classes in 9-Year-Old Children from the General Population and Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Navarro, José Blas; Osa, Núria de la; Penelo, Eva; Bulbena, Antoni

    2018-05-25

    To obtain joint hypermobility classes in children from the general population and to study their characteristics in relation to anxiety measures. A total of 336 nine-year-old children from the general population were clinically assessed through 9 items of hypermobility, and their parents reported about the severity of anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis was estimated to group the children according to the presence of hypermobility symptoms, and the obtained classes were related to anxiety. A 2-class solution, labeled as high hypermobility and low hypermobility, best fitted the data. Children in the high hypermobility group scored higher in separation anxiety, social phobia, physical injury fears, and total anxiety than did those in the low group. When applying the threshold reference scores to the total anxiety score, 7.4% of children in the high hypermobility group versus 6% in the low group were reported to experience clinical elevations on total anxiety. High symptoms of hypermobility are associated with higher scores in anxiety symptoms in children from the general population. Children with frequent symptoms of hypermobility may benefit from screening for anxiety symptoms because a subset of them are experiencing clinical elevations and may need comprehensive physical and psychological treatment.

  6. Sleep quality and covariates as predictors of pain intensity among the general population in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Kun; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Mi; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of sleep quality and its relationship with the prevalence of pain among rural Chinese people and to explore the association between sleep quality and pain intensity among the general population in real-life settings. This cross-sectional survey included a total of 2052 adults from rural areas in Liuyang, Hunan Province, recruited through random multistage sampling. The distributions of sleep quality and pain prevalence among the participants over a 4-week period were described. Because of multicollinearity among variables, the influence of self-rated sleep quality and psychosocial covariates on pain intensity was explored using a ridge regression model. The data showed that participants reporting all categories of sleep quality experienced some degree of pain. Sleep quality, along with physical and mental health, was a negative predictor of pain intensity among the general population. Symptoms of depression positively predicted pain intensity. Poor sleep quality increased pain intensity among the participants. Both previous research and the present data suggest that improving sleep quality may significantly decrease pain intensity in the general population. The relationship between sleep and pain may be bidirectional. This finding also suggests that treatment for sleep disorders and insomnia should be addressed in future efforts to alleviate pain intensity.

  7. [Criterion Validity of the German Version of the CES-D in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Rebecca; Baumgartner, Josef S; van den Nest, Miriam; Friedrich, Fabian; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Wancata, Johannes

    2018-04-17

    The "Center of Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale" (CES-D) is a well-known screening tool for depression. Until now the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D was not investigated in a sample of the adult general population. 508 study participants of the Austrian general population completed the CES-D. ICD-10 diagnoses were established by using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted. Possible gender differences were explored. Overall discriminating performance of the CES-D was sufficient (ROC-AUC 0,836). Using the traditional cut-off values of 15/16 and 21/22 respectively the sensitivity was 43.2 % and 32.4 %, respectively. The cut-off value developed on the basis of our sample was 9/10 with a sensitivity of 81.1 % und a specificity of 74.3 %. There were no significant gender differences. This is the first study investigating the criterion validity of the German version of the CES-D in the general population. The optimal cut-off values yielded sufficient sensitivity and specificity, comparable to the values of other screening tools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  9. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  10. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  11. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A Comparison with the General Population in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halánová, Monika; Veseliny, Eduard; Kalinová, Zuzana; Jarčuška, Peter; Janičko, Martin; Urbančíková, Ingrid; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia; Babinská, Ingrid

    2018-05-03

    Hepatitis E infection is one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis in the world. Currently five human genotypes with different geographical distributions and distinct epidemiologic patterns are identified. In Slovakia, only rare cases of hepatitis E have been reported in past years. Because the most important risk factors associated with HEV infection include consumption of contaminated pork meat and poor hygienic standards, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-HEV total antibodies and the main risk factors for HEV in the population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements ( n = 195), which represent places with increased risk of infection in Slovakia and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population ( n = 69). Of 264 respondents included in the study, 47 (17.8%) showed positivity for anti-HEV antibodies, 42 of whom were Roma (21.5%, n = 195) and 5 (7.2%, n = 69) non-Roma. The population living in Roma settlements lives in poorer conditions and are at higher risk of HEV in comparison to the general population. However, differences in living conditions within the settlements do not contributed to lower risk of HEV antibody prevalence between Roma living in settlements.

  13. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational airborne exposure of the general population of a Norwegian county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, P; Baste, V; Hanoa, R; Gulsvik, A

    1992-02-01

    Occupational airborne exposure was examined for a stratified sample (N = 1275) of the general population aged 18-73 years in Hordaland County, Norway. The subjects identified all jobs of more than six months since leaving school and stated whether they had been occupationally exposed to specific agents and work processes potentially harmful to the lungs. The prevalence in the population ever having been exposed was 18% for asbestos, 9% for quartz, 5% for aluminum dust, 6% for wood dust, 12% for metal gases, 12% for welding, 9% for soldering, and 1% for hairdressing. According to occupational title (last job), 3% of the population had held a job with a high degree of airborne exposure, 26% a job with moderate exposure, and 70% a job with no airborne exposure. During their worklife both the men and the women tended to leave polluted jobs more often than unpolluted jobs. Occupational exposure to airborne pollutants potentially harmful to the lungs is widespread in this Norwegian general population.

  15. Deposition and retention of plutonium in the United States general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, a Los Alamos National Laboratory study has analyzed over 5000 tissues from 1100 individuals of the nonoccupationally exposed general population for fallout plutonium. These data have been useful in determining the tissue distributions and the annual baseline levels of environmental plutonium in the United States population. The effects of age, sex, date of death, cause of death and geographic location of resididence on the observed plutonium deposition have been evaluated. Because of the difference in biological turnover times of plutonium in the various organs of the body and the changing concentrations of plutonium in the atmosphere, the plutonium concentration ratios between tissues have changed as a function of time. However, our data indicate that over the past 10 years, the highest concentrations in the general population are found in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes and the liver and the lowest concentrations are in the spleen, gonads and kidney. The median body burdens of plutonium in the US population are estimated to have reached 12 pCi during the 1960's and have declined to about 2 pCi in 1977. Large errors in estimated skeletal burdens of plutonium may exist because of small specimen sample sizes and a lack of knowledge concerning the relative distribution of plutonium among the various bones of the human body

  16. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  17. Postsystolic Shortening by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brainin, Philip; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie Reumert; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a novel marker of contractile dysfunction in the myocardium. Our objective was to assess the prognostic potential of PSS on cardiovascular events and death in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study design consisted...... of a prospective cohort study of 1296 low-risk participants from the general population, who were examined by speckle tracking echocardiography. The primary end point was the composite of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs...... as having MACEs and 236 participants (18%) died. Increasing number of walls with PSS predicted both end points, an association that persisted after adjustment for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, global longitudinal strain, hypertension, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, LV mass...

  18. NOD2/CARD15 genotype, cardiovascular disease and cancer in 43 600 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, S.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    from two large Danish general population cohorts followed for 31 years: the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10 597) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 32 999). We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (2743 and 3890, respectively, in the two studies) and cancer (2144 and 3241......, respectively) by NOD2/CARD15 genotype using Cox and logistic regressions in both studies. To maximize statistical power, the three NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants were analysed together as follows: noncarriers for all three variants, heterozygotes for one of the three variants and homozygotes for one of the three...... variants pooled with compound heterozygotes for two variants. Results. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease and cancer in NOD2/CARD15 heterozygotes or homozygotes/compound heterozygotes versus noncarries did not differ from 1.0 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study...

  19. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis...... was used to analyse intercorrelations between the items. Results: The items ‘blackouts' (men and women) and ‘guilt and remorse' (women) are the most frequently reported consequences. Gender differences tended to be smaller for ‘guilt and remorse' and ‘concern of others', and largest for ‘morning drinking...

  20. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  1. Worklife and Wellness in Academic General Internal Medicine: Results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Mark; Poplau, Sara; Babbott, Stewart; Collins, Tracie; Guzman-Corrales, Laura; Menk, Jeremiah; Murphy, Mary Lou; Ovington, Kay

    2016-09-01

    General internal medicine (GIM) careers are increasingly viewed as challenging and unsustainable. We aimed to assess academic GIM worklife and determine remediable predictors of stress and burnout. We conducted an email survey. Physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in 15 GIM divisions participated. A ten-item survey queried stress, burnout, and work conditions such as electronic medical record (EMR) challenges. An open-ended question assessed stressors and solutions. Results were categorized into burnout, high stress, high control, chaos, good teamwork, high values alignment, documentation time pressure, and excessive home EMR use. Frequencies were determined for national data, Veterans Affairs (VA) versus civilian populations, and hospitalist versus ambulatory roles. A General Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) evaluated associations with burnout. A formal content analysis was performed for open-ended question responses. Of 1235 clinicians sampled, 579 responded (47 %). High stress was present in 67 %, with 38 % burned out (burnout range 10-56 % by division). Half of respondents had low work control, 60 % reported high documentation time pressure, half described too much home EMR time, and most reported very busy or chaotic workplaces. Two-thirds felt aligned with departmental leaders' values, and three-quarters were satisfied with teamwork. Burnout was associated with high stress, low work control, and low values alignment with leaders (all p less burnout than civilian counterparts (17 % vs. 40 %, p stress and burnout, division rates vary widely. Sustainability efforts within GIM could focus on visit length, staff support, schedule control, clinic chaos, and EMR stress.

