WorldWideScience

Sample records for general population comparison

  1. The Risk Attitudes of U.S. Farmers: Comparisons to the General Population and Business Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    I compare the risk attitudes of a large, representative sample of farmers to representative samples of the general population and of non-farm small business owners using a robust survey measure of risk tolerance. I find no difference between farmers and the general population in average risk tolerance while small business owners are significantly more risk tolerant than farmers. If farmers shared the same demographic profile as the general population, farmers would be significantly more risk ...

  2. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  3. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  4. Adverse events in hospitalised cancer patients: a comparison to a general hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukland, Ellinor; von Plessen, Christian; Nieder, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    ) compared to a general hospital population. Material and methods: A total of 6720 patient records were retrospectively reviewed comparing AEs in hospitalised cancer patients to a general hospital population in Norway, using the IHI Global Trigger Tool method. Results: 24.2 percent of admissions for cancer...... risk. The rate of AEs increases by 1.05 times for each day spent in hospital. For every year increase in age, the risk for AEs increases by 1.3%. Cancer patients more often have hospital-acquired infections, other surgical complications and AEs related to medications. Conclusions: Because of higher age...

  5. Experience of aging in patients with rheumatic disease: A comparison with the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Taal, E.; Westerhof, G.J.; Gessel, van L.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Self-perceptions of aging have been shown to predict mental and physical health and even longevity. This study examined the aging perceptions of patients with rheumatic disease and compared them with the general Dutch population. Methods: Consecutive patients visiting a rheumatology cl

  6. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  7. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  8. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-ting Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P<0.0001 and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P<0.0001 but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.46–0.72 after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.85 than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan’s physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment.

  9. Comparison of diabetes management status between cancer survivors and the general population: results from a Korean population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Shin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls.We analyzed data from 2,660 subjects with prevalent diabetes (aged ≥30 years, who had participated in the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Awareness was defined as a subject having been diagnosed with diabetes by a clinician. Treatment was defined as a subject who was taking anti-diabetic medicine. Adequate glycemic control was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of <7%. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins were used to evaluate whether awareness, treatment, or adequate glycemic control differed among cancer survivors and the two non-cancer control groups.Cancer survivors had greater awareness compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease and non-cancer, non-chronic disease control groups (85.1%, 80.4%, and 60.4%, respectively. Although the prevalences of treatment and adequate glycemic control were higher for survivors compared with the non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls, they were lower compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease controls. The prevalence of diabetes treatment was 67.5% for cancer survivors, 69.5% for non-cancer, chronic disease controls, and 46.7% for non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls; the prevalences of adequate glycemic control in these three groups were 31.7%, 34.6%, and 17.8%, respectively.Cancer survivors were less likely than the non-cancer chronic disease subjects to receive diabetes management and to achieve adequate glycemic targets. Special attention and education are required to ensure that this population receives

  10. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France, Ge

  11. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  12. Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients : comparison with the general population and other diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Raat, H.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: To date no studies have compared generic health-related quality of life (HRQL) of food allergic patients from childhood to adulthood with that of the general population or patients with other chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare generic HRQL of food allergic patients

  13. Can Welfare Mothers Hack It in College? A Comparison of Achievement between TANF Recipients and General Population Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of a group of undergraduate students enrolled in a pilot program for welfare recipients in the form of TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) was compared with the achievement of general population students at an urban community college. Grades attained in a basic level, introductory Psychology course were used to measure academic…

  14. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  15. Can Welfare Mothers Hack It in College? A Comparison of Achievement between TANF Recipients and General Population Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of a group of undergraduate students enrolled in a pilot program for welfare recipients in the form of TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) was compared with the achievement of general population students at an urban community college. Grades attained in a basic level, introductory Psychology course were used to measure academic…

  16. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Manuel B; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-03-21

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%-0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥ 20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  17. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel B. Huber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%. Compared with 2012 (59.3%, the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4% and 2014 (62%. Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  18. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  19. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  20. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  1. Comparison of the metabolic syndrome risk in valproate-treated patients with epilepsy and the general population in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Rakitin

    Full Text Available No study has explored the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS in patients with epilepsy treated with valproate (VPA at the population level. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients in Estonia to the risk in the general population.This study involved 118 patients with epilepsy (63 men, 55 women who received VPA monotherapy. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Data were compared with the results of a population-based study of the prevalence of MS in the same geographic region (N = 493; 213 men, 280 women.In the multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age and sex, the risk of MS in VPA-treated patients was not increased compared to the control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.68. VPA-treated patients had higher serum insulin concentrations than control subjects, independent of body mass index (BMI. A positive association was found between MS development and BMI (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.25-1.73 in VPA-treated patients, but there were no associations with the VPA dosage or the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. In control subjects, BMI and HOMA-IR had similar predictive abilities for MS occurrence. In VPA-treated patients, the predictive ability of the HOMA-IR index was significantly lower than that of BMI, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.808 and 0.897 (P = 0.05, respectively.The risk of MS is not increased among VPA-treated patients with epilepsy in Estonia compared to the general population. The HOMA-IR index likely has a lower predictive ability for MS in VPA-treated patients compared to its predictive ability in the general population.

  2. The Dutch health insurance reform: switching between insurers, a comparison between the general population and the chronically ill and disabled

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    Groenewegen Peter P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 1 January 2006 a number of far-reaching changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In the new system of managed competition consumer mobility plays an important role. Consumers are free to change their insurer and insurance plan every year. The idea is that consumers who are not satisfied with the premium or quality of care provided will opt for a different insurer. This would force insurers to strive for good prices and quality of care. Internationally, the Dutch changes are under the attention of both policy makers and researchers. Questions answered in this article relate to switching behaviour, reasons for switching, and differences between population categories. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent to 1516 members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and to 3757 members of the National Panel of the Chronically ill and Disabled (NPCD in April 2006. The questionnaire was returned by 1198 members of the Consumer Panel (response 79% and by 3211 members of the NPCD (response 86%. Among other things, questions were asked about choices for a health insurer and insurance plan and the reasons for this choice. Results Young and healthy people switch insurer more often than elderly or people in bad health. The chronically ill and disabled do not switch less often than the general population when both populations are comparable on age, sex and education. For the general population, premium is more important than content, while the chronically ill and disabled value content of the insurance package as well. However, quality of care is not important for either group as a reason for switching. Conclusion There is increased mobility in the new system for both the general population and the chronically ill and disabled. This however is not based on quality of care. If reasons for switching are unrelated to the quality of care, it is hard to believe that switching influences the quality of care. As yet there

  3. Comparison of Health Behaviors Among Women Brothel Workers to Those of the General Population of Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Arnfred, Anders; Algren, Maria Holst;

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on behavioral risk factors for illness among sex workers has been limited and based on mixed, poorly defined groups of sex workers. Our aim was to compare the health behaviors and weight of women brothel workers with women in the general population in Denmark. We used logistic...... brothel workers compared to Danish women. These differences were significant when adjusted for age and educational level. We noted few differences regarding dietary habits and no differences regarding physical activity. Our findings suggest the need for health promotion initiatives, particularly...

  4. Chances of Employment in a Population of Women and Men after Surgery of Congenital Heart Disease: Gender-Specific Comparisons between Patients and the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Siegfried Geyer; Kambiz Norozi; Reiner Buchhorn; Armin Wessel

    2008-01-01

    It was examined whether women and men (17-45 years) with operated congenital heart disease (CHD) differ with respect to chances of employment. Patients were compared with the general population. Patients (N=314) were classified by type of surgery (curative, reparative, palliative) as indicator of initial severity of disease. The second classification was performed according to a system proposed by the New York Heart Association in order to take subjectively reported impairments into account. ...

  5. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population

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    Kristina Thorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV (WLWH are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark. Methods: We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population in the period 1999–2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank containing nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. Results: We followed 1,143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. Compared to controls, the overall incidence of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+, CIN2+ and CIN3+ was higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and CD4 count <200 cells/µL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. Conclusions: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable amongst WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program and with a normal baseline cytology.

  6. A comparison of individual and social time trade-off values for health states in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to compare directly elicited individual time trade-off (TTO) values in a general population sample with the social values derived using the UK EQ-5D index tariff. In the Stockholm County 1998 postal Public Health Survey (n=4950, 20-88 years), the EQ-5D self-classifier, a TTO...... and a rating scale (RS) question were included (n=2549 for all three questions). The mean TTO (EQ-5D) value was 0.943 (0.890) in the youngest age-group and 0.699 (0.733) in the oldest age-group. The difference between TTO and EQ-5D values was greater in more severe health status groups was. The same equation...... as for the UK EQ-5D index tariff was estimated for TTO and RS and resulted in significant and consistent coefficients for nearly all dimensions. The coefficients for moderate problems were closer to the EQ-5D index tariff than the coefficients for severe problems. Age was also significant after controlling...

  7. Migraine life-time prevalence in mental disorders: concurrent comparisons with first-degree relatives and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Arapé, Yinet; Serrano, Ana; Mazzarella, Xiorella; Quiroz, Segundo; Ramirez, Clara Isabel; Padrón de Freytez, Alix

    2012-03-01

    The authors quantified the prevalence of migraine in subjects with mental disorders, first-degree relatives and the adult general population (GP) in Mérida, Venezuela. After validation, a modified, short version of the Lipton's diagnostic scale was administered to consecutively admitted in- and out-patients (n = 1059), their first-degree relatives (n = 445) and a probabilistic sample of the GP (n = 516). In the GP, the frequency of migraine (percentage and 95% confidence interval) was 14.9 (11.8-17.9). The migraine frequencies were (percentage and odd ratio probability against the GP: bipolar disorder (15.7%, p = 0.5), schizophrenia (8.3%, p = 0.08), depression and dysthimia (24.4%, p = 0.2), anxiety disorders (10.0%, p = 0.02), personality disorders (11.4%, p = 0.15), all other disorders (15.5%, p = 0.4), relatives of bipolar patients (4.4%, p < 0.001), relatives of schizophrenia patients (3.5%, p = 0.003), and relatives of patients with all other mental disorders (12.8%, p = 0.4). Migraine was more common in women (p < 0.001), and the bipolar patients presented the highest female to male ratio (8:1). A high variability was observed in migraine prevalence among the diagnostic categories, but it was particularly high in subjects with affective disorders, mainly in women, who thus deserve special attention from clinicians.

  8. Health-related quality of life of hospitalized patients with burns-comparison with general population and a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Virve; Laitila, Markku; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P

    2013-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has gained increasing interest as an important indicator of adaptation after a burn injury. Our objective was to compare HRQoL of medium severity hospitalized burn victims with no need for intensive care treatment with that of the general population. The 15D HRQoL questionnaire at discharge, and 6, 12 and 24 months thereafter. 44 patients filled in the baseline questionnaire between June 2007 and December 2009. At discharge the mean (SD) HRQoL score (on a scale of 0-1) of the patients was worse in comparison with that of the general population (0.839 (0.125) vs. 0.936 (0.071)), ppatients hospitalized for treatment of burns is, at discharge, compromised compared with that of the general population. During follow-up HRQoL showed slight improvement but remained at a clearly lower level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of medicinal drugs in suspected impaired drivers and a comparison with the use in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Karlijn D B; Smink, Beitske E; van Maanen, Rianne; Verschraagen, Miranda; de Gier, Johan J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychotropic medicines in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of medicinal and illicit drugs in The Netherlands and to compare the prevalence of selected impairing medicines with the use of these medicines in the general Dutch p

  10. Refining population health comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Jørgensen, Mette Møller; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    How to determine if a population group has better overall (multidimensional) health status than another is a central question in the health and social sciences. We apply a multidimensional first order dominance concept that does not rely on assumptions about the relative importance of each...

  11. A survey of oral health in a population of adults with developmental disabilities: comparison with a national oral health survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A; March, L; Stokes, M L

    1998-08-01

    During 1991, an oral health assessment of 101 adults with developmental disabilities aged from 21 to 53 years was undertaken as part of a broader health survey which also included medical, psychological and nutritional assessments. The study group consisted of a random sample of adults chosen from the developmentally disabled population known to be living in the lower North Shore area of Sydney. This paper describes the results of the oral health assessment and compares them with an oral health survey of the Australian population done in 1987/88. Forty-six per cent of the study group were males (mean age 33.5 years) and 54 per cent were females (mean age 33.0 years). Compared with similar age subgroups in the Australian population, the following factors were more frequently reported in the developmentally disabled group: a dental visit in the last 12 months (65 per cent vs 50 per cent; Odds Ratio (OR) 1.9:95 per cent Confidence Interval (CI): 1.3-2.8); use of public rather than private dental services (42 per cent vs 6 per cent; OR 11.3:95% CI 7.5-16.9); oral mucosal pathology requiring treatment (15 per cent vs 2 per cent; OR 8.5:95% CI 5.2-13.8); severe periodontal disease (16 per cent vs 3 per cent; OR 6.9:95% CI 4.2-11.4); and moderate to severe malocclusion (26 per cent vs 11 per cent; OR 2.1:95% CI 1.3-3.5). Fifty-eight per cent of subjects felt they needed no dental treatment but on examination of the oral mucosa, periodontal tissues and teeth, over 90 per cent were found to require some sort of dental treatment.

  12. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66 and self-reported (n = 313 hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995. High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  13. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Garin, Noe; Velasco Muñoz, César; Pourcq, Jan T. De; Lopez, Belen; Gutiérrez, Maria del Mar; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Feliu, Anna; Mangues, Maria A.; Trilla García, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue. METHODS: Data on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search...

  14. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Noe eGarin; Cesar eVelasco; Pourcq, Jan T. De; Belen eLopez; Maria del Mar eGutierrez; Josep Maria Haro; Anna eFeliu; Maria Antonia Mangues; Antoni eTrilla

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDAdherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue.METHODSData on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for...

  15. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Garin, Noe; Velasco, Cesar; Pourcq, Jan T. De; Lopez, Belen; Gutierrez, Maria del Mar; Haro, Josep M.; Feliu, Anna; Mangues, Maria A.; Trilla, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue. Methods: Data on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed sea...

  16. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  17. Personal and perceived stigmatization of depression: a comparison of data from the general population, participants of a depression congress and job placement officers in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Sandra; Mergl, Roland; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2014-12-15

    Personal and perceived depression stigma was assessed with Griffiths and colleagues׳ Depression Stigma Scale in 1509 German adults. The sample comprised three groups of participants: attendees of a depression congress, job placement officers and a representative general population sample. In all groups, personal stigma was lower than perceived stigma. Personal stigma was significantly higher in the general population than in the placement officers, and lowest in congress attendees. Perceived stigma was lower in congress attendees than in the general population. Personal stigma was lower in women decreased with age. The finding of lower personal stigma compared to perceived stigma might reflect effects of social desirability. Those with less contact with persons with depression, i.e. job placement officers and the general population, may be less tolerant and lack understanding of depression, resulting in higher levels of personal stigma. These findings support the notion that depression campaigns should be tailor-made to address gender and age-specific differences in personal and perceived stigma.

  18. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe eGarin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDAdherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue.METHODSData on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for HIV patients. We assessed the incorporation of recreational drug issues in HIV treatment guidelines for the following topics: a recreational drugs; b adherence to antiretrovirals; c interactions; d transmission risk. Guidelines included: World Health Organization; European Aids Clinical Society; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; International Antiviral Society-USA; and seven European national guidelines.RESULTS29 countries reported recreational drug use in general population. The highest prevalences were observed for Cannabis (i.e. 8-10% in Spain, France and Czech Republic followed by cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy. The 13 studies selected in the systematic review showed a great variability in recreational drug use on the HIV population. Apart from classical recreational drugs, we found a relevant use of new drugs including sexual experience enhancers. Polydrug consumption was about 50% in some studies. Most guidelines included general information about recreational drugs, showing great variability on the inclusion of the evaluated topics. We found more specific, evidence-based recommendations on interactions, followed by medication adherence and transmission risk.CONCLUSIONSAvailable data on the people living with HIV suggest a higher use of recreational drugs than in the general population, which is already relevant. However, recreational drug issues should be included or addressed more thoroughly in most guidelines.

  19. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Noe; Velasco, Cesar; De Pourcq, Jan T.; Lopez, Belen; Gutierrez, Maria del Mar; Haro, Josep M.; Feliu, Anna; Mangues, Maria A.; Trilla, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue. Methods: Data on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for HIV patients. We assessed the incorporation of recreational drug issues in HIV treatment guidelines for the following topics: (a) recreational drugs; (b) adherence to antiretrovirals; (c) interactions; (d) transmission risk. Guidelines included: World Health Organization; European Aids Clinical Society; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; International Antiviral Society-USA; and seven European national guidelines. Results: 29 countries reported recreational drug use in general population. The highest prevalences were observed for Cannabis (i.e., 8–10% in Spain, France, and Czech Republic) followed by cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy. The 13 studies selected in the systematic review showed a great variability in recreational drug use on the HIV population. Apart from classical recreational drugs, we found a relevant use of new drugs including sexual experience enhancers. Polydrug consumption was about 50% in some studies. Most guidelines included general information about recreational drugs, showing great variability on the inclusion of the evaluated topics. We found more specific, evidence-based recommendations on interactions, followed by medication adherence and transmission risk. Conclusions: Available data on the people living with HIV suggest a higher use of recreational drugs than in the general population, which is already relevant. However, recreational drug issues should be included or addressed more thoroughly in most guidelines. PMID:26236288

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Utility Scores in People with Mental Disorders: A Comparison with the Non-Mentally Ill General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Prigent

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12 and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system.

  1. Screening families of patients with premature coronary heart disease to identify avoidable cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study of family members and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Helen J; Pell, Alastair Ch; Anderson, Judith; Chow, Clara K; Pell, Jill P

    2010-05-11

    Primary prevention should be targeted at individuals with high global cardiovascular risk, but research is lacking on how best to identify such individuals in the general population. Family history is a good proxy measure of global risk and may provide an efficient mechanism for identifying high risk individuals. The aim was to test the feasibility of using patients with premature cardiovascular disease to recruit family members as a means of identifying and screening high-risk individuals. We recruited family members of 50 patients attending a cardiology clinic for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). We compared their cardiovascular risk with a general population control group, and determined their perception of their risk and current level of screening. 103 (36%) family members attended screening (27 siblings, 48 adult offspring and 28 partners). Five (5%) had prevalent CHD. A significantly higher percentage had an ASSIGN risk score >20% compared with the general population (13% versus 2%, p family members were aware they were at increased risk and only 50% had had their blood pressure and serum cholesterol level checked in the previous three years. Patients attending hospital for premature CHD provide a mechanism to contact family members and this can identify individuals with a high global risk who are not currently screened.

  2. Cross-cultural comparisons of attitudes toward schizophrenia amongst the general population and physicians: a series of web-based surveys in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Misty; Hori, Hiroaki; Sartorius, Norman; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-28

    Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward schizophrenia are suggested, while no studies have compared such attitudes between the United States and Japan. In our previous study in Japan (Hori et al., 2011), 197 subjects in the general population and 112 physicians (excluding psychiatrists) enrolled in a web-based survey using an Internet-based questionnaire format. Utilizing the identical web-based survey method in the United States, the present study enrolled 172 subjects in the general population and 45 physicians. Participants' attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed with the English version of the 18-item questionnaire used in our previous Japanese survey. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors labeled "social distance," "belief of dangerousness," "underestimation of patients' abilities," and "skepticism regarding treatment." The two-way multivariate analysis of covariance on the four factors, with country and occupation as the between-subject factors and with potentially confounding demographic variables as the covariates, revealed that the general population in the US scored significantly lower than the Japanese counterparts on the factors "social distance" and "skepticism regarding treatment" and higher on "underestimation of patients' abilities." Our results suggest that culture may have an important role in shaping attitudes toward mental illness. Anti-stigma campaigns that target culture-specific biases are considered important.

  3. Temperament and character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS: comparison to the general population, and genetic structure analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1 to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2 to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3 to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. METHOD: Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs. RESULTS: The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. CONCLUSIONS: Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence. This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no

  4. Temperament and character in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS): comparison to the general population, and genetic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Cloninger, C Robert; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an on-going, large population-based longitudinal twin study. We aimed (1) to investigate the reliability of two different versions (125-items and 238-items) of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) used in the CATSS and the validity of extracting the short version from the long version, (2) to compare these personality dimensions between twins and adolescents from the general population, and (3) to investigate the genetic structure of Cloninger's model. Reliability and correlation analyses were conducted for both TCI versions, 2,714 CATSS-twins were compared to 631 adolescents from the general population, and the genetic structure was investigated through univariate genetic analyses, using a model-fitting approach with structural equation-modeling techniques based on same-sex twin pairs from the CATSS (423 monozygotic and 408 dizygotic pairs). The TCI scores from the short and long versions showed comparable reliability coefficients and were strongly correlated. Twins scored about half a standard deviation higher in the character scales. Three of the four temperament dimensions (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Persistence) had strong genetic and non-shared environmental effects, while Reward Dependence and the three character dimensions had moderate genetic effects, and both shared and non-shared environmental effects. Twins showed higher scores in character dimensions compared to adolescents from the general population. At least among adolescents there is a shared environmental influence for all of the character dimensions, but only for one of the temperament dimensions (i.e., Reward Dependence). This specific finding regarding the existence of shared environmental factors behind the character dimensions in adolescence, together with earlier findings showing a small shared environmental effects on character among young adults and no shared environmental effects on character among adults

  5. Developmental Outcomes of Foster Children: A Meta-Analytic Comparison With Children From the General Population and Children at Risk Who Remained at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; van Beem, Merel; Vedder, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Foster care is often preferred to other placement options for children in the child welfare system. However, it is not clear how the developmental outcomes of foster children relate to children in other living arrangements. In this study, a series of meta-analyses are performed to compare the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of children placed in foster care (n = 2,305) with children at risk who remained with their biological parents (n = 4,335) and children from the general population (n = 4,971). A systematic literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, ERIC, and ProQuest identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion (N = 11,611). Results showed that foster children had generally lower levels of functioning than children from the general population. No clear differences were found between foster children and children at risk who remained at home, but both groups experienced developmental problems. Improving the quality of foster care and future research to identify which children are best served by either foster care or in-home services are recommended. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Poverty and health-related quality of life of people living in Hong Kong: comparison of individuals from low-income families and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung

    2017-06-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Chinese adults from low-income households in Hong Kong, and to explore any threshold of household income that impaired HRQOL. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 298 adults from low-income families when they enrolled into a cohort study between 2012 and 2014. HRQOL was measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey-version 2 (SF-12v2). Their mean SF-12v2 subscale and summary scores were compared with those of 596 age-sex-matched subjects randomly selected from a database of 2763 adults from the Hong Kong general population (ratio = 1:2). Multiple linear regressions were conducted to determine any association between monthly household income and HRQOL. Subjects from low-income households had significantly lower SF-12v2 bodily pain, general health, vitality and physical component summary (PCS) scores than the age-sex matched subjects from the general population. Subgroup analysis showed that a household income poverty line in Hong Kong) was independently associated with poorer PCS and mental component summary (MCS) scores after adjustment for socio-demographics and co-morbidities. Chinese adults from low-income households had poorer HRQOL, and definition of the poverty line.

  7. Fatigue in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A comparison with the general population and associations with clinical and self-reported measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagfinrud, Hanne; Vollestad, Nina K; Loge, Jon H; Kvien, Tore K; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2005-02-15

    To investigate 1) levels of fatigue in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with the general population; 2) the relationships between fatigue and demographic, self-reported, and clinical measures; and 3) the performance of both a generic and a disease-specific measure of fatigue. Patients with AS (n = 152) were compared with people from the general population (n = 2,323). Fatigue was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale and the fatigue item of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Other measures of self-reported health included BASDAI for disease activity, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index for functional abilities, and the SF-36 for mental health. Clinical measures comprised Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index for joint mobility and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein as inflammatory markers. The explanatory power of demographic, self-reported, and clinical measures was examined in a block regression model. The mean +/- SD SF-36 vitality score was 43 +/- 24 in the patients and 60 +/- 21 in the general population (P mental health and disease activity. Clinical measures did not show explanatory power. A cutoff at 70 mm on the BASDAI fatigue item implied specificity of 0.77 and sensitivity of 0.82. Self-reported measures of disease activity and mental health contributed significantly to explain fatigue, whereas clinical measures of inflammation and joint mobility did not. The BASDAI fatigue item reached acceptable sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff at 70 mm when using the low vitality scores of SF-36 as an external indicator.

  8. Hemochromatosis mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rolf Vaern; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Appleyard, Merete

    2004-01-01

    The progression rate of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis in individuals in the general population is unknown. We therefore examined in the general population iron overload progression rate in C282Y homozygotes. Using a cohort study of the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City...... saturation and ferritin levels increased slightly in male and female C282Y homozygotes. None of the C282Y homozygotes developed clinically overt hemochromatosis. In conclusion, individuals in the general population with C282Y homozygosity at most demonstrate modest increases in transferrin saturation...... and ferritin levels, and clinically overt hemochromatosis is rare. Therefore, C282Y homozygotes identified during population screening, and not because of clinically overt hemochromatosis, at most need to be screened for manifestations of hemochromatosis every 10 to 20 years....

  9. Validating the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2) in two Danish samples: a comparison between female eating disorder patients and females from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2009-11-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory, Version 2 (EDI-2) is a questionnaire used clinically and in research all over the world. EDI-2 is cross-culturally valid, yet normative values may depend on culture. Norms and reliability of the Danish version have to date been lacking, and will be presented in this article, comparing patients (N = 575) and controls (N = 881). Also, internal reliability of scales is tested for both groups. Differences between norms of the Danish and the North American version of EDI were small but significant for all scales except asceticism (eating disorder patients) and ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust and maturity fears (normal controls). For both groups the internal consistency was >0.70 for all subscales except asceticism. Although differences across the eating disorder diagnostic groups were dubious, the EDI-2 is useful to screen for eating problems in the general population as well as to rate progress and outcome among eating disorder patients.

  10. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  11. Who has the worst attitudes toward sexual minorities? Comparison of transphobia and homophobia levels in gender dysphoric individuals, the general population and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Castellini, G; Ristori, J; Casale, H; Giovanardi, G; Carone, N; Fanni, E; Mosconi, M; Ciocca, G; Jannini, E A; Ricca, V; Lingiardi, V; Maggi, M

    2017-03-01

    To date, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, little is known about health care providers' (HCP) attitudes toward sexual minorities. The aim of the present study is to compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between gender dysphoric individuals (GDs), general population controls (C) and HCP. A total of 310 subjects were considered, including 122 GDs (63 transwomen and 59 transmen), 53 heterosexual HCP (26 males and 27 females) and 135 C. Participants completed the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS) and the Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals Scale (ATTI) in order to assess attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women and toward transgender individuals, respectively. In addition, GDs completed the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire (GIDYQ-AA) and ATTI to measure, respectively, gender dysphoria levels and internalized transphobia. Religious attitudes were evaluated by means of the Religious Fundamentalism Scale (RFS), and Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used to measure perceived discrimination. (1) Men showed significantly higher levels of homophobia and transphobia when compared to women (p homophobia and transphobia (both p < 0.001). Our results underline the need to promote awareness and acceptance of the sexual minorities, who are more at risk of discriminatory attitudes, which are strongly dependent on religious precepts and dogma.

  12. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings.