  2. [Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Andresen, Sabine; Pohling, Andrea; Allroggen, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Childhood Experiences of Adolescents in Boarding Schools. A Comparison with Adolescents in Residential Care and with the General Population Various studies indicate that students in boarding schools experience a lot of violence during their accommodation. However, it is not proved whether adolescents in boarding schools are also a burdensome group regarding early childhood experiences such as neglect and abuse. The aim of the study was to find out more about the experiences of adolescents in boarding schools and to determine whether there are differences between adolescents in residential care and between the general population. Furthermore, it should be examined whether boys and girls differ in their experiences. In the study, adolescents of boarding schools and of residential care all over Germany, starting at the age of 15 (n = 322), were asked regarding physical and emotional neglect/abuse, light/severe parent violence, negative/positive educational behavior of the parents. The results show that students in boarding schools were less likely to be affected by childhood maltreatment and more likely to have experienced positive parental behavior compared to children in residential care. Compared to the general population, students in boarding schools were more often and more severely affected by parental violence. Moreover, girls had experienced parental violence more often than boys. The results indicate that in boarding schools there is a need for support offers for adolescents with a history of violent experiences and that the risk group should be identified directly at the admission to the school.

  3. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

  4. [Dementia friendly care services in general hospitals : Representative results of the general hospital study (GHoSt)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlmeier, Ingrid; Bickel, Horst; Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Weber, Joshua; Junge, Magdalena Nora; Leonhardt, Sarah; Schäufele, Martina

    2017-11-06

    Mostly model projects report on special care services and procedures for general hospital patients with cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of special care services and procedures in general hospitals on the basis of a representative cross-sectional study. From a list of all general hospitals in southern Germany we randomly selected a specified number of hospitals und somatic wards. The hospitals were visited and all older patients on the selected wards on that day were included in the study. Information about care services and their utilization was collected with standardized instruments. A total of 33 general hospitals and 172 wards participated in the study. The patient sample included 1469 persons over 65 (mean age 78.6 years) and 40% of the patients showed cognitive impairments. The staff reported that the most frequent measures for patients with cognitive impairments concerned patients with wandering behavior (63.1%), efforts to involve the patients' relatives to help with their daily care (60.1%), conducting nonintrusive interviews to identify cognitive impairments (59.9%), allocation to other rooms (58%) and visual aids for place orientation of patients (50.6%). In accordance with earlier studies our results show that other dementia friendly services implemented in pilot projects were rare. The existing special services for patients with cognitive impairment were rarely used by the patients or their relatives. The results demonstrate the urgent need to improve special care services and routines for identification of elderly patients with cognitive impairment and risk of delirium in general hospitals.

  5. Cuestionario general de salud-12: análisis de factores en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia General health questionnaire-12: factor analysis in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: el cuestionario general de salud de doce puntos (GHQ-12 es un instrumento diseñado para cuantificar síntomas emocionales (trastornos mentales comunes en diferentes contextos. Sin embargo, no se conoce la estructura factorial de esta versión en población colombiana. OBJETIVO: conocer la estructura de factores y la mejor forma de puntuación para el GHQ-12 en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia. MÉTODO: una muestra probabilística de la población general, representada por 2.496 adultos entre 18 y 65 años, diligenció el GHQ-12. Se determinó la consistencia interna y los factores para las formas de puntuación ordinal (0-1-2-3 y binarias (0-0-0-1, 0-0-1-1 y 0-1-1-1. RESULTADOS: la forma ordinal mostró una consistencia interna de 0,779 y dos factores que explicaban 42,5% de la varianza. Por otro lado, la forma binaria 0-1-1-1 presentó una consistencia interna de 0,774; la forma 0-0-1-1, de 0,708; y la forma 0-0-0-1, de 0,360. Las formas binarias 0-1-1-1 y 0-0-1-1 mostraron tres factores responsables de 50,6% y 46,3%, respectivamente. La forma 0-0-0-1 no presentó una aceptable solución factorial. CONCLUSIONES: en Bucaramanga, la forma de puntuación ordinal presenta un mejor comportamiento psicométrico que las binarias. Todas las formas de puntuación muestran alta consistencia interna y aceptable solución factorial, excepto la forma 0-0-0-1 BACKGROUND: The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was designed to quantify emotional symptoms (common mental disorders in different settings. However, its factor structure is not known in Colombian population. OBJECTIVE: To establish the factor structure and the best form of punctuation for the GHQ-12 in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHOD: A probabilistic sample of 2,496 adults from the general population in Bucaramanga, Colombia, completed the GHQ-12. The internal consistency and analysis factor were computed for the ordinal scoring (0-1-2-3 and for

  6. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Axmon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. Methods This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936. We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006–2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM. Results People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Conclusions Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general

  7. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  8. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Vermulst, Ad A; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Gürtler, Diana; Bischof, Gallus; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. A telephone survey was conducted based on a random digit dialling procedure including landline telephone (n=14,022) and cell phone numbers (n=1,001) in participants aged 14-64. The Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) served as the basis for a LCA used to look for subgroups representing participants with Internet addiction or at-risk use. CIUS was given to participants reporting to use the Internet for private purposes at least 1 h on a typical weekday or at least 1 h on a day at the weekend (n=8,130). A 6-class model showed best model fit and included two groups likely to represent Internet addiction and at-risk Internet use. Both groups showed less social participation and the Internet addiction group less general trust in other people. Proportions of probable Internet addiction were 1.0% (CI 0.9-1.2) among the entire sample, 2.4% (CI 1.9-3.1) in the age group 14-24, and 4.0% (CI 2.7-5.7) in the age group 14-16. No difference in estimated proportions between males and females was found. Unemployment (OR 3.13; CI 1.74-5.65) and migration background (OR 3.04; CI 2.12-4.36) were related to Internet addiction. This LCA-based study differentiated groups likely to have Internet addiction and at-risk use in the general population and provides characteristics to further define this rather new disorder. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparison of general health status, myocardial infarction, obesity, diabetes, and fruit and vegetable intake between immigrant Pakistani population in the Netherlands and the local Amsterdam population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-12-01

    South Asians living in Western countries have shown higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related non-communicable diseases as compared to the local populations. The aim of this study was to compare the general health status and prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, high blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fruit and vegetable intake between Pakistani immigrants in the Netherlands and local Amsterdam population. A health survey was conducted in 2012-2013 among Pakistanis in the Netherlands. Results were compared with a health survey conducted among inhabitants of Amsterdam in 2012. One hundred and fifty-four Pakistanis from four big cities of the Netherlands and 7218 inhabitants of Amsterdam participated. The data for Amsterdam population were weighed on the basis of age, gender, city district, marital status, ethnicity and income level while the data for Pakistanis were weighed on the basis of age and gender to make both data-sets representative of their general population. Pakistanis reported a high prevalence of MI (3.3%), diabetes (11.4%), high blood pressure (14.4%), overweight (35.5%) and obesity (18.5%) while Amsterdam population reported the prevalence as 2.5% for MI, 6.8% for diabetes, 15.3% for high blood pressure, 28.1% for overweight and 11.1% for obesity. Pakistanis had a significantly higher level of MI (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.19-6.14), diabetes (OR = 4.41; 95% CI: 2.66-7.33) and obesity (OR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.53-4.12) after controlling for age, sex and educational level with Amsterdam population as the reference group. Pakistanis showed a higher intake of fruit and fruit juice as compared to Amsterdam population though the latter showed a higher intake of cooked vegetables. Higher prevalence of MI, diabetes and obesity among Pakistanis than Amsterdam population indicates the need for health scientists and policy-makers to develop interventions for tackling non-communicable diseases and its determinants among

  10. Multidimensional coincidence point results for generalized $(\\psi ,\\theta ,\\varphi$-contraction on ordered metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Deshpande

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research article is to establish some coincidence point theorem for $g$-non-decreasing mappings under generalized $(\\psi ,\\theta ,\\varphi $-contraction on a partially ordered metric space. Furthermore, we show how multidimensional results can be seen as a simple consequences of our unidimensional coincidence point theorem. Our results modify, improve, sharpen, enrich and generalize various known results.

  11. Prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia - The RISE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Schöfer, H; Araviiskaia, E; Audibert, F; Kerrouche, N; Berg, M

    2016-03-01

    There is an unmet need for general population-based epidemiological data on rosacea based on contemporary diagnostic criteria and validated population survey methodology. To evaluate the prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia. General population screening was conducted in 9-10 cities per country to ensure adequate geographic representation. In Part I of this two-phase study, screening of a representative sample of the general population (every fifth person or every fifth door using a fixed-step procedure on a random route sample) was expedited with use of a questionnaire and algorithm based on current diagnostic criteria for rosacea. Of the subjects that screened positive in the initial phase, a randomly selected sample (every third subject) t`hen underwent diagnostic confirmation by a dermatologist in Part II. A total of 3052 and 3013 subjects (aged 18-65 years) were screened in Germany and Russia respectively. Rosacea prevalence was 12.3% [95%CI, 10.2-14.4] in Germany and 5.0% [95%CI, 2.8-7.2] in Russia. The profile of subjects with rosacea (75% women; mean age of 40 years; mainly skin phototype II or III, majority of subjects with sensitive facial skin) and subtype distribution were similar. Overall, 18% of subjects diagnosed with rosacea were aged 18-30 years. Over 80% were not previously diagnosed. Within the previous year, 47.5% of subjects had received no rosacea care and 23.7% had received topical and/or systemic drugs. Over one-third (35% Germany, 43% Russia) of rosacea subjects reported a moderate to severe adverse impact on quality of life. Rosacea is highly prevalent in Germany (12.3%) and Russia (5.0%). The demographic profile of rosacea subjects was similar between countries and the majority were previously undiagnosed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Validation of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale: Relationships with sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several socioeconomic factors are associated with poor oral hygiene habits. A version of the Oral Hygiene Habits Scale (OHHS was developed in Mexico to measure these factors; however, its relationship with sociodemographic variables has not been studied. The verification of these relationships could contribute to the validation of the scale. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between oral hygiene habits and sociodemographic variables of sex, age, schooling, self-defined socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status in the general and clinical population of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A general population sample (GPS of 256 participants and a clinical sample (CPS of 240 participants were studied. The OHHS consisted of an eight-item Likert scale of 4 points ranging from 0 to 4. A descriptive correlational study was performed with a cross-sectional design. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Cramer's V coefficient, and multivariate aligned rank test. Results: In GPS and CPS groups, OHHS was related to sex, schooling, socioeconomic stratum, occupation and marital status, but not to age. There were no significant interactions between the samples (GPS and CPS and sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant relationship between oral hygiene habits and some sociodemographic variables in the general and clinical population. This relationship supports the validity of the OHHS.

  13. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Carla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  14. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  15. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromsø, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromsø, Northern Norway. A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administered questionnaire. Of the adults, 531 (64%) were actually TRUE tested (using a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system) and completed the self-administered questionnaire about ear piercing, metal reactions, skin reactions to different allergens, atopic dermatitis, eczema, cooking equipment and diet. The study showed that nickel (19.2%; women 31.1% and men 5.0%), fragrance mix (3.4%) and cobalt (1.7%) were the most prevalent allergens causing contact sensitization. For all other allergens, less than 1.1% tested positive. Eighty-four (45.2%) subjects with a positive history of metal dermatitis had negative patch tests. Contact sensitization was found frequently in this general adult population, especially to nickel and perfumes with a predominance among females. An eczematous reaction caused by cheap earrings seemed to be the best indicator for metal sensitivity.

  16. The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Cao

    Full Text Available This is the first meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population of China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Interne (CNKI, WanFang Data and SinoMed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. A total of 17 studies with 115,988 participants met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in China was 15.0% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 12.1%-18.5%. No significant difference was found in the prevalence between genders or across time period. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in population with a mean age of 43.7 years and older (11.6%; 95% CI: 7.5%-17.6% was significantly lower than in those with a mean age younger than 43.7 years (20.4%; 95% CI: 14.2%-28.2%. The prevalence of insomnia was significantly affected by the type of assessment tools (Q = 14.1, P = 0.001. The general population prevalence of insomnia in China is lower than those reported in Western countries but similar to those in Asian countries. Younger Chinese adults appear to suffer from more insomnia than older adults.CRD 42016043620.

  17. Interarm blood pressure difference and target organ damage in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jouni K; Puukka, Pauli J; Jula, Antti M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate interarm differences of blood pressure (BP) and its determinants, and to clarify whether both arms are equally good in assessing BP and target organ damage in the general population. We studied a representative sample of Finnish adult population with 484 study participants, ages 25-74 years. BP was measured twice by an oscillometric monitor simultaneously on both arms. Study participants underwent a clinical examination including measurements of serum lipids, glucose and indicators of target organ damage. BP was 2.3/0.2 mmHg higher on right than on left arm (P differences). SBP and DBP measured on right and left arms correlated equally with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albuminuria. Higher SBP level was an independent determinant of both greater systolic and diastolic interarm BP difference. Exaggerated absolute diastolic interarm BP difference (>5 mmHg) was associated with higher BMI, arm circumference, LVMI, IVST and PWT, whereas exaggerated absolute systolic interarm BP difference (>10 mmHg) was not associated with any clinical variables. There was only a small difference in BP between arms in a healthy general population. Both arms are equally good determinants of target organ damage. BP should be measured at least once on both arms and prefer the arm with higher BP readings in the future BP measurements.

  18. Is hepatic steatosis associated with left ventricular mass index increase in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Katharina; Schmidt, Carsten O; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and change in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over five years, and examine whether systolic and diastolic blood pressures are mediators of the association between hepatic steatosis and LVMI using a general population sample. METHODS We analyzed data from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The study population comprised 1298 individuals aged 45 to 81 years. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the presence of a hyperechogenic pattern of the liver together with elevated serum alanine transferase levels. Left ventricular mass was determined echocardiographically and indexed to height2.7. Path analyses were conducted to differentiate direct and indirect paths from hepatic steatosis to LVMI encompassing systolic and diastolic blood pressure as potential mediating variables. RESULTS Hepatic steatosis was a significant predictor for all measured echocardiographic characteristics at baseline. Path analyses revealed that the association of hepatic steatosis with LVMI change after five years was negligibly small (β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.21, P = 0.55). Systolic blood pressure at baseline was inversely associated with LVMI change (β = -0.09, s.e. = 0.03, P < 0.01), while no association between diastolic blood pressure at baseline and LVMI change was evident (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.05, P = 0.56). The effect of the indirect path from hepatic steatosis to LVMI via systolic baseline blood pressure was small (β = -0.20, s.e. = 0.10, P = 0.07). No indirect effect was observed for the path via diastolic baseline blood pressure (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.06, P = 0.60). Similar associations were observed in the subgroup of individuals not receiving beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system. CONCLUSION Baseline associations between hepatic steatosis and LVMI do not extend to associations with LVMI change after five years. More studies are needed to study the longitudinal effects of hepatic

  19. Neighborhood social capital is associated with participation in health checks of a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette Flenstrup; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital...... on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied......; informal socializing and voting turnout. RESULTS: In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood...

  20. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  1. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  3. Dietary acrylamide exposure of the French population: results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Hommet, Frédéric; Tard, Alexandra; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-03-01

    Acrylamide is a heat-induced carcinogen compound that is found in some foods consequently to cooking or other thermal processes. In the second French Total Diet Study (TDS), acrylamide was analysed in 192 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared "as consumed". Highest mean concentrations were found in potato chips/crisps (954 μg/kg), French fries and other fried potatoes (724 μg/kg), and salted biscuits other than potato chips (697 μg/kg). Exposure of general adult and child populations was assessed by combining analytical results with national consumption data. Mean acrylamide exposure was assessed to be 0.43±0.33 μg/kg of body weight (bw) per day for adults and 0.69±0.58 μg/kg bw/day for children. Although the exposure assessed is lower than in previous evaluations, the calculated margins of exposure, based on benchmark dose limits defined for carcinogenic effects, remain very low especially for young children (below 100 at the 95th percentile of exposure), indicating a health concern. It is therefore advisable to continue efforts in order to reduce dietary exposure to acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive validity of the Work Ability Index and its individual items in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Leijon, Ola; Vaez, Marjan; Hallgren, Mats; Torgén, Margareta

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the predictive ability of the full Work Ability Index (WAI) as well as its individual items in the general population. The Work, Health and Retirement Study (WHRS) is a stratified random national sample of 25-75-year-olds living in Sweden in 2000 that received a postal questionnaire ( n = 6637, response rate = 53%). Current and subsequent sickness absence was obtained from registers. The ability of the WAI to predict long-term sickness absence (LTSA; ⩾ 90 consecutive days) during a period of four years was analysed by logistic regression, from which the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. There were 313 incident LTSA cases among 1786 employed individuals. The full WAI had acceptable ability to predict LTSA during the 4-year follow-up (AUC = 0.79; 95% CI 0.76 to 0.82). Individual items were less stable in their predictive ability. However, three of the individual items: current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of diagnosed current diseases, exceeded AUC > 0.70. Excluding the WAI item on number of days on sickness absence did not result in an inferior predictive ability of the WAI. The full WAI has acceptable predictive validity, and is superior to its individual items. For public health surveys, three items may be suitable proxies of the full WAI; current work ability compared with lifetime best, estimated work impairment due to diseases, and number of current diseases diagnosed by a physician.

  5. Relation between awareness of circulatory disorders and smoking in a general population health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völzke Henry

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about proportions of smokers who maintain smoking after they are aware of a circulatory disorder. The goal was to analyze the extent to which the number of circulatory disorders may be related to being a current smoker. Methods Cross-sectional survey study with a probability sample of residents in Germany investigated in health examination centers. Questionnaire data of 3,778 ever smoking participants aged 18 – 79 were used, questions included whether the respondent had ever had hypertension, myocardial infarction, other coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, other cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and venous thrombosis. Logistic regression was calculated for circulatory disorders and their number with current smoking as the dependent variable, and odds ratios (OR are presented adjusted for physician contact, inpatient treatment, smoking cessation counseling, heavy smoking, exercise, overweight and obesity, school education, sex and age. Results Among ever smokers who had 1 circulatory disorder, 52.1 % were current smokers and among those who reported that they had 3 or more circulatory disorders 28.0 % were current smokers at the time of the interview. The adjusted odds of being a current smoker were lower for individuals who had ever smoked in life and had 2 or more central circulatory disorders, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke, than for ever smokers without central circulatory disorder (2 or more disorders: adjusted OR 0.6, 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.4 to 0.8. Conclusion Among those with central circulatory disorders, there is a substantial portion of individuals who smoke despite their disease. The data suggest that only a portion of smokers among the general population seems to be discouraged from smoking by circulatory disorders or its accompanying cognitive or emotional processes.