  13. Strong Impact of Smoking on Multimorbidity and Cardiovascular Risk Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals in Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Barbara; Tarr, Philip E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gerard; Preisig, Martin; Mooser, Vincent; Valeri, Fabio; Djalali, Sima; Andri, Rauch; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Cavassini, Matthias; Vernazza, Pietro; Battegay, Manuel; Weber, Rainer; Senn, Oliver; Vollenweider, Peter; Ledergerber, Bruno; Aubert, V; Barth, J; Battegay, M; Bernasconi, E; Böni, J; Bucher, H C; Burton-Jeangros, C; Calmy, A; Cavassini, M; Egger, M; Elzi, L; Fehr, J; Fellay, J; Furrer, H; Fux, C A; Gorgievski, M; Günthard, H; Haerry, D; Hasse, B; Hirsch, H H; Hösli, I; Kahlert, C; Kaiser, L; Keiser, O; Klimkait, T; Kouyos, R; Kovari, H; Ledergerber, B; Martinetti, G; Martinez de Tejada, B; Metzner, K; Müller, N; Nadal, D; Pantaleo, G; Rauch, A; Regenass, S; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schöni-Affolter, F; Schmid, P; Schultze, D; Schüpbach, J; Speck, R; Staehelin, C; Tarr, P; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S; Jean-Michel, Aubry; Murielle, Bochud; Jean Michel, Gaspoz; Christoph, Hock; Thomas, Lüscher; Pedro, Marques Vidal; Vincent, Mooser; Fred, Paccaud; Martin, Preisig; Peter, Vollenweider; Roland, Von Känel; Aidacic, Vladeta; Gerard, Waeber; Jürg, Beriger; Markus, Bertschi; Heinz, Bhend; Martin, Büchi; Hans-Ulrich, Bürke; Ivo, Bugmann; Reto, Cadisch; Isabelle, Charles; Corinne, Chmiel; Sima, Djalali; Peter, Duner; Simone, Erni; Andrea, Forster; Markus, Frei; Claudius, Frey; Jakob, Frey; Ali, Gibreil Musa; Matthias, Günthard; Denis, Haller; Marcel, Hanselmann; Walter, Häuptli; Simon, Heininger; Felix, Huber; Paul, Hufschmid; Eva, Kaiser; Vladimir, Kaplan; Daniel, Klaus; Stephan, Koch; Beat, Köstner; Benedict, Kuster; Heidi, Kuster; Vesna, Ladan; Giovanni, Lauffer; Werner, Leibundgut Hans; Phillippe, Luchsinger; Severin, Lüscher; Christoph, Maier; Jürgen, Martin; Damian, Meli; Werner, Messerli; Titus, Morger; Valentina, Navarro; Jakob, Rizzi; Thomas, Rosemann; Hana, Sajdl; Frank, Schindelek; Georg, Schlatter; Oliver, Senn; Pietro, Somaini; Jacques, Staeger; Alfred, Staehelin; Alois, Steinegger; Claudia, Steurer; Othmar, Suter; Phuoc, Truong The; Marco, Vecellio; Alessandro, Violi; René, Von Allmen; Hans, Waeckerlin; Fritz, Weber; Johanna, Weber-Schär; Joseph, Widler; Marco, Zoller

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Although acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated morbidity has diminished due to excellent viral control, multimorbidity may be increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons compared with the general population. Methods.  We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities and multimorbidity in participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) compared with the population-based CoLaus study and the primary care-based FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC-Research using Electronic Medical Records) records. The incidence of the respective endpoints were assessed among SHCS and CoLaus participants. Poisson regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking. Results.  Overall, 74 291 participants contributed data to prevalence analyses (3230 HIV-infected; 71 061 controls). In CoLaus, FIRE, and SHCS, multimorbidity was present among 26%, 13%, and 27% of participants. Compared with nonsmoking individuals from CoLaus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was elevated among smoking individuals but independent of HIV status (HIV-negative smoking: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.5; HIV-positive smoking: IRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6; HIV-positive nonsmoking: IRR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.44-1.4). Compared with nonsmoking HIV-negative persons, multivariable Poisson regression identified associations of HIV infection with hypertension (nonsmoking: IRR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.4; smoking: IRR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.4), kidney (nonsmoking: IRR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8; smoking: IRR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.9-3.6), and liver disease (nonsmoking: IRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.4; smoking: IRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2). No evidence was found for an association of HIV-infection or smoking with diabetes mellitus. Conclusions.  Multimorbidity is more prevalent and incident in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals. Smoking, but not HIV status, has a strong impact on cardiovascular risk and

  14. Familial hypercholesterolemia in the danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) genes. Objective: We employed this tool to investigate the prevalence of FH and the associations between FH and coronary artery disease and cholesterol-lowering medication in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Setting: The study was of an unselected......, community-based population comprising 69,016 participants. Main Outcome Measures: FH (definite/probable) was defined as a Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score higher than 5. Coronary artery disease was myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. Results: The prevalence of FH was 0.73% (one in 137.......8-13.8). Conclusion: The prevalence of FH appears to be higher than commonly perceived in a general population of white Danish individuals, with at least half of affected subjects not receiving cholesterol-lowering medication. The very high risk of coronary artery disease irrespective of use of medication reflects...

  15. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  16. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety, dep...... ratesof detectable gambling risk groups, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  17. [Road-rage in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Alvarez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. One-third (31.1%) of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion). Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52), decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975), and was highest in men (OR=1.287), university graduates (OR=1.408), and persons living in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (OR=1.25). The results of this study show that road rage affects almost a third of the general population of Castile and Leon, which would amply justify the adoption of prevention and/or reduction measures. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  19. Comparison of the performance of the updated Schwartz, combined Schwartz and the Grubb glomerular filtration rate equations in a general pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Kelishadi, Roya; Abedini, Amin; Haghjooy-Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Mehdikhani, Bahareh

    2014-09-01

    To determine the performance of the updated Schwartz, combined Schwartz and Grubb glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations in a relatively large number of healthy children with no known renal disease, we studied 712 students aged between seven and 18 years from the Isfahan province of Iran by random cluster sampling between 2009 and 2010. Blood investigations included blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and cystatin C. For each participant, GFR was calculated based on the three equations. We used Bland-Altman plots and weighted kappa statistics to compare the performance of the study equations. The mean age of the children was 12.2 ± 2.4 years. A high concordance in estimating GFR (mean difference: 0 ± 12.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and a very good agreement in defining chronic kidney disease (CKD) and non-CKD individuals (weighted kappa: 0.85; 95% confidence intervals: 0.69-1) were observed between the updated Schwartz and the combined Schwartz equations. Poor agreement was observed between the Grubb equation and two Schwartz equations in estimating GFR and defining CKD. There was no systematic deviation between the updated Schwartz and the combined Schwartz equations in children with normal renal function. The Grubb equation was highly inconsistent with both Schwartz equations in this population. We conclude that the updated Schwartz equation is simpler and more accessible than the combined Schwartz equation in daily clinical practice and CKD screening programs.

  20. Comparison of the performance of the updated Schwartz, combined Schwartz and the Grubb glomerular filtration rate equations in a general pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Gheissari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the performance of the updated Schwartz, combined Schwartz and Grubb glomerular filtration rate (GFR equations in a relatively large number of healthy children with no known renal disease, we studied 712 students aged between seven and 18 years from the Isfahan province of Iran by random cluster sampling between 2009 and 2010. Blood investigations included blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and cystatin C. For each participant, GFR was calculated based on the three equations. We used Bland-Altman plots and weighted kappa statistics to compare the performance of the study equations. The mean age of the children was 12.2 ± 2.4 years. A high concordance in estimating GFR (mean difference: 0 ± 12.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and a very good agreement in defining chronic kidney disease (CKD and non-CKD individuals (weighted kappa: 0.85; 95% confidence intervals: 0.69-1 were observed between the updated Schwartz and the combined Schwartz equations. Poor agreement was observed between the Grubb equation and two Schwartz equations in estimating GFR and defining CKD. There was no systematic deviation between the updated Schwartz and the combined Schwartz equations in children with normal renal function. The Grubb equation was highly inconsistent with both Schwartz equations in this population. We conclude that the updated Schwartz equation is simpler and more accessible than the combined Schwartz equation in daily clinical practice and CKD screening programs.

  1. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  2. Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Roberta Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs.

  3. Comparison of General Chemistry Performances of Pre-nursing and Mainstream Chemistry Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sybil K.; Bino, Janis

    1988-01-01

    Compares the abilities of pre-nursing and mainstream chemistry students in general chemistry courses. Finds no significant difference between the populations. Lists topics covered, representative test questions, and performance comparisons. (MVL)

  4. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in

  5. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in Gen

  6. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  7. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Stalking, and Sexual Violence Among Active Duty Women and Wives of Active Duty Men - Comparisons with Women in the U.S. General Population, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The initial year (2010) of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) included a random sample of the general U.S. population...IPV), sexual violence (SV) by any perpetrator, and stalking by any perpetrator over the lifetime and during the three years and the 12 months prior to

  8. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60) and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60). The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ) and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments bet...

  9. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  10. A morphometric study of antral G-cell density in a sample of adult general population: comparison of three different methods and correlation with patient demography, helicobacter pylori infection, histomorphology and circulating gastrin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2008-01-01

    whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general...... population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G...

  11. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  12. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method...... for detecting dominances is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of FOD, compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describe practical...

  13. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Serum CRP in Migraine Sufferers and Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CRP (C-reactive protein is one of the known inflammatory markers in the body. Studies claim that the level of this marker in patients with migraine is higher than normal peoples. Despite the result of various studies, even the relation between serum CRP and migraine is not detected thoroughly and is in a halo of ambiguity, therefore in this study, we intended to assess the relation between migraine and serum CRP levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a case-control on 47 migraine suffers that presented Besat hospital on year 2011, at intervals between their attacks and 50 normal individuals. Serum CRP level was measured at interval between attacks or at least 72 hour after the completion of the last attack and was compared with obtained results from normal population. Results: The comparison of CRP level in two groups, indicated that the median CRP at case group was 16.40 mg/dl and at control group 9.76 mg/dl (p≤0.05. The comparison of CRP median between the sufferers of classic migraine, migraine without aura and individuals without migraine, indicated that the CRP median difference at without aura migraine sufferers and normal population was not meaningful, but classic migraine suffers had higher serum CRP level than the other two groups. Conclusion: Finally, we should stay that the present study demonstrate that CRP inflammatory marker was higher at migraine suffers in comparison with normal general population and could explained the role of inflammation in creation and progression of this type of headache.

  15. A Comparison between General Population Mortality and Life Tables for Insurance in Mexico under Gender Proportion Inequality || Una comparación entre la mortalidad de la población general y las tablas de vida de los seguros en México ante porcentajes desiguales de género

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We model the mortality behavior of the general population in Mexico using data from 1990 to 2009 and compare it to the mortality assumed in the tables used in Mexico for insured lives. We _t a Lee-Carter model, a Renshaw-Haberman model and an Age-Period-Cohort model. The data used are drawn from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) and the National Population Council (CONAPO). We also fit a Brass-type relational model to compare gaps between general population mo...

  16. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  17. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition.......Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  18. Effect of general health screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of diabetes in general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine J; Pisinger, Charlotta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of a large population-based multifactorial screening and lifestyle intervention programme on 10-year incidence of diabetes. In a randomised trial of the general Danish population initiated in 1999-2001 59,616 men and women aged 30-60years were assigned to a five yea...

  19. Knowledge about Anaesthesia and Anaesthesiologist Amongst General Population in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mathur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesiologists are playing a decisive role in patient management. Present day anaesthesiology is based on the use of newer and safer drugs, better patient monitoring, pain management and critical care. But the general public knows little of these developments. The study was undertaken to assess the perception regarding the anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologists among the general population. The present study was conducted on 300 persons (patient, patient′s attendant and medical undergraduates between 18-75 years of age to assess the knowl-edge regarding anaesthesiology and the anaesthesiologists. All collected data were categorized into 5 groups as per the educational status of the study population. Perception of anaesthesiologist as a doctor in illiterate, graduate and postgraduate population was 19.51%, 58.57% and 87.88% respectively. Anaesthesiology as a separate medical discipline was not known to 100%, 73.87%, 64.29% and 51.52% of the illiterate, upto matriculation, graduate and postgraduate population respectively. Among the population who knew something about general anaesthesia, none from upto matriculation and 33.87%, 44.83% and 100% from the graduate, post graduate and medical undergraduate groups respectively knew that anaesthesia is administered with specialized equipments along with monitoring. Illiter-ates did not know about regional anaesthesia, while most of others had some knowledge about it. The results of the study reflect the wide spread ignorance and misconceptions about anaesthesiology and anaesthesiologists still preva-lent in public in India.

  20. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalinin in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Mogelvang, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    , when both markers were added to the Framingham risk score, NGAL conferred 3× to 4× the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NGAL is strongly associated with inflammation in the general population. NGAL independently associated with 10-year outcome, and when added to the Framingham risk score, NGAL both improves c...

  1. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time...... no additional years as frequent exacerbators, while the minority (6%) remained in this category each year. In conclusion, the rate of exacerbations shows considerable variation over time among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the general population. This might hold implications for chronic...... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...

  2. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... samples). The four most informative peptides identified 25.8% of colorectal cancer patients with a specificity of 95%. The median lead time was 1.4 (range 0.12-3.8) years before clinical diagnosis.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that in the general population, autoantibody signatures are detectable during...

  3. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  4. Personal values and self-esteem in general and clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personal values and self-esteem in general population and clinical population. The sample was composed of a group of patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 60 and a comparison group, paired by sex and age, of general population (n = 60. The Portrait Values Questionnaire of Schwartz (PVQ and the Autoe Self-esteem Scale were used. T-tests were performed to compare the scores of both instruments between the two groups. The clinical sample scored significantly lower in Self-esteem, Self- direction, Hedonism, and Openness to Change. For this reason, Pearson correlations were calculated in differential groups (clinical and general between the PVQ and the Self-esteem Scale. In the general population group self-esteem was associated to one value: Self-direction. In the clinical group, self-esteem was associated mainly to Self- direction, but also to Hedonism, Power and Security; and to the axis Self-promotion and Openness to Change. Both in the clinical and general population samples it was found a significant association between the interest in having independent thought, freedom of action and exploring with higher levels of self-esteem. 

  5. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  6. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left...... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are sparse. We used data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, which comprises 5,890 individuals with data on pulmonary and cardiac symptoms, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary function tests, ECG and relevant medical history. Among...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  7. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  8. An extended assessment of bowel habits in a general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Massimo Bellini; Filippo Pucciani; Renato Bocchini; Antonio Bove; Pietro Alduini; Edda Battaglia; Paolo Bruzzi; Italian Constipation Study Group

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bowel habits are difficult to study, and most data on defecatory behaviour in the general population have been obtained on the basis of recalled interview. The objective assessment of this physiological function and its pathological aspects continues to pose a difficult challenge. The aim of this prospective study was to objectively assess the bowel habits and related aspects in a large sample drawn from the general population.METHODS: Over a two-month period 488 subjects were prospectively recruited from the general population and asked to compile a daily diary on their bowel habits and associated signs and symptoms (the latter according to Rome II criteria). A total of 298 (61%) participants returned a correctly compiled record, so that data for more than 8 000 patient-days were available for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The average defecatory frequency was once per day (range of 0.25-3.25) and was similar between males and females. However, higher frequencies of straining at stool (P=0.001), a feeling of incomplete emptying and/or difficult evacuation (P=0.0001), and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation (P=0.046) were reported by females as compared to males.CONCLUSION: This study represents one of the first attempts to objectively and prospectively assess bowel habits in a sample of the general population over a relatively long period of time. The variables we analyzed are coherent with the criteria commonly used for the clinical assessment of functional constipation, and can provide a useful adjunt for a better evaluation of constipated patients.

  9. DSCA: General Population Evacuation of Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    USNORTHCOM produced a planning guide titled, “General Population Evacuation by Air.” Rear Admiral 8 Lilli , who served as the director of the...standalone entity is not possible when military assets are employed in any other worldwide operation. However, in times of peace it may be possible to...and recent history, periods of “ peace ” will not exist for quite some time. For the purposes of this study it is assumed that the 26 military

  10. Antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations: a comparison between Viareggio, Italy and Funen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusini, Gaia; Lapi, Francesco; Sara, Benocci

    2009-01-01

    High rates of antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations represent a major issue because of the problem of antibiotic resistance. North European countries reported an appropriate use of antibiotics in general population; few studies on this issue have been conducted until now, especially in...... in Italy. Therefore a comparison concerning paediatric antibiotic prescribing rates between an Italian administrative area in Tuscany (Viareggio) and the county of Funen (Denmark) was conducted....

  11. Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Bebbington, Paul; Gittins, Matthew; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Garety, Philippa

    2008-04-01

    Judging whether we can trust other people is central to social interaction, despite being error-prone. A fear of others can be instilled by the contemporary political and social climate. Unfounded mistrust is called paranoia, and in severe forms is a central symptom of schizophrenia. To demonstrate that individuals without severe mental illness in the general population experience unfounded paranoid thoughts, and to determine factors predictive of paranoia using the first laboratory method of capturing the experience. Two hundred members of the general public were comprehensively assessed, and then entered a virtual reality train ride populated by neutral characters. Ordinal logistic regressions (controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, intellectual functioning, socio-economic status, train use, playing of computer games) were used to determine predictors of paranoia. The majority agreed that the characters were neutral, or even thought they were friendly. However, a substantial minority reported paranoid concerns. Paranoia was strongly predicted by anxiety, worry, perceptual anomalies and cognitive inflexibility. This is the most unambiguous demonstration of paranoid ideation in the general public so far. Paranoia can be understood in terms of cognitive factors. The use of virtual reality should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of paranoia.

  12. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  13. Multidimensional First-Order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Arndt, Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated...... with simple numerical examples. An implementable method for detecting dominances that relies on linear programming is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. The chapter discusses strengths...

  14. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  15. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  16. Are target-shooters more aggressive than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, Thorsten M; Barth, Niklas; Kälke, Friederike; Duttler, Gabriel; Lange, Harald; Petko, Andreas; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Although psychological research shows that guns are aggressive cues, proponents of liberal gun control argue that people rather than guns are to blame for gun-related violence. For instance, athletic target-shooters might classify guns as athletic rather than aggressive stimuli and thus should not be more aggressive than the general population. The present work investigated aggression and emotion-regulation in target-shooters. A longitudinal study found that initial self-reported aggression in target-shooters was higher than in the general population and further increased over 1 year. Additionally, the sample exhibited deficient emotion-regulation strategies, and this was related to self-reported aggression. In contrast, their implicit self-construct became more peaceful over time but was unrelated to all other measures. Two further cross-sectional experiments explored the causal impact of athletic target-shooting and other athletic activities (shooting a basketball) on aggression. Target-shooters and basketball players were tested before and after their regular team practice and aggressive thoughts and feelings were measured. Target-shooting but not basketball practice activated aggressive and anxiety-related thought more strongly than positive thought. Future research avenues, implications for the indirect measurement of aggression, and possible interventions to decrease aggression in target-shooters are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:3-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  18. [The Quality of Life Questionnaire EQ-5D: modelling and norm values for the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Klaiberg, Antje; Brähler, Elmar; König, Hans-Helmut

    2006-02-01

    The EQ-5D is a short questionnaire for measuring health related quality of life. The aim of the present study is to test psychometric properties of this instrument when applied to the general population. 2022 subjects between 16 and 93 years of age were randomly selected and tested with the EQ-5D. 60 % of the sample reported no health problems in all items, that is, there was a great ceiling effect. The comparison between two models with preference based index measurement and one simple sum score showed that the sum score is at least as appropriate as the two other more sophisticated models. The visual analogue scale of the EQ-5D proved to be practicable and useful for the application in the general population. Norm values for the visual analogue scale and the EQ-5D are presented.

  19. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method fo...

  20. Nightmares: risk factors among the Finnish general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-04-01

    To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y. N/A. Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods: All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 year...

  2. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are sparse. We used data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, which comprises 5,890 individuals with data on pulmonary and cardiac symptoms, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary function tests, ECG and relevant medical history. Among.......4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the presence of left...... ventricular hyperthrophy was significantly more frequent among individuals with COPD (17.7%) than among participants without COPD (12.1%.), yet this relationship was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age and gender. In the general population, subjects with COPD have a higher prevalence...

  3. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  5. Insomnia and hypnotic use in Campo Grande general population, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza José Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insomnia prevalence in general population was determined by means of 408 home interviews of adults, in a representative sample of Campo Grande city, Brazil. The random sample was stratified by sex, age and economic social status. Insomnia subtypes evaluated were the disorders of sleep initiation (DSI, sleep maintenance (DSM and early awakening (DEA. A structured questionnaire was used with the consent from the interviewed subjects. Statistics used chi-square, and Fisher tests; and inferences based on binomial distribution parameters; the significance level was 5% and confidence interval (CI was 95%.The general prevalence of insomnia was 19.1% (sd=2.0%, mostly women (p=0.0015, and people of less years of schooling (p=0.0317, subtype DSI (14.2%, p=0.0043, and chronic (p=0.7022. Hypnotic drugs were used by 6.9%(sd=1.3% in the last month. Use in the last 2 years, 70.3% mostly insomniacs (p<0.0001, women (p=0.0372 and people over 30 years of age (p=0.0536.

  6. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betina C Pezzani; Marta C Minvielle; María M de Luca; María A Córdoba; María C Apezteguía; Juan A Basualdo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal,sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis ( E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses.METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families.RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309)of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140)among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169)among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter)and housing (satisfactory) among others.CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural,and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite. An

  7. Genetic testing of the general population: ethical and informatic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K

    2000-01-01

    Whether we like it or not, genetic testing will almost certainly become routine medical practice within the next 25 years. Integrated circuit chips already exist that can perform 400 genetic tests simultaneously, thus greatly reducing the costs. At least one company is already working on a prototype for a handheld genetic tester that would allow primary care physicians to perform hundreds or thousands of genetic tests on a simple blood smear in just a few minutes. "Genetic report cards" for children are not very far off at all. The use of such widespread testing poses a variety of ethical dilemmas. One problem that has not been appreciated sufficiently, however, is the question of how to interpret the test results. Because of the ways the genes implicated in diseases are discovered and marketed, quantitative analysis of the tests can be extremely misleading. The difficulty is that we simply do not have sufficient information about variance in genetic and other factors in the general population to make accurate projections of a patient's risk, given the presence of a gene. This uncertainty is obscured, however, when we provide the patient with a numerical analysis of risk because it is well established that people tend to overestimate the information content of numerical projections. This situation is made far worse by the fact that we do not have enough adequately trained genetic counselors to handle the load that will soon be placed on them (and studies have shown that physicians are generally very poorly prepared to act as accurate sources of information on complex genetic issues). For these reasons, I argue that access to genetic testing should be treated the same way as access to new medical procedures and medications--namely, withheld from the general public until proven safe and effective in large-scale trials. This is certain to be an unpopular policy, but it seems the only way to prevent a great deal of abuse of genetic tests.

  8. A Comparison between General Population Mortality and Life Tables for Insurance in Mexico under Gender Proportion Inequality || Una comparación entre la mortalidad de la población general y las tablas de vida de los seguros en México ante porcentajes desiguales de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornelas, Arelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the mortality behavior of the general population in Mexico using data from 1990 to 2009 and compare it to the mortality assumed in the tables used in Mexico for insured lives. We _t a Lee-Carter model, a Renshaw-Haberman model and an Age-Period-Cohort model. The data used are drawn from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI and the National Population Council (CONAPO. We also fit a Brass-type relational model to compare gaps between general population mortality and the mortality estimates for the insured population used by the National Insurance and Finance Commission in Mexico. As the life tables for insured lives are unisex, i.e. they do not differentiate between men and women, we assume various sex ratios in the mortality tables for insured lives. We compare our results with those obtained for Switzerland and observe very similar outcomes. We emphasize the limitations of the mortality tables used by insurance companies in Mexico. We also discuss the bias incurred when using unisex mortality tables if the proportion of male and female policyholders in an insurance company is not balanced. || Interesados en conocer las diferencias entre la mortalidad general y la de un subgrupo de la población, como son los asegurados en una compañía de seguros, hemos ajustado un modelo relacional Brass-Type. Para ello, en primer lugar, hemos modelado el comportamiento de la mortalidad de la población general de México entre los años 1990 y 2009. Hemos ajustado un modelo Lee-Carter, un modelo Renshaw-Haberman y un modelo edad-período-cohorte. Los datos utilizados proceden del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI y el Consejo Nacional de Población (CONAPO. Una vez estimadas las tasas de mortalidad se han comparado con la mortalidad asumida por las compañías aseguradoras mexicanas. Estas tasas de mortalidad han sido calculadas por la Comisión Nacional de Seguros y Finanzas de México. Como las

  9. Comparison of population-based association study methods correcting for population stratification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Population stratification can cause spurious associations in population-based association studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to reduce the impact of population stratification on population-based association studies. We simulated a set of stratified populations based on the real haplotype data from the HapMap ENCODE project, and compared the relative power, type I error rates, accuracy and positive prediction value of four prevailing population-based association study methods: traditional case-control tests, structured association (SA, genomic control (GC and principal components analysis (PCA under various population stratification levels. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of sample sizes and frequencies of disease susceptible allele on the performance of the four analytical methods in the presence of population stratification. We found that the performance of PCA was very stable under various scenarios. Our comparison results suggest that SA and PCA have comparable performance, if sufficient ancestral informative markers are used in SA analysis. GC appeared to be strongly conservative in significantly stratified populations. It may be better to apply GC in the stratified populations with low stratification level. Our study intends to provide a practical guideline for researchers to select proper study methods and make appropriate inference of the results in population-based association studies.

  10. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  11. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. Methods Using the health improvement network (THIN) UK primary care database, we estimated the incidence of gout based on 24,768 newly diagnosed gout patients among a cohort of 1,775,505 individuals aged 20 to 89 years between 2000 and 2007. We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. We calculated odds ratios (OR) by means of unconditional logistic regression adjusting for demographic variables, lifestyle variables, relevant medical conditions and drug exposures. Results The incidence of gout per 1,000 person-years was 2.68 (4.42 in men and 1.32 in women) and increased with age. Conventional risk factors were significantly and strongly associated with the risk of gout, with multivariate ORs of 3.00 (95% confidence interval (CI)) for excessive alcohol intake (that is, more than 42 units per week), 2.34 (95% CI 2.22 to 2.47) for obesity (body mass index > = 30 kg/m2), 2.48 (95% CI 2.19 to 2.81) for chronic renal impairment, and 3.00 (95% CI 2.85 to 3.15) for current diuretic use. For other medical conditions the multivariate OR were 1.84 (95% CI 1.70 to 2.00) for heart failure, 1.45 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.79) for hypertriglyceridemia and 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.22) for psoriasis. Use of cyclosporine was associated with an OR of 3.72 (95% CI, 2.17 to 6.40). Among gout-specific therapies, allopurinol was the most frequently used with a one-year cumulative incidence of 28% in a cohort of incident gout diagnosed from 2000 to 2001. Use of gout-specific treatment has not changed over recent years except for an increase of colchicine. Conclusions The contemporary incidence of gout in UK remains substantial. In this general population cohort, associations with previously

  12. ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISON OF WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS AND NORMAL POPULATIONS

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    Niels Uth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish, while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length

  13. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Bangladeshi General Population

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    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus is encountered sporadically in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis rarely at one end to HCC at the other end of the spectrum. Methods: 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for anti-HCV by ELISA. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at -20°C. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. Results: 0.88% tested positive for anti HCV. None of them tested positive for HBsAg. There was a male predominance and those who tested positive were mostly between 17 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualified, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. Conclusion: HCV remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Key words: HCV; prevalence; general population; Bangladesh.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i1.3705 BSMMU J 2009; 2(1: 14-17

  14. Association between Impulsivity and Weight Status in a General Population

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    Marc Bénard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the association between impulsivity and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France, and the influence of gender on this relationship. A total of 11,929 men and 39,114 women participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were selected in this cross-sectional analysis. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Weight and height were self-reported. The association between impulsivity and BMI was estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Individuals with high impulsivity levels (BIS-11 total score >71 were more likely to be obese (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.39, 2.33 in men; OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.48 in women compared to individuals in the average range of impulsivity. The strongest associations between impulsivity and obesity were observed in men, where highly impulsive participants were more likely to be class III obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 1.86, 6.85. This large sample analysis supports the existence of a relationship between impulsivity and weight status and the importance of psychological factors in the prevention of obesity.

  15. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Benn, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population. A total of 7,579 women and 6,372 men from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with measurements of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol at baseline in 1976-1978 were followed for up to 33 years; of these, 837 women and 837 men developed ischemic stroke during follow-up, which was 100% complete. The fluctuation of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol over 15 years was similar. In both women and men, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Compared to women with triglycerides triglyceride levels of 1.00-1.99 mmol/liter to 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) for triglyceride levels ≥ 5 mmol/liter (trend: p cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke except in men with cholesterol levels ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter vs triglycerides were associated with increasing risk of ischemic stroke while increasing cholesterol levels were not. In men, these results were similar except that cholesterol ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus from the German general population is highly diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder; Fegeler, Christian; Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates colonization dynamics and molecular characteristics of methicillin-susceptible and - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) in a German general population. Nasal swabs of 1878 non-hospitalized adults were screened for S. aureus. Participants were screened thrice in intervals of 6-8 months. Isolates were characterized by spa and agr typing, mecA and mecC possession, respectively, and PCRs targeting virulence factors. 40.9% of all participants carried S. aureus at least once while 0.7% of the participants carried MRSA (mainly spa t011). MSSA isolates (n=1359) were associated with 331 different spa types; t084 (7.7%), t091 (6.1%) and t012 (71, 5.2%) were predominant. Of 206 participants carrying S. aureus at all three sampling time points, 14.1% carried the same spa type continuously; 5.3% carried different spa types with similar repeat patterns, but 80.6% carried S. aureus with unrelated spa types. MSSA isolates frequently harboured genes encoding enterotoxins (sec: 16.6%, seg: 63.1%, sei: 64.5%) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst: 17.5%), but rarely Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV/lukF-PV: 0.2%). MSSA colonizing human nares in the community are clonally highly diverse. Among those constantly carrying S. aureus, clonal lineages changed over time. The proportion of persistent S. aureus carriers was lower than reported elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Population data of five genetic markers in the Turkish population: comparison with four American population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtuluş-Ulküer, M; Ulküer, U; Kesici, T; Menevşe, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the phenotype and allele frequencies of five enzyme systems were determined in a total of 611 unrelated Turkish individuals and analyzed by using the exact and the chi 2 test. The following five red cell enzymes were identified by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: phosphoglucomutase (PGM), adenosine deaminase (ADA), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), adenylate kinase (AK), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD). The ADA, PGM and AK enzymes were found to be polymorphic in the Turkish population. The results of the statistical analysis showed, that the phenotype frequencies of the five enzyme under study are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Statistical analysis was performed in order to examine whether there are significant differences in the phenotype frequencies between the Turkish population and four American population groups. This analysis showed, that there are some statistically significant differences between the Turkish and the other groups. Moreover, the observed phenotype and allele frequencies were compared with those obtained in other population groups of Turkey.