  6. Failure to thrive: the prevalence and concurrence of anthropometric criteria in a general infant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jørgensen, T; Wright, C M

    2007-01-01

    Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with “significant undernutrition”, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 2–6 and 6–11 months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  8. Minor Electrocardiographic ST-T Change and Risk of Stroke in the General Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hirose, Hideo; Schwartz, Joseph E; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2018-06-25

    Minor ST-T changes are frequently observed on the electrocardiogram (ECG), but the risk of stroke associated with such changes is unclear.Methods and Results:In 10,642 subjects from the Japanese general population, we evaluated minor and major ST-T changes (major ST depression ≥0.1 mV) on ECGs obtained at annual health examinations. At baseline, minor ST-T changes were found in 10.7% of the subjects and 0.5% had major ST-T changes. Minor ST-T changes were associated with older age, female gender, higher systolic blood pressure, presence of hyperlipidemia, and use of antihypertensive medication. There were 375 stroke events during the follow-up period (128.7±28.1 months). In all subjects, minor ST-T changes (HR, 2.10; 95% CI: 1.57-2.81) and major ST-T changes (HR, 8.64; 95% CI: 4.44-16.82) were associated with an increased risk of stroke, but the stroke risk associated with minor ST-T changes had borderline significance after adjustment for conventional risk factors (P=0.055). In subgroup analysis, the risk of stroke was significantly associated with minor ST-T changes in subjects who had hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15-2.67) compared to those without hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.64-1.59; P for interaction=0.016), even after adjustment for ECG-diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. Minor ST-T changes were particularly associated with a higher risk of stroke in subjects with hyperlipidemia and this association was independent of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy.

  9. Alcohol and cancer: risk perception and risk denial beliefs among the French general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Fressard, Lisa; Verger, Pierre; Legleye, Stéphane; Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, millions of deaths each year are attributed to alcohol. We sought to examine French people's beliefs about the risks of alcohol, their correlates, and their associations with alcohol use. Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey, a random cross-sectional telephone survey of the French general population (n = 3359 individuals aged 15-75 years). Using principal component analysis of seven beliefs about alcohol risks, we built two scores (one assessing risk denial based on self-confidence and the other risk relativization). Two multiple linear regressions explored these scores' socio-demographic and perceived information level correlates. Multiple logistic regressions tested the associations of these scores with daily drinking and with heavy episodic drinking (HED). About 60% of the respondents acknowledged that alcohol increases the risk of cancer, and 89% felt well-informed about the risks of alcohol. Beliefs that may promote risk denial were frequent (e.g. 72% agreed that soda and hamburgers are as bad as alcohol for your health). Both risk denial and risk relativization scores were higher among men, older respondents and those of low socioeconomic status. The probability of daily drinking increased with the risk relativization score and that of HED with both scores. Beliefs that can help people to deny the cancer risks due to alcohol use are common in France and may exist in many other countries where alcoholic beverages have been an integral part of the culture. These results can be used to redesign public information campaigns about the risks of alcohol. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. Result Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women) had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR) for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7)) in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10) in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38) in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54) in women respectively) compared to official nutritional guidelines. Conclusion Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet. PMID:24852440

  11. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups.

  14. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  15. A prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianLi; Sareen, Jitender; Patten, Scott; Bolton, James; Schmitz, Norbert; Birney, Arden

    2014-05-01

    Prediction algorithms are useful for making clinical decisions and for population health planning. However, such prediction algorithms for first onset of major depression do not exist. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prediction algorithm for first onset of major depression in the general population. Longitudinal study design with approximate 3-year follow-up. The study was based on data from a nationally representative sample of the US general population. A total of 28 059 individuals who participated in Waves 1 and 2 of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and who had not had major depression at Wave 1 were included. The prediction algorithm was developed using logistic regression modelling in 21 813 participants from three census regions. The algorithm was validated in participants from the 4th census region (n=6246). Major depression occurred since Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders IV. A prediction algorithm containing 17 unique risk factors was developed. The algorithm had good discriminative power (C statistics=0.7538, 95% CI 0.7378 to 0.7699) and excellent calibration (F-adjusted test=1.00, p=0.448) with the weighted data. In the validation sample, the algorithm had a C statistic of 0.7259 and excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2)=3.41, p=0.906). The developed prediction algorithm has good discrimination and calibration capacity. It can be used by clinicians, mental health policy-makers and service planners and the general public to predict future risk of having major depression. The application of the algorithm may lead to increased personalisation of treatment, better clinical decisions and more optimal mental health service planning.

  16. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  17. Physiological Aldosterone Concentrations Are Associated with Alterations of Lipid Metabolism: Observations from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannich, M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Reincke, M; Adolf, C; Völzke, H; Rettig, R; Hannemann, A

    2018-01-01

    Aldosterone and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are involved in many pathophysiological processes that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Previously, associations between the concentrations of aldosterone and certain components of the lipid metabolism in the peripheral circulation were suggested, but data from the general population is sparse. We therefore aimed to assess the associations between aldosterone and HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL-C in the general adult population. Data from 793 men and 938 women aged 25-85 years who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were obtained. The associations of aldosterone with serum lipid concentrations were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and HbA1c. The linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations of aldosterone with LDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.022, standard error = 0.010, p = 0.03) and non-HDL-C ( β -coefficient = 0.023, standard error = 0.009, p = 0.01) as well as an inverse association of aldosterone with HDL-C ( β -coefficient = -0.022, standard error = 0.011, p = 0.04). The present data show that plasma aldosterone is positively associated with LDL-C and non-HDL-C and inversely associated with HDL-C in the general population. Our data thus suggests that aldosterone concentrations within the physiological range may be related to alterations of lipid metabolism.

  18. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  19. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  20. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Comparing the impact of socio-demographic factors associated with traffic injury among older road users and the general population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of older road users represents a public health issue because older individuals are more susceptible to traffic injury and mortality than the general population. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic factors and traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Methods An ecological study was conducted using national data in Japan. Multivariate regression methods were applied to investigate the association of traffic injury and traffic mortality for the general population and among older road users with significant demographic, economic, road traffic, and medical/cultural factors. Results Income per capita, total road length, and alcohol consumption per person were significantly associated with traffic injury and traffic mortality both for the general population and among older road users in Japan. Income per capita and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic mortality for both groups. Meanwhile, for both groups, income per capita was positively associated with traffic injury, while total road length and alcohol consumption per person were negatively associated with traffic injury. Conclusions The effects of socio-demographic factors on traffic injury and traffic mortality in Japan were similar for both the general population and older road users. The study results suggest that injury preventive measures designed for the general population will be beneficial also for older road users in Japan.

  2. General boundary stabilization result of memory-type thermoelasticity with second sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Boulanouar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider an n-dimensional system of visco-thermoelasticity with second sound, where a viscoelastic dissipation is acting on a part of the boundary. We prove an explicit general decay rate result without imposing $u_0=0$ as in [17]. This allows a larger class of relaxation functions and initial data, hence, generalizes some previous results existing in the literature.

  3. Heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon in the general population: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Sbrana, Alfredo; Rucci, Paola; Cherici, Luca; Mungai, Francesco; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massimetti, Enrico; Raimondi, Francesca; Doria, Maria Rosaria; Spagnolli, Sabrina; Ravani, Laura; Consoli, Giorgio; Catena Dell Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic. In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of "normal" jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, "Ouestionario della gelosia" (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious. The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal Sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (jealousy phenomenon in the general population.

  4. The Mini-Social Phobia Inventory: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2012-07-01

    Onset of social phobia (SP) typically occurs in adolescence. Short screening instruments for its assessment are needed for use in primary health and school settings. The 3-item Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) has demonstrated effectiveness in screening for generalized SP (GSP) in adults. This study examined the psychometrics of the Mini-SPIN in an adolescent general population sample. Three hundred fifty adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were clinically interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version for identification of SP and other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorders, blind to their Mini-SPIN status. Associations between SP; subclinical SP; other anxiety, depressive, and disruptive disorders; and Mini-SPIN scores were examined, and diagnostic efficiency statistics were calculated. The association between Mini-SPIN scores and the generalized subtype of SP was also examined. As in adults, the Mini-SPIN items differentiated subjects with SP from those without. A score of 6 points or greater was found optimal in predicting SP with a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 84%, and positive and negative predictive values of 26% and 99%. The Mini-SPIN also possessed discriminative validity, as scores were higher for adolescents with SP than they were for those with depressive, disruptive, and other anxiety disorders. The Mini-SPIN was also able to differentiate adolescents with GSP from the rest of the sample. The Mini-SPIN has good psychometrics for screening SP in adolescents from general population and may have value in screening for GSP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal atrophy in people with memory deficits: results from the population-based IPREA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.

  6. A parametric analysis of prospect theory’s functionals for the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, A.S.; van Praag, B.M.S.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an experiment that completely measures the utility function and probability weighting function for different positive and negative monetary outcomes, using a representative sample of N = 1,935 from the general public. The results confirm earlier findings in the

  7. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T.D. Nhat (Nguyen Thi Duy); S. Todd (Stephen); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); Thao, T.T.N. (Tran Thi Nhu); Vy, N.H.T. (Nguyen Ha Thao); Quan, T.M. (Tran Minh); Vinh, D.N. (Dao Nguyen); J. van Beek (Janko); Anh, P.H. (Pham Hong); Lam, H.M. (Ha Minh); Hung, N.T. (Nguyen Thanh); Le Thanh, N.T. (Nguyen Thi); Huy, H.L.A. (Huynh Le Anh); Ha, V.T.H. (Vo Thi Hong); Baker, S. (Stephen); Thwaites, G.E. (Guy E.); Lien, N.T.N. (Nguyen Thi Nam); Hong, T.T.K. (Tran Thi Kim); Farrar, J. (Jeremy); C.P. Simmons (Cameron); Chau, N.V.V. (Nguyen Van Vinh); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); Boni, M.F. (Maciej F.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSeroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous

  8. Structure of general-population antibody titer distributions to influenza A virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy; Todd, Stacy; de Bruin, Erwin; Thao, Tran Thi Nhu; Vy, Nguyen Ha Thao; Quan, Tran Minh; Vinh, Dao Nguyen; van Beek, Janko; Anh, Pham Hong; Lam, Ha Minh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Le; Huy, Huynh Le Anh; Ha, Vo Thi Hong; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy E; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Koopmans, Marion; Boni, Maciej F

    2017-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A

  9. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  10. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    Full Text Available Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT in the general pregnancy population.Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars.Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176 of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176 by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264 in the general screening population.Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits.

  11. The CT frequencies of various non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis patients and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergün, Tarkan; Lakadamyal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency of non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD)) patients and in the general population as diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The abdominal CT findings of ESRD patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain during the years 2001–2010 have been retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three HD (14 females, 19 males, mean age: 62 ± 10.5) and 22 PD patients (12 females, 10 males, mean age: 59 ± 9.4) with acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been included into the study. In addition, 127 individuals (68 females, 59 males, mean age: 40.7 ± 12.8) with normal renal functions who presented with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain diagnosed with an acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been prospectively evaluated during the years 2009–2010. Results: While the most frequent etiology in PD patients was peritonitis (45.4%), acute pancreatitis (13.6%) and perforation (18.1), and in HD patients it was nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (18.1%) and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding (21.2%). The basic causes of acute abdomen in the general population were ureteral stone (34.6%) and appendicitis (18.1%). Conclusions: The causes of acute abdominal pain in ESRD patients is significantly different when compared to the general population. And within this special patient population the etiology of acute abdomen differs depending on the renal replacement therapy modality they are receiving. Thus, the causes of acute abdomen in PD patients are mostly peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and perforation, while being mostly nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in patients receiving HD therapy.

  12. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yuan

    Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  13. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.

  14. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  15. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  16. Attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in cases of mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskar, Saska; Bracic, Mark Floyd; Kolar, Urska; Lekic, Ksenija; Juricic, Nusa Konec; Grum, Alenka Tancic; Dobnik, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Vatovec, Mojca

    2017-11-01

    Although effective treatment is available for a variety of mental disorders, the treatment and help-seeking gap remains high. One of the main obstacles to help-seeking behaviour is prevailing stigmatizing attitudes. To examine attitudes within the general population towards seeking professional help in times of mental distress. A representative general population survey ( N = 594) was conducted in Slovenia by means of an Internet-based questionnaire, covering data on demographic variables and attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour. More stigmatizing attitudes towards help-seeking behaviour were found in men, single persons, those of a younger age and lower educational achievement and in respondents coming from regions with a high suicide rate. Furthermore, 52.50% of the total sample have had an experience with psychological problems, yet only 41.50% of those have sought professional help. Experience with help-seeking behaviour in the past was associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Knowledge and understanding of mental health problems are necessary prerequisites to seeking help, but not the only ones. To improve help-seeking behaviour, it is also important to combat stigmatizing attitudes. Additionally, destigmatizing campaigns should also focus on social norms.

  17. Measuring the impact of alcohol-related disorders on quality of life through general population preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva; Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto

    To estimate the intangible effects of alcohol misuse on the drinker's quality of life, based on general population preferences METHODS: The most important effects (dimensions) were identified by means of two focus groups conducted with patients and specialists. The levels of these dimensions were combined to yield different scenarios. A sample of 300 people taken from the general Spanish population evaluated a subset of these scenarios, selected by using a fractional factorial design. We used the probability lottery equivalent method to derive the utility score for the evaluated scenarios, and the random-effects regression model to estimate the relative importance of each dimension and to derive the utility score for the rest of scenarios not directly evaluated. Four main dimensions were identified (family, physical health, psychological health and social) and divided into three levels of intensity. We found a wide variation in the utilities associated with the scenarios directly evaluated (ranging from 0.09 to 0.78). The dimensions with the greatest relative importance were physical health (36.4%) and family consequences (31.3%), followed by psychological (20.5%) and social consequences (11.8%). Our findings confirm the benefits of adopting a heterogeneous approach to measure the effects of alcohol misuse. The estimated utilities could have both clinical and economic applications. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...

  19. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  20. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by the experience of stress, discomfort and fear in social situations, and is associated with substantial personal and societal burden. Two questionnaires exist that assess the aspects of social anxiety, i.e. social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia (SPS). There is no agreement in literature on the dimensionality of social anxiety. Further, the length of a questionnaire may negatively affect response rates and participation at follow-up occasions. To explore the structure of social anxiety in the general population, and to examine psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Our second aim was to construct abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS that can be easily used and with minimal burden. A total of 1598 adults from the general Dutch population completed a survey asking information on social anxiety, mood and demographics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as reliability analysis with item-total statistics were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for social phobia, and a 2-factor structure for the SIAS, with the second factor containing both reversely scored items. The abbreviated versions of SPS (11 items) and SIAS (10 items) show excellent discriminant and construct validity (Cronbach's α=.90 and .92), while specificity analysis showed that gender, marital status and educational level (SIAS(10): pSIAS, reducing the questionnaire burden for participants in epidemiological and biobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population...... of COPD are needed. Funding:The Danish Lung Association, the Danish Cancer Society, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, and University of Copenhagen.......Background: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population......%) were at high risk of having COPD. 3699 (11%) of these participants met the COPD criteria and 2903 (78%) were undiagnosed, of whom 2052 (71%) were symptomatic. During a median follow-up of 6·1 years (IQR 4·9), we recorded 800 exacerbations, 2038 cases of pneumonia, and 2789 deaths in the 32 518...

  2. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Marianne; Teunis, Peter; Sabel, Rob

    2008-07-09

    Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers). Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  3. Patterns of stigma toward schizophrenia among the general population: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre A; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Guarniero, Francisco B; Lawson, Fabio L; Hengartner, Michael P; Rössler, Wulf; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2014-09-01

    Our purpose was to assess stigma toward schizophrenia in a representative sample of the Brazilian general population. The sample consisted of 1015 individuals interviewed by telephone. A vignette describing someone with schizophrenia was read, and four stigma aspects regarding this hypothetical individual were assessed: stereotypes, restrictions, perceived prejudice and social distance. Latent profile analysis searched for stigma profiles among the sample. Multinomial logistic regression was used to find correlates of each class. Four stigma profiles were found; 'no stigma' individuals (n = 251) mostly displayed positive opinions. 'Labelers' (n = 222) scored high on social distance; they more often had familial contact with mental illness and more often labeled the vignette's disorder as schizophrenia. 'Discriminators', the group with the majority of individuals (n = 302), showed high levels of stigmatizing beliefs in all dimensions; discriminators were significantly older. 'Unobtrusive stigma' individuals (n = 240) seemed to demonstrate uncertainty or low commitment since they mostly answered items with the middle/impartial option. Some findings from the international literature were replicated; however, familial contact increased stigma, possibly denoting a locally modulated determinant. Hereby, our study also adds important cross-cultural data by showing that stigma toward schizophrenia is high in a Latin-American setting. We highlight the importance of analyzing the general population as a heterogeneous group, aiming to better elaborate anti-stigma campaigns. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Use and Acceptance of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among the General Population and Medical Personnel: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frass, Michael; Strassl, Robert Paul; Friehs, Helmut; Müllner, Michael; Kundi, Michael; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased during the past decade and the attitude of the general public is mainly positive, but the debate about the clinical effectiveness of these therapies remains controversial among many medical professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the existing literature utilizing different databases, including PubMed/Medline, PSYNDEX, and PsycLit, to research the use and acceptance of CAM among the general population and medical personnel. A special focus on CAM-referring literature was set by limiting the PubMed search to “Complementary Medicine” and adding two other search engines: CAMbase (www.cambase.de) and CAMRESEARCH (www.camresearch.net). These engines were used to reveal publications that at the time of the review were not indexed in PubMed. Results A total of 16 papers met the scope criteria. Prevalence rates of CAM in each of the included studies were between 5% and 74.8%. We found a higher utilization of homeopathy and acupuncture in German-speaking countries. Excluding any form of spiritual prayer, the data demonstrate that chiropractic manipulation, herbal medicine, massage, and homeopathy were the therapies most commonly used by the general population. We identified sex, age, and education as predictors of CAM utilization: More users were women, middle aged, and more educated. The ailments most often associated with CAM utilization included back pain or pathology, depression, insomnia, severe headache or migraine, and stomach or intestinal illnesses. Medical students were the most critical toward CAM. Compared to students of other professions (ie, nursing students: 44.7%, pharmacy students: 18.2%), medical students reported the least consultation with a CAM practitioner (10%). Conclusions The present data demonstrate an increase of CAM usage from 1990 through 2006 in all countries investigated. We found geographical differences, as well as differences between