  18. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk stratification and comparison in a California population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Meng, Y-Y; Leung, K-M; Jatulis, D E; Welsh, N J; Zaher, C A; Legorreta, A P

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the need for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in an HMO population and to develop appropriate interventions for individuals in different risk groups, based on risk stratification and comparison. The analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey of the HMO members of a large employer group. Respondents (n=17,878) were stratified based on the Framingham model; 34% of respondents without cardiovascular disease were classified as moderate to high attributable risk for the disease, and 66% were classified as low attributable risk. Results of logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared with respondents with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, moderate- to high-risk respondents are more likely to smoke, have unhealthy diets, and be overweight, hypertensive, and hypercholesterolemic. More low-risk respondents had unhealthy diets than did those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. There were no differences between these groups for physical activity and stress. Respondents had fewer modifiable risk factors and healthier lifestyles than did those who were at risk. These findings suggest that primary prevention should be enhanced, especially among those with significantly increased risk for the disease. Moreover, the approaches of this project-population-based risk assessment, stratification, and comparison-were instrumental in identifying the target population and designing appropriate interventions. (c) 2001 by CHF, Inc.

  20. A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Vicki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to obtain greater insight into health-related quality of life (HRQL of injury patients in order to document people's pathways to recovery and to quantify the impact of injury on population health over time. We performed a systematic review of studies measuring HRQL in general injury populations with a generic health state measure to summarize existing knowledge. Methods Injury studies (1995-2009 were identified with main inclusion criteria being the use of a generic health status measure and not being restricted to one specific type of injury. Articles were collated by study design, HRQL instrument used, timing of assessment(s, predictive variables and ability to detect change over time. Results Forty one studies met inclusion criteria, using 24 different generic HRQL and functional status measures (most used were SF-36, FIM, GOS, EQ-5D. The majority of the studies used a longitudinal design, but with different lengths and timings of follow-up (mostly 6, 12, and 24 months. Different generic health measures were able to discriminate between the health status of subgroups and picked up changes in health status between discharge and 12 month follow-up. Most studies reported high prevalences of health problems within the first year after injury. The twelve studies that reported HRQL utility scores showed considerable but incomplete recovery in the first year after discharge. Conclusion This systematic review demonstrates large variation in use of HRQL instruments, study populations, and assessment time points used in studies measuring HRQL of general injury populations. This variability impedes comparison of HRQL summary scores between studies and prevented formal meta-analyses aiming to quantify and improve precision of the impact of injury on population health over time.

  1. Agresividad vial en la población general Road-rage in the general population

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    Inmaculada Fierro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores sociodemográficos asociados con la agresividad vial en la población. Métodos: Se han realizado 2.500 entrevistas a la población de Castilla y León de entre 14 y 70 años de edad. Se evaluó la agresividad vial en el año previo a la realización de la encuesta utilizando un test de ocho preguntas. Resultados: El 31,1% refirió haber vivido alguna situación de agresividad vial en el último año, y el 26,8% en más de una ocasión. El 2,6% fueron agresores viales «graves». Entre los conductores, la probabilidad de experimentar agresividad vial aumenta a medida que aumentan los miles de kilómetros conducidos a la semana (odds ratio [OR]=1,52, es menor cuanto mayor es la edad del entrevistado (OR=0,975 y es mayor en los hombres (OR=1,287, en los que tienen estudios universitarios (OR=1,408 y en los que viven en localidades de más de 10.000 habitantes (OR=1,25. Conclusiones: Los datos del presente estudio muestran que la agresividad vial afecta a casi un tercio de la población general de Castilla y León, lo que justificaría la adopción de medidas para su prevención y reducción.Objective: To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. Methods: A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. Results: One-third (31.1% of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion. Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975, and was highest in men (OR=1.287, university

  2. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  3. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  5. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  6. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of influen

  7. Diagnostic devices for osteoporosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M P; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Hermann, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A diagnostic gap exists in the current dual photon X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based diagnostic approach to osteoporosis. Other diagnostic devices have been developed, but no comprehensive review concerning the applicability of these diagnostic devices for population-based screening...

  8. Trajectories of picky eating during childhood : A general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Tiemeier, Henning; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Tharner, Anne; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThis cohort study describes the prevalence of picky eating and examines prognostic factors for picky eating trajectories during childhood. Methods4,018 participants of a population-based cohort with measurements from pregnancy onwards were included. Picky eating was assessed by maternal rep

  9. Albuminuria : Is it Time to Screen the General Population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crews, Deidra C.; Boulware, L. Ebony; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Jaar, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Albuminuria has been associated with increased risk of multiple adverse outcomes, including ESRD, acute kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, and death. Some clinicians advocate for population-based screening of this condition, as a means of identifying individuals at high risk for morbidity and mo

  10. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vojinovic (Dina); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); S. van der Lee (Sven); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); M.C.G.N. van den hout (Mirjam); E. Oole (Edwin); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. Aartsma-Rus (Annemieke); G.-J.B. Van Ommen (Gert-Jan B.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); N. Amin (Najaf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterd

  11. Comparison of dentine hypersensitivity in selected occidental and oriental populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, D G; Seo, H S; Newman, H N; Bulman, J S

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological data on dentine hypersensitivity (DH) prevalence are limited. Few studies have compared prevalence between populations. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to compare the perception and prevalence of DH in two distinct non-periodontal practice populations, one U.K. and one Korean. Completed questionnaires from 557 patients (230 males and 327 females, comprising 115 males and 162 females, mean age 41.7 years (s.d.=14.36), U.K. and 115 males and 165 females, mean age 29.7 years (s.d.=11.86), Korean) were collected. Analysis was by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)). DH prevalence was similar and at levels comparable with those reported previously. Prevalence was higher in the third and fourth decades in both populations. Although there were no differences between U.K. or Korean males and U.K. or Korean females, there was a significant difference between gender reporting of DH, with more females complaining of DH than males (standard normal deviation (SND)=4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.1134-0.2736). DH appeared to be regarded by patients as not severe in most cases, so treatment was not generally sought. Of those who claimed to have sought treatment, a significant number had received restorative treatment. Of those patients, only 23.3% of U.K. and or=7 days in either population. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between U.K.- and Korean-based populations in their perception of DH, with the exception that more females complained of sensitivity than males in both groups. Overall, DH was not considered a major dental problem by most patients in either of the populations.

  12. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such

  13. A general approach for population games with application to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reluga, Timothy C; Galvani, Alison P

    2011-04-01

    Reconciling the interests of individuals with the interests of communities is a major challenge in designing and implementing health policies. In this paper, we present a technique based on a combination of mechanistic population-scale models, Markov decision process theory and game theory that facilitates the evaluation of game theoretic decisions at both individual and community scales. To illustrate our technique, we provide solutions to several variants of the simple vaccination game including imperfect vaccine efficacy and differential waning of natural and vaccine immunity. In addition, we show how path-integral approaches can be applied to the study of models in which strategies are fixed waiting times rather than exponential random variables. These methods can be applied to a wide variety of decision problems with population-dynamic feedbacks.

  14. Comparing neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population: research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Metraux, Stephen; Salzer, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health emphasizes the importance of assessing the impact of environmental factors on functioning and disability. Drawing on this emphasis, this study used a set of objective measures to compare the characteristics of neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population. It also examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. The sample comprised 15,246 adults who were treated for serious mental illness in Philadelphia between 1997 and 2000. Principal-components analysis of 22 neighborhood characteristics resulted in an ideal-factor solution of six components. The mean values of each component in neighborhoods of persons with serious mental illness were compared with values in an equally sized group of neighborhoods created by randomly generated addresses representative of the city's general population. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to assess the association between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. Neighborhoods in which adults with serious mental illness resided had higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, drug-related activity, and crime than comparison neighborhoods. Higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, crime, drug-related activity, social instability, and social isolation were associated with higher concentration of persons with serious mental illness in the neighborhood's adult population. The differences in neighborhood characteristics identified in this study point to factors that merit closer attention as potential barriers or facilitators in the functioning, participation, and community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01, was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%, of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%, with no more than an elementary school education (77% and married (64.6%. In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system.

  16. Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Moysidou, Stefania; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, Xenia; Mobayed, Nisreen; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop; Costa, Paul; McCrae, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) includes 240 items corresponding to the Big Five personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and subordinate dimensions (facets). It is suitable for use with adolescents and adults (12 years or older). The aim of the current study was to validate the Greek translation of the NEO-PI-3 in the general Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population of whom 59.4% were females and 40.6% males aged 40.80 ± 11.48. The NEO-PI-3 was translated into Greek and back-translated into English, and the accuracy of the translation was confirmed and established. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, and the calculation of Pearson product-moment correlations. Sociodemographics groups were compared by ANOVA. Most facets had Cronbach's alpha above 0.60. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable loading of the facets on their own hypothesized factors and very good estimations of Cronbach's alphas for the hypothesized factors, so it was partially supportive of the five-factor structure of the NEO-PI-3.The factors extracted with Procrustes rotation analysis can be considered reasonably homologous to the factors of the American normative sample. Correlations between dimensions were as expected and similar to those reported in the literature. The literature suggests that overall, the psychometric properties of NEO-PI-3 scales have been found to generalize across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement. In accord with this, the results of the current study confirm the reliability of the Greek translation and adaptation of the NEO-PI-3. The inventory has comparable psychometric properties in its Greek version in comparison to the original and other national translations, and it is suitable for clinical as well as research use.

  17. Conceptual Comparison of Population Based Metaheuristics for Engineering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Adekanmbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaheuristic algorithms are well-known optimization tools which have been employed for solving a wide range of optimization problems. Several extensions of differential evolution have been adopted in solving constrained and nonconstrained multiobjective optimization problems, but in this study, the third version of generalized differential evolution (GDE is used for solving practical engineering problems. GDE3 metaheuristic modifies the selection process of the basic differential evolution and extends DE/rand/1/bin strategy in solving practical applications. The performance of the metaheuristic is investigated through engineering design optimization problems and the results are reported. The comparison of the numerical results with those of other metaheuristic techniques demonstrates the promising performance of the algorithm as a robust optimization tool for practical purposes.

  18. JAK2V617F Somatic Mutation In The General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased JAK2V617F somatic mutation burden is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasm progression rate in the general population. Among 49,488 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, 63 (0.1%) tested positive for the JAK2V617F mutation...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  20. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  1. Study design, participation and characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Bathum, Lise; Kvetny, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  2. Occurence of internet addiction in a general population sample: A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumpf, H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Bischof, A.; Kastirke, N.; Gürtler, D.; Bischof, G.; Meerkerk, G.J.; John, U.; Meyer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence studies of Internet addiction in the general population are rare. In addition, a lack of approved criteria hampers estimation of its occurrence. Aims: This study conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) in a large general population sample to estimate prevalence. Methods: A

  3. Erythropoietin in the General Population : Reference Ranges and Clinical, Biochemical and Genetic Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote Beverborg, Niels; Verweij, Niek; Klip, IJsbrand T.; van der Wal, Haye H.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Meer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although erythropoietin has been used for decades in the treatment of anemia, data regarding endogenous levels in the general population are scarce. Therefore, we determined erythropoietin reference ranges and its clinical, biochemical and genetic associations in the general population. M

  4. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S; Paiva, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants). Methods: Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general po

  5. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S; Paiva, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of narcolepsy in the general population of five European countries (target population 205,890,882 inhabitants). Methods: Overall, 18,980 randomly selected subjects were interviewed (participation rate 80.4%). These subjects were representative of the general

  6. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  7. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  8. Study design, participation and characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Bathum, Lise; Kvetny, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  9. Study design, participation and characteristics of the Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Kvetny, Jan; Rasmussen, Dorthe;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the study design, participants and baseline characteristics of The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) and to compare suburban participants with age- and gender-matched urban participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS)....

  10. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  11. Resilience in the General Population: Standardization of the Resilience Scale (RS-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Zenger, Markus; Heinen, Ines; Dwinger, Sarah; Decker, Oliver; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to generate normative data for the RS-11 for different age groups for men and women and to further investigate the construct validity and factor structure in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany in 2006 (n = 5,036). Results Normative data for the RS-11 were generated for men and women (53.7% female) and different age levels (mean age (SD) of 48.4 (18.0) years). Men had significantly higher mean scores compared with women (60.0 [SD = 10.2] vs. 59.3 [SD = 11.0]). Results of CFA supported a one-factor model of resilience. Self-esteem (standardized β = .50) and life satisfaction (standardized β =.20) were associated with resilience. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of resilience with other populations. Results demonstrate a special importance of self-esteem in the understanding of resilience. PMID:26523927

  12. Acceptance of genetic testing in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Hakonen, A; Hietala, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze effects of age, education and gender on acceptance of genetic testing. Subjects, n = 1967 aged 15-69, were a stratified random sample of the Finnish population. One thousand, one hundred and sixty nine subjects, 530 men and 639 women, returned the questionnaire....... The majority of the respondents approved of the availability of genetic testing. Young, aged 15-24, were more favourable towards testing and more willing to undergo suggested tests, but they were also more worried than others about the misuse of test results. Men aged 45-69 with only basic education were more...... in favour of mandatory genetic testing than other respondents. Respondents with university education were more critical towards genetic testing and expressed their worry about eugenics more often than other education groups. In conclusion, there are age, education and gender related differences...

  13. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  14. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Bangladeshi general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamun-Al Mahtab; Salimur Rahman; Md. Fazal Karim; Mobin Khan; Graham Foster; Susannah Solaiman; Shahrin Afroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is encountered sporadically the year round in Bangladesh. It results in a wide range of liver diseases, with asymptomatic acute hepatitis at one end to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the other end of the spectrum. METHODS: All 1018 individuals of different age groups and sex with varied religious, educational and social backgrounds were tested for HBsAg by ELISA. The positive samples were further tested by ELISA for HBeAg. Before testing, blood samples were preserved at-20℃. The study was conducted in a semi-urban location on the outskirts of Dhaka. RESULTS: Of the 1018 individuals, 5.5%tested positive for HBsAg. None were tested positive for anti-HCV. Among the HBsAg-positive population, 58.93% were HBeAg-positive and the rest 41.07% HBeAg-negative. There was a male predominance and those who were tested positive were mostly between 16 and 50 years of age. Major risk factors for exposure to HBV appeared to be injudicious use of injectable medications, treatment by unqualiifed, traditional practitioners, mass-vaccination against cholera and smallpox, barbers and body piercing. CONCLUSION: HBV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and we have a long way to go before we may bid farewell to this deadly menace.

  15. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Hlevicka, Solveiga; Zayakin, Pawel; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Tomas Preiksa, Romualdas; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-06-01

    What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. Previous studies have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology the cohort was classified into three categories: low, intermediate or high semen quality. Comparisons between groups (including subgroups of Estonian men of Russian versus Estonian ethnicity) were tested, adjusting for ejaculation abstinence and age. The median sperm concentration of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian populations of Baltic men was 63 mill/ml. Low semen quality was detected in 11-15% of the men, intermediate in 37-50% and high in 38-52%. No crucial differences between national subgroups were detected, except that a higher percentage (9.6%) of the subgroup of Russian Estonians reported having had cryptorchidism compared to the other men (2.5-3.6%, P 10 years ago. Thus, a recent change in semen quality cannot be excluded. Owing to the study design, it is assumed, but unproven, that the men were representative of the general populations. Some men were very young (16 years), however, this was also the case for other European studies of similar populations. Assessment of sperm motility is associated with inter-observer variation, and no quality control was undertaken for sperm motility assessment to account for that. Thus, estimates of sperm motility should be

  16. Quality of life in female myocardial infarction survivors: a comparative study with a randomly selected general female population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridlund Bengt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial burden associated with MI has been reported. Thus, how survivors experience their quality of life (QOL is now being given increasing attention. However, few studies have involved women and a comparison with the general population. The aims of this study were to determine the QOL of female MI survivors, to investigate whether their QOL differed from that of the general population, and to evaluate the clinical significance of the findings. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were performed; on female MI survivors and the general Norwegian population. The MI survey included women aged 62–80 years, three months to five years after their MI. One hundred and forty-five women responded, yielding a response rate of 60%. A subset of women in the same age range (n = 156 was drawn from a study of 1893 randomly selected Norwegian citizens. QOL was measured in both groups with the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF. Results The majority (54% of the female MI survivors presented with ST-elevation in their ECG, 31% received thrombolysis, and 38% had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Female MI survivors reported significantly lower satisfaction with general health (p = 0.020 and overall QOL (p = 0.017 than women from the general population. This was also the case for the physical and environmental QOL domains (p Conclusion The burden of MI significantly affects the physical health of elderly women. Still, female MI survivors fare as well as the general female population on psychosocial QOL domains. Action should be taken not only to support women's physical needs but also to reinforce their strengths in order to maintain optimal QOL.

  17. Comparisons of bridges flutter derivatives and generalized ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou XU; Airong CHEN; Zhe ZHANG; Cailiang HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The causes of the nonlinearity of self-excited aerodynamic force of bridge are interpreted from such two aspects as amplitude and wind velocity. The concept of "generalized flutter derivative" is proposed, and its physical meaning is illustrated. The graphs of the general-ized flutter derivatives of plate and Sutong Bridge section model are plotted. The characteristics of all generalized flutter derivatives are compared and analyzed, and their superiorities are verified. The results indicate that the physical meaning of generalized flutter derivatives are more explicit compared to the traditional ones. It is more convenient to understand the nonlinearity properties of self-excited aerodynamic force of bridge according to the generalized flutter derivatives graphs with the wind velocity as the horizontal coordinate.

  18. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  19. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  20. Comparison of Populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus Based on Isozyme Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, L. A.; Dickson, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Enzymes from females of five Pratylenchus brachyurus populations and one P. scribneri population were analyzed by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Of the 18 enzyme systems investigated, only malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) were detected from all five P. brachyurus populations and P. scribneri. Faint bands were detected for isocitrate dehydrogenase and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from one P. brachyurus population. Three distinct ...

  1. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Plasma YKL-40 and total and disease-specific mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with short-term survival in patients with cardiovascular disease and cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with total and disease-specific mortality in the general population....

  3. Awareness of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome among the general female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzia Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Younger and educated females had better awareness of the association between periodontal diseases and PTLBW. Hence, efforts to educate the general female population on this association could contribute toward the reduction of the risk of PTLBW.

  4. Genetic variation in ABCA1 predicts ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 6 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-Binding-Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) affect risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population....

  5. Multiple positive periodic solutions for a generalized delayed population model with an exploited term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-qiu ZHANG; Zhi-cheng WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the existence of two positive periodic solutions for a generalized delayed population model with an exploited term is established by using the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory.

  6. Possible relations between general population suicide rates and societal crime: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2008-10-01

    Crime may be associated with a less structured society, less social integration, and feelings of less security and greater distress among citizens, which characteristics may lead to mental illness and subsequent suicide. Therefore, a cross-national analysis examining the association of general population suicide rates with percent of males and females in the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and United Nations for 42 countries. Spearman correlations were generally weak and not statistically significant. Those values were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides in the general population may permit exploration of the relation of general population suicides with experience and percent by nations of being victimised by crime.

  7. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...... with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting...... of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more...

  8. Do Norwegians with diabetes have a healthier diet than the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Aas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review current knowledge about dietary habits among people with diabetes in Norway compared with the general population and nutrient- and food-based dietary recommendations. Method: Baseline dietary data from four intervention studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes, were merged (n=92 and compared with data extracted from a nationwide dietary survey, NORKOST, where participants with diabetes (n=115 were compared with a gender and age matched control group (n=575. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. An overview of previously published data from two studies among young people with type 1 diabetes was included for comparison. Results: Subjects with diabetes had an intake of carbohydrates in the lower recommended range and lower than the controls, which was reflected in a lower intake of added sugar, sweets, potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fruit juices. Subjects with diabetes had a fiber intake which was similar or higher than controls, but below the recommended intake. They reported a higher proportion of energy from protein and fat than controls, reflecting the higher intake of meat, fish, edible fats, and high-fat meat products. There was a higher intake of vegetables, fruits and whole grain among subjects with diabetes compared with controls, but also a higher intake of red meat. Conclusion: Compared with the recommendations, people with diabetes had a low intake of carbohydrates and a high intake of protein and fat, but they made more healthy choices regarding intake of selected food groups compared with the control groups.

  9. Sample-size calculations for multi-group comparison in population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for calculating sample size for population pharmacokinetic experiments that involve hypothesis testing based on multi-group comparison detecting the difference in parameters between groups under mixed-effects modelling. This approach extends what has been described for generalized linear models and nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models that involve only binary covariates to more complex nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models. The structural nonlinear model is linearized around the random effects to obtain the marginal model and the hypothesis testing involving model parameters is based on Wald's test. This approach provides an efficient and fast method for calculating sample size for hypothesis testing in population pharmacokinetic models. The approach can also handle different design problems such as unequal allocation of subjects to groups and unbalanced sampling times between and within groups. The results obtained following application to a one compartment intravenous bolus dose model that involved three different hypotheses under different scenarios showed good agreement between the power obtained from NONMEM simulations and nominal power.

  10. Eating disorders behaviours and diagnoses: epidemiology and comorbidity in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies investigating prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders (ED) and disordered eating in large general population samples are limited. This thesis adds to the existing literature by employing general population studies to investigate prevalence and comorbidity of disordered eating and ED in adults and adolescents. Secondary aims were to explore occurrence of ED in relation to ethnicity and patterns of service use. Methods: The studies included in this thesis employed t...

  11. Total mortality by transferrin saturation levels: two general population studies and a metaanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown.......There is evidence for increased mortality in patients with clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis. Whether increased transferrin saturation (TS), as a proxy for iron overload is associated with increased mortality in the general population is largely unknown....

  12. Double product reflects the predictive power of systolic pressure in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutte, Rudolph; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown.......The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown....

  13. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    The natriuretic peptides, especially the B-type peptide (BNP) and its inactive split-product N-terminal proBNP (Nt-proBNP) are increasingly used in screening for heart failure, primarily with reduced systolic function, in patients with symptoms suggestive of heart failure, as well in the stable......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  14. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a rand

  15. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed leprosy in the general population of northwest Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Moet (Fake); R.P. Schuring (Ron); D. Pahan (David); L. Oskam (Linda); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of previously undiagnosed leprosy (PPUL) in the general population was determined to estimate the background level leprosy in the population and to compare this with registered prevalence and the known PPUL in different levels of contacts of leprosy patients.

  16. Increasing seroprevalence of Clostridium difficile in an adult Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Linneberg, A; Tvede, M

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated infections is increasing, but it remains to be defined whether any change in the seroprevalence of C. difficile has also occurred. In a population-based study of the general adult population, 734 subjects, aged 15-69 years, were examined on two...

  17. Quality of life and associated factors in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Holst, R; Thilsing, T;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps describes methods to perform population-based and clinical studies on Chronic Rhinosinusitis in a standardized way and it also describes how to clinical investigate CRS. The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate Quality...... of life and objective findings in persons with Chronic Rhinosinusitis recruited from the general population....

  18. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma in a general elderly population - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, S; Ikram, MK; Wolfs, RCW; Jansonius, NM; Hofman, A; de Jong, PTVM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a general elderly white population. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants 55 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG underwent at baseline

  19. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  20. The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G A; Deurenberg, R H; Driessen, C; Sebastian, S; Nys, S; Stobberingh, E E

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal

  1. The population structure of Staphylococcus Aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Driessen, C.; Sebastian, S.; Nijs, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal

  2. O-Plan2 VS Sipe-2 - A General Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    on them that are satisfied by the planner. SIPE-2 has been extended to interface with General Electric’s Tachyon system for temporal reasoning...Temporal constraints in SIPE-2 are written to a file that is read by Tachyon . Tachyon processes these constraints and writes a file of narrowed time

  3. Comparison between two concepts of angular glint:general considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Yin Hongcheng; Huang Peikang

    2008-01-01

    Angular glint can be interpreted as a distortion of the radar echo signal phase front,or alternatively,a tilt of the direction of energy flow from the radial direction.As the complementarities and support of argumentation in our previous work,a general discussion about two concepts of angular glint is made based on electromagnetic theory to demonstrate that these two concepts are equivalent when geometrical optics approximation is used and the receiving antenna is linearly polarized.

  4. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  5. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population : results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general

  6. No distinctions between different types of anxiety symptoms in pre-adolescents from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct

  7. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  8. Psychological consequences of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in an un-selected general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Andersen, John S; Jacobsen, Rikke K

    2015-01-01

    screening in healthy adults leads to mental distress in the study population, independent of participation. Methods: The Inter99 study (1999 – 2006) was a randomised intervention in the general population, aiming to prevent IHD by a healthier lifestyle. We included the whole study population, independent......Background: Concerns that general health checks, including screening for risk factors to ischemic heart disease (IHD),have negative psychological consequences seem widely unfounded; however, previous studies are only based on selfreports from participants. Aim: To investigate if risk factor...

  9. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  10. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...

  11. A Comparison of Generalized Hyperbolic Distribution Models for Equity Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Konlack Socgnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the calibration of the univariate and multivariate generalized hyperbolic distributions, as well as their hyperbolic, variance gamma, normal inverse Gaussian, and skew Student’s t-distribution subclasses for the daily log-returns of seven of the most liquid mining stocks listed on the Johannesburg Stocks Exchange. To estimate the model parameters from historic distributions, we use an expectation maximization based algorithm for the univariate case and a multicycle expectation conditional maximization estimation algorithm for the multivariate case. We assess the goodness of fit statistics using the log-likelihood, the Akaike information criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance. Finally, we inspect the temporal stability of parameters and note implications as criteria for distinguishing between models. To better understand the dependence structure of the stocks, we fit the MGHD and subclasses to both the stock returns and the two leading principal components derived from the price data. While the MGHD could fit both data subsets, we observed that the multivariate normality of the stock return residuals, computed by removing shared components, suggests that the departure from normality can be explained by the structure in the common factors.

  12. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  13. The COLOFOL trial: study design and comparison of the study population with the source cancer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansdotter Andersson P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernilla Hansdotter Andersson,1 Peer Wille-Jørgensen,2 Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó,3 Sune Høirup Petersen,2 Anna Martling,4 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Ingvar Syk1 On behalf of the COLOFOL Study Group 1Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Abdominal Disease Center K, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Introduction: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. Materials and methods: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24 participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. Results: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2,509 patients were randomized (56.4% inclusion rate. A total of 1,221 eligible patients were identified in the scrutinized hospitals, of which 684 (56% were randomized. No difference in age or sex distribution was observed between randomized and nonrandomized

  14. Prognostic value of obesity on both overall mortality and cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ponce-Garcia

    Full Text Available Obesity represents an important health problem and its association with cardiovascular risk factors is well-known. The aim of this work was to assess the correlation between obesity and mortality (both, all-cause mortality and the combined variable of all-cause mortality plus the appearance of a non-fatal first cardiovascular event in a general population sample from the south-east of Spain.This prospective cohort study used stratified and randomized two-stage sampling. Obesity [body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2] as a predictive variable of mortality and cardiovascular events was assessed after controlling for age, sex, cardiovascular disease history, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides ratio, total cholesterol and smoking with the Cox regression model.The mean follow-up time of the 1,248 participants was 10.6 years. The incidence of all-cause mortality during this period was 97 deaths for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 80-113 and the incidence of all-cause mortality+cardiovascular morbidity was 143 cases for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 124-163. A BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2 yielded a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.11-3.42 in comparison to non-obese subjects (BMI <30 kg/m(2. For the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality, a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2 had a hazard ratio of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.15-2.93 compared to non-obese subjects.A BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2 is an important predictor of both overall mortality and of the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality.

  15. Prognostic Value of Obesity on Both Overall Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Garcia, Isabel; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Divisón-Garrote, Juan Antonio; Artigao-Ródenas, Luis Miguel; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Martínez-St. John, Damian Robert James; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity represents an important health problem and its association with cardiovascular risk factors is well-known. The aim of this work was to assess the correlation between obesity and mortality (both, all-cause mortality and the combined variable of all-cause mortality plus the appearance of a non-fatal first cardiovascular event) in a general population sample from the south-east of Spain. Materials and Methods This prospective cohort study used stratified and randomized two-stage sampling. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] as a predictive variable of mortality and cardiovascular events was assessed after controlling for age, sex, cardiovascular disease history, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides ratio, total cholesterol and smoking with the Cox regression model. Results The mean follow-up time of the 1,248 participants was 10.6 years. The incidence of all-cause mortality during this period was 97 deaths for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 80–113) and the incidence of all-cause mortality+cardiovascular morbidity was 143 cases for every 10,000 person/years (95% CI: 124–163). A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 yielded a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.11–3.42) in comparison to non-obese subjects (BMI <30 kg/m2). For the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality, a BMI ≥35 kg/m2 had a hazard ratio of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.15–2.93) compared to non-obese subjects. Conclusions A BMI ≥35 kg/m2 is an important predictor of both overall mortality and of the combination of cardiovascular morbidity plus all-cause mortality. PMID:25992570

  16. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  17. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  18. The prevalence of allergic contact sensitization in a general population in Tromso, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromso, Northern Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administe...

  19. Salt, endogenous ouabain and blood pressure interactions in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Manunta, P.; Wang,JG; G. Bianchi; Messaggio, E.; Fagard, Robert; Nawrot, Tim; Staessen, Jan A.; Hamlyn, JM

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental data show that ouabain is a modulator of the sodium-potassium pump, which plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the distribution of plasma ouabain in the general population in relation to blood pressure and other determinants of sodium homeostasis. METHODS: In 379 subjects enrolled in a Belgian population study, we measured plasma ouabain, clinical characteristics including blood pressure, serum and urinary electro...

  20. POPCORN: A comparison of binary population synthesis codes

    CERN Document Server

    Claeys, J S W; Mennekens, N

    2012-01-01

    We compare the results of three binary population synthesis codes to understand the differences in their results. As a first result we find that when equalizing the assumptions the results are similar. The main differences arise from deviating physical input.

  1. POPCORN: A comparison of binary population synthesis codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, J. S. W.; Toonen, S.; Mennekens, N.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the results of three binary population synthesis codes to understand the differences in their results. As a first result we find that when equalizing the assumptions the results are similar. The main differences arise from deviating physical input.