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in the general population of Andalusia, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Fernando; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis F.; De Santiago, Esperanza; Ballesta, Julio; Pla, Antonio; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin; Gomez, Joaquin; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Levels of metalloids (As - urine) and heavy metals (Hg - urine, Cd - whole blood and Zn - serum) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 601 subjects living in the area affected by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW, Spain) and compared with those of a representative sample (960 subjects) selected from the Andalusian community (non-affected area), southern Spain. The characteristic parameters of the analytical method including uncertainty were determined for each metal. Potential associations of metal concentration with age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and food habits) were explored. Concentrations of all the metals studied were statistically higher in the population of the affected area with respect to that of the non-affected area in Andalusia, although levels were always lower or similar to the values reported for the general population and below occupational reference limits. In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence that the spill had any incidence on human health in the population living in the affected area. There are few references in scientific literature reporting values from large series of samples, and hence our data could be useful for further studies

  6. The impact of general anesthesia on child development and school performance: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneuer, Francisco J; Bentley, Jason P; Davidson, Andrew J; Holland, Andrew Ja; Badawi, Nadia; Martin, Andrew J; Skowno, Justin; Lain, Samantha J; Nassar, Natasha

    2018-04-27

    There has been considerable interest in the possible adverse neurocognitive effects of exposure to general anesthesia and surgery in early childhood. The aim of this data linkage study was to investigate developmental and school performance outcomes of children undergoing procedures requiring general anesthesia in early childhood. We included children born in New South Wales, Australia of 37+ weeks' gestation without major congenital anomalies or neurodevelopmental disability with either a school entry developmental assessment in 2009, 2012, or Grade-3 school test results in 2008-2014. We compared children exposed to general anesthesia aged <48 months to those without any hospitalization. Children with only 1 hospitalization with general anesthesia and no other hospitalization were assessed separately. Outcomes included being classified developmentally high risk at school entry and scoring below national minimum standard in school numeracy and reading tests. Of 211 978 children included, 82 156 had developmental assessment and 153 025 had school test results, with 12 848 (15.7%) and 25 032 (16.4%) exposed to general anesthesia, respectively. Children exposed to general anesthesia had 17%, 34%, and 23% increased odds of being developmentally high risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29); or scoring below the national minimum standard in numeracy (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.21-1.48) and reading (aOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12-1.36), respectively. Although the risk for being developmentally high risk and poor reading attenuated for children with only 1 hospitalization and exposure to general anesthesia, the association with poor numeracy results remained. Children exposed to general anesthesia before 4 years have poorer development at school entry and school performance. While the association among children with 1 hospitalization with 1 general anesthesia and no other hospitalization was attenuated, poor numeracy outcome remained. Further investigation of

  7. [The general methodological approaches identifying strategic positions in developing healthy lifestyle of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, S B; Babenko, A I

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of national and international publications concerning methodological aspects of elaborating systematic approach to healthy life-style of population. This scope of inquiry plays a key role in development of human capital. The costs related to healthy life-style are to be considered as personal investment into future income due to physical incrementation of human capital. The definitions of healthy life-style, its categories and supportive factors are to be considered in the process of development of strategies and programs of healthy lifestyle. The implementation of particular strategies entails application of comprehensive information and educational programs meant for various categories of population. Therefore, different motivation techniques are to be considered for children, adolescents, able-bodied population, the elderly. This approach is to be resulted in establishing particular responsibility for national government, territorial administrations, health care administrations, employers and population itself. The necessity of complex legislative measures is emphasized. The recent social hygienic studies were focused mostly on particular aspects of development of healthy life-style of population. Hence, the demand for long term exploration of development of organizational and functional models implementing medical preventive measures on the basis of comprehensive information analysis using statistical, sociological and professional expertise.

  8. Self-reported occupational noise may be associated with prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the us general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational noise exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common in the United States, but so far their association has not been explored. Given the neuroimmunological effects of noise, such an association seems plausible. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the association of occupational noise exposure with prevalent COPD in the US general population. Materials and Methods: We used data from the population-based National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2014. The cross-sectional association of self-reported duration of exposure to very loud noise during participants’ occupational lifetime with self-reported COPD and emphysema was explored using weighted logistic regression. Results and Discussion: The fully adjusted model yielded odds ratio (OR≥15 years = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28, 2.21] for COPD and OR≥15 years = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.30 for emphysema. Race/ethnicity was a significant effect modifier. In sensitivity analysis with cumulative noise exposure based on a job exposure matrix, we found no effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a relationship between self-reported occupational noise exposure and the risk of prevalent COPD in the US general population, but none with objective noise levels. Being the first study on the subject matter, and given the design limitations, these findings are tentative and should be treated with caution.

  9. Validation of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Patrick, Donald L; Edwards, Todd C; Skalicky, Anne M; Zeng, Hai-Yan; Gu, Wen-Wen

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China. Thousand and eight hundred respondents in 18 communities of Hangzhou, China were recruited by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Respondents self-administered a questionnaire including the EQ-5D, the SF-36, and demographic questions. Test-retest reliability at 2-week intervals was evaluated using Kappa coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to indicate the absolute measurement error. Construct validity was established using convergent, discriminant, and known groups analyses. Complete data for all EQ-5D dimensions were available for 1,747 respondents (97%). Kappa values were from 0.35 to 1.0. The ICCs of test-retest reliability were 0.53 for the EQ-5D index score and 0.87 for the EQ VAS score. The SEM values were 0.13 (9.22% range) and 4.20 (4.20% range) for the EQ-5D index and EQ VAS scores, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the EQ-5D and the SF-36 were stronger between comparable dimensions than those between less comparable dimensions, demonstrating convergent and discriminant evidence of construct validity. The Chinese EQ-5D distinguished well between known groups: respondents who reported poor general health and chronic diseases had worse HRQoL than those without. Older people, females, people widowed or divorced, and those with a lower socioeconomic status reported poorer HRQoL. Respondents reporting no problems on any EQ-5D dimension had better scores on the SF-36 summary scores than those reporting problems. The Chinese version of the EQ-5D demonstrated acceptable construct validity and fair to moderate levels of test-retest reliability in an urban general population in China.

  10. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  11. The relationship between lifestyle and self-reported health in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta Holm; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to describe the relationship between smoking status, dietary habits, physical activity and alcohol intake, and mental and physical self-reported health in a general population. MEASURES: A large population-based study Inter99, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999......-2006. Self-reported health-related quality of life was measured by Short Form 12 (SF-12). Mental and physical health component scores were computed. RESULTS: At baseline, SF-12 was completed by 6305 (92.3%) participants in the intervention groups, and 3017 (72.4%) persons in the control group. In cross......-sectional analyses, persons with an unhealthy lifestyle reported significantly worse physical and mental health than persons with a healthier lifestyle. In longitudinal data, using adjusted multivariate analyses (N=3,084), we found an association between increased physical activity at five-year follow...

  12. On the Representation Theory of the Ultrahyperbolic BMS group UHB(2, 2). I. General Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    The Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic group of all asymptotically flat (lorentzian) space-times, and is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity (G.R.). B admits generalizations to real space-times of any signature, to complex space-times, and supersymmetric generalizations for any space- time dimension. With this motivation McCarthy constructed the strongly continuous unitary irreducible representations (IRs) of B some time ago, and he identified B(2,2) as the generalization of B appropriate to the to the 'ultrahyperbolic signature' (+,+,−,−) and asymptotic flatness in null directions. We continue this programme by introducing a new group UHB(2, 2) in the group theoretical study of ultrahyperbolic G.R. which happens to be a proper subgroup of B(2, 2). In this short paper we report on the first general results on the representation theory of UHB(2, 2). In particular the main general results are that the all little groups of UHB(2, 2) are compact and that the Wigner-Mackey's inducing construction is exhaustive despite the fact that UHB(2, 2) is not locally compact in the employed Hilbert topology. At the end of the paper we comment on the significance of these results

  13. Heavy cannabis users at elevated risk of stroke: evidence from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Dilini; McKetin, Rebecca; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    Case reports and hospital-based case-control studies suggest that cannabis use may increase the risk of stroke. We examined the risk of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) among cannabis users in the general community. A general population survey of Australians aged 20-24 years (n=2,383), 40-44 years (n=2,525) and 60-64 years (n=2,547) was used to determine the odds of lifetime stroke or TIA among participants who had smoked cannabis in the past year while adjusting for other stroke risk factors. There were 153 stroke/TIA cases (2.1%). After adjusting for age cohort, past year cannabis users (n=1,043) had 3.3 times the rate of stroke/TIA (95% CI 1.8-6.3, pcannabis weekly or more often (IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.7) with no elevation among participants who used cannabis less often. Heavy cannabis users in the general community have a higher rate of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack than non-cannabis users. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Chances of employment in women and men after surgery of congenital heart disease: comparisons between patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Siegfried; Norozi, Kambiz; Buchhorn, Reiner; Wessel, Armin

    2009-01-01

    It was examined whether women and men (17-45 years) with operated congenital heart disease differ with respect to chances of employment. Patients were compared with the general population. Patients (n = 314) were classified by type of surgery (curative, reparative, palliative) as indicator of initial severity of disease. The second classification was performed according to a system proposed by the New York Heart Association in order to take reported impairments into account. Controls (n = 1165) consisted of a 10% random sample drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Chances of full-time employment decreased as disease severity increased. Chances of part-time and minor employment were higher in patients than among controls. These general effects were because of male patients, while the employment patterns of women did not differ from the control group. Independent of patient status, women were more likely to have lower rates of full-time employment, and the rates of part-time and minor employment were higher. Long-term adaptation to impairments as a result of congenital heart disease differs between women and men with respect to employment status. While female patients do not differ from the general population, males may lower their engagement in paid work.

  15. A diffusion model of protected population on bilocal habitat with generalized resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Maxim D.; Trofimtsev, Yuri I.; Vasilyeva, Natalya V.

    2017-11-01

    A model of population distribution in a two-dimensional area divided by an ecological barrier, i.e. the boundaries of natural reserve, is considered. Distribution of the population is defined by diffusion, directed migrations and areal resource. The exchange of specimens occurs between two parts of the habitat. The mathematical model is presented in the form of a boundary value problem for a system of non-linear parabolic equations with variable parameters of diffusion and growth function. The splitting space variables, sweep method and simple iteration methods were used for the numerical solution of a system. A set of programs was coded in Python. Numerical simulation results for the two-dimensional unsteady non-linear problem are analyzed in detail. The influence of migration flow coefficients and functions of natural birth/death ratio on the distributions of population densities is investigated. The results of the research would allow to describe the conditions of the stable and sustainable existence of populations in bilocal habitat containing the protected and non-protected zones.

  16. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S; Katzenstein, T L; Johansen, I Somuncu; Pedersen, G; Junge, J; Helleberg, M; Storgaard, M; Obel, N; Lebech, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population. We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count < 200 cells/μL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, when we compared subgroups of WLWH and controls where women in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme and with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  17. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  18. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

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    Zhao Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001. In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818. In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001 than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers. Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  19. [Distribution of rubidium, cesium, beryllium, strontium, and barium in blood and urine in general Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Xu, Guang; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) in blood and urine in general Chinese population. A total of 18 120 subjects aged 6~60 years were enrolled from 24 regions in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China from 2009 to 2010 based on the method of cluster random sampling. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the data on living environment and health status. Blood and urine samples were collected from these subjects, and the levels of Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, and Ba in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of these elements in blood and urine in male or female subjects living in different regions was analyzed statistically. In the general Chinese population, the concentration of Be in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L); the geometric mean (GM) of Ba in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.45 μg/L), with the 95th percentile (P95)of 1.37 μg/L; the GMs (95% CI)of Rb, Cs, and Sr in the whole blood were 2 374(2 357~2 392) μg/L, 2.01 (1.98~2.05) μg/L, and 23.5 (23.3~23.7) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of blood Rb, Cs, and Sr were 2 506 (2 478~2 533) μg/L and 2 248 (2 227~2 270) μg/L, 1.88 (1.83~1.94) μg/L and 2.16 (2.11~2.20) μg/L, and 23.4 (23.1~23.7) μg/L and 23.6 (23.3~23.9) μg/L, respectively(P0.05, and P>0.05). In the general Chinese population, the GM of urine Be was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L), while the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 854 (836~873) μg/L, 3.65 (3.56~3.74) μg/L, 39.5 (38.4~40.6) μg/L, and 1.10 (1.07~1.12) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 876 (849~904) μg/L and 832 (807~858) μg/L, 3.83 (3.70~3.96) μg/L and 3.47 (3.35~3.60) μg/L, 42.5 (40.9~44.2) μg/L and 36.6 (35.1~38.0) μg/L, and 1.15 (1.12~1.19) μg/L and 1.04 (1.01~1.07) μg/L, respectively (all P< 0

  20. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in New Zealand: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Ashton, Janelle; Herbison, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The cardiovascular safety of sibutramine is currently under review by medicines regulatory authorities worldwide after the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial) showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking sibutramine. Further data regarding the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine in a general population are now required. To quantify the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events in a general population prescribed sibutramine in postmarketing use. Observational prospective cohort study of patients dispensed sibutramine during a 3-year period (2001-4) and followed up for at least 1 year after their last prescription. The study included record-linkage to national mortality datasets to identify fatal events. Postmarketing 'real-life' use of sibutramine in a general population in New Zealand. All New Zealand patients dispensed a prescription for sibutramine in a 3-year period (for whom a National Health Identification number could be validated). 15 686 patients were included in the record linkage study for fatal events. A subgroup of 9471 patients was followed up by intensive methods for non-fatal events. (i) Rate of death from all causes and from cardiovascular events; and (ii) rates of non-fatal cardiovascular adverse events. Total exposure to sibutramine for 15 686 patients in the validated cohort was 5431 treatment-years. The rate of death from all causes in this cohort was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.27) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The rate of death from a cardiovascular event was 0.07 (95% CI 0.02, 0.19) per 100 treatment-years exposure. The most frequent non-fatal cardiovascular events in the intensively followed up cohort were hypertension, palpitations, hypotensive events and tachycardia. Risk of death from a cardiovascular event in this general population of patients prescribed sibutramine was lower than has been reported in other overweight/obese populations. The results of this study suggest that further

  1. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richmond

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  2. Military Personnel Exhibit a Lower Presence of Obesity than the General U.S. Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302...Surveillance System (BRFSS), and National 154 Household Interview Survey ( NHIS )]. BMI results among military personnel were 155 compared to the general U.S

  3. Patient and population protection in X-ray examinations -a general roentgenological and health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhidekov, G.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Population exposure in excess of that due to natural radiation background is known to result primarily (to 70-90%) from medical X-rays given in mass screening. Protection of the population is a problem of great concern in present-day radiology and is approached by balancing benefits of diagnostic X-rays against risks presented by the probability of overexposing the patient. An evaluation on such a basis necessitates detailed and accurate information on patient radiation exposure and takes into account factors leading to a population hazard by making assessments in terms of so-called genetically significant doses. Gonad doses have to be carefully analysed, implying a need for studies of various types of X-ray procedures, precautionary measures taken, etc. An important issue in the choice and adoption of an appropriate method for large-scale gonad dose assessments in routine practice. To obtain an estimate of radiation hazard from medical roentgenology in terms of genetically significant doses and identify measures necessary to limit exposure risks, collaborative efforts are needed involving participation of roentgenologists and hygienists, and use of dosimetric, organizational-methodological, and statistical techniques. These efforts should lead to an abrupt reduction in radiation burden to the population from diagnostic X-rays. (author)

  4. Cumulative trauma, hyperarousal, and suicidality in the general population: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Godbout, Natacha; Dias, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) both have been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, the underlying basis for this relationship is not clear. In a sample of 357 trauma-exposed individuals from the general population, younger participant age, cumulative trauma exposure, and all three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) were correlated with clinical levels of suicidality. However, logistic regression analysis indicated that when all PTSD clusters were considered simultaneously, only hyperarousal continued to be predictive. A path analysis confirmed that posttraumatic hyperarousal (but not other components of PTSD) fully mediated the relationship between extent of trauma exposure and degree of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

  5. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark PARTICIPANTS: 59 616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n=11 629) and a control group (n=47 987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up to four...... of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening. MAIN......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...

  6. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 59,616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n = 11,629) and a control group (n = 47,987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up...... sessions of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...

  7. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C

    2014-01-01

    -gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...

  8. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...... associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...

  9. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits....... In the period from November 2006 to June 2007, more than 23 000 men were included in the study (participation rate approximately 71%). Overall, 10% of the participants reported to have heard of HPV. Comparison with an earlier study in Danish women showed lower awareness in men than in women (25%). Higher...

  10. The JAK2 V617F somatic mutation, mortality and cancer risk in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla; Birgens, Henrik S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    .1-1.1). Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for any cancer, hematologic cancer and myeloproliferative cancer were 3.7 (1.7-8.0), 58 (13-261) and 161 (12-2,197), respectively. Corresponding hazard ratios were 1.2 (0.8-2.0), 2.3 (0.2-25), 1.3 (0.3-5.4) for men versus women, and 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.1 (0.9-1.2), 0.9 (0......JAK2 V617F is present in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative cancer; however, its prevalence and clinical significance in the general population is unknown. We screened for presence of the mutation in 10,507 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with up to 17.6 years...

  11. Exposure of the German general population to platinum and rhodium - Urinary levels and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, Sven; Kilo, Sonja; Röß, Christoph; Jeitner, Peter; Schierl, Rudolf; Göen, Thomas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-11-01

    In this study the exposure of the general population in Germany to platinum and rhodium and its determinants was investigated in 259 participants (subdivided in three groups) by urine analyses and assessment of the dental status. Complementary, an interview including questions characterising possible exposure to traffic exhaust was conducted. The median excretion was 2.42ng platinum/g creatinine and 7.27ng rhodium/g creatinine. The detailed analysis of the collected data showed significant higher platinum excretion values with increasing number of surfaces covered with restorations containing precious metals (R=0.389; prhodium excretion values (median=7.27ng/g; 95th percentile=13.5 ng/g). In summary, the study showed that exhaust emissions have an influence on platinum and rhodium excretion, but for platinum this influence is rather low compared to the influence of precious metals containing restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies...... have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N...... = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm...

  13. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart......% confidence interval, 11%-30%) for ischemic stroke, 16% (8%-24%) for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 3% (-5%-11%) for myocardial infarction, and 7% (1%-12%) for ischemic heart disease. Interpretation: In the general population, elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic...... stroke and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, independent of plasma CRP levels. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:672-680...