  2. New clustering methods for population comparison on paternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Z; Fehér, T; Bárány, G; Zalán, A; Németh, E; Pádár, Z; Pamjav, H

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to show two new clustering and visualising techniques developed to find the most typical clusters of 18-dimensional Y chromosomal haplogroup frequency distributions of 90 Western Eurasian populations. The first technique called "self-organizing cloud (SOC)" is a vector-based self-learning method derived from the Self Organising Map and non-metric Multidimensional Scaling algorithms. The second technique is a new probabilistic method called the "maximal relation probability" (MRP) algorithm, based on a probability function having its local maximal values just in the condensation centres of the input data. This function is calculated immediately from the distance matrix of the data and can be interpreted as the probability that a given element of the database has a real genetic relation with at least one of the remaining elements. We tested these two new methods by comparing their results to both each other and the k-medoids algorithm. By means of these new algorithms, we determined 10 clusters of populations based on the similarity of haplogroup composition. The results obtained represented a genetically, geographically and historically well-interpretable picture of 10 genetic clusters of populations mirroring the early spread of populations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia and Southeast Europe. The results show that a parallel clustering of populations using SOC and MRP methods can be an efficient tool for studying the demographic history of populations sharing common genetic footprints.

  3. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence and behavioural risk factors in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Sokolowski, Ineta; Østergaard, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general......, and for men younger age at first intercourse was associated with M genitalium infection. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the prevalence of infection in the general population is too low for population-based screening. However, the development of test algorithms based on behavioural risk factors is a promising...

  4. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Lemeunier, Nadège; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see......, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population....

  5. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  6. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...... risk. However, the importance of these genetic variants if identified in particular individuals within the general population is unknown. We undertook this study to estimate the penetrance of these variants in the general population....

  7. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  8. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...... or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 were overrepresented in individuals with the lowest 1% (n=95) or highest 1% (n=95) HDL-C levels in the general population by screening the core promoter and coding region of ABCA1. For all nonsynonymous SNPs identified, we determined the effect of genotype...

  9. Changes in Smoking Rates Among Pregnant Women and the General Female Population in Australia, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, Therese; Callinan, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Smoking rates have dropped substantially in most developed countries in recent decades. This general trend has, however, not always been evident among women-particularly younger women. Smoking habits do, however, often change in connection with pregnancy and the aim of this study is to determine whether smoking during pregnancy follows general trends in smoking rates in the general female population in four countries with active anti-tobacco policies and decreasing population smoking rates. Changes in rates of persistent smoking, that is, smoking in late pregnancy or daily smoking among all women of childbearing age were described according to age groups. Data were retrieved from the Australian Household Drug Surveys during 2000-2013 and from registries and surveys in Finland, Norway, and Sweden between 1995 and 2014. In general, persistent smoking has decreased and late-pregnancy smoking rates are lower than daily smoking rates among all women. However, younger women are more likely to be persistent smokers regardless of pregnancy status. In Norway and Finland, persistent smoking was most common among young pregnant women and in Sweden there was an increased polarization between age groups. In Australia, a steady decrease in smoking rates appears to have stalled in younger pregnant women. Although smoking has declined substantially in recent decades, there are groups lagging behind this general trend. Young pregnant women are of particular concern in this respect. The possibility that these findings reflect the changing characteristics of younger pregnant women is discussed. This study puts recent trends in maternal smoking into a broader context by relating developments to changes in smoking rates among women in general. By using similar data from four countries we were able to follow changes in smoking rates "within" groups of women within the four countries without being limited by methodological problems related to cross-country or inter-group comparisons. We

  10. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  11. Awareness Regarding Anaesthesiology and Anaesthesiologists among General Population in Developing Country- A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Khyati Pandya; Dr.Kamla Mehta; Dr. Kirti Patel

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Anaesthesiologists are playing decisive role in patient management. Nowadays, they are involved in pain clinic and critical care also but the general public know little about them. So this study was undertaken to assess the perception of general population from poor socioeconomic area regarding the anaesthesiology and role of anaesthesiologists. Methods: The study was carried out at Shardaben Hospital, Saraspur, in 200 participants, between the age group of 18-75 yrs of age t...

  12. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Sahar Amiri Baghni; Maryam Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were an...

  13. [Health related quality of life and kidney transplantation: a comparison with population values at 6 months post-transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell Aixendri, M Carmen; Rodriguez Urrutia, Amanda; Seron Micas, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    Transplantation is an effective treatment for end stage renal failure. The aim of this study was to compare patient's perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) with population values, at one moth and 6 moths of kidney post-transplantation. The Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Kidney Disease was administered during the first month and also at the 6 months following transplantation. A comparison with the general population was done with the generic part of the questionnaire. In the statistical analyses, typical standardized scores were used. In this study 72 patients were included with a median age of 57 years. At the 6 month post-transplantation, the patient's HRQoL showed values that were similar to the general population. When we compared the HRQoL at the first month and at the 6 month post-transplantation, the differences of HRQoL were significant in all dimensions, except on the General health and Emotional role. At 6 moths after transplantation, there was an improvement in the perceived HRQoL that was similar to the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  15. Surgical interventions for nephrolithiasis in ankylosing spondylitis and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ane Krag; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Patschan, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate rates and type of definitive surgical interventions for nephrolithiasis in Swedish patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared to the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This national prospective cohort study linked data from Swedish...

  16. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual dissati

  17. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population : Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Johanna A A G; Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M.; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A.; Heus, Pauline; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Peelen, Linda M.; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase until June 2013. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the development or external validation

  18. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population; The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mosterd (Arend); A.W. Hoes (Arno); M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); D.T. Linker (David); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To determine the prevalence of heart failure and symptomatic as well as asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 5540 participants of the Rotterdam Study (age 68.9+/-8.7 years, 2251 men) aged

  19. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  20. Pelvic floor muscle function in a general population of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.P. Slieker-ten Hove (Marijke); A.L. Pool-Goudzwaard (Annelies); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); C.W. Burger (Curt); M.E. Vierhout (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and hypothesis: This study aims to examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle function (PFMF) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in a general female population. Methods: Cross-sectional study on women aged 45-85 years. Validated questionnaires were used to assess pelv

  1. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood : a prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Hoek, Hans W.; van Hoeken, Daphne; de Barse, Lisanne M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPicky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associations with child ment

  2. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-01-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  3. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, HL; Fidler, [No Value; Diercks, GFH; van Gilst, WH; de Zeeuw, D; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gans, ROB; Janssen, WMT; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, PE

    2002-01-01

    Background-For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in t

  4. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.J.J.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Voshaar, R.C. Oude; Breteler, M.H.M.; Balkom, van A.J.L.M.; Lisdonk, van de E.H.; Kan, C.C.; Zitman, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to (1) describe the characteristics of patients reporting craving for benzodiazepines (BZs) and (2) to search for associations between BZ craving and other clinical variables in a population of general practice (GP) patients who have made an attempt to discontin

  5. Mortality among patients with cleared hepatitis C virus infection compared to the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2011-01-01

    The increased mortality in HCV-infected individuals partly stems from viral damage to the liver and partly from risk-taking behaviours. We examined mortality in patients who cleared their HCV-infection, comparing it to that of the general population. We also addressed the question whether prognos...... differed according to age, substance abuse (alcohol abuse and injection drug use) and comorbidity....

  6. Type D personality : Application of DS14 French version in general and clinical populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batselé, Elise; Denollet, J.; Lussier, Axele; Loas, Gwenolé; Vanden Eynde, Sophie; Van de Borne, Philippe; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the French-language version of the Type D personality scale-14 among general and clinical populations (acute coronary syndrome and breast cancer patients). The two-factor structure of the Type D personality scale-14 was confirmed by factorial and confirmatory an

  7. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Hille; Boele, Henk-Jan; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koutstaal, Bastiaan J; Horlings, Corinne Gc; Koekkoek, Bas K; van der Geest, Jos; Smit, Albertine E; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Terwindt, Gisela M; Bloem, Bas R; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine witho

  8. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, H.; Boele, H.J.; Palm-Meinders, I.H.; Koutstaal, B.J.; Horlings, G.C.; Koekkoek, B.K.; Geest, J. van; Smit, A.E.; Buchem, M.A. van; Launer, L.J.; Terwindt, G.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Kruit, M.C.; Ferrari, M.D.; Zeeuw, C.I. De

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine witho

  9. Low Use and Adherence to Maintenance Medication in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...

  10. Nonallergic rhinitis and its association with smoking and lower airway disease: A general population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; von Buchwald, Christian; Thomsen, Simon F;

    2011-01-01

    The cause of nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) and its relation to lower airway disease remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the occurrence of rhinitis in a Danish general population with focus on NAR and its association with smoking and lower airway disease....

  11. Predictors of suicide, accidental death, and premature natural death in a general-population birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Wadsworth, M

    1998-01-01

    Background Whether putative suicide risk factors, such as conduct and emotional disorders, are specific to suicide or are general associations of a continuum between subintentional and intentional self-destruction is not clear. We undertook an investigation of this issue in a UK population-based bir

  12. Overweight and obesity are progressively associated with lower work ability in the general working population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with many diseases and functional limitations. Workplaces are not always designed to accommodate this challenge. This study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and work ability in the general working population. METHODS: Currently employed wage...

  13. Prevalence of double incontinence, risks and influence on quality of life in a general female population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker-ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Burger, C.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  14. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse S; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    proteins in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism...

  15. Improving prediction of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population using apolipoprotein B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Nordestgaard, B; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Methods and Results- We studied 9231 asymptomatic women and men from the Danish general population followed prospectively for 8 years and observed the following incident events: ischemic heart disease 591, myocardial infarction 278, ischemic...

  16. Genetic variation in ABC transporter A1 contributes to HDL cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2004-01-01

    Homozygosity for mutations in ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) causes Tangier disease, a rare HDL-deficiency syndrome. Whether heterozygosity for genetic variation in ABCA1 also contributes to HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the general population is presently unclear. We determined whether mutations...

  17. Drinking Distilled. Onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data f

  18. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  19. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  20. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-01-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  1. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    . This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1...

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  3. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2007-01-01

    1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...

  4. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  5. Asthma prevalence in Olympic summer athletes and the general population: an analysis of three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.; Mason, C.; Mueller, N.; Ohlander, J.; Zock, J.P.; Drobnic, F.; Wolfarth, B.; Heinrich, J.; Omenass, E.; Stensrud, T.; Nowak, D.; Radon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of asthma in elite athletes as compared to the general population. It is inconclusive to what extent certain sport categories are especially affected. The present study offered a unique opportunity to assess these differences in asthma prevalen

  6. Visible Age-Related Signs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is 1 of the most common age-related diseases, and also 1 of the most common causes of death in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that visible age-related signs associate with risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and de...

  7. Comorbid disorders and sociodemographic variables in temporomandibular pain in the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C.M.; Ligthart, L.; Schuller, A.A.; Lobbezoo, F.; de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)-pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to determin

  8. Comorbid Disorders and Sociodemographic Variables in Temporomandibular Pain in the General Dutch Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Corine M.; Ligthart, Lannie; Schuller, Annemarie A.; Lobbezoo, Frank; de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline M. H. H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints in the general Dutch population; (2) to investigate its relationship with age, sex, educational attainment, and country of birth; (3) to determine its association with other pain complaints; and (4) to determin

  9. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  10. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood: A prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cardona Cano; H.W. Hoek (Hans); D. Van Hoeken (Daphne); L.M. de Barse (Lisanne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Picky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associ

  11. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Epidemiologic. A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. N/A. The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050.

  12. Reactive attachment disorder in the general population: a hidden ESSENCE disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Pritchett, Jennifer; Marshall, Emma; Davidson, Claire; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  13. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

    in 2003 with a final sample size of 2,030 cases. Measures of beverage specific current drinking, overall drinking, daily drinking, heavy episodic drinking, mean consumption, volume per drinking occasion and frequency of drinking were analysed. Results: A little over 5% of the population are abstainers...... Aims: Little is known about specific Danish drinking patterns. This paper investigates how various socio-demographic factors are related to Danish alcohol consumption with special focus on age and sex. Methods: Data come from a national telephone survey of the Danish general population conducted...... percentage of youth drinking in a binge pattern. Classical socioeconomic factors play a lesser role in determining drinking patterns compared to other Western countries. Longitudinal studies and studies of alcohol-related consequences in the Danish general population should be conducted to better formulate...

  14. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive attachment disorder (RAD is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general population. We found that children with RAD are more likely to have multiple comorbidities with other disorders, lower IQs than population norms, more disorganised attachment, more problem behaviours, and poorer social skills than would be found in the general population and therefore have a complex presentation than can be described as ESSENCE. We discuss the clinical and educational implications.

  15. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources....... This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...

  16. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo M.; Gall, Henning; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Lahousse, Lies; Loth, Daan W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Felix, Janine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP) in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors. Methods Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women) from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg. Results Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0). Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2). Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70), and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1). Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension. Conclusion In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders. PMID:26102085

  17. Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension in the General Population: The Rotterdam Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Moreira

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and carries an increased mortality. Population-based studies into pulmonary hypertension are scarce and little is known about its prevalence in the general population. We aimed to describe the distribution of echocardiographically-assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (ePASP in the general population, to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and to identify associated factors.Participants (n = 3381, mean age 76.4 years, 59% women from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort, underwent echocardiography. Echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was defined as ePASP>40 mmHg.Mean ePASP was 26.3 mmHg (SD 7.0. Prevalence of echocardiographic pulmonary hypertension was 2.6% (95%CI: 2.0; 3.2. Prevalence was higher in older participants compared to younger ones (8.3% in those over 85 years versus 0.8% in those between 65 and 70, and in those with underlying disorders versus those without (5.9% in subjects with COPD versus 2.3%; 9.2% in those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction versus 2.3%; 23.1% in stages 3 or 4 left ventricular diastolic dysfunction versus 1.9% in normal or stage 1. Factors independently associated with higher ePASP were older age, higher BMI, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, COPD and systemic hypertension.In this large population-based study, we show that pulmonary hypertension as measured by echocardiography has a low prevalence in the overall general population in the Netherlands, but estimates may be higher in specific subgroups, especially in those with underlying diseases. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure is likely to gain importance in the near future due to population aging and the accompanying prevalences of underlying disorders.

  18. Comparison of association mapping methods in a complex pedigreed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Janss, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Association mapping methods were compared using a simulation with a complex pedigree structure. The pedigree was simulated while keeping the present Danish Holstein population pedigree in view. A total of 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL) with varying effect sizes (10%, 5% and 2% of total genetic...... to collect SNP signals in intervals, to avoid the scattering of a QTL signal over multiple neighboring SNPs. Methods not accounting for genetic background (full pedigree information) performed worse, and methods using haplotypes were considerably worse with a high false-positive rate, probably due...... to the presence of low-frequency haplotypes. It was necessary to account for full relationships among individuals to avoid excess false discovery. Although the methods were tested on a cattle pedigree, the results are applicable to any population with a complex pedigree structure...

  19. Extrasolar planet population synthesis II: Statistical comparison with observation

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, Christoph; Benz, Willy; Naef, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series of papers showing the results of extrasolar planet population synthesis calculations. In the companion paper (Paper I), we have presented in detail our methods. By applying an observational detection bias for radial velocity surveys, we identify the potentially detectable synthetic planets. The properties of these planets are compared in quantitative statistical tests with the properties of a carefully selected sub-population of actual exoplanets. We use a two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the mass-distance distributions of synthetic and observed planets, as well as 1D KS tests to compare the mass, the semimajor axis and the [Fe/H] distributions. We find that some models can account to a reasonable degree of significance for the observed properties. We concurrently account for many other observed features, e.g. the "metallicity effect". This gives us confidence that our model captures several essential features of giant planet formation. Our simulations al...

  20. A comparison of three tests to detect general clustering of a rare disease in Santa Clara County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E G; Ding, L; Waller, L A

    2000-05-30

    Statistical tests to detect clustering of a rare disease investigate whether an observed spatial pattern of cases appears to be due to chance alone. Heterogeneous population density and the geographic structure of the data under consideration complicate the ability to make comparisons of different tests. Further, interpretation of test results depends on the nature of the test used and what feature of the data it is designed to detect. With these issues in mind, we compare three recent tests for assessing general clustering among cases where the population is distributed heterogeneously across the study area, namely those of Besag and Newell, Turnbull et al. and Tango. We compare these methods using 1981 incidence data for severe cardiac birth defects from Santa Clara County, California.

  1. ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Flegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA s ORDEM2010 and ESA s MASTER-2009, have been publicly released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in near-Earth orbit. The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris but are still large enough to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. This paper details the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations of both ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009; their sources (both known and presumed), current supporting data and theory, and methods of population analysis. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  2. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  3. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and paired t-test. Results: There was a significant difference between pre- and post-test results in terms of general health score (t= 3.138, P= 0.002, i.e., fasting could increase the population’s general health. There was a significant positive relationship between fasting and four subscales of general health including somatic symptoms (t=2.138, P=0.035, insomnia/anxiety (t=2.587, P=0.011, and social dysfunction (t=2.627, P=0.010. However, fasting had no significant effect on severe depression and suicidal tendencies (t=1.700, P=0.092. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that fasting has a positive effect on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah. Thus, more attention should be paid to fasting and its impact on people’s mental health.

  4. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  5. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Kittel, Jörg; Karoff, Marthin; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the range of 50 to 60 years, with decreasing mean values for older patients. This effect was observed in both sexes and was proved by an ANOVA interaction between age category and population (P<0.001). In the age range over 70 years the mean depression scores of the patients were even lower than those of the general population. Especially high anxiety and depression scores were found for retired males under 60 years of age. Conclusion: Premature retirement is associated with anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients which partly accounts for the different age effects of the samples. Longitudinal studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms of the age effects in more detail. PMID:19742054

  6. HLA-B*5701 frequency in Chilean HIV-infected patients and in general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Poggi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that HLA-B*5701 screening reduces the risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in HIV-infected patients. Since B*5701 prevalence varies among different populations, it is important to determine the carrier frequency prior to its use for the screening of HIV-infected patients.The aim of this study was to determine HLA-B*5701 carrier frequency in Chilean general population and HIV-infected patients referred for B*5701 typing. For that purpose 300 blood bank donors and 492 abacavir-naïve HIV-infected patients from Chile were screened for B*5701 by a sequence specific primer PCR.We detected 14/300 (4.7% B*57-positive individuals in the Chilean general population, 11 (3.7% were B*5701 positive, and 3 (1% had another subtype.All were heterozygous,thus a B*5701 allele frequency of 2% was determined.Eleven of 492 (2.2 % HIV-patients carried a B*5701 allele. The difference between these frequencies is probably due to slow progression of HIV infection in HLA-B*5701 carriers, thus less patients would require antiretroviral therapy and B*5701 typing. Considering the usefulness of B*5701 screening, its prevalence in the Chilean general population,and the availability of a validated method,we conclude that HLA-B*5701 typing in Chilean HIV-infected patients about to initiate abacavir treatment is strongly recommended

  7. General stabilizing effects of plant diversity on grassland productivity through population asynchrony and overyielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, A; Hautier, Y; Saner, P; Wacker, L; Bagchi, R; Joshi, J; Scherer-Lorenzen, M; Spehn, E M; Bazeley-White, E; Weilenmann, M; Caldeira, M C; Dimitrakopoulos, P G; Finn, J A; Huss-Danell, K; Jumpponen, A; Mulder, C P H; Palmborg, C; Pereira, J S; Siamantziouras, A S D; Terry, A C; Troumbis, A Y; Schmid, B; Loreau, M

    2010-08-01

    Insurance effects of biodiversity can stabilize the functioning of multispecies ecosystems against environmental variability when differential species' responses lead to asynchronous population dynamics. When responses are not perfectly positively correlated, declines in some populations are compensated by increases in others, smoothing variability in ecosystem productivity. This variance reduction effect of biodiversity is analogous to the risk-spreading benefits of diverse investment portfolios in financial markets. We use data from the BIODEPTH network of grassland biodiversity experiments to perform a general test for stabilizing effects of plant diversity on the temporal variability of individual species, functional groups, and aggregate communities. We tested three potential mechanisms: reduction of temporal variability through population asynchrony; enhancement of long-term average performance through positive selection effects; and increases in the temporal mean due to overyielding. Our results support a stabilizing effect of diversity on the temporal variability of grassland aboveground annual net primary production through two mechanisms. Two-species communities with greater population asynchrony were more stable in their average production over time due to compensatory fluctuations. Overyielding also stabilized productivity by increasing levels of average biomass production relative to temporal variability. However, there was no evidence for a performance-enhancing effect on the temporal mean through positive selection effects. In combination with previous work, our results suggest that stabilizing effects of diversity on community productivity through population asynchrony and overyielding appear to be general in grassland ecosystems.

  8. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  9. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians.

  10. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated with social interaction anxiety and the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was associated with high social anxiety, above and beyond the main NA and

  11. The Penrose inequality in general relativity and volume comparison theorems involving scalar curvature (thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we describe how minimal surface techniques can be used to prove the Penrose inequality in general relativity for two classes of 3-manifolds. We also describe how a new volume comparison theorem involving scalar curvature for 3-manifolds follows from these same techniques.

  12. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. M...

  13. Upper Bound of the Generalized p Value for the Population Variances of Lognormal Distributions with Known Coefficients of Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Somkhuean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an upper bound for each of the generalized p values for testing the one population variance, the difference between two population variances, and the ratio of population variances for lognormal distribution when coefficients of variation are known. For each of the proposed generalized p values, we derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the generalized p value. Numerical computations illustrate the theoretical results.

  14. A General Method for QTL Mapping in Multiple Related Populations Derived from Multiple Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Yan; HU Zhi-qiu; TANG Zai-xiang; WANG Xue-feng; XU Chen-wu

    2009-01-01

    It's well known that incorporating some existing populations derived from multiple parents may improve QTL mapping and QTL-based breeding programs. However, no general maximum likelihood method has been available for this strategy. Based on the QTL mapping in multiple related populations derived from two parents, a maximum likelihood estimation method was proposed, which can incorporate several populations derived from three or more parents and also can be used to handle different mating designs. Taking a circle design as an example, we conducted simulation studies to study the effect of QTL heritability and sample size upon the proposed method. The results showed that under the same heritability, enhanced power of QTL detection and more precise and accurate estimation of parameters could be obtained when three F2 populations were jointly analyzed, compared with the joint analysis of any two F2 populations. Higher heritability, especially with larger sample sizes, would increase the ability of QTL detection and improve the estimation of parameters. Potential advantages of the method are as follows: firstly, the existing results of QTL mapping in single population can be compared and integrated with each other with the proposed method, therefore the ability of QTL detection and precision of QTL mapping can be improved. Secondly, owing to multiple alleles in multiple parents, the method can exploit gene resource more adequately, which will lay an important genetic groundwork for plant improvement.

  15. The relationship of neuroticism and extraversion to symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Isometsä, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion to the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. A random general population sample (ages 20-70 years), from two Finnish cities was surveyed with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In addition, questions regarding diagnosed lifetime mental disorders, health care use for psychiatric reasons in the past 12 months, and history of mental disorders in first-degree relatives were posed. Among the 441 subjects who participated, neuroticism correlated strongly with symptoms of depression (r(s)=.71, Ppersonality dimensions to both self-reported lifetime mental disorders and use of health services for psychiatric reasons strengthens the clinical validity of these personality dimensions.

  16. Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B.; Husemoen, L.; Fenger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aimsDanish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar...... radiation during summertime (April–September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied. MethodsA random sample of 6784 persons from a general...... population aged 30–60years participated in a health examination in 1999–2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other...

  17. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund

    2014-01-01

    of the three conditions in a Western general population. Material and methods. A nationwide study of 100,000 individuals 20 years and above, randomly selected in the general population. A web-based questionnaire survey formed the basis of this study. Questions regarding FD and IBS were extracted from the ROME...... III adult questionnaire. Questions regarding GERD were developed based on the Montreal definition. Prevalence estimates for GERD, FD IBS were calculated in total and for each sex separately and for four age groups. A Venn diagram was constructed, illustrating the overlap between the three conditions....... Results. The overall response rate was 52.2%. The prevalence of GERD, FD and IBS was 11.2%, 7.7% and 10.5%, respectively, and overlap between two or three of these conditions was seen among 6.5% of the respondents. Among individuals meeting the criteria of one or more of the conditions GERD, FD and IBS...

  18. Lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Lisa Maria Falk; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Elnegaard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the diagnosis of lung cancer is for individuals in the general population to recognise respiratory alarm symptoms (RAS). Knowledge is sparse about RAS and factors associated with experiencing RAS in the general population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence......: ORmen=1.42, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.56; ORwomen=1.25, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.36; current smoking: ORmen=2.58, 95% CI 2.35 to 2.83; ORwomen=2.45, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.68). Individuals who were underweight or obese were significantly more likely to report at least one RAS. Odds of reporting at least one RAS increased...... with increasing alcohol intake for both genders (Ptrendobese are positively associated with experiencing RAS...

  19. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM......) were recorded in a randomly selected sample (n = 2,199, 53% female) of the Danish adult general population aged 18 to 70 years. PPTs were recorded over the tibialis anterior muscle and the upper trapezius muscle. CPM was defined as the difference between PPT assessments before and during conditioning...... was associated with lower PPTs (P CPM potency was lower in female compared with male participants (P ≤ .003), whereas no association with age was found. Higher level of education (P ≤ .05), premature withdrawal from the cold pressor test...

  20. [Validation of the Eating Attitudes Test as a screening instrument for eating disorders in general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pedro Manuel; Labrador, Francisco Javier; Raich, Rosa María

    2014-02-20

    To validate the best cut-off point of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Spanish version, for the screening of eating disorders (ED) in the general population. This was a transversal cross-sectional study. The EAT-40 Spanish version was administered to a representative sample of 1.543 students, age range 12 to 21 years, in the Region of Madrid. Six hundred and two participants (probable cases and a random sample of controls) were interviewed. The best diagnostic prediction was obtained with a cut-off point of 21, with sensitivity: 88.2%; specificity: 62.1%; positive predictive value: 17.7%; negative predictive value: 62.1%. Use of a cut-off point of 21 is recommended in epidemiological studies of eating disorders in the Spanish general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences in perceptions and attitudes of general population towards organ donation: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Sunitha, T S; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2017-01-01

    Globally, shortage of organs available for organ transplantation is a major problem. Studies assessing awareness and attitudes towards organ donation are limited from India. The aim of this study is to assess gender differences in the perceptions and attitude of general population toward organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected patient relatives (n = 193) at the outpatient department of a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that majority of men than women were aware and in favor of promoting organ donation (χ2 = 10.428, P donate their organs after death (χ2 = 18.080, P organ donation card. There is an urgent need to uncover the myths and misconceptions of the general population toward organ donation. Further, healthcare providers and governmental and nongovernmental agencies should take active initiation in motivating the public to give their consent for organ donation.

  2. Prevalence of depression, quality of life and antidepressant treatment in the Danish General Suburban Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS), the objective of which is to facilitate epidemiological and genetic research, has included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) among the medical health questionnaires. We were thus...... in a position to compare the 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression in the period from 2010 to 2012 with our previous Danish general population study from 2003, in which the MDI was also included. Aims: The aim of our analysis was not only to evaluate the point prevalence of ICD-10 depression but also...... analysis. The scalability of the MDI and the WHO-5 was quite acceptable. Results: In total, 14,787 respondents were available from a response rate of 50%. The 2-week prevalence of ICD-10 depression was 2.3%, which is rather similar to the 2.8% in our 2003 study. The rate of people receiving antidepressants...

  3. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  4. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  5. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used.

  6. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

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    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  7. Phenotypes of individuals affected by airborne chemicals in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Linneberg, Allan; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    to symptoms than less severely affected individuals, and the number of symptoms was more predictive for severity than the number of exposures. Most predictive for the severity of reported symptoms were CNS-symptoms other than headache (OR = 3.2, P ... (OR = 2.0, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: CNS-symptoms except from headache were a main characteristic of individuals severely affected by common chemical exposures in a general population-based sample...

  8. Relationships between Protein Intake and Renal Function in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90

    OpenAIRE

    Higashiyama, Aya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been considered that reducing protein intake is one of important measures to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between protein intake and renal function is still uncertain, especially in relatively healthy general population. Methods 7404 individuals (3099 men and 4305 women) who participated in both National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and National Nutrition Survey in 1990 and were free from past history of renal diseases w...

  9. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

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    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  10. The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Murphy, James G; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard; Gaume, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol purchase task (APT), which presents a scenario and asks participants how many drinks they would purchase and consume at different prices, has been used among students and small clinical samples to obtain measures of alcohol demand but not in large, general population samples. We administered the APT to a large sample of young men from the general population (Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors). Participants who reported drinking in the past year (n=4790), reported on past 12 months alcohol use, on DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria and on alcohol related consequences were included. Among the APT's demand parameters, intensity was 8.7 (SD=6.5) indicating that, when drinks are free, participants report a planned consumption of almost 9 drinks. The maximum alcohol expenditure (Omax) was over 35CHF (1CHF=1.1USD) and the demand became elastic (Pmax) at 8.4CHF (SD=5.6). The mean price at which the consumption was suppressed was 15.6CHF (SD=5.4). Exponential equation provided a satisfactory fit to individual responses (mean R(2): 0.8, median: 0.8). Demand intensity was correlated with alcohol use, number of AUD criteria and number of consequences (all r≥0.3, pelasticity parameter was weakly correlated with alcohol use in the expected direction. The APT measures are useful in characterizing demand for alcohol in young men in the general population. Demand may provide a clinically useful index of strength of motivation for alcohol use in general population samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association between Dietary Patterns and Semen Quality in a General Asian Population of 7282 Males

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yu Liu; Yu-Ching Chou; Jane C-J Chao; Chien-Yeh Hsu; Tai-Lung Cha; Chih-Wei Tsao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between different dietary patterns and semen quality in a general Asian male population. Methods Cross-sectional study. Healthy Taiwanese men aged 18 years or older who participated in a standard medical screening program from 2008-2013 run by a private firm were included in this study. Semen parameters including sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM) and normal sperm morphology (NSM) were recorded. A dietary ques...

  12. [Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzillo, Giusi Rosaria; Scognamiglio, Bernadette; Russo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is an essential micronutrient for humans. Vitamin D functions are not limited to the regulation of bone; it plays many pleiotropic effects due to ubiquitous distribution of VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). The vitamin D deficiency (defined as plasma levels of 25 - OH - vitamin D vitamin D in the general population and in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and indications on the use of different Vitamins D available.

  13. A General Discrete Time Model of Population Dynamics in the Presence of an Infection

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    Giuseppe Izzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of difference equations which generalizes that proposed in the work of G. Izzo and A. Vecchio (2007 and represents the discrete counterpart of a larger class of continuous model concerning the dynamics of an infection in an organism or in a host population. The limiting behavior of this new discrete model is studied and a threshold parameter playing the role of the basic reproduction number is derived.

  14. Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed.

  15. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  16. HEV prevalence in the general population and among workers at zoonotic risk in Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.

  17. The seduction of general practice and illegitimate birth of an expanded role in population health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Docherty, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    To reduce health inequalities and improve quality in health care, health policy initiatives in countries including New Zealand and the United Kingdom are expecting general practice to share responsibilities for a population approach to health care. This is giving increased emphasis to preventative care, including health promotion. Reasoned debate on this policy is overdue, not least in New Zealand, where clinicians within general practice appear to have been seduced by the lack of clarity in health policy into accepting this policy without question. They appear to disregard implications of the policy for redefining the nature and scope of their discipline (and of public health), including their own role as providers of personal care. This paper suggests that a population health approach is inappropriate in general practice when this approach weakens personal care and involves health promotion activity of unknown safety and effectiveness. The example of intentional weight loss to reduce overweight is used to illustrate these issues. We argue for a restricted range of general practice services.

  18. General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodbeck Jeannette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b worrying symptoms, and c somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes.

  19. Effectiveness of 2012–2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debin, Marion; Colizza, Vittoria; Blanchon, Thierry; Hanslik, Thomas; Turbelin, Clement; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Most of the methods used for estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) target the individuals who have an influenza-like illness (ILI) rather than virologically-proven influenza and access the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to estimate the 2012–2013 IVE in general French population, using a cohort of volunteers registered on GrippeNet.fr, an online surveillance system for ILI. The IVE estimations were obtained through a logistic regression, and analyses were also performed by focusing on at-risk population of severe influenza, and by varying inclusion period and ILI definition. Overall, 1996 individuals were included in the analyses. The corrected IVE was estimated to 49% (20 to 67) for the overall population, and 32% (0 to 58) for the at-risk population. Three covariables appeared with a significant effect on the occurrence of at least one ILI during the epidemic: the age (P = 0.045), the presence of a child in the household (P < 10−3), and the frequency of cold/flu (P < 10−3). Comparable results were found at epidemic peak time in the hypothesis of real-time feed of data. In this study, we proposed a novel, follow-up, web-based method to reveal seasonal vaccine effectiveness, which enables analysis in a portion of the population that is not tracked by the health care system in most VE studies. PMID:24343049

  20. Quantitative traits correlative analysis and growth comparison among different populations of bay scallop,Argopecten irradians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBaozhong; LIANGYubo; LIUXiaolin; DONGBo; XIANGJianhai

    2004-01-01

    The shell traits and weight traits are measured in cultured populations of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. The results of regression analysis show that the regression relationships for all the traits are significant (P0.05). The multiple regression equation is obtained to estimate live body weight and tissue weight. The above traits except anterior and posterior auricle length are used for the growth and production comparison among three cultured populations, Duncan's new multiple range procedure analysis shows that all the traits in the Lingshuiqiao (LSQ) population are much more significant than those of the other two populations (P0.05). The results indicate that the LSQ population has a higher growth rate and is expected to be more productive than the other two populations.

  1. A comparison of SNP and STR loci for delineating population structure and performing individual genetic assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Technological advances have lead to the rapid increase in availability of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a range of organisms, and there is a general optimism that SNPs will become the marker of choice for a range of evolutionary applications. Here, comparisons between 300 polymorphic SNPs and 14 short tandem repeats (STRs) were conducted on a data set consisting of approximately 500 Atlantic salmon arranged in 10 samples/populations. Results Global FST ranged from 0.033-0.115 and -0.002-0.316 for the 14 STR and 300 SNP loci respectively. Global FST was similar among 28 linkage groups when averaging data from mapped SNPs. With the exception of selecting a panel of SNPs taking the locus displaying the highest global FST for each of the 28 linkage groups, which inflated estimation of genetic differentiation among the samples, inferred genetic relationships were highly similar between SNP and STR data sets and variants thereof. The best 15 SNPs (30 alleles) gave a similar level of self-assignment to the best 4 STR loci (83 alleles), however, addition of further STR loci did not lead to a notable increase assignment whereas addition of up to 100 SNP loci increased assignment. Conclusion Whilst the optimal combinations of SNPs identified in this study are linked to the samples from which they were selected, this study demonstrates that identification of highly informative SNP loci from larger panels will provide researchers with a powerful approach to delineate genetic relationships at the individual and population levels. PMID:20051144

  2. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance and risk of hypertension in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Han, Lili; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hypertension was calculated for the highest versus the lowest category of fasting insulin or HOMA-IR. Eleven studies involving 10,230 hypertension cases were identified from 55,059 participants. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted RR of hypertension was 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) for fasting insulin concentrations and 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.62) for HOMA-IR comparing the highest to the lowest category. Subgroup analysis results showed that the association of fasting insulin concentrations with subsequent risk of hypertension seemed more pronounced in women (RR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.60) than in men (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.17-1.88). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment is independently associated with an exacerbated risk of hypertension in the general population. Early intervention of hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance may help clinicians to identify the high risk of hypertensive population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  4. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  5. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  6. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

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    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  7. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Silke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65% completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%. Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%, more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4% and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17% compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5. Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8 and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4. In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8. For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes.

  8. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Eileen; Gale, Sara; Tager, Ira; Kincl, Laurel; Bradley, Julie; Coull, Brent; Hecker, Steve

    2014-03-10

    Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants than the general population. Longer

  9. Levels of perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from the general population of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Im-Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea); Kannan, K. [Wardsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and Dept. of Env. Health and Tox., SUNY, Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was found to be widespread in human populations and wildlife Major applications of these POSF-based products have included surfactants in: specialty paper and packaging products, carpet, upholstery, and textile products and in certain insecticide formulation. Depending on the specific functional derivatization or the degree of polymerization, such POSF based products may degrade or metabolize to PFOS, a stable and persistent end product that has the potential to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve environmental and dietary exposure to PFOS or to precursor molecules of PFOS. PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds have recently been detected at low parts per billion (nanogram per milliliter) concentrations in the general population from 10 different countries including Korea. In the present report, the levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in the general population from Korea were analyzed with respect to occupation, smoking status, sex, age and socio-economic status. The degree of association between the four target fluorochemicals measured in this study (PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA) were also analyzed by linear regression to determine the potential association between their sources of exposure.

  10. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirard, Catherine; Sagot, Clémence; Deville, Marine; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne

    2012-11-01

    Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55 μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70 μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39 year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels.

  11. Apolipoprotein B levels, APOB alleles, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    . The present review examines, with focus on general population studies, apolipoprotein B levels as a predictor of ischemic cardiovascular disease, as well as the association of mutations and polymorphisms in APOB with plasma apolipoprotein B levels, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. The studies can......, or ischemic stroke in the general population....

  12. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population : results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J; De Graaf, R; Bijl, RV; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  13. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; Bijl, R.V.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  14. Prevalence of self-reported symptoms and consequences related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population.......To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population....

  15. Generalized Poisson distribution: the property of mixture of Poisson and comparison with negative binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Harry; Zhu, Rong

    2005-04-01

    We prove that the generalized Poisson distribution GP(theta, eta) (eta > or = 0) is a mixture of Poisson distributions; this is a new property for a distribution which is the topic of the book by Consul (1989). Because we find that the fits to count data of the generalized Poisson and negative binomial distributions are often similar, to understand their differences, we compare the probability mass functions and skewnesses of the generalized Poisson and negative binomial distributions with the first two moments fixed. They have slight differences in many situations, but their zero-inflated distributions, with masses at zero, means and variances fixed, can differ more. These probabilistic comparisons are helpful in selecting a better fitting distribution for modelling count data with long right tails. Through a real example of count data with large zero fraction, we illustrate how the generalized Poisson and negative binomial distributions as well as their zero-inflated distributions can be discriminated.

  16. Comparison Theorems for Eigenvalues of Elliptic Operators and the Generalized Polya Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiaoling, E-mail: wang@impa.br; Xia, Changyu, E-mail: xia@mat.unb.b [UnB, Departamento de Matematica (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    We establish comparison theorems for eigenvalues between higher order elliptic equations on compact manifolds with boundary. As an application, it follows that if the Polya conjecture is true then so is the generalized Polya conjecture proposed by Ku et al. (J Differ Equ 97:127-139, 1992). We also obtain new lower bound for the eigenvalues of higher order elliptic equations on bounded domains in a Euclidean space.

  17. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Obaid Al-Hamzawi

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE in the Iraqi general population.The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006-2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46% of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year.MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression.

  18. German Anxiety Barometer—Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties. PMID:27667977

  19. German Anxiety Barometer-Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g., economic, political, personal) anxieties. Furthermore, factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N = 2229). Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within 1 year (women > men), 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms. Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected. A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include, in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking, and leisure behavior, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors, such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  20. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-05-01

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  1. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  2. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullati, Stéphane; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin) in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670). More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex) that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias. PMID:19402895

  3. German Anxiety Barometer – Clinical and Everyday-Life Anxieties in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Adolph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test a time-efficient screening instrument to assess clinically relevant and everyday-life (e.g.,economic,political,personalanxieties.Furthermore,factors influencing these anxieties, correlations between clinical and everyday anxieties and, for the first time, anxiety during different stages of life were assessed in a representative sample of the general population (N= 2229.Around 30% of the respondents manifested at least one disorder-specific key symptom within one year (women > men, 8% reported severe anxiety symptoms.Two thirds of respondents reported minor everyday anxieties and 5% were strongly impaired, whereby persons with severe clinical symptoms were more frequently affected.A variety of potential influencing factors could be identified. These include,in addition to socioeconomic status, gender, general health, risk-taking and leisure behaviour, also some up to now little investigated possible protective factors,such as everyday-life mental activity. The observed effects are rather small, which, however, given the heterogeneity of the general population seems plausible. Although the correlative design of the study does not allow direct causal conclusions, it can, however, serve as a starting point for experimental intervention studies in the future. Together with time series from repeated representative surveys, we expect these data to provide a better understanding of the processes that underlie everyday-life and clinical anxieties.

  4. Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Birnie, Erwin; Abbott, Kristin M; Sinke, Richard J; Lucassen, Anneke M; Schuurmans, Juliette; Kaplan, Seyma; Verkerk, Marian A; Ranchor, Adelita V; van Langen, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of €75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands. PMID:27165008

  5. Comparison Theorem for General Volterra-Stieltjes Integro-differential Equations%一般Volterra-Stieltjes微积分方程的比较定理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄梅枝

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, A.B.Mingarelli's result is generalized to General Volterra-Stieltjes Integro-differential Equations. Comparison theorem and equivalence condition of non-oscillation are obtained. Classical Sturm comparison theorem and some conclusions are generalized.

  6. Circulating alpha1-antitrypsin in the general population: Determinants and association with lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT deficiency associated with low AAT blood concentrations is an established genetic COPD risk factor. Less is known about the respiratory health impact of variation in AAT serum concentrations in the general population. We cross-sectionally investigated correlates of circulating AAT concentrations and its association with FEV1. Methods In 5187 adults (2669 females with high-sensitive c-reactive protein (CRP levels ≤ 10 mg/l from the population-based Swiss SAPALDIA cohort, blood was collected at the time of follow-up examination for measuring serum AAT and CRP. Results Female gender, hormone intake, systolic blood pressure, age in men and in postmenopausal women, as well as active and passive smoking were positively, whereas alcohol intake and BMI inversely correlated with serum AAT levels, independent of CRP adjustment. We observed an inverse association of AAT with FEV1 in the total study population (p Conclusion The results of this population-based study reflect a complex interrelationship between tobacco exposure, gender related factors, circulating AAT, systemic inflammatory status and lung function.

  7. A general ploidy model for the evolution of helping in viscous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Angela Yi-Chen; Gardner, Andy

    2012-07-07

    There is growing interest in understanding how kin selection drives the evolution of social behaviours in viscous populations. A key result, that has inspired much work on this topic, is the exact cancellation of the genetic relatedness and kin competition effects of dispersal in the simplest models of population viscosity, such that a reduction in the rate of dispersal neither promotes nor inhibits the evolution of helping behaviour. This theoretical result has been demonstrated for populations characterised by haploid, diploid and haplodiploid modes of inheritance. Here we develop a model of general ploidy that recovers these three scenarios as special cases and allows examination of scenarios that have not been considered previously. Specifically, we: clarify the importance of the implicit assumption of monandry in previous models; show that the cancellation result obtains in some models of ploidy but not in others; and reveal that the cancellation result obtains for different reasons in different models of ploidy. The cancellation result therefore hinges upon a population's genetic system as well as its demography.

  8. Heart failure in the general Danish population and among individuals with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    MI. Yet, the treatment of heart failure has also improved. It is unknown to what extent the incidence, prevalence and survival with heart failure in the general population and among patients with ischemic heart disease has changed over time. Aim The aim of this study is to estimate incidence...... and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the Danish population and among individuals with ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 1996-2006, applying register data from the national patient register (NPR) and the national dispensing register (NDR). Data and methods All Danish inhabitants (aged >15) by January 1996......Background The incidence and fatality of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has decreased during the last decade - due to both improved medical treatment and a shift toward a healthier lifestyle. The consequence of the improved treatment is likely to be a falling incidens of heart failure following...

  9. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... find genome-wide genetic links between ASDs and typical variation in social behavior and adaptive functioning. This finding is evidenced through both LD score correlation and de novo variant analysis, indicating that multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs influence a continuum of behavioral...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  10. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    , Inter99, KORA S4/F4) were combined to predict HbA1c levels at six year follow-up. Using backward selection, age, BMI, waist circumference, use of anti-hypertensive medication, current smoking and parental history of diabetes remained in sex-specific linear regression models. To minimize overfitting......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study...... of coefficients, we performed internal validation using bootstrapping techniques. Explained variance, discrimination and calibration were assessed using R2, classification tables (comparing highest/lowest 50% HbA1c levels) and calibration graphs. The model was externally validated in 2,765 non-diabetic subjects...

  11. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.;

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  13. Neuropathic pain in the general population: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, O; Austin, Sophie K; Khan, Rafi A; Smith, B H; Torrance, N

    2014-04-01

    Most patients with neuropathic pain symptoms present and are managed in primary care, with only a minority being referred for specialist clinical assessment and diagnoses. Previous reviews have focused mainly on specific neuropathic pain conditions based in specialist settings. This is the first systematic review of epidemiological studies of neuropathic pain in the general population. Electronic databases were searched from January 1966 to December 2012, and studies were included where the main focus was on neuropathic pain prevalence and/or incidence, either as part of a specific neuropathic pain-related condition or as a global entity in the general population. We excluded studies in which data were extracted from pain or other specialist clinics or focusing on specific population subgroups. Twenty-one articles were identified and underwent quality assessment and data extraction. Included studies differed in 3 main ways: method of data retrieval, case ascertainment tool used, and presentation of prevalence/incidence rates. This heterogeneity precluded any meta-analysis. We categorised comparable incidence and prevalence rates into 2 main subgroups: (1) chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics (range 3-17%), and (2) neuropathic pain associated with a specific condition, including postherpetic neuralgia (3.9-42.0/100,000 person-years [PY]), trigeminal neuralgia (12.6-28.9/100,000 PY), painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (15.3-72.3/100,000 PY), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (0.2-0.4/100,000 PY). These differences highlight the importance of a standardised approach for identifying neuropathic pain in future epidemiological studies. A best estimate of population prevalence of pain with neuropathic characteristics is likely to lie between 6.9% and 10%. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  15. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence.......0), thyroid (M = 7.8, SD = 6.3) and brain tumours (M = 7.6, SD = 4.9) showed the highest prevalence, whereas patients with prostate cancer (M = 4.3, SD = 3.8) and malignant melanoma (M = 5.3, SD = 4.3) had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our results help clinicians identify cancer...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer...

  16. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  17. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method: A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individua...

  18. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits...

  19. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination.

  20. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  1. Premature age-related comorbidities among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; Berti, Alessandra; Rossi, Elisa; Roverato, Alberto; Palella, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may have a greater risk of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) compared with the general population. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for NICMs in a large cohort of HIV-infected adults and compared these findings with data from matched control subjects. We performed a case-control study involving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients treated at Modena University, Italy, from 2002 through 2009. These patients were compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched adults (control subjects) from the general population included in the CINECA ARNO database. NICMs included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Polypathology (Pp) was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICMs. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICMs and Pp. There were 2854 patients and 8562 control subjects. The mean age was 46 years, and 37% were women. Individual NICM and Pp prevalences in each age stratum were higher among patients than among controls (all P <.001). Pp prevalence among patients aged 41-50 years was similar to that among controls aged 51-60 years (P value was not statistically significant); diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, and renal failure were statistically independent after adjustment for sex, age, and hypertension. Logistic regression models showed that independent predictors of Pp in the overall cohort were (all P < .001) age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11), male sex (OR, 1.77), nadir CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 4.46), and ART exposure (OR, 1.01). Specific age-related NICMs and Pp were more common among HIV-infected patients than in the general population. The prevalence of Pp in HIV-infected persons anticipated Pp prevalence observed in the general population among persons who were 10 years older, and HIV-specific cofactors (lower nadir CD4 cell count and more prolonged

  2. Responses of FEV6, FVC, and FET to inhaled bronchodilator in the adult general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundbäck Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of bronchodilator-induced change in forced vital capacity (FVC is dependent on forced expiratory time (FET in subjects with airflow limitation. Limited information is available on the concurrent responses of FVC, forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6, and FET in the bronchodilation test among patients with obstructive airways disease or in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in FEV6, FVC, and FET, and their relationships in a standardized bronchodilation test in the general population. Methods We studied bronchodilation response in a general adult population sample of 628 individuals (260 men, 368 women with flow-volume spirometry. The largest FVC, the corresponding FET and the largest FEV6 both at the baseline and after 0.4 mg of inhaled salbutamol were selected for analysis. Results After administration of salbutamol FEV6 decreased on average -13.4 (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5 ml or -0.2% (-0.4% to 0.0% from the baseline. The 95th percentile of change in FEV6 was 169.1 ml and 5.0%. FVC decreased on average -42.8 (-52.4 to -33.3 ml or -1.0% (-1.2% to -0.7%. Concurrently FET changed on average -0.2 (-0.4 to 0.0 seconds or 0.4% (-1.4% to 2.3%. There were four subjects with an increase of FVC over 12% and only one of these was associated with prolonged FET after salbutamol. Changes in FEV6 and FVC were more frequently positive in subjects with reduced FEV1/FVC in baseline spirometry. Conclusion In general adult population, both FEV6 and FVC tended to decrease, but FET remained almost unchanged, in the bronchodilation test. However, those subjects with signs of airflow limitation at the baseline showed frequently some increase of FEV6 and FVC in the bronchodilation test without change in FET. We suggest that FEV6 could be used in assessment of bronchodilation response in lieu of FVC removing the need for regulation of FET during bronchodilation testing.

  3. Socio-demographic determinants of alcohol consumption in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim

    2008-01-01

    . Fourteen per cent of men and 9% of women are heavy drinkers; 38% of men and 18% of women are heavy episodic drinkers. Youth of both sexes drink heavily, and especially in a binge drinking style. Regular, more temperate drinking is associated with increasing age. Multivariate analyses suggest that other...... percentage of youth drinking in a binge pattern. Classical socioeconomic factors play a lesser role in determining drinking patterns compared to other Western countries. Longitudinal studies and studies of alcohol-related consequences in the Danish general population should be conducted to better formulate...

  4. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  5. A general temporal data model and the structured population event history register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Clark

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At this time there are 37 demographic surveillance system sites active in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Central America, and this number is growing continuously. These sites and other longitudinal population and health research projects generate large quantities of complex temporal data in order to describe, explain and investigate the event histories of individuals and the populations they constitute. This article presents possible solutions to some of the key data management challenges associated with those data. The fundamental components of a temporal system are identified and both they and their relationships to each other are given simple, standardized definitions. Further, a metadata framework is proposed to endow this abstract generalization with specific meaning and to bind the definitions of the data to the data themselves. The result is a temporal data model that is generalized, conceptually tractable, and inherently contains a full description of the primary data it organizes. Individual databases utilizing this temporal data model can be customized to suit the needs of their operators without modifying the underlying design of the database or sacrificing the potential to transparently share compatible subsets of their data with other similar databases. A practical working relational database design based on this general temporal data model is presented and demonstrated. This work has arisen out of experience with demographic surveillance in the developing world, and although the challenges and their solutions are more general, the discussion is organized around applications in demographic surveillance. An appendix contains detailed examples and working prototype databases that implement the examples discussed in the text.

  6. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Virviciute, Dalia; Vensloviene, Jone; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bobak, Martin; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use 300 m from a green space and who used the space ≥4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park 300 m. The results of our study confirmed an association between use of the green space, residential proximity, and depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health among women only. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  8. Distribution Characteristics and Combined Effect of Polymorphisms Affecting Alcohol Consumption Behaviour in the Hungarian General and Roma Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diószegi, Judit; Fiatal, Szilvia; Tóth, Réka; Moravcsik-Kornyicki, Ágota; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; McKee, Martin; Ádány, Róza

    2017-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking habits, even among Roma children and adolescents, are more common than in the majority population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of Roma to hazardous alcohol consumption compared to the Hungarian general population. A total of 1273 samples from the population of segregated Hungarian Roma colonies and 2967 samples from the Hungarian general population were genotyped for 25 polymorphisms. Differences in genotype and allele distributions were investigated. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated to estimate the joint effect of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After unweighted and weighted GRS were calculated the distribution of scores in study populations was compared. The allele frequencies differed significantly between the study populations for 17 SNPs (P Roma population. The distribution of unweighted GRS in Roma population was left shifted compared to general population (P = 0.0013). The median weighted genetic risk score was lower among the subjects of Roma population compared to the subjects of general population (0.53 vs 0.65, P = 3.33 × 10(-27)) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Differences in alcohol consumption habits between the Hungarian Roma and Hungarian general populations do not appear to be linked to genetic constitution, this behaviour may occur as a result of different cultural values and environmental exposures. Population-based measures to tackle the fundamental drivers of consumption, which take account of cultural acceptability, are needed to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in the Roma population. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van der Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. METHODOLOGY: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  10. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Körner

    Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  11. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.

  12. MRI-based Determination of Reference Values of Thoracic Aortic Wall Thickness in a General Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Quadrat, Alexander; Schneider, Tobias; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    To provide age- and sex-specific reference values for MRI-derived wall thickness of the ascending and descending aorta in the general population. Data of 753 subjects (311 females) aged 21-81 years were analysed. MRI was used to determine the aortic wall thickness (AWT). Equations for reference value calculation according to age were established for females and males. Median wall thickness of the ascending aorta was 1.46 mm (5th-95th range: 1.15-1.88 mm) for females and 1.56 mm (1.22-1.99 mm) for males. Median wall thickness of the descending aorta was 1.26 mm (0.97-1.58 mm) in females and 1.36 mm (1.04-1.75 mm) in males. While median and 5th and 95th percentiles for the ascending and descending aorta increased with age in both sexes, the association between age and median AWT was stronger in males than in females for both the ascending and descending aorta. Reference values for the ascending and descending AWT are provided. In a healthy sample from the general population, the wall of the ascending aorta is thicker than the wall of the descending aorta, and both walls are thicker in males than females. The increase in wall thickness with age is greater in males. (orig.)

  13. IgE and risk of cancer in 37 747 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, J; Bojesen, S E; Nielsen, S F;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is produced by plasma cells, often as part of an allergic immune response. It is currently unknown whether plasma IgE levels are associated with risk of cancer in individuals from the general population. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of plasma total IgE...... are associated with overall risk of cancer and with risk of specific cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma total IgE was measured in 37 747 individuals from the general population, and the participants were followed prospectively for up to 30 years. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a mean...... follow-up of 7 years, a first cancer was diagnosed in 3454 participants. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-fold higher level of IgE was 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.11; P = 0.04] for any cancer, 0.44 (0.30-0.64; P = 0.00002) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 0.53 (0...

  14. Mitochondrial haplogroups - Ischemic cardiovascular disease, other diseases, mortality, and longevity in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M.; Schwartz, M.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    from other causes, mortality, and longevity in a general population of European descent. Methods and Results-We followed 9254 individuals from the Danish general population, in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, prospectively for risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity from other causes......, and mortality during 25 and 11 years, respectively. Haplogroup frequencies were as follows: H (45.9%), U (15.9%), T (9.9%), J (9.1), K (6.2%), V (4.5%), W/I (3.8%), and Z (3.5%). Hazard ratios for hospitalization due to all cardiovascular disorders (haplogroup U: 1.0 [95% confidence interval{CI}, 0.9 to 1.1]; T......: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.0]; J: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.1]; K: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; V: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; W/I: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; Z: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.2(), ischemic heart disease (U: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.1]; T: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; J: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; K: 1.1 [95% CI...

  15. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  16. Extreme ("pathological") demand avoidance in autism: a general population study in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Gillberg, I Carina; Thompson, Lucy; Biskupsto, Rannvá; Billstedt, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Research into Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA), which has been suggested to be a subgroup within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is almost nonexistent in spite of the frequent reference to the condition in clinical practice. The total population of 15 to 24-year-olds in the Faroe Islands was screened for ASD, and 67 individuals were identified who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (corresponding to a general population prevalence of ASD of almost 1 %). Of these 67, 50 had parents who were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-11) which contains 15 "PDA-specific" items. Nine individuals met criteria for "possible clinical diagnosis of PDA", meaning that almost one in five of all with ASD also had indications of having had PDA in childhood, and that 0.18 % of the total population had had the combination of ASD and PDA. However, at the time of assessment, only one of the 9 individuals with possible PDA still met "full criteria". PDA possibly constitutes a considerable minority of all cases with ASD diagnosed in childhood, but criteria for the condition are unlikely to be still met in later adolescence and early adult life.

  17. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  18. Characteristics and natural course of vertebral endplate signal (Modic changes in the Danish general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorensen Joan S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC are more common among patients with low back pain (LBP and/or sciatica than in people who are not seeking care for back pain. The distribution and characteristics of VESC have been described in people from clinical and non-clinical populations. However, while the clinical course of VESC has been studied in patients, the natural course in the general population has not been reported. The objectives of this prospective observational study were to describe: 1 the distribution and characteristics of VESC in the lumbar spine, 2 its association with disc degeneration, and 3 its natural course from 40 to 44 years of age. Methods Three-hundred-and-forty-four individuals (161 men and 183 women sampled from the Danish general population had MRI at the age of 40 and again at the age of 44. The following MRI findings were evaluated using standardised evaluation protocols: type, location, and size of VESC, disc signal, and disc height. Characteristics and distribution of VESC were analysed by frequency tables. The association between VESC and disc degeneration was analysed by logistic regression analysis. The change in type and size of VESC was analysed by cross-tabulations of variables obtained at age 40 and 44 and tested using McNemar's test of symmetry. Results Two-thirds (67% of VESC found in this study were located in the lower part of the spine (L4-S1. VESC located at disc levels L1-L3 were generally small and located only in the anterior part of the vertebra, whereas those located at disc levels L4-S1 were more likely to extend further into the vertebra and along the endplate. Moreover, the more the VESC extended into the vertebra, the more likely it was that the adjacent disc was degenerated. The prevalence of endplate levels with VESC increased significantly from 6% to 9% from age 40 to 44. Again, VESC that was only observed in the endplate was more likely to come and go over the four

  19. Help-seeking in people with exceptional experiences: Results from a general population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eLandolt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional Experiences (EE are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE.Almost all participants (91% experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6% than in persons with a disorder (35.1% (OR = 5.7. Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE.Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other persons with EE, but preferred

  20. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  1. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population--prevalence and main findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil

    2010-02-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources. This study aimed to review the epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population. Literature was examined using Pubmed-Medline, Biosis, Science Citation Index, and dermatology text books. On the basis of studies performed between 1964 and 2007, the point prevalence of hand eczema was around 4%, the 1-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand eczema. Moderate to severe extension of hand eczema was the strongest risk factor for persistence of hand eczema. Other risk factors included early onset of hand eczema and childhood eczema. The aetiology of hand eczema is multifactorial and includes environmental as well as genetic factors. Future studies should focus on unresolved areas of hand eczema, for example, genetic predisposition.

  2. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  3. Current prevalence of major depressive disorder in the general population from Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia L. Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (m d d is the disorder with the most important global burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years. Objetive: to determine the current prevalence of m d d in the general population in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and to explore the risk factors associated with them. Methodology: this is a cross-sectional survey with a population random sampling that involved 18-65 year-old people living in Bucaramanga. A psychiatric diagnosis of a m d d during last month was accomplished using Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I diagnoses (s c i d-i according to the d s m-i v-t r criteria issued by the American Psychiatric Association. Results: a total amount of 266 people were selected (57,1% women. Their mean age were 37,4 years and the formal education years were 9,8. A total of 12,0% was unemployed, 56,1% had a stable couple, and 51,2% lived in medium socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of m d d was 16,5% (95% c i 12,3-21,6. A significant association was identified between the fact of not having a stable couple (p r = 2,11 and the and level of education (p r = 0,41, for 6-11 cursed years, and p r = 0,28, for 12 or more cursed years, compared to five or lesser years of schooling and the m d d. Discussion: the current prevalence of m d d is high among adult general population from Bucaramanga. This implies the necessity to develop better strategies for an early detection and an integral treatment of m d d cases in order to decrease social and economical costs of m d d.

  4. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke.

  5. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  6. Existing general population models inaccurately predict lung cancer risk in patients referred for surgical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, James M; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B; Nesbitt, Jonathan C; Lambright, Eric S; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R; Grogan, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    Patients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9% to 55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005 to 2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. A total of 189 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into four subgroups based on age, smoking history, and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET-nonavid lesions, PET-avid lesions with age less than 50 years, or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the Mayo and solitary pulmonary nodules models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients referred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce nontherapeutic resections. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychopathology of the General Population Referred by Primary Care Physicians for Urgent Assessment in Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McLenan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type, severity and progression of psychiatric pathologies in a sample of 372 outpatients (age range 18–65 years referred by their primary general practitioners (GPs to an Urgent Referral Team (URT based in a psychiatric hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland. This team offers immediate appointments (1- to 7-day delays for rapid assessments and early interventions to the outpatients referred by their primary family doctors.Method: One-sample t-test and z statistic were used for data analysis. From the total population, a convenience sample of 40 people was selected and assessed to evaluate whether follow-up appointments after the first visit could reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety in the outpatients seen by the URT. A two-sample t-test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to assess the variations in the scores during the follow-up visits.Results: We found a statistically significant prevalence of depressive disorders, comorbid with anxiety at first presentation in people who were females, white, never married, living with a partner, not studying and not in paid employment. The common presentation of borderline personality disorder and dysthymia in this population underscores its vulnerability to major socioeconomic challenges.Conclusion: The data confirmed the impact that primary care cooperation with psychiatric hospitals can have on the psychiatric system, and as a reflection, on the population’s mental health and well-being. In fact, active cooperation and early diagnosis and intervention will help detect cases at risk in the general population and reduce admissions into hospitals.

  8. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  9. Comparison of the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale with the hedonic 9-point scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalva, Jaclyn J; Sims, Charles A; Puentes, Lorenzo A; Snyder, Derek J; Bartoshuk, Linda M

    2014-02-01

    The hedonic 9-point scale was designed to compare palatability among different food items; however, it has also been used occasionally to compare individuals and groups. Such comparisons can be invalid because scale labels (for example, "like extremely") can denote systematically different hedonic intensities across some groups. Addressing this problem, the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) frames affective experience in terms of the strongest imaginable liking/disliking of any kind, which can yield valid group comparisons of food palatability provided extreme hedonic experiences are unrelated to food. For each scale, 200 panelists rated affect for remembered food products (including favorite and least favorite foods) and sampled foods; they also sampled taste stimuli (quinine, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid) and rated their intensity. Finally, subjects identified experiences representing the endpoints of the hedonic gLMS. Both scales were similar in their ability to detect within-subject hedonic differences across a range of food experiences, but group comparisons favored the hedonic gLMS. With the 9-point scale, extreme labels were strongly associated with extremes in food affect. In contrast, gLMS data showed that scale extremes referenced nonfood experiences. Perceived taste intensity significantly influenced differences in food liking/disliking (for example, those experiencing the most intense tastes, called supertasters, showed more extreme liking and disliking for their favorite and least favorite foods). Scales like the hedonic gLMS are suitable for across-group comparisons of food palatability.

  10. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-12-28

    To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis. Physicians should consider

  11. Prevalence of insomnia and its clinical correlates in a general population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbir, Gulcin; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Aksu, Murat; Ardic, Sadik; Firat, Hikmet; Itil, Oya; Ozgen, Fuat; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Karadeniz, Derya

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of insomnia is influenced by environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of insomnia and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates in a general population-based survey in Turkey. This population-based study included 4758 subjects among 5021 who participated in the Turkish Adult Population Epidemiology of Sleep Disorders study. Questionnaire items evaluating insomnia were adapted from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders II and the DSM-IV-TR. Subjects with restless legs syndrome were excluded. Insomnia was found to be associated with older age (18-24 years, 9.8%; 25-44 years, 11.7%; 45-64 years, 13.8%; 65 years or older, 13.9%), lower income level (<500 USD, 16.5%), time spent watching TV (6-8 h or more, 18.4%), tea consumption in the evening (≥6 glasses, 14.5%) and smoking status (current and ex-smoker, both 14.2%) in multiple logistic regression analysis. In respect to other medical disorders, insomnia was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases after the adjustment for relevant risk factors for each disease, across all age and sex groups. Insomnia is a major health problem in our population, affecting subjects in the working age group and those of lower socioeconomic status. It should especially be screened in patients with chronic diseases. A relatively low proportion of insomnia diagnosed as a sleep disorder suggests that this condition and its clinical correlates are possibly under-recognized. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Classification models for subthreshold generalized anxiety disorder in a college population: Implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Nitya; Taylor, C Barr; Cohen, Jeffrey M; Newman, Michelle G

    2015-08-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders on college campuses and often goes unidentified and untreated. We propose a combined prevention and treatment model composed of evidence-based self-help (SH) and guided self-help (GSH) interventions to address this issue. To inform the development of this stepped-care model of intervention delivery, we evaluated results from a population-based anxiety screening of college students. A primary model was developed to illustrate how increasing levels of symptomatology could be linked to prevention/treatment interventions. We used screening data to propose four models of classification for populations at risk for GAD. We then explored the cost considerations of implementing this prevention/treatment stepped-care model. Among 2489 college students (mean age 19.1 years; 67% female), 8.0% (198/2489) met DSM-5 clinical criteria for GAD, in line with expected clinical rates for this population. At-risk Model 1 (subthreshold, but considerable symptoms of anxiety) identified 13.7% of students as potentially at risk for developing GAD. Model 2 (subthreshold, but high GAD symptom severity) identified 13.7%. Model 3 (subthreshold, but symptoms were distressing) identified 12.3%. Model 4 (subthreshold, but considerable worry) identified 17.4%. There was little overlap among these models, with a combined at-risk population of 39.4%. The efficiency of these models in identifying those truly at risk and the cost and efficacy of preventive interventions will determine if prevention is viable. Using Model 1 data and conservative cost estimates, we found that a preventive intervention effect size of even 0.2 could make a prevention/treatment model more cost-effective than existing models of "wait-and-treat." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk factors among the general population and osteoarthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Yun, Jae Moon; Chang, Chong Bum; Piao, Heng; Yu, Su Jong; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of possible risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and their age-group specific trend among the general population and osteoarthritis patients. METHODS We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Service that included claims data and results of the national health check-up program. Comorbid conditions (peptic ulcer, diabetes, liver disease, chronic renal failure, and gastroesophageal reflux disease), concomitant drugs (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid, anticoagulants, and SSRI), personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) were considered as possible UGIB risk factors. We randomly imputed the prevalence of infection in the data considering the age-specific prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Korea. The prevalence of various UGIB risk factors and the age-group specific trend of the prevalence were identified. Prevalence was compared between osteoarthritis patients and others. RESULTS A total of 801926 subjects (93855 osteoarthritis patients) aged 20 and above were included. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors became higher as the age increased. The prevalence of each comorbid condition and concomitant drug were higher in osteoarthritis patients. Thirty-five point zero two percent of the overall population and 68.50% of osteoarthritis patients had at least one or more risk factors of UGIB. The prevalence of individual and concurrent multiple risk factors in younger age groups were also substantial. Furthermore, when personal habits (smoking, and alcohol consumption) and H. pylori infection were included, the prevalence of concurrent multiple risk factors increased greatly even in younger age groups. CONCLUSION Prevalence of UGIB risk factors was high in elderly population, but was also considerable in younger population. Patient with osteoarthritis was at higher UGIB risk than those without osteoarthritis

  14. Comparison of stator-mounted permanent-magnet machines based on a general power equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hua, Wei; Cheng, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The stator-mounted permanent-magnet (SMPM) machines have some advantages compared with its counterparts, such as simple rotor, short winding terminals, and good thermal dissipation conditions for magnets. In this paper, a general power equation for three types of SMPM machine is introduced first......, and then, power equations considering the specific topologies are derived. Based on these power equations, theoretical comparisons are carried out between various types of the SMPM machines. In all, eight topologies have been presented and benchmarked. It reveals that the flux switching permanent......-magnet (PM) machine owns higher power density than the flux reversal PM machine and the doubly salient PM machine under same outer diameter. The comparison based on the power equation has established a foundation for optimizing the SMPM machines....

  15. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  16. Heavy cannabis users at elevated risk of stroke: evidence from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Dilini; McKetin, Rebecca; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    Case reports and hospital-based case-control studies suggest that cannabis use may increase the risk of stroke. We examined the risk of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) among cannabis users in the general community. A general population survey of Australians aged 20-24 years (n=2,383), 40-44 years (n=2,525) and 60-64 years (n=2,547) was used to determine the odds of lifetime stroke or TIA among participants who had smoked cannabis in the past year while adjusting for other stroke risk factors. There were 153 stroke/TIA cases (2.1%). After adjusting for age cohort, past year cannabis users (n=1,043) had 3.3 times the rate of stroke/TIA (95% CI 1.8-6.3, pcannabis weekly or more often (IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.7) with no elevation among participants who used cannabis less often. Heavy cannabis users in the general community have a higher rate of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack than non-cannabis users. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Estimating the sizes of populations at high risk for HIV: a comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Jing

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Behavioral interventions are effective strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. However, implementation of such strategies relies heavily on the accurate estimation of the high-risk population size. The multiplier method and generalized network scale-up method were recommended to estimate the population size of those at high risk for HIV by UNAIDS/WHO in 2003 and 2010, respectively. This study aims to assess and compare the two methods for estimating the size of populations at high risk for HIV, and to provide practical guidelines and suggestions for implementing the two methods. METHODS: Studies of the multiplier method used to estimate the population prevalence of men who have sex with men in China published between July 1, 2003 and July 1, 2013 were reviewed. The generalized network scale-up method was applied to estimate the population prevalence of men who have sex with men in the urban district of Taiyuan, China. RESULTS: The median of studies using the multiplier method to estimate the population prevalence of men who have sex with men in China was 4-8 times lower than the national level estimate. Meanwhile, the estimate of the generalized network scale-up method fell within the range of national level estimate. CONCLUSIONS: When high-quality existing data are not readily available, the multiplier method frequently yields underestimated results. We thus suggest that the generalized network scale-up method is preferred when sampling frames for the general population and accurate demographic information are available.

  18. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables.

  19. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn's disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn's activation, none of those with Crohn's disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  20. Are patients' judgments of health status really different from the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruers Theo JM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found discrepancies in valuations for health states between the general population (healthy people and people who actually experience illness (patients. Such differences may be explained by referring to various cognitive mechanisms. However, more likely most of these observed differences may be attributable to the methods used to measure these health states. We explored in an experimental setting whether such discrepancies in values for health states exist. It was hypothesized that the more the measurement strategy was incorporated in measurement theory, the more similar the responses of patients and healthy people would be. Methods A sample of the general population and two patient groups (cancer, rheumatoid arthritis were included. All three study groups judged the same 17 hypothetical EQ-5D health states, each state comprising the same five health domains. The patients did not know that apart from these 17 states their own health status was also included in the set of states they were assessing. Three different measurement strategies were applied: 1 ranking of the health states; 2 placing all the health states simultaneously on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 3 separately assessing the health states with the time trade-off (TTO technique. Regression analyses were performed to determine whether differences in the VAS and TTO can be ascribed to specific health domains. In addition, effect of being member of one of the two patient groups and the effect of the assessment of the patients' own health status was analyzed. Results Except for some moderate divergence, no differences were found between patients and healthy people for the ranking task or for the VAS. For the time trade-off technique, however, large differences were observed between patients and healthy people. The regression analyses for the effect of belonging to one of the patient groups and the effect of the value assigned to the patients' own

  1. Hand-eye dominance in a population with mental handicaps: prevalence and a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, S E; Block, S S; Boudreaux, J D; Flora, R J

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate hand-eye dominance in a population with mental handicaps and how the distribution compared with the general population. In addition, this study investigated the correlation between two methods of hand-eye dominance testing. Two methods were used to determine eye dominance: the hole-in-the-hand method and the eye dominance wand. Hand dominance was determined by the subject's choice of accepting hand. The sample was comprised of a population of 421 athletes participating in the 1997 Special Olympic Games in Toronto. All subjects unable to give a dominant hand or unable to perform either of the ocular dominance tests were eliminated from analysis. Athletes who demonstrated strabismus or a difference in visual acuity between the two eyes of greater than 1 line were separated in the analysis, reducing the sample population to 191. The hole-in-the-hand method of eye dominance showed that 40.3% of this population exhibited crossed dominance. The eye dominance wand found crossed dominance in 36.6% of this population. The eye dominance wand demonstrated moderate agreement with the hole-in-the-hand method; however, there was some crossover of eye dominance between tests, when the tests were compared on a case-by-case basis. The prevalence rate of this population of persons with mental handicaps agrees with the prevalence rates found by Robison et al., in which 41% of a general nonhandicapped population demonstrated crossed dominance. The results suggest that persons with mental handicaps have prevalence rates of crossed dominance similar to those found in the general population.

  2. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-03-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (~75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (~50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one.

  3. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  4. General practice and pandemic influenza: a framework for planning and comparison of plans in five countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed S Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although primary health care, and in particular, general practice will be at the frontline in the response to pandemic influenza, there are no frameworks to guide systematic planning for this task or to appraise available plans for their relevance to general practice. We aimed to develop a framework that will facilitate planning for general practice, and used it to appraise pandemic plans from Australia, England, USA, New Zealand and Canada. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted the Haddon matrix to develop the framework, populating its cells through a multi-method study that incorporated the peer-reviewed and grey literature, interviews with general practitioners, practice nurses and senior decision-makers, and desktop simulation exercises. We used the framework to analyse 89 publicly-available jurisdictional plans at similar managerial levels in the five countries. The framework identifies four functional domains: clinical care for influenza and other needs, public health responsibilities, the internal environment and the macro-environment of general practice. No plan addressed all four domains. Most plans either ignored or were sketchy about non-influenza clinical needs, and about the contribution of general practice to public health beyond surveillance. Collaborations between general practices were addressed in few plans, and inter-relationships with the broader health system, even less frequently. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide a framework to guide general practice planning for pandemic influenza. The framework helped identify critical shortcomings in available plans. Engaging general practice effectively in planning is challenging, particularly where governance structures for primary health care are weak. We identify implications for practice and for research.

  5. Do differences in the administrative structure of populations confound comparisons of geographic health inequalities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew L

    2010-08-18

    Abstract Background Geographical health inequalities are naturally described by the variation in health outcomes between areas (e.g. mortality rates). However, comparisons made between countries are hampered by our lack of understanding of the effect of the size of administrative units, and in particular the modifiable areal unit problem. Our objective was to assess how differences in geographic and administrative units used for disseminating data affect the description of health inequalities. Methods Retrospective study of standard populations and deaths aggregated by administrative regions within 20 European countries, 1990-1991. Estimated populations and deaths in males aged 0-64 were in 5 year age bands. Poisson multilevel modelling was conducted of deaths as standardised mortality ratios. The variation between regions within countries was tested for relationships with the mean region population size and the unequal distribution of populations within each country measured using Gini coefficients. Results There is evidence that countries whose regions vary more in population size show greater variation and hence greater apparent inequalities in mortality counts. The Gini coefficient, measuring inequalities in population size, ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 between countries; an increase of 0.1 was accompanied by a 12-14% increase in the standard deviation of the mortality rates between regions within a country. Conclusions Apparently differing health inequalities between two countries may be due to differences in geographical structure per se, rather than having any underlying epidemiological cause. Inequalities may be inherently greater in countries whose regions are more unequally populated.

  6. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, P.R.; Benn, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 9330 men and women from the general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During 10 years of follow-up, 498 participants developed MI. In women, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for MI for elevated lipoprotein(a) levels were 1.1 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1...... bias, and lack of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk...... observed a stepwise increase in risk of MI with increasing levels of lipoprotein(a), with no evidence of a threshold effect. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict a 3- to 4-fold increase in risk of MI in the general population and absolute 10-year risks of 20% and 35% in high-risk women and men...

  7. Alcohol Intake, Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes, and Liver Damage and Disease in the Danish General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Grønbæk, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:We tested the hypothesis that alcohol, alone and in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C genotypes, affects liver damage and disease in the general population.METHODS:Information on alcohol intake and on liver disease was obtained from 9,080 men and women from...... volume.RESULTS:Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were 0.......9 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1.4), 1.4 (0.8-2.5), 1.8 (0.9-3.5), and 4.1 (2.5-7.0) for an alcohol intake of 1-13, 14-20, 21-27, and >/=28 drinks per week, respectively, compared with drinking alcoholic liver cirrhosis...

  8. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Gronbaek, M.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that alcohol, alone and in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C genotypes, affects liver damage and disease in the general population. METHODS: Information on alcohol intake and on liver disease was obtained from 9,080 men and women from...... volume. RESULTS: Increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing erythrocyte volume, AST/ALT, and levels of ALT, gamma-GT, albumin, bilirubin, coagulation factors, and with decreasing levels of alkaline phosphatase. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for alcoholic liver disease overall were...... 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1.4), 1.4 (0.8-2.5), 1.8 (0.9-3.5), and 4.1 (2.5-7.0) for an alcohol intake of 1-13, 14-20, 21-27, and > or = 28 drinks per week, respectively, compared with drinking alcoholic liver...

  9. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Lange, Peter; Scharling, H;

    2006-01-01

    population. METHODS: As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25 years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25 year observation period was analysed. RESULTS: The percentage......BACKGROUND: Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non-smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10 years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25 year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general...... cessation, especially early in the follow up period, decreased the risk of developing COPD substantially compared with continuous smoking. During the follow up period there were 2912 deaths, 109 of which were from COPD. 92% of the COPD deaths occurred in subjects who were current smokers at the beginning...

  10. Incidence and prognosis of mid-back pain in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M. S.; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Hartvigsen, J

    2017-01-01

    the incidence and prognosis of MBP in the general population. The PRISMA Statement guided the study process. DATABASES: A systematic search was conducted in CINAHL, PEDro, PsycINFO and Scopus. RESULTS: Of 3194 unique records identified, seven were included in our qualitative synthesis. The 3-month and 2-year...... incidence proportions of MBP in children and adolescents were approximately 4% and 50%, respectively. In adults, the 1-month incidence proportion was less than 1%. The persistence or recurrence of MBP over a 1- to 4-year period was between 13% and 45% in children and adolescents; a change in spinal pain...... location over time was common. Individuals reporting MBP have an increased risk of future care seeking compared with people without musculoskeletal complaints. No studies assessing adult MBP recovery trajectories or prognostic factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the incidence...

  11. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia......OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... increased from the highest to the lowest apoE tertile (p for trends dementia, respectively. After further...

  12. Self-reported symptoms and healthcare seeking in the general population -exploring "The Symptom Iceberg"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has illustrated that the decision-making process regarding healthcare seeking for symptoms is complex and associated with a variety of factors, including gender differences. Enhanced understanding of the frequency of symptoms and the healthcare seeking behaviour in the general...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...... of 44 different symptoms covering a wide area of alarm symptoms and non-specific frequently occurring symptoms were selected based on extensive literature search. Further, items regarding contact to the GP were included. Data on socioeconomic factors were obtained from Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  13. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( ... and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (

  14. Medical consultations in relation to severity of hand eczema in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, M.; Berg, N.D.; Elberling, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Hand eczema is a common disease with a wide severity spectrum. Little information exists concerning the association between the severity of hand eczema and medical consultations. Objectives To describe the self-rated severity of hand eczema in a general population and the relationship...... to seeking medical attention. Methods A questionnaire on self-reported hypersensitivity including two questions on hand eczema was sent to a random sample of 6000 individuals, aged 18-69 years, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 4242 individuals (71%) answered the questionnaire. All individuals who...... reported hand eczema (n = 752) within the previous 12 months received a more detailed questionnaire focused on hand eczema and a previously validated photographic guide with four groups of severity ranging from almost clear to very severe. Results Five hundred and sixty-four individuals (75%) returned...

  15. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  16. Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and mortality among 64,637 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with older age and age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that short telomeres are associated with both increased cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Individuals (n = 64637) were recruited from 1991...... onwards from two Danish prospective cohort studies: the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. All had telomere length measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the genotypes rs1317082 (TERC), rs7726159 (TERT), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined. The sum...... of telomere-shortening alleles from these three genotypes was calculated. We conducted Cox regression analyses and instrumental variable analyses using the allele sum as an instrument. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among 7607 individuals who died during follow-up (0-22 years, median = 7 years...

  17. Predictors of new vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Secher; Kjaer, Per; Korsholm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    factors and disc-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in relation to the development of new VESC. This prospective observational study included 344 people from the Danish general population who had an MRI and completed LBP questionnaires at the age of 40 and again at 44 years. Potential...... predictors of new VESC were female gender, disc-related MRI findings (disc degeneration, disc bulges, disc herniation, and other endplate changes) and lifestyle factors [high physical work or leisure activity, high body mass index (BMI), and heavy smoking]. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions...... with disc degeneration, bulges or herniations at 40 were the only predictors of new VESC at age 44. Therefore, the development of new VESC at the age of 44 appears to be based on the status and dynamics of the disc, rather than being the result of gender or lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical...

  18. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population....... METHODS: 1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship...... between hs-TnI and CAC was assessed using logistic regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). RESULTS: Concentrations of hs-TnI above the limit of detection were measured in 89.3% of all subjects. Presence of CAC (Agatston score >0) was detected in 29% in the lowest hs...

  19. Incidence and risk factors for suicide attempts in a general population of young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...... for index suicide attempts. We established a link to the biological parents and identified risk factors for two generations. Risk factors were analyzed in a conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS: We identified 3718 suicide attempters and 185,900 controls (189,618 individuals, aged 10-21 years). We...

  20. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint...... in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed......Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied...

  1. Quantitative Comparison of Abundance Structures of Generalized Communities: From B-Cell Receptor Repertoires to Microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedghalati, Mohammadkarim; Farahpour, Farnoush; Lange, Anja; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Seifert, Marc; Küppers, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The community, the assemblage of organisms co-existing in a given space and time, has the potential to become one of the unifying concepts of biology, especially with the advent of high-throughput sequencing experiments that reveal genetic diversity exhaustively. In this spirit we show that a tool from community ecology, the Rank Abundance Distribution (RAD), can be turned by the new MaxRank normalization method into a generic, expressive descriptor for quantitative comparison of communities in many areas of biology. To illustrate the versatility of the method, we analyze RADs from various generalized communities, i.e. assemblages of genetically diverse cells or organisms, including human B cells, gut microbiomes under antibiotic treatment and of different ages and countries of origin, and other human and environmental microbial communities. We show that normalized RADs enable novel quantitative approaches that help to understand structures and dynamics of complex generalized communities. PMID:28114391

  2. Comparison of a general series expansion method and the homotopy analysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cheng-shi

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytic tool namely the general series expansion method is proposed to find the solutions for nonlinear differential equations. By choosing a set of suitable basis functions $\\{e_n(t,t_0)\\}_{n=0}^{+\\infty}$ such that the solution to the equation can be expressed by $u(t)=\\sum_{n=0}^{+\\infty}c_ne_n(t,t_0)$. In general, $t_0$ can control and adjust the convergence region of the series solution such that our method has the same effect as the homotopy analysis method proposed by Liao, but our method is more simple and clear. As a result, we show that the secret parameter $h$ in the homotopy analysis methods can be explained by using our parameter $t_0$. Therefore, our method reveals a key secret in the homotopy analysis method. For the purpose of comparison with the homotopy analysis method, a typical example is studied in detail.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: moyercheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: pausheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: moyer20361@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: hwhuang660@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: moyermiming@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.

  4. Non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Berber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with a chronic disease will strongly increase in the next decades. Therefore, prevention of disease becomes increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that negatively influence participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice and to establish whether the program type is related to non-participation levels. Methods We conducted a systematic review in Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, covering 2000 through July 6th 2012, to identify publications including information about characteristics of non-participants or reasons for non-participation in population-based disease prevention programs in General Practice. Results A total of 24 original studies met our criteria, seven of which focused on vaccination, eleven on screening aimed at early detection of disease, and six on screening aimed at identifying high risk of a disease, targeting a variety of diseases and conditions. Lack of personal relevance of the program, younger age, higher social deprivation and former non-participation were related to actual non-participation. No differences were found in non-participation levels or factors related to non-participation between the three program types. The large variation in non-participation levels within the program types may be partly due to differences in recruitment strategies, with more active, personalized strategies resulting in higher participation levels compared to an invitation letter. Conclusions There is still much to be gained by tailoring strategies to improve participation in those who are less likely to do so, namely younger individuals, those living in a deprived area and former non-participants. Participation may increase by applying more active recruitment strategies.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (Preview of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection (more than one third). We highly recommend further study for the purposes of aiding patient management and developing more efficient diagnostic tests and effective prevention approaches.

  6. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  7. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Periodontal Disease in a Japanese General Population: the Suita Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikui, Miki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Kida, Momoyo; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been noted. However, no study has evaluated the relationship by sex and in a general urban population using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between MetS and periodontal status using the uniform definition in a general urban Japanese population. A total of 1,856 Japanese men and women (mean age: 66.4 years) were studied using data from the Suita study. Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). MetS was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The associations of the MetS and its components with periodontal disease were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, drinking, and smoking. Among the components of the MetS, low HDL cholesterol level was significantly associated with periodontal disease in men and women [odds ratios (OR)=2.39 and 1.53; 95% confidence intervals=1.36-4.19 and 1.06-2.19]. Furthermore, the risk of periodontal disease showed 1.43-, 1.42-, and 1.89-fold increases in those with 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively, compared with those having no components (Ptrend <0.001). For the analysis by sex, the risk of periodontal disease was increased 2.27- and 1.76-fold in those with ≥4 components in men and women, respectively (both Ptrend=0.001). These findings suggest that MetS and lower HDL cholesterol are associated with periodontal disease. Subjects with two or more MetS components had a significantly higher prevalence of periodontal disease.

  8. Dietary Sodium Consumption Predicts Future Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension in the Japanese Normotensive General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2015-07-29

    Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Erythropoietin in the general population: reference ranges and clinical, biochemical and genetic correlates.

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    Niels Grote Beverborg

    Full Text Available Although erythropoietin has been used for decades in the treatment of anemia, data regarding endogenous levels in the general population are scarce. Therefore, we determined erythropoietin reference ranges and its clinical, biochemical and genetic associations in the general population.We used data from 6,777 subjects enrolled in the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained in the morning from all participants from 2001-2003. Serum erythropoietin concentrations were measured using a fully automated chemiluminescent enzyme-labeled immunometric assay. A genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic determinants.Mean age (± SD was 53 ± 12 years and 50% were female. Median (IQR erythropoietin concentrations were 7.6 (5.8-9.9 IU/L in men and 7.9 (6.0-10.6 IU/L in women. A strong positive correlation was found between erythropoietin and waist circumference, glucose and systolic blood pressure (all P < 0.05. In subjects with normal renal function there was a strong exponential relation between hemoglobin and erythropoietin, whereas in renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m² this relation was linear (men or absent (women (P < 0.001 for interaction. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the HBS1L-MYB locus were shown to be related to erythropoietin levels (P < 9x10-21, more significantly than other erythrocyte parameters.We provide age-specific reference ranges for endogenous serum erythropoietin. Erythropoietin levels are positively associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome, except cholesterol. We show that even mild renal failure blunts erythropoietin production and propose the HBS1L-MYB locus as a regulator of erythropoietin.

  10. The associations of morningness-eveningness with anger and impulsivity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Seung-Gul; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among morningness-eveningness, impulsivity and anger in the general population. A total of 1000 community-dwelling subjects (500 males) aged 20-77 years (mean± SD age: 39.6 ± 11.6 years) completed the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS), Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed to determine whether the relationship between two variables depended on the third variable, referred to as a moderator, and whether the third variable, known as a mediator, was associated with the other two variables establishing causation. The MEQ scores exhibited significant negative associations with BIS (p moderator (p moderator (p = 0.030) in the association between MEQ and BIS. However, after controlling for the interaction of the BIS and MEQ, the MEQ scores did not significantly predict STAXI scores (p = 0.070). Additionally, the effect size of the mediating effect of the BIS scores on the relationship between the MEQ and STAXI (percent mediation: 53.2%) was larger than that of the STAXI scores on the association between the MEQ and BIS (percent mediation: 31.8%). The present results demonstrate that morningness-eveningness was closely related with both impulsivity and anger in the general population. Furthermore, these findings suggest that impulsivity may exercise a great influence on the association between morningness-eveningness and anger in two ways: as a moderator by modulating this relationship based on the level of impulsivity and as a mediator by acting as an intermediary factor.

  11. Persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation among the general Iranian population: Prevalence and causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raika Jamali; Mohammad Reza Deyhim; Houri Rezvan; Akram Pourshams; Mahmoodreza Khonsari; Shahin Merat; Masoud Khoshnia; Elham Jafari; Alireza Bahram Kalhori; Hassan Abolghasemi; Sedighe Amini; Mahtab Maghsoudlu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and causes of persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT)levels among the general population in northern Iran.METHODS: A total of 2292 (1376 female, aged 18-75year), were selected by systematic clustered random sampling from the cities and villages of Gonbad and Kalaleh in Golestan Province and invited to participate in the study. A comprehensive history regarding alcohol drinking and medication was taken. Body mass index (BMI), viral markers and ALT levels were measured. If ALT level was ≥ 40 U/L, it was rechecked twice within 6 mo. Those with ≥ 2 times elevation of ALT were considered as having persistently elevated ALT level.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was diagnosed based on evidence of fatty liver upon sonography and excluding other etiology.RESULTS: A total of 2049 (1351 female) patients participated in the study, 162 (7.9%) had elevated ALT level at the first measurement. Persistently elevated ALT level was detected in 64 (3.1%) participants, with 51 (79.6%) with no obvious etiology, six (9.3%) with Hepatitis B, four (6.2%) with Hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection and three (4.6%) with alcoholic hepatitis.The prevalence of NAFLD and alcoholic hepatitis was 2.04% (42 patients) and 0.1% (three), respectively.There was correlation between NAFLD and male gender,overweight, diabetes and living in an urban area [odds ratio = 3.03 (95% CI: 1.6-5.72), 4.21 (95% CI:1.83-9.68), 2.86 (95% CI: 1.05-7.79) and 2.04 (95% CI:1.00-4.16) respectively].CONCLUSION: NAFLD is the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT level among the general population of Iran.

  12. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sundqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  13. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  14. Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia Influences Cortical Gyrification in 2 Independent General Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cui, Yue; Qin, Wen; Tao, Yan; Li, Jin; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia is highly heritable, whereas the effect of each genetic variant is very weak. Since clinical heterogeneity and complexity of schizophrenia is high, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic variants to underlying neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia (endophenotypes). Given the polygenic nature of schizophrenia, our goal was to form a measure of additive genetic risk and explore its relationship to cortical morphology. Utilizing the data from a recent genome-wide association study that included nearly 37 000 cases of schizophrenia, we computed a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each subject in 2 independent and healthy general populations. We then investigated the effect of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification calculated from 3.0T structural imaging data in the discovery dataset (N = 315) and replication dataset (N = 357). We found a consistent effect of the polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification in the inferior parietal lobules in 2 independent general-population samples. A higher PGRS was significantly associated with a lower local gyrification index in the bilateral inferior parietal lobles, where case-control differences have been reported in previous studies on schizophrenia. Our findings strongly support the effectiveness of both PGRSs and endophenotypes in establishing the genetic architecture of psychiatry. Our findings may provide some implications regarding individual differences in the genetic risk for schizophrenia to cortical morphology and brain development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for resistant hypertension in elderly subjects from general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alberto; Lenti, Salvatore; Schiavon, Laura; Del Monte, Alvise; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rubello, Domenico; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    Objective In clinical practice, patient characteristics predicting resistant hypertension (RH) include higher blood pressure levels, left ventricular hypertrophy, older age, obesity, chronic kidney disease and diabetes. On the contrary little is known about the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for RH in subjects from general population. Material and methods 580 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years were enrolled in the Risk Of Vascular complications Impact of Genetics in Old people (ROVIGO) study. RH was defined as the failure to maintain blood pressure values below 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90 mmHg (diastolic) despite therapeutic interventions that include appropriate lifestyle measures plus adherence to treatment with full doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. RH was confirmed using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Hyperuricemic was defined as the subjects having SUA ≥6.8 mg/dl or taking uricosuric drugs. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) for RH was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of RH was 5.7% in the cohort and was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (3.0%, p hypertension in women (odds ratio 3.11, 95% confidence intervals 1.06–9.1, p = 0.03) but not in men. Conclusions In elderly women from the general population, an SUA value of ≥6.8 mg/dl triples the risk of RH. SUA assessment should be recommended to better define the pattern of risk associated with RH. PMID:28027534

  16. A new method to study knowledge, attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS in Iranian general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Malekafzali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no study to evaluate knowledge, attitude and sexual practices regarding HIV/AIDS in Iranian general population. Therefore, we chose barber shops as a safe cultural environment since all people, regardless of their social class and age, are customers of barber shops. This method or similar ways of data gathering in general population can be applied according to social and cultural conditions in each country.

  17. TRIB1 and GCKR polymorphisms, lipid levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population.......The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population....

  18. TRIB1 and GCKR polymorphisms, lipid levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer;

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population.......The goal of this study was to test whether TRIB1-rs2954029 and GCKR-rs1260326 associate with lipid levels and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population....

  19. Effect of Qigong on quality of life: a cross-sectional population-based comparison study in Taiwan

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    Yeh Yi-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qigong, similar to Tai Chi Chuan, is beneficial to health. In Taiwan, Waitankung, a type of Qigong, is as popular as Tai Chi Chuan. This population-based comparison study compares the health-related quality of life between people practicing Waitankung and their comparable community residents. Methods A total of 165 individuals practicing Waitankung were matched by age and sex with 660 general individuals for comparison. Information about health-related quality of life, measured by the SF-36, and other basic and health conditions was obtained from the questionnaires. This study used the linear mixed-effect regression model to examine the association between health-related quality of life and the practice of Waitankung. Results Compared with either sedentary individuals or individuals practicing other types of exercise, the Waitankung group scored higher for eight and five out of ten SF-36 components, respectively. The Waitankung group scored better in general health, vitality, and physical component summary compared to individuals participating in other types of exercise, even when considering the energy expended by exercise. Conclusion The results suggest that Waitankung exercising is significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Waitankung may serve as an exercise choice for middle-aged and older people to improve overall quality of life.

  20. Decline in HIV prevalence among young men in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, 1998-2008.

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    Luc Béhanzin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, as well as in different proximal and distal factors related to HIV infection, in the general population of Cotonou between 1998 and 2008, while an intensive preventive intervention targeting the sex work milieu was ongoing. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling procedure was used to select the participants in each study. Subjects aged 15-49 who agreed to participate were interviewed and tested for HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. We used the Roa-Scott Chi-square test (proportions and the Student's t test (means for bivariate comparisons, and adjusted logistic regression models taking into account the cluster effect for multivariate analyses. RESULTS: HIV prevalence decreased significantly in men (3.4% in 1998 versus 2.0% in 2008, p = 0.048, especially in those aged 15-29 (3.0% to 0.5%, p = 0.002. Among men, the prevalence of gonorrhoea decreased significantly (1.1% to 0.3%, p = 0.046 while HSV-2 prevalence increased from 12.0% to 18.1% (p = 0.0003. The proportion of men who reported condom use at least once (29.3% to 61.0%, p<0.0001 and of those having attained a secondary educational level or more (17.1% to 61.3%, p<0.0001 also increased significantly. There was an overall decrease in the prevalence of syphilis (1.5% to 0.6%, p = 0.0003. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study reporting a significant decline in HIV prevalence among young men in an African setting where overall prevalence has never reached 5%. The decline occurred while preventive interventions targeting the sex work milieu were ongoing and the educational level was increasing.

  1. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study

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    Anne-Dorthe Feldthusen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  2. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity: The Danish General Suburban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob; Toft Kristensen, Tina; Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.

  3. A Walk-In Screening of Dementia in the General Population in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC, Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8 that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9±1.3, mean age being 69.4±10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged.

  4. Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that psychotic symptoms, or psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), are reported not only by psychosis patients but also by healthy members of the general population. Healthy individuals who report these symptoms are considered to represent a non-clinical psychosis phenotype, and have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Converging research now shows that this non-clinical psychosis phenotype is familial, heritable and covaries with familial schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A review of the research also shows that the non-clinical phenotype is associated extensively with schizophrenia-related risk factors, including social, environmental, substance use, obstetric, developmental, anatomical, motor, cognitive, linguistic, intellectual and psychopathological risk factors. The criterion and construct validity of the non-clinical psychosis phenotype with schizophrenia demonstrates that it is a valid population in which to study the aetiology of psychosis. Furthermore, it suggests shared genetic variation between the clinical and non-clinical phenotypes. Much remains to be learned about psychosis by broadening the scope of research to include the non-clinical psychosis phenotype.

  5. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Cross-sectional study. General population sample. There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and MS, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yutaka; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Doi, Yasufumi; Kubo, Michiaki; Iida, Mitsuo; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in men and women in the recent general Japanese population, we examined coronary arteries obtained from subjects autopsied in the Hisayama cohort study (autopsy rate: 78.7%). The subjects were over 40 years of age and consisted of 125 men and 108 women. They underwent an antemortem medical examination in 1988 and were subject to autopsy at death during an 8-year follow-up period. Atherosclerosis was globally assessed by examining 14 specimens taken from wide areas of epicardial coronary arteries and classified into 6 grades. The frequency of more severe grades of coronary atherosclerosis increased with age in both genders and was greater in men than in women of the same age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and hemoglobin A(1C) were significant risk factors for men. Age, systolic blood pressure, and waist to hip ratio were risk factors for women. Smoking was not significantly correlated with the grade of coronary atherosclerosis in either gender. Thus, aging, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and glucose intolerance are risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in recent Japanese populations, and the significance of the metabolic risk factors is different between men and women.

  7. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  9. Incidence of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis (longus colli tendinitis) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gilad; Ben-Ari, Oded; Brenner, Adi; Fliss, Dan M; Wasserzug, Oshri

    2013-06-01

    To determine the incidence of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis (longus colli tendinitis) in a general urban adult population. Observational study in a municipal medical center. Single tertiary referral center. All symptomatic patients with a differential diagnosis of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis underwent fiber-optic assessment, laboratory studies, and imaging studies. The main outcome measure was the incidence of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis. Thirteen patients with symptoms suggestive of retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis were evaluated in our institution between January 2008 and December 2011. Final diagnosis was made by means of a computed tomographic scan: 8 patients had retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, 1 had retropharyngeal abscess, and the remaining 4 had other deep neck infections. The mean annual crude retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis incidence was 0.50 cases per 100,000 person-years, and the standardized incidence was 1.31 for the age-matched population. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is not a rare disease and is probably underdiagnosed because symptoms are nonspecific, treating physicians are often unfamiliar with this entity, and it is a self-limiting pathology.

  10. GOLD criteria overestimate airflow limitation in one-third of cases in the general Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kainu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD diagnostic criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD use a fixed threshold of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (<0.70 in post-bronchodilation spirometry to indicate disease, which has been shown to underestimate and overestimate disease prevalence in younger and older adults, respectively, whilst criteria based on reference values have better accuracy. Differences in reference values have limited their use in international studies. However, the new Global Lung Function Initiative reference values (GLI2012 showed FEV1/FVC to be the least dependent on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of airflow limitation with GLI2012 and the degree of underdetection or overestimation related to the use of GOLD in the general population. A Finnish population sample of 1323 subjects (45% male with post-bronchodilation spirometry was studied. 80 subjects (6.0% and 55 subjects (4.2% were identified with airflow limitation with GOLD and GLI2012 criteria, respectively. The proportion of overestimation with GOLD increased with age from 25% of cases in 50-year-olds to 54% in 70-year-olds. Using z-score-based grading resulted in more dispersion in severity grading. In conclusion, the GOLD criteria cause a marked overestimation already from 50-year-olds and should be replaced with the GLI2012 criteria to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems.

  12. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Melamed, Jonathan; Dube, Emily; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Prediction of biochemical recurrence risk of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is critical for determining whether the patient would benefit from adjuvant treatments. Various nomograms exist today for identifying individuals at higher risk for recurrence; however, an optimistic under-estimation of recurrence risk is a common problem associated with these methods. We previously showed that anisotropy of light scattering measured using quantitative phase imaging, in the stromal layer adjacent to cancerous glands, is predictive of recurrence. That nested-case controlled study consisted of specimens specifically chosen such that the current prognostic methods fail. Here we report on validating the utility of optical anisotropy for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence in a general population of 192 patients, with 17% probability of recurrence. Our results show that our method can identify recurrent cases with 73% sensitivity and 72% specificity, which is comparable to that of CAPRA-S, a current state of the art method, in the same population. However, our results show that optical anisotropy outperforms CAPRA-S for patients with Gleason grades 7–10. In essence, we demonstrate that anisotropy is a better biomarker for identifying high-risk cases, while Gleason grade is better suited for selecting non-recurrence. Therefore, we propose that anisotropy and current techniques be used together to maximize prediction accuracy.

  13. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-28

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.

  14. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  15. Associations between Serum Sex Hormone Concentrations and Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haring

    Full Text Available Despite observational evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies associating sex hormones with various cardiometabolic risk factors or diseases, pathophysiological explanations are sparse to date. To reveal putative functional insights, we analyzed associations between sex hormone levels and whole blood gene expression profiles.We used data of 991 individuals from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with whole blood gene expression levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling and serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, androstenedione (AD, estradiol (E2, and estrone (E1 measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay. Associations between sex hormone concentrations and gene expression profiles were analyzed using sex-specific regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and technical covariables.In men, positive correlations were detected between AD and DDIT4 mRNA levels, as well as between SHBG and the mRNA levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B. No additional significant associations were observed.Besides the associations between AD and DDIT4 expression and SHBG and the transcript levels of RPIA, RIOK3, GYPB, BPGM, and RAB2B, the present study did not indicate any association between sex hormone concentrations and whole blood gene expression profiles in men and women from the general population.

  16. Features of developmental dyspraxia in the general speech-impaired population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, P; Rosenthal, J B; McLeod, S

    1998-01-01

    A typical clinical population with speech impairment was investigated to determine the extent of the presence of features of developmental dyspraxia and its interaction between the severity of impairment. Thirty diagnostic features of developmental dyspraxia were identified from the post-1981 literature and two scales of severity were devised. First the severity of these 30 features was measured (feature severity rating, FSR), and secondly severity of speech impairment was based on percentage of consonants correct (PCC). Using these features and severity ratings a retrospective file audit was conducted of 50 paediatric clients aged 2-8 years with impaired articulation or phonology. It was found that many characteristics regarded as diagnostic for developmental dyspraxia occur in the general speech-impaired population. The relationship between the variables was analysed, and support was found for the hypotheses that: (a) there is a relationship between the number of dyspraxic features expressed and the severity of impairment of speech production and (b) developmental dyspraxia is not characterized by severe impairment, but may occur in a range of severities from mild to severe.

  17. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  18. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR)...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder in a general intensive care population - a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Cecilie Bræin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: 1) To investigate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) in a general intensive care patient population, and risk factors for post ICU-PTSD/PTSS. 2) To investigate how instruments and loss to follow-up could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. Background: Studies have found a wide variance of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. A number of risk factors were associated with developing post-ICU ...

  20. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skjærven Rolv

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. Methods We studied all live births and stillbirths (≥ 28 weeks gestation registered in the medical birth registers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from 1995 through 2004. Gestational age was determined by best estimate. A reference population of pregnant women was designed using the following criteria: 1 maternal age 20–35, 2 primiparity, 3 spontaneously conceived pregnancy, 4 singleton pregnancy and 5 mother born in the respective country. National preterm delivery rate, preterm delivery rate in the reference population and rate of spontaneous preterm delivery in the reference population were calculated for each country. Results The total national preterm delivery rate ( Conclusion Reference populations can facilitate overview and thereby explanations for changing preterm delivery rates. The model also permits comparisons over time. This model may in its simplicity prove to be a valuable supplement to assessments of national preterm delivery rates for public health surveillance.

  1. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Clamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.

  2. Safety of iobitridol in the general population and at-risk patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); J. W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Honold, Elmar [Guerbet GmbH, Sulzbach (Germany); Wolf, Michael [Michael Wolf Information Systems, Puettlingen (Germany); Mohajeri, H.; Hammerstingl, R. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to review the rate of adverse events after contrast medium administration in the general population and at-risk patients (renal impairment, heart failure (NYHA III or IV), hypotension or hypertension, coronary artery disease, previous reaction to contrast media, asthma and/or allergies, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, poor general condition) under daily practice conditions in a post-marketing surveillance study. Two hundred and ten radiologists conducted various X-ray examinations in 52,057 patients. To document the safety of iobitridol in routine use, all patients undergoing X-ray examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were contraindications listed in the locally approved summary of product characteristics. The adverse event rate was 0.96% (at-risk patients 1.39%); the rate of serious adverse events 0.044% in all patients (at-risk patients 0.057%). Adverse events occurred more often in women than in men (P<0.001). In patients who had previously reacted to a contrast medium, adverse events were reported in 3.43% with mild to moderate symptoms. In 47.76% of these patients, a premedication was administered. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events whether premedicated or not (P=0.311 and P=0.295, respectively). Iobitridol was well-tolerated in 99.04% of cases (at-risk patients 98.61%). (orig.)

  3. Leprosy in Buriticupu, state of Maranhão: active search in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rafael da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was developed to evaluate the situation of leprosy in the general population of the municipality of Buriticupu, State of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: We used the method of active search to identify new cases from 2008 to 2010. Bacilloscopy of intradermal scrapings was performed in all patients with skin lesions compatible with leprosy, and histopathological examination in those who had doubts on the definition of the clinical form. RESULTS: The study included 19,104 individuals, with 42 patients diagnosed with leprosy after clinical examination, representing a detection rate of 219.84 per 100,000 inhabitants. The predominant clinical presentation was tuberculoid with 24 (57.1% cases, followed by borderline with 11, indeterminate with four, and lepromatous with three cases. The study also allowed the identification of 81 patients with a history of leprosy and other skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, scabies, vitiligo, and skin carcinoma. The binomial test showed that the proportion of cases in the headquarters was significantly higher than that in the villages (p = 0.04, and the generalized exact test showed that there was no association between age and clinical form (p = 0.438 and between age and gender (p = 0.083. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated detection rate defines the city as hyperendemic for leprosy; the active search for cases, as well as the organization of health services, is an important method for disease control.

  4. Cerebellar function and ischemic brain lesions in migraine patients from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Hille; Boele, Henk-Jan; Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koutstaal, Bastiaan J; Horlings, Corinne Gc; Koekkoek, Bas K; van der Geest, Jos; Smit, Albertine E; van Buchem, Mark A; Launer, Lenore J; Terwindt, Gisela M; Bloem, Bas R; Kruit, Mark C; Ferrari, Michel D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n = 111; migraine without aura n = 89; non-migraine controls n = 82; age range 43-72; 72% female) from a population-based study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p = 0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial ability (mean scaled scores p = 0.2); (iii) prism-adaptation task for limb learning (shift scores p = 0.8); (iv) eyeblink-conditioning task for learning-dependent timing (peak-time p = 0.1); and (v) body-sway test for balance capabilities (pitch velocity score under two-legs stance condition p = 0.5). Among migraine patients, those with cerebellar ischaemic lesions performed worse than those without lesions on the assembly scores of the pegboard task ( p hemiplegic migraine patients, FHM1 patients showed substantially more deficits on all primary outcomes

  5. Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Dyrbye, Lotte N; Sotile, Wayne; Satele, Daniel; West, Colin P; Sloan, Jeff; Oreskovich, Michael R

    2012-10-08

    Despite extensive data about physician burnout, to our knowledge, no national study has evaluated rates of burnout among US physicians, explored differences by specialty, or compared physicians with US workers in other fields. We conducted a national study of burnout in a large sample of US physicians from all specialty disciplines using the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and surveyed a probability-based sample of the general US population for comparison. Burnout was measured using validated instruments. Satisfaction with work-life balance was explored. Of 27 276 physicians who received an invitation to participate, 7288 (26.7%) completed surveys. When assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 45.8% of physicians reported at least 1 symptom of burnout. Substantial differences in burnout were observed by specialty, with the highest rates among physicians at the front line of care access (family medicine, general internal medicine, and emergency medicine). Compared with a probability-based sample of 3442 working US adults, physicians were more likely to have symptoms of burnout (37.9% vs 27.8%) and to be dissatisfied with work-life balance (40.2% vs 23.2%) (P bachelor's degree (OR, 0.80; P = .048), master's degree (OR, 0.71; P = .01), or professional or doctoral degree other than an MD or DO degree (OR, 0.64; P = .04) were at lower risk for burnout. Burnout is more common among physicians than among other US workers. Physicians in specialties at the front line of care access seem to be at greatest risk.

  6. Incidence of call stone in liver cirrhosis patients: comparison with genera population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jjoong; Park, Cheol Min; Park, Seung Chul; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    We investigated the incidence of gallstone detected by ultrasound in cirrhotic patients, and it was compared with that of the general population. One hundred and seventy seven patients with proven or suspected liver cirrhosis were evaluated sonographic ally to determine the presence of gallstone. We classified 177 cirrhotic patients into A,B, and C by Child classification and investigated the incidence of gallstone for each class. The control group was 363 general population with age distribution and sex-ratio similar to cirrhotic patients.Gallstone was visualized by ultrasound in 32(18.1%) of 177 cirrhotic patients. The incidence of gallstone was 13.1% in Child A, 21.0% in child B, and 20.0% in Child C cirrhotic patients. Overall incidence of gallstone was 3.9% in 363 general population. In summary, the incidence of gallstone was significantly higher in cirrhosis patients than in general population(p<0.01). The patients with moderate and severe cirrhosis showed higher incidence of gallstone than the patients with mild cirrhosis(20.5% vs 13.1%)

  7. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  8. BLOOD PRESSURE AWARENESS AMONG GENERAL POPULATION: A RURAL WEST BENGAL EXPERIENCE WITH LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Sadhukhan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was conducted with an objective to find out the awareness of self blood pressure in a rural community of West Bengal and factors associated with it. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study on self BP awareness among adults (≥18 years was carried out in a rural community of West Bengal through house to house visits. Total study subjects were1201 (Male=598; Female=603 of which 132 (11% were hypertensive. Results: Only 17.2% of all study subjects were aware of their own BP readings with no male-female difference. This awareness was significantly associated with age, education, economic status and hypertension, which remained significant, even after multiple logistic regressions. Even among hypertensives, only 38% were aware of their self BP. Nearly 67.11% of the study subjects had no knowledge about complications of hypertension. About 86.92% of the study subjects were ignorant about the life style changes required to prevent hypertension. Regarding hypertension control/treatment, 72.85% of study subjects were unaware. In general, males had better knowledge compared to females,although not always statistically significant. Conclusion: Self BP awareness among this study population was very poor even among the hypertensives leading to a high risk of cerebrovascular accidents and coronary heart diseases. Interpersonal communication in medical facilities as well as other strategies like group-discussions (general and focal, mass media and general education system can be utilized to improve the situation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 55-58

  9. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p swimmers were still more likely (p swimmers were significantly more likely (p creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  10. A traditional Sami diet score as a determinant of mortality in a general northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Maria Nilsson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the relationship between “traditional Sami” dietary pattern and mortality in a general northern Swedish population. Study design . Population-based cohort study. Methods. We examined 77,319 subjects from the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP cohort. A traditional Sami diet score was constructed by adding 1 point for intake above the median level of red meat, fatty fish, total fat, berries and boiled coffee, and 1 point for intake below the median of vegetables, bread and fibre. Hazard ratios (HR for mortality were calculated by Cox regression. Results. Increasing traditional Sami diet scores were associated with slightly elevated all-cause mortality in men [Multivariate HR per 1-point increase in score 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.07, p=0.018], but not for women [Multivariate HR 1.03 (95% CI 0.99–1.07, p=0.130]. This increased risk was approximately equally attributable to cardiovascular disease and cancer, though somewhat more apparent for cardiovascular disease mortality in men free from diabetes, hypertension and obesity at baseline [Multivariate HR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01–1.20, p=0.023]. Conclusions. A weak increased all-cause mortality was observed in men with higher traditional Sami diet scores. However, due to the complexity in defining a “traditional Sami” diet, and the limitations of our questionnaire for this purpose, the study should be considered exploratory, a first attempt to relate a “traditional Sami” dietary pattern to health endpoints. Further investigation of cohorts with more detailed information on dietary and lifestyle items relevant for traditional Sami culture is warranted.

  11. Health information regarding diabetes mellitus reduces misconceptions and underestimation of consequences in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin; Stein, K Viktoria; Rieder, Anita; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate self-assessed knowledge about diabetes mellitus, to assess determinants of health knowledge and to evaluate consequences of health knowledge on appraisal about consequences of the disease. Population-based computer-assisted web interview survey, supplemented with a paper-and-pencil survey via post. Representative sample of the general Austrian population aged 15 years and older. Men (n 1935) and women (n 2065) with and without diabetes mellitus. Some 20.5% of men and 17.7% of women with diabetes, and 46.2% of men and 36.7% of women without diabetes, rated their knowledge about diabetes mellitus to be ‘very bad’ or ‘rather bad’. Individuals with diabetes and individuals with a family member with diabetes rated their information level more often as ‘very good’ or ‘rather good’, with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.7 (1.1, 2.8) and 2.1 (1.6, 2.7), respectively, in men and 2.7 (1.5, 4.8) and 2.7 (2.1, 3.5), respectively, in women. Additional significant influencing factors on diabetes knowledge were age and educational level in both sexes, and city size in men. Independent of personal diabetes status, diabetes knowledge was associated with a lower perception of restrictions on daily life of diabetes patients and with a lower probability of underestimating health consequences of diabetes. Health knowledge is associated with fewer misconceptions and less underestimation of health consequences in individuals both with and without diabetes mellitus. Thus health information about diabetes is important on the individual level towards disease management as well as on the public health level towards disease prevention.

  12. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

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    Barbara Kuske

    Full Text Available Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population.Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015.Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration.144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%, where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3 than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4 p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001. The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02. Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%. The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124. Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40 (p = 0.008. 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting and injury type (avulsion vs tear.This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  13. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F; Pattle, Sam B; Simpson, A Hamish R W

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  14. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatsushi Yamagishi; Katsuaki Kato; Daisuke Shibuya; Shigemitsu Aida; Tooru Shimosegawa; Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Shigeyuki Kobayashi; Ken Ariizumi; Yasuhiko Abe; Katsunori Iijima; Akira Imatani; Yoshifumi Inomata

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan.METHODS:In Japan,mature adults are offered regular check-ups for the prevention of gastric cancer.A notice was sent by mail to all inhabitants aged>40 years.A total of 160983 Japanese (60774 male,100209 female;mean age 61.9 years) who underwent a stomach check up were enrolled in this study.In addition,from these 160983 subjects,we randomly selected a total of 82894(34275 male,48619 female; mean age 62.4 years)to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal pain.The respective subjects were prospectively asked to complete questionnaires concerning the symptoms of heartburn,dysphagia,and abdominal pain for a 1 mo period.RESULTS:The respective prevalences of the symptoms in males and females were:heartburn,15.8% vs 20.7%;dysphagia,5.4% vs 7.8%; and abdominal pain,6.6%vs 9.6% .Among these symptoms,heartburn was significantly high compared with the other symptoms,and the prevalence of heartburn was significantly more frequent in females than in males in the 60-89-year age group.Dysphagia was also significantly more frequent in female patients.CONCLUSION:The prevalence of typical GERD symptoms (heartburn) was high,at about 20% of the Japan population,and the frequency was especially high in females in the 60-89 year age group.

  15. The Speaking Voice in the General Population: Normative Data and Associations to Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Martin; Fuchs, Michael; Wirkner, Kerstin; Loeffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Berger, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Normative data concerning the speaking voice in the general population were gathered with the aim to establish standard values for clinical diagnostics. Associations between the speaking voice and sociodemographic factors were examined. This is a prospective cross-sectional population-based study. Speaking voice profiles were measured for 2472 (1154 male and 1318 female) participants between the ages of 40 and 79 years, using four speaking voice intensity levels: softest speaking voice (I), conversational voice (II), classroom voice (III), and shouting voice (IV). Smoking status and socioeconomic status were assessed. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression. The mean voice frequencies were 111.8 Hz for male and 161.3 Hz for female participants (I), 111.9 Hz for male and 168.5 Hz for female participants (II), 130.2 Hz for male and 198.0 Hz for female participants (III), and 175.5 Hz for male and 246.2 Hz for female participants (IV). Frequencies increased significantly with age for male but not for female participants. Sound pressure levels rose significantly with age at intensity levels I-III for both sexes, but decreased at intensity level IV. Frequencies and sound pressure levels were similar between nonsmokers and former smokers. Current smokers showed significantly lower frequencies as opposed to non- and former smokers. Speaking voice range and dynamics increased with higher socioeconomic status. The data are suitable as age-adjusted normative values for clinical measurement of the speaking voice. The mean fundamental speaking voice frequency of female participants was six to seven semitones lower than previously described. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of Sex Hormones and Anthropometry with the Speaking Voice Profile in the Adult General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lasse; Fuchs, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen; Berger, Thomas; Engel, Christoph

    2017-07-21

    There is evidence that sexual hormone concentrations and anthropometric factors influence the human voice. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent body mass index (BMI), body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are associated with the sound pressure level and the fundamental frequency of the speaking voice in a cross-sectional approach among adults in the general population. Speaking voice profiles with four different intensity levels, hormone concentrations, and anthropometric parameters were assessed for 2,381 individuals aged 40-79 years, who were randomly sampled from the population of a large city in Germany. Multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Taller body height was associated with lower frequencies. Higher body weight was associated with lower frequencies and higher sound pressure levels. The ratio of chest to abdominal circumference was associated with the sound pressure levels in males and females: participants with larger breast-to-abdomen-ratio were found to have higher sound pressure levels. Among the sexual hormones, higher concentrations of DHEA-S were associated with lower fundamental frequencies of the voice while using the normal speaking voice. In addition, bioavailable testosterone was associated with the sound pressure level of the normal speaking voice in men and the softest speaking voice in women. Our findings suggest that BMI, body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, bioavailable testosterone, and DHEA-S are associated with the speaking voice in adults. No associations between testosterone and the frequency of the speaking voice were found. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    measles virus into a pocket of susceptible persons (e.g. vaccination opponents or sceptics) may lead to large outbreaks in the general population, if the general population's vaccination coverage is below the WHO recommended level. Education on the safety of measles vaccine needs to be strengthened to increase measles vaccination coverage. Early intervention may limit spread in schools or kindergartens. Suspected measles has to be reported immediately to the local health authorities in order to allow intervention as early as possible. PMID:21676265

  18. IDOL N342S Variant, Atherosclerosis Progression and Cardiovascular Disorders in the Italian General Population.

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    Ashish Dhyani

    Full Text Available Inducible degrader of the low density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively modulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R expression. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS indicated that genetic variants in IDOL gene contributes to variation in LDL-C plasma levels and the detailed analysis of a specific locus resulted in the identification of the functional common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs9370867 (c.G1025A, p.N342S associates with increased LDL-R degradation and increased LDL-C levels. These findings, however, were not confirmed in two other independent cohorts and no data about the impact of this variant on atherosclerosis progression and cardiovascular risk are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between a functional variant in IDOL and atherosclerosis progression in an Italian general population. 1384 subjects enrolled in the PLIC study (Progression of Lesions in the Intima of Carotid were genotyped by Q-PCR allelic discrimination and the association with anthropometric parameters, plasma lipids and the carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and the impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence were investigated. The N342S variant was not associated with changes of the plasma lipid profile among GG, AG or AA carriers, including total cholesterol (249±21, 249±19 and 248±21 mg/dl respectively, LDL-C (158±25, 161±22 and 160±23 mg/dL, cIMT (0.74±0.14, 0.75±0.17 and 0.77±0.15 mm and CVD incidence. In agreement, the expression of LDLR and the uptake of LDL was similar in macrophages derived from GG and AA carriers. Taken together our findings indicate that the N342S variant does not impact plasma lipid profile and is not associated with atherosclerosis progression and CVD in the general population, suggesting that other variants in the IDOL gene might be functionally linked with cholesterol metabolism.

  19. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

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    Krenn-Lanzl Irene

    2011-06-01

    Introduction of measles virus into a pocket of susceptible persons (e.g. vaccination opponents or sceptics may lead to large outbreaks in the general population, if the general population's vaccination coverage is below the WHO recommended level. Education on the safety of measles vaccine needs to be strengthened to increase measles vaccination coverage. Early intervention may limit spread in schools or kindergartens. Suspected measles has to be reported immediately to the local health authorities in order to allow intervention as early as possible.

  20. Practical prediction model for the risk of 2-year mortality of individuals in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander; Gautam, Shiva; Brown, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to validate a prediction model and risk-stratification tool of 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population suitable for office practice use. A risk indicator (R) derived from data in the literature was based on only 6 variables: to calculate R for an individual, starting with 0, for each year of age above 60, add 0.14; for a male, add 0.9; for diabetes mellitus, add 0.7; for albuminuria > 30 mg/g of creatinine, add 0.7; for stage ≥ 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), add 0.9; for cardiovascular disease (CVD), add 1.4; or for both CKD and CVD, add 1.7. We developed a univariate logistic regression model predicting 2-year individual mortality rates. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set (1999-2004 with deaths through 2006) was used as the target for validation. These 12,515 subjects had a mean age of 48.9 ± 18.1 years, 48% males, 9.5% diabetes, 11.7% albuminuria, 6.8% CVD, 5.4% CKD, and 2.8% both CKD and CVD. Using the risk indicator R alone to predict mortality demonstrated good performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.84. Dividing subjects into low-risk (R=0-1.0), low intermediate risk (R > 1.0-3.0), high intermediate risk (R > 3.0-5.0) or high-risk (R > 5.0) categories predicted 2-year mortality rates of 0.52%, 1.44%, 5.19% and 15.24%, respectively, by the prediction model compared with actual mortality rates of 0.29%, 2.48%, 5.13% and 13.40%, respectively. We have validated a model of risk stratification using easily identified clinical characteristics to predict 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population. The model demonstrated performance adequate for its potential use for clinical practice and research decisions.

  1. PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG THE GENERAL POPULATION O F MALWA (M.P., INDIA

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    Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anemia is highly prevalent in infants, children and females of reproductive age group because of increase demand of iron and micronutrients. Studies from different geographical areas have been published from time to time regarding its prevalence in different age groups, but there are very few studies published from central India. With this background we started our study to asses prevalence of anemia in general population of malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, so that in future we can intervene early in high risk groups and prevent complications. AIMS: As very few study have been published regarding th e prevalence of Anemia in Madhya Pradesh ,our present study aims to assess the prevalence of anemia in the general population of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh . MATERIALS & METHODS : In this study, 1645 cases were selected randomly from the a ttendants of patients coming to different OPDs of Sri Aurobindo institute of medical sciences Indore, Madhya Pradesh from January 2011 to January 2012, including both sexes and from diff erent age group. Pregnant woman and elderly (>60 yr were excluded in this study. The s tudy recorded the Hemoglobin, Red cell indices, Peripheral blood smear examination and used these parameters to classify anemia morphologically. RESULTS: Out of 1645 cases selected randomly from apparently n ormal people, 740(44.98% people were found to be anemic out of them 426 (25.90% were female and 314 (19.08%were male, with a male to female ra tio of 1:1.35.Maximum cases were found to be in age group of 20-40 years 474/740(64.19%. CONCLUSION : In our study we found ORIGINAL ARTICLE Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences/ Volume 2/ Issue 1/ January 7, 2013 Pag e-47 44.98% of clinically normal subjects to be anemic t hat to more common in age group of 20- 39yr.These are productive years of life, Thus by ear ly screening, proper diagnosis we can intervene early and can prevent further anemia relat ed grave

  2. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  3. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR CMSMPR CRYSTALLIZER WITH QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN FLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A. Ring; Kumar M. Dhanasekharan; Jayanta Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    Fluent version 6.2 computational fluid dynamics environment has been enhanced with a population balance capability that operates in conjunction with its multiphase calculations to predict the particle size distribution within the flow field. The population balance is solved by the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). Fluent's prediction capabilities are tested by using a 2-dimensional analogy of a constantly stirred tank reactor with a fluid flow compartment that mixes the fluid quickly and efficiently using wall movement and has a feed stream and a product stream. The results of these Fluent simulations using QMOM population balance solver are compared to steady state analytical solutions for the population balance in a stirred tank where 1) growth, 2) aggregation, and 3) breakage, take place separately and 4)combined nucleation and growth and 5) combined nucleation, growth and aggregation take place. The results of these comparisons show that the moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage when the flow field is turbulent. With laminar flow the mixing is not ideal and as a result the steady state well mixed solutions are not accurately simulated.

  4. Comparison of palatal rugae patterns in Kodava and Malayalee populations of South India

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    Deeksha Kiran Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The palatal rugae pattern is unique to humans and may be specific to ethnic groups hence useful in population identification in forensic dentistry. The present study has been carried out to analyze the rugae pattern in two populations in and around Coorg, with objectives to analyze the palatal rugae pattern among Kodavas and Malayalees and to analyze the rugae pattern between sexes within each group. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised two population groups in Coorg namely Kodavas and Malayalees, ( n = 30 from each group, age-range of 18-30 years, equally distributed between the sexes. The rugae pattern were categorized as ′straight,′ ′wavy,′ ′curved′ ′circular′, and ′unification′. Pairwise comparison for two populations was done using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Mann-Whitney two-tailed test was used to test the difference between sexes. Results: Wavy pattern (100% was highest among Kodavas. There was a significant difference between Malayalees and Kodavas for wavy (Mean = 5.867 and 8.400 and unification patterns (Mean = 2.267and 1.000. Significant difference between sexes for straight rugae pattern (Mean, males = 2.267, females = 1.200 among Malayalees was seen. Conclusion: The differences in rugae shape between the two populations (wavy and unification patterns may be attributed to genetic factors and recent shared ancestry has probably rendered their differences to moderate levels.

  5. Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection among the general population and pregnant women in the United States

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    Dollard Sheila C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected individuals, a major source of serious complications among organ-transplant recipients, and a leading cause of hearing loss, vision loss, and mental retardation among congenitally infected children. Women infected for the first time during pregnancy are especially likely to transmit CMV to their fetuses. More children suffer serious disabilities caused by congenital CMV than by several better-known childhood maladies such as Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome Methods Using CMV seroprevalence data from the nationally representative Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated CMV incidence among the general United States population and among pregnant women. We employed catalytic models that used age-specific CMV seroprevalences as cumulative markers of past infections in order to derive estimates of three basic parameters: the force of infection, the basic reproductive rate, and the average age of infection. Our main focus was the force of infection, an instantaneous per capita rate of acquisition of infection that approximates the incidence of infection in the seronegative population. Results Among the United States population ages 12–49 the force of infection was 1.6 infections per 100 susceptible persons per year (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.4. The associated basic reproductive rate of 1.7 indicates that, on average, an infected person transmits CMV to nearly two susceptible people. The average age of CMV infection was 28.6 years. Force of infection was significantly higher among non-Hispanic Blacks (5.7 and Mexican Americans (5.1 than among non-Hispanic Whites (1.4. Force of infection was significantly higher in the low household income group (3.5 than in the middle (2.1 and upper (1.5 household income groups. Based on these CMV incidence estimates, approximately 27,000 new CMV infections occur among seronegative

  6. Prevalence and incidence of external genital warts in a sample of Italian general female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Vittori, Giorgio; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Timelli, Laura; Corsini, Dario; Fattorini, Giovanni; Mariani, Luciano

    2017-02-06

    The Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate: 1) the prevalence and the incidence of external genital warts (eGW) in a sample of women attending community outpatient clinics and 2) the total number of eGW cases in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. A prospective study was performed for a 12-month period between 2009 and 2010, among a sample of women attending community gynecological outpatient clinics located throughout Italy. Demographic data, for every woman aged 15-64 years, were collected. For women diagnosed with eGW, behavioral and clinical data were recorded. Prevalence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists; incidence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with a new diagnosis of eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists. Standardized prevalence by age was used to estimate the number of eGW cases occurring in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. In 2009-2010, 44 community gynecologists were included in the network. In one-year period, 16,410 women visited any of the participating gynecologists; 63 women were diagnosed with eGW, corresponding to a prevalence of 3.8 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.9-4.9). The incidence of eGW was 3.0 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.2-3.9). Women aged 15-24 years showed both the highest prevalence and incidence. Prevalence and incidence significantly decreased by increasing age group (p stress the effectiveness of community clinical networks in investigating STI epidemiology among women from the general population, confirm the relevance of HPV vaccination programs among adolescents, and underscore the need of promoting safe sex, implementing early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genital warts.

  7. The Peripheral Arterial disease study (PERART/ARTPER: prevalence and risk factors in the general population

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    Vicheto Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain. Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4, (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2, females 5.3% (4.6-6.0; p Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44; inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68 for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16 for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58 for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58 for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65; diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83; previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15; hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18; hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19. Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87 and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94 were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.

  8. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population.

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    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.

  9. [Establishment of knowledge, attitudes and opinions of general population about rational use of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig Soler, Rita; Perramon Colet, Meritxell; Yahni, Corinne Zara; Garcia Puig, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Identify the level of knowledge, opinions and attitudes of medicines in general population. Descriptive transversal study realised in a sample of≥18 years old public health users from primary health centres in the city of Barcelona. Sample has been chosen using a two phases sampling, stratified by district, gender and age. Questionnaire administered face-to-face. SPSSv15 used for the analysis. December 2011. 484 surveys has been done (IC 95%, α=5%). 53% were women and 21,3% had university studies. Medicine use: 81% had taken medicines in the last 3 months; average of 2,34. 80% of medicated people know what they take and its indication. 55,6% don't know active ingredient concept. Only 35% recognise the active ingredient showed in the box of the medicine (3 cases shown) and 44,5% not one. 22,7% know the meaning of security concepts contraindication, adverse effect and drug interaction. 20% ignore. This fact grows with age and reduces with high study levels. Global rational use of medicines indicator obtains 5,03 from 10: 3,42 opinion and 6,51 attitude. 70% of people think there is no rational use of medicines in general and 21,3% would promote raising awareness. Low level of knowledge and poor attitude and opinion in rational use of medicines have been shown in this study. It is necessary involve citizens and improve their basic knowledge to promote rational use of medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined effects of major depression, pain and somatic disorders on general functioning in the general adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baune, Bernhard T; Caniato, Riccardo N; Garcia-Alcaraz, Miguel A; Berger, Klaus

    2008-08-31

    This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in persons suffering from pain symptoms in various locations, both with and without comorbid somatic disorders and to analyze the single and combined effects of MDD, pain symptoms and somatic disorders on general functioning in the community. The 12-month prevalence of MDD, somatic disorders and pain symptoms, grouped according to location, were determined among 4181 participants from a community sample. Depression was assessed utilising the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Pain symptoms were self-reported by participants whereas medical diagnoses were validated by medical examinations. General functioning was evaluated utilising the established MOS-SF-36 scale. The prevalence of MDD was significantly increased for persons with pain in any location. In the absence of a somatic disorder, MDD prevalence was highest in persons with abdominal/chest pain (9.3%) and arm or leg pain (7.9%) and lowest in persons with back pain (6.2%). Mental and physical well-being were lowest for persons with both MDD and a somatic disorder, irrespective of pain locations. Increasing numbers of pain locations impaired mental and physical well-being across all groups, but the effect on mental well-being was most marked in participants with MDD and comorbid somatic disorders. The presence of pain increases risk of associated MDD. The number of pain locations experienced, rather than the specific location of pain, has the greatest impact on general functioning. Not only chronic pain, but pain of any type may be an indicator of MDD and decreased general functioning.

  11. Inflammatory biomarkers and risk of cancer in 84,000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and cancer are tightly linked. This study tests the hypothesis that an inflammatory score based on plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen and whole blood leukocyte count is associated with risk of colorectal, lung, breast and prostate cancer. A score ranging from none...... through three elevated biomarkers was constructed in 84,000 individuals from the Danish general population. During a median follow-up time of 4.8 years, 4,081 incident cancers occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident cancer. Multifactor......-adjusted HRs for colorectal cancer were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.62), 1.79 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.27) and 2.18 (95% CI, 1.67 to 2.86) for individuals with elevated levels of one, two and three inflammatory biomarkers compared to individuals with none elevated biomarkers. A similar stepwise increasing risk...

  12. Footedness is associated with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  13. A paradigm for the study of paranoia in the general population: the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Lyn; Allen-Crooks, Rhani; Stevens, Adele; Wildschut, Tim; Chadwick, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that paranoia is common in the general population. We report three studies that examined the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) as a paradigm for evaluation of non-clinical paranoia. The PDG captures three key qualities that are at the heart of paranoia--it is interpersonal, it concerns threat, and it concerns the perception of others' intentions towards the self. Study 1 (n=175) found that state paranoia was positively associated with selection of the competitive PDG choice. Study 2 (n=111) found that this association was significant only when participants believed they were playing the PDG against another person, and not when playing against a computer. This finding underscores the interpersonal nature of paranoia and the concomitant necessity of studying paranoia in interpersonal context. In Study 3 (n=152), we assessed both trait and state paranoia, and differentiated between distrust- and greed-based competition. Both trait and state paranoia were positively associated with distrust-based competition (but not with greed-based competition). Crucially, we found that the association between trait paranoia and distrust-based competition was fully mediated by state paranoia. The PDG is a promising paradigm for the study of non-clinical paranoia.

  14. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  15. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  16. Relationships between protein intake and renal function in a Japanese general population: NIPPON DATA90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Aya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered that reducing protein intake is one of important measures to delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between protein intake and renal function is still uncertain, especially in relatively healthy general population. 7404 individuals (3099 men and 4305 women) who participated in both National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and National Nutrition Survey in 1990 and were free from past history of renal diseases were included in the present study. We estimated sex-specific age- and multivariate-adjusted glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and odds ratios for the presence of CKD according to the quartiles of protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake per body weight (kg). There were significant differences in each protein intake among the age groups in both men and women. Both participants with and without CKD took more protein intake than that of each recommended level. There were positive relationships between GFR and the quartiles of each protein intake in both sexes. The odds ratios for the presence of CKD were significantly decreased in the higher quartile of protein intake in women. The higher protein intake was associated with higher GFR in both sexes and low prevalence of CKD in women. However, further studies are needed to conclude the relationships between protein intake and renal function.

  17. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Understanding support for complementary and alternative medicine in general populations: use and perceived efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Proponents of complementary and alternative medicine argue that these treatments can be used with great effect in addition to, and sometimes instead of, conventional medicine, a position which has drawn sustained opposition from those who advocate an evidence-based approach to the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Using recent survey data from the United Kingdom, this article seeks to establish a clearer understanding of the nature of the public's relationship with complementary and alternative medicine within the general population by focusing on beliefs about the perceived effectiveness of homeopathy, in addition to its reported use. Using recent data from the United Kingdom, we initially demonstrate that reported use and perceived effectiveness are far from coterminous and argue that for a proper understanding of the motivations underpinning public support of complementary and alternative medicine, consideration of both reported use and perceived effectiveness is necessary. We go on to demonstrate that although the profile of homeopathy users differs from those who support this form of medicine, neither outcome is dependent upon peoples' levels of knowledge about science. Instead, the results suggest a far greater explanatory role for need and concerns about conventional medicine.

  19. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  20. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  1. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:28005417

  2. Implications of vitamin D deficiency in lithiasic patient and in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Rodríguez, F; Gavrilov, P; Gracia-García, S; Angerri-Feu, O; Sánchez-Martín, F M; Villavicencio-Mavrich, H

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes problems in mineral metabolism but also overall health. In first place a review of the topic was carried out. Then, in order to contextualize it in lithiasic patient, a study on Vitamin D deficiency and its possible relationship with impaired PTH levels is performed. A review of topics such as metabolism, epidemiology and the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with several pathologies was performed. Besides a multivariate analysis and a correlation study between vitamin D and PTH levels was conducted in 100 lithiasic patients. We present a review of Vitamin D metabolism, receptors and functions, as well as about its valuation methodology and the treatment of its deficiency. Lithiasic patients show a higher vitamin D deficiency than general population. Vitamin D deficiency has been significantly associated with increased PTH levels. In addition, there is enough literature showing a relationship between vitamin D deficiency not only with bone disease, but also with multiple diseases. vitamin D levels should be measured in all lithiasic patients, and those with vitamin D deficiency should be treated. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  4. Cardiovascular Diseases and Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Luisa Maria Roberta; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs. PMID:25699272

  5. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia.

  6. Depressive Symptoms in a General Population: Associations with Obesity, Inflammation, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Doğan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether obesity, inflammation, or conventional risk factors are related to depressive symptoms (DeprSy in the general population. Responses to 3 questions served to assess sense of depression. Body mass index (BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP, and other epidemiologic data of participants were available. In 1940, individuals who consulted a psychiatrist in the preceding year, or felt depressed (together DeprSy, 248 were female. Logistic regressions for adjusted associations of BMI with DeprSy were not significant as was serum CRP level. Diabetes and, in men, fasting glucose concentrations were associated with DeprSy. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was robustly inversely associated with DeprSy in diverse models at ORs of 0.74 (95%CI 0.63; 0.89 independent of confounders, including antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication. The use of antidepressants could not explain the reduced BP. Women are predisposed to depression with which, not BMI and CRP, but SBP is inversely associated. Anti-inflammatory substances produced in depressed persons might explain the slightly lower BP.

  7. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors. PMID:20849578

  8. Long telomeres and cancer risk among 95 568 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2016-01-01

    Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study had the telomere length-associated genotypes rs7726159 (TERT), rs1317082 (TERC), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined, and 65 176 had telomere length measured. A total of 10 895 individuals had had a cancer diagnosis. Endpoints were any cancer and 25...... specific cancer types. We conducted Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses. The three genotypes were combined as an allele sum. RESULTS: Telomere length increased 67 base-pairs [95% confidence interval (CI) 61-74] per allele. In logistic regression models, the per-allele odds ratio (OR......) for cancer was 1.05 (95% CI 1.03-1.07) for the allele sum, 1.05 (1.02-1.09) for rs7726159, 1.05 (1.02-1.08) for rs1317082 and 1.07 (1.02-1.12) for rs2487999. In contrast, the hazard ratio for any cancer was 1.01 (1.00-1.01) per 200-base-pair increase in telomere length in multivariable adjusted observational...

  9. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Almgren, Ann [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: kchen@ucolick.org [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ≳10,000 M{sub ☉} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ∼ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ∼ 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M{sub ☉} can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 10{sup 55} erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z ≲ 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  10. Is hypersexuality dimensional? Evidence for the DSM-5 from general population and clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Hypersexual Disorder is currently being considered for inclusion in the DSM-5. To inform this process, we investigated the latent structure of the hypersexuality construct using Meehl's (1995) taxometric method. Data on sexual interests and behaviors were obtained from 2,101 general population males and females in Sweden and 716 male sex offenders from the United States. Taxometric analyses of self-report indicators of hypersexuality supported a dimensional interpretation of latent structure in both samples. These findings suggest that individual differences in hypersexuality are quantitative (matter of degree) rather than qualitative (difference in kind) in nature, at least when self-report data were used. This is another way of saying that hypersexuality is organized along a continuum of increasing sexual frequency and preoccupation, with clinical cases of hypersexuality falling at the upper end of the continuum or dimension. We conclude that the proposed inclusion of Hypersexual Disorder in the DSM-5 should acknowledge the lack of non-arbitrary breaks in the latent symptoms continuum which runs from very low to very high engagement in sexual behavior and preoccupation. The diagnostic threshold should therefore be decided from an analysis of external data on severity, comorbidity, and prognosis for individuals with sub-threshold and full diagnoses, respectively. Additionally, dimensional assessment of Hypersexual Disorder should be part of clinical diagnostic practice.

  11. Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norra Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.

  12. Seroprevalence of 34 human papillomavirus types in the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of infections with many human papillomavirus (HPV types is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time the age- and sex-dependent antibody prevalence for 29 cutaneous and five mucosal HPV types from 15 species within five phylogenetic genera (alpha, beta, gamma, mu, nu in a general population. Sera from 1,797 German adults and children (758 males and 1,039 females between 1 and 82 years (median 37 years were analysed for antibodies to the major capsid protein L1 by Luminex-based multiplex serology. The first substantial HPV antibody reactions observed already in children and young adults are those to cutaneous types of the genera nu (HPV 41 and mu (HPV 1, 63. The antibody prevalence to mucosal high-risk types, most prominently HPV 16, was elevated after puberty in women but not in men and peaked between 25 and 34 years. Antibodies to beta and gamma papillomaviruses (PV were rare in children and increased homogeneously with age, with prevalence peaks at 40 and 60 years in women and 50 and 70 years in men. Antibodies to cutaneous alpha PV showed a heterogeneous age distribution. In summary, these data suggest three major seroprevalence patterns for HPV of phylogenetically distinct genera: antibodies to mu and nu skin PV appear early in life, those to mucosal alpha PV in women after puberty, and antibodies to beta as well as to gamma skin PV accumulate later in life.

  13. Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Lasse Steen; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    in this system predict risk of atrial fibrillation. Methods and results We genotyped 9235 individuals from the Danish general population, The Copenhagen City Heart Study, for the a-20c, g-6a, T174M, and M235T polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen gene and the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene......; rare allele frequencies were 0.16, 0.40, 0.12, 0.41, and 0.49, respectively. Participants had sinus rhythm at inclusion. During 26 years of follow-up, 968 individuals developed atrial fibrillation. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation for a-20c ac and cc versus aa genotype...... were 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.3; P=0.05) and 1.5(1.1-2.1; P=0.01). Compared with double noncarriers (angiotensinogen -20aa and ACE II), double heterozygotes (ac-I/D genotype), and double homozygotes (cc-DD) had hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation of 1.2(0.9-1.6; P=0.06) and 2.4(1.4-4.1; P...

  14. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  15. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  16. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  17. Psychosomatic disorders in general practice: comparisons of treatment with flupenthixol, diazepam and sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C; Vranckx, C; Elgen, K

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients diagnosed as suffering from one of four common psychosomatic syndromes (psychogenic headache, cardiac neurosis, functional disturbance of the colon, or pruritus) were treated by two groups of general practitioners with flupenthixol or diazepam or sulpiride. Flupenthixol was compared with diazepam in 58 patients in one group of Belgian practices, and with sulpiride in 55 patients in another group of practices and assessed over a 4-week period for therapeutic response and adverse effects. Flupenthixol was given in a dosage of 0.5 to 2 mg a day, diazepam in a dosage of 2.5 to 10 mg a day and sulpiride 100 to 200 mg a day, in identical capsules. In the flupenthixol/diazepam comparison, there were 7 drop-outs (3 flupenthixol, 4 diazepam). Marked or moderate reduction in global assessment of illness occurred in both treatment groups, but there was no significant difference in the therapeutic effect of the two drugs. The incidence of side-effects was low and similar in the two groups. In the flupenthixol/sulpiride comparison, there were 10 drop-outs (7 flupenthixol, 3 sulpiride). A significant reduction in symptoms occurred in both treatment groups, but this was more rapid in the flupenthixol group. Side-effects were infrequent and mild in both groups.

  18. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2016-09-16

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  19. Statistical downscaling of general circulation model output: A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R. L.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Conway, D.; Jones, P. D.; Hewitson, B. C.; Main, J.; Wilks, D. S.

    1998-11-01

    A range of different statistical downscaling models was calibrated using both observed and general circulation model (GCM) generated daily precipitation time series and intercompared. The GCM used was the U.K. Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre's coupled ocean/atmosphere model (HadCM2) forced by combined CO2 and sulfate aerosol changes. Climate model results for 1980-1999 (present) and 2080-2099 (future) were used, for six regions across the United States. The downscaling methods compared were different weather generator techniques (the standard "WGEN" method, and a method based on spell-length durations), two different methods using grid point vorticity data as an atmospheric predictor variable (B-Circ and C-Circ), and two variations of an artificial neural network (ANN) transfer function technique using circulation data and circulation plus temperature data as predictor variables. Comparisons of results were facilitated by using standard sets of observed and GCM-derived predictor variables and by using a standard suite of diagnostic statistics. Significant differences in the level of skill were found among the downscaling methods. The weather generation techniques, which are able to fit a number of daily precipitation statistics exactly, yielded the smallest differences between observed and simulated daily precipitation. The ANN methods performed poorly because of a failure to simulate wet-day occurrence statistics adequately. Changes in precipitation between the present and future scenarios produced by the statistical downscaling methods were generally smaller than those produced directly by the GCM. Changes in daily precipitation produced by the GCM between 1980-1999 and 2080-2099 were therefore judged not to be due primarily to changes in atmospheric circulation. In the light of these results and detailed model comparisons, suggestions for future research and model refinements are presented.

  20. Overall and cause-specific mortality in HIV-positive subjects compared to the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Alejos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging non-AIDS related causes of death have been observed in HIV-positive subjects in industrialized countries. We aimed to analyze overall and cause-specific excess of mortality of HIV-positive patients compared to the general population and to assess the effect of prognostic factors. Material and Methods: We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to estimate overall and cause-specific excess of mortality in HIV-positive patients from 2004 to 2012 in the cohort of the Spanish Network of HIV Research (CoRIS, compared to Spanish general population and to assess the impact of multiple risk factors. We investigated differences between short-term and long-term risk factors effects on excess of mortality. Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations was used to deal with missing data. Results: In 9162 patients there were 363 deaths, 16.0% were non-AIDS malignancies, 10.5% liver and 0.3% cardiovascular related. Excess mortality was 1.20 deaths per 100 person years (py for all-cause mortality, 0.16 for liver, 0.10 for non-AIDS malignancies and 0.03 for cardiovascular. Short-term (first-year follow-up excess Hazard Ratio (eHR for global mortality for baseline AIDS was 4.27 (95% CI 3.06–6.01 and 1.47 (95% CI 0.95–2.27 for HCV coinfection; long-term (subsequent follow-up eHR for baseline AIDS was 0.88 (95% CI 0.58–1.35 and 4.48 (95% CI 2.71–7.42 for HCV coinfection. Lower CD4 count and higher viral load at entry, lower education, being male and over 50 years were predictors for overall excess mortality. Excess of liver mortality was higher in patients with CD4 counts at entry below 200 cells compared to those above 350 (eHR: 6.49, 95% CI 1.21–34.84 and in HCV-coinfected patients (eHR: 3.85, 95% CI 0.85– 17.37, although it was borderline significant. Patients over 50 years old (eHR: 5.55, 95%CI 2.4–12.85 and HCV coinfected (eHR: 5.81, 95% CI 2.6–13 showed a higher risk of non-AIDS malignancies mortality