  14. Participation in daily life of people with schizophrenia in comparison to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Easterbrook, Adam; Kotler, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    Participation in occupations is a basic human right. Although people with schizophrenia commonly experience restrictions in participation, there is a paucity of research in this area. This study aimed to compare the participation patterns of people with schizophrenia to people without mental illness (control group). A total of 140 people of similar age and sex completed the Adults Subjective Assessment of Participation and provided demographic and health-related data. People with schizophrenia tend to participate in fewer activities and to participate alone. However, they participate with similar intensity as those in the control group. The participation patterns of people with schizophrenia are both unique and similar to those of the general population. The differences in participation raise concerns due to signs of restriction and social exclusion. However, it appears that people with schizophrenia benefit from occupation and community-based services that promote and support participation with others in diverse activities.

  15. Dietary Sodium Consumption Predicts Future Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension in the Japanese Normotensive General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2015-07-29

    Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Relationship between stress coping and sleep disorders among the general Japanese population: a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Itani, Osamu; Nakagome, Sachi; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the prevalence of stress, and examine the relationship between sleep disorders and stress coping strategies among highly stressed individuals in the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional nationwide survey was undertaken in November 2007. Men and women were randomly selected from 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7671 (3532 men (average age 53.5 ± 17.0 years) and 4139 women (average age 53.9 ± 17.7 years)) were analyzed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on stress, sleep disorders, and stress coping strategies in the previous month. Highly stressed individuals comprised 16.6% (95% confidence interval 15.8-17.5%) of the total sample, and most were aged 20-49 years. In multiple logistic regression, symptoms of insomnia (ie, difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening), excessive daytime sleepiness, nightmares, daytime malfunction, and lack of rest due to sleep deprivation were more prone to occur in highly stressed individuals. In addition, logistic regression analysis controlling for other adjustment factors revealed that stress coping strategies such as 'giving up on problem-solving', 'enduring problems patiently', 'smoking' and 'drinking alcohol' were positively associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. On the other hand, stress coping strategies such as 'exercising', 'enjoying hobbies', and 'sharing worries' were inversely associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. Distraction-based stress coping (eg, hobbies, exercise, and optimistic thinking) was found to be preferable to problem-based stress coping in a highly stressed Japanese general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sundqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  18. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Periodontal Disease in a Japanese General Population: the Suita Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikui, Miki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Kida, Momoyo; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been noted. However, no study has evaluated the relationship by sex and in a general urban population using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between MetS and periodontal status using the uniform definition in a general urban Japanese population. A total of 1,856 Japanese men and women (mean age: 66.4 years) were studied using data from the Suita study. Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). MetS was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The associations of the MetS and its components with periodontal disease were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, drinking, and smoking. Among the components of the MetS, low HDL cholesterol level was significantly associated with periodontal disease in men and women [odds ratios (OR)=2.39 and 1.53; 95% confidence intervals=1.36-4.19 and 1.06-2.19]. Furthermore, the risk of periodontal disease showed 1.43-, 1.42-, and 1.89-fold increases in those with 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively, compared with those having no components (P trend <0.001). For the analysis by sex, the risk of periodontal disease was increased 2.27- and 1.76-fold in those with ≥4 components in men and women, respectively (both P trend =0.001). These findings suggest that MetS and lower HDL cholesterol are associated with periodontal disease. Subjects with two or more MetS components had a significantly higher prevalence of periodontal disease.

  20. The unclosing premature mortality gap in gout: a general population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark C; Rai, Sharan K; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-07-01

    Gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis, is associated with premature mortality. Whether this mortality gap has improved over time, as observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is unknown. Using an electronic medical record database representative of the UK general population, we identified incident gout cases and controls between 1999 and 2014. The gout cohort was divided based on year of diagnosis into early (1999-2006) and late (2007-2014) cohorts. We compared the mortality rates and HRs, adjusting for potential confounders between the cohorts. We conducted sensitivity analyses among patients with gout who received at least one prescription for urate-lowering therapy, which has been found to have a validity of 90%. In both cohorts, patients with gout showed similar levels of excess mortality compared with their corresponding comparison cohort (ie, 29.1 vs 23.5 deaths/1000 person-years and 23.0 vs 18.8 deaths/1000 person-years in the early and late cohorts, respectively). The corresponding mortality HRs were 1.25 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.30) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.29), and the multivariable HRs were 1.10 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.13), respectively (both p values for interaction >0.72). Our sensitivity analyses showed similar findings (both p values for interaction >0.88). This general population-based cohort study indicates that the level of premature mortality among patients with gout remains unimproved over the past 16 years, unlike RA during the same period. This unclosing premature mortality gap calls for improved management of gout and its comorbidities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-ting Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P<0.0001 and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P<0.0001 but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.46–0.72 after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.85 than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan’s physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment.

  2. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin 1β (+3954; −511 genotype polymorphism and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis in the Malaysian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in interleukin 1β (IL-1β gene have been known to be associated with increased susceptibility to chronic periodontitis among various ethnic populations. SNPs are more commonly observed at loci + 3954 and − 511. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-1β gene polymorphism at loci +3954 and − 511, and its association with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the ethnic Malay, Chinese, and Indians within the Malaysian population. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 120 subjects (60 cases and 60 controls in the age group of 25–50 years were collected for isolation of genetic material using Norgen technique. Clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm was considered as severe chronic generalized periodontitis. SNP's at loci +3954 and − 511 were identified and analyzed using Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Genotyping System (KASP™. Differences in the allele/genotype frequencies were assessed by Chi-square test (P < 0.05. Results: On the comparison between cases and controls of IL-1β genotype polymorphism (+3954 and − 511, the difference in the genotype frequencies was statistically insignificant in all the three ethnicities. The genotype frequency in both groups in all three ethnicities of the Malaysian population was similar. Conclusion: IL-1β genotype polymorphism at +3954 and − 511 was found to be not associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis among the three ethnicities in Malaysia. Studies with larger sample size should be done to confirm the findings of this study.

  4. Fatigue in the Danish general population. Influence of sociodemographic factors and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, T; Groenvold, M; Bjorner, J B

    2000-01-01

    -77 with an equal gender distribution (response rate 67%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five fatigue scales from the questionnaire Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity, Reduced Motivation and Mental Fatigue. RESULTS: Fatigue scores were skewed towards absence of fatigue....... The General Fatigue and Physical Fatigue scales showed the highest fatigue levels while the Reduced Motivation scale showed lowest levels. Gender differences in fatigue scores were small, but the variability among women was higher-that is, more women had high scores. A multiple linear regression analysis......, gender and/or whether the person was living alone. For example, General and Physical Fatigue decreased with age among healthy people, whereas scores on these scales increased with age among those with a somatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Physical and mental diseases play essential parts for the level...

  5. Asthma, other atopic conditions and risk of infections in 105 519 general population never and ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helby, J; Nordestgaard, B G; Benfield, T; Bojesen, S E

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105 519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths. For asthma, we focused on never smokers with asthma diagnosed before age 50 (early asthma) to minimize confounding by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During follow-up, 11 160 individuals had infections. Never smokers with early asthma versus no atopic conditions had significantly increased risks of any infection (hazard ratio 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.40-1.94), pneumonia (2.44; 1.92-3.11) and any non-respiratory tract infection (1.36; 1.11-1.67); results were similar in ever smokers. Never smokers with any asthma had significantly increased risks of any infection (1.44; 1.24-1.66) and pneumonia (1.99; 1.62-2.44). Neither atopic dermatitis (1.00; 0.91-1.10) nor hay fever (1.00; 0.93-1.07) was associated with risk of any infection. In never smokers, risk estimates for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, as were the population attributable fractions of 2.2% for any asthma and 2.9% for diabetes. Early asthma was associated with significantly increased risks of any infection, pneumonia and any non-respiratory tract infection in never and ever smokers. In never smokers, risk estimates as well as population attributable fractions for any infection were comparable between asthma and diabetes, suggesting that asthma may be a substantial risk factor for infections in the general population. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a self-administered questionnaire (ORTO-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacciotti, C E; Perrone, P; Coli, E; Burgalassi, A; Conversano, C; Massimetti, G; Dell'Osso, L

    2011-06-01

    Orthorexia, from the Greek words orthos (straight, proper) and orexis (appetite), is a newly conceptualized disorder characterized by distorted eating habits and cognitions concerning supposedly healthy nutrition. In this article we present preliminary results of a wider research aimed to investigate the diffusion of Orthorexia in the general population and to highlight its characteristics and particularly the relationship with Eating Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. One-hundred and seventy seven adult subjects from the general population, were administered the ORTO-15 test, a selfadministered questionnaire specifically designed to assess orthorexic symptomatology; note that statistical analyses were repeated twice, referring to different diagnostic thresholds (40/35). Orthorexia had a 57.6% prevalence in our sample, using the 40-point threshold, with a female/male ratio 2:1; the figure was sensibly lower with the 35-point threshold (21%). The results of this study highlight the diffusion of Orthorexia which may constitute an important risk factor for mental and physical health, but also the opportunity of more specific diagnostic instruments, so to facilitate a thorough understanding of this disorder.

  7. Delivering stepped care for depression in general practice : Results of a survey amongst general practitioners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Henny; Franx, Gerdien; Spijker, Jan; Ruiter, Marijke; van Haastrecht, Harry; Verhaak, Peter; Nuyen, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Background: Revised guidelines for depression recommend a stepped care approach. Little is known about the implementation of the stepped care model by general practitioners (GPs) in daily practice. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of Dutch GPs in their general practice regarding important

  8. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette