WorldWideScience

Sample records for general mental ability

  1. Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We review the literature on the relation between whole brain size and general mental ability (GMA) both within and between species. Among humans, in 28 samples using brain imaging techniques, the mean brain size/GMA correlation is 0.40 (N = 1,389; p < 10−10); in 59 samples using external head size measures it is 0.20 (N = 63,405; p < 10−10). In 6 samples using the method of correlated vectors to distill g, the general factor of mental ability, the mean r is 0.63. We also describe the brain si...

  2. Time is on my side: time, general mental ability, human capital, and extrinsic career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Klinger, Ryan L; Simon, Lauren S

    2010-01-01

    The present study linked general mental ability (GMA) to extrinsic career success using a multilevel framework that included time and 3 possible time-based mediators of the GMA-career success relationship. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that over a 28-year period, GMA affected growth in 2 indicators of extrinsic career success (income and occupational prestige), such that the careers of high-GMA individuals ascended more steeply over time than those of low-GMA individuals. Part of the reason high-GMA individuals had steeper growth in extrinsic success over time was because they attained more education, completed more job training, and gravitated toward more complex jobs. GMA also moderated the degree to which within-individual variation in the mediating variables affected within-individual variation in extrinsic career success over time: Education, training, and job complexity were much more likely to translate into career success for more intelligent individuals.

  3. Similarity in General Mental Ability in Bedouin Full and Half Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A battery of "g" loaded mental ability tests was administered to 274 Bedouin children and adolescents, full and half siblings from 106 families. Results demonstrate internal validity for the tests in this cultural context and support the idea that shared family environment is a strong determinant of sibling similarity for children in the given age…

  4. Genetic influence on general mental ability increases between infancy and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, D W; DeFries, J C; Plomin, R

    Adoption studies can provide direct evidence for the independent effects of family environment and heredity that are always confounded in intact nuclear families. When children are separated from their biological mothers shortly after birth and placed nonselectively in adoptive homes, adoptive-parent/adopted-child resemblance can be ascribed to cultural transmission, whereas biological-parent/adopted-child similarities are due to heritable factors. Furthermore, a longitudinal adoption study facilitates examination of changes in these two main sources of variation during development. The Colorado Adoption Project is the first large-scale longitudinal adoption study of behavioural development and was initiated in 1975. Data were collected from biological parents of 245 adopted children, the adoptive parents and parents of 245 matched nonadopted children. The children have subsequently been tested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years of age, and at the end of their first year in primary school (average age, 7.4 years). The number of subjects tested is now adequate for analysis of data over 7 years. The results provide conclusive evidence for increasing heritable variation of general mental ability, ranging from 9% at 1 year of age to 36% at 7 years.

  5. General practitioners' self-perceived ability to recognize severity of common mental disorders: an underestimated factor in case identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs under-diagnose common mental disorders, and that training courses hardly improve this practice. The influence of GPs' self-perceived ability to recognize the severity of such disorders on these facts has not been investigated. This study explores: 1 GPs' perceived ability to recognize major depressive episode (MDE and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in their patients; 2 The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity of these disorders; and 3 If the observed ability to recognize severity is associated with their perceived ability. Methods In a cross-sectional design 40 Norwegian GPs examined 15 – 28 patients each (total N = 724. The GPs' rated their perceived ability to recognize MDE and GAD on a four-point Likert-scale. The GPs' observed ability to recognize severity was defined as the mean of the correlations between the GPs rating of Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and the diagnostic reference standards for MDE and GAD filled in by patients. Results Twenty-two GPs considered their perceived ability to recognize MDE as rather good, and the other 18 as moderate/bad. For GAD 12 GPs' perceived their ability as rather good, while 28 considered their ability to be moderate/bad. The observed ability to recognize severity concerning MDE was 0.63 and concerning GAD 0.45. There was no significant association between GPs' perceived and observed abilities to recognize MDE (p = 0.19 and GAD (p = 0.34 Conclusion This study found a discrepancy between the GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize common mental disorders. The lack of association between GPs' perceived and observed ability to recognize such disorders indicate low understanding of own recognition abilities. This might contribute to explain the low effectiveness of interventions aimed to increase GPs' abilities to recognize mental disorders.

  6. Are health and happiness the product of wisdom? The relationship of general mental ability to educational and occupational attainment, health, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Ilies, Remus; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    This study tested a structural model explaining the effects of general mental ability on economic, physical, and subjective well-being. A model was proposed that linked general mental ability to well-being using education, unhealthy behaviors (smoking and excessive drinking), occupational prestige, and health as mediating variables. The sample consisted of 398 individuals, from whom measures were collected across 4 periods. The results supported a model that includes direct and indirect (through unhealthy behaviors and occupational prestige) links from mental ability to physical well-being (i.e., health) and economic well-being. Furthermore, the results supported the relationships of economic well-being and physical well-being to subjective well-being. Overall, the study underscores the importance of general mental ability to work and nonwork outcomes, including physical, economic, and psychological well-being.

  7. No evidence that polymorphisms of brain regulator genes Microcephalin and ASPM are associated with general mental ability, head circumference or altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Vernon, Philip A; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2007-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference...

  8. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  9. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects.

  10. Utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination in predicting general intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Michael A; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether scores from 2 commonly used cognitive screening tests can help predict general intellectual functioning in older adults. Cutoff scores for determining cognitive impairment have been validated for both the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). However, less is known about how the 2 measures relate to general intellectual functioning as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). A sample of 186 older adults referred for neuropsychological assessment completed the MoCA, MMSE, and WAIS-IV. Regression equations determined how accurately the screening measures could predict the WAIS-IV Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). We also determined how predictive the MoCA and MMSE were when combined with 2 premorbid estimates of FSIQ: the Test of Premorbid Functioning (TOPF) (a reading test of phonetically irregular words) and a predicted TOPF score based on demographic variables. MoCA and MMSE both correlated moderately with WAIS-IV FSIQ. Hierarchical regression models containing the MoCA or MMSE combined with TOPF scores accounted for 58% and 49%, respectively, of the variance in obtained FSIQ. Both regression equations accurately estimated FSIQ to within 10 points in >75% of the sample. Both the MoCA and MMSE provide reasonable estimates of FSIQ. Prediction improves when these measures are combined with other estimates of FSIQ. We provide 4 equations designed to help clinicians interpret these screening measures.

  11. Is Social Categorization the Missing Link Between Weak Central Coherence and Mental State Inference Abilities in Autism? Preliminary Evidence from a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; May, Adrienne R; Talipski, Louisa A; Hall, Marnie H; Dolstra, Anita J; Gash, Tahlia B; Gunningham, Beth H

    2016-03-01

    We explore the relationship between the 'theory of mind' (ToM) and 'central coherence' difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask participants to infer the mental state of novel category members, and measure participants' autism-spectrum quotient (AQ). Results reveal a positive relationship between AQ and the degree of local/global social categorization, which in turn predicts the pattern of mental state inferences. These results provide preliminary evidence for a causal relationship between central coherence and ToM abilities. Implications with regard to ToM processes, social categorization, intervention, and the development of a unified account of autism are discussed.

  12. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  13. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ranjbar; Ali Asghar Bayani; Ali Bayani

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  14. Hierarchical Structure of Abilities: Factorial Validation of Higher Order Constructs in Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Patricia

    1981-01-01

    Thurstone's primary mental abilities (1938/1968) involving 57 tests were factor analyzed to produce a comprehensive hierarchical model. Kaiser's varimax solution for primary mental abilities served as the raw data for this study. (Author/GK)

  15. 一般心理能力(GMA)预测绩效:现状、机制及趋势%General Mental Ability Predicts Performance:The State and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英武; 于宙; 韩笑; 刘婷安胥

    2015-01-01

    General Mental Ability (GMA) is the most widely used predictor in personnel selection. Previous studies have confirmed that GMA not only directly affect the work knowledge and skills acquisition, but also indirectly affect individual job performance through learning and problem solving. Additionally, GMA has been confirmed to be the best predictor of job performance. Future research on the nature of GMA and the psychological mechanism of GMA predicting performance should draw lessons from cognitive neuroscience paradigm besides the classical testing theory; explore the brain cognitive mechanism of GMA predicting job performance; and collect further evidence of GMA’s predictive validity and generalized predictive validity in China context.%一般心理能力(General Mental Ability, GMA)是人事选拔领域应用最为普遍的预测源,百年来的研究证实, GMA不仅直接影响工作知识的获得与技能习得,还通过学习和问题解决间接影响个体的工作绩效,是工作绩效的最佳预测源。未来对GMA本质以及GMA与绩效关系的探讨,除了经典测量学视角外,还应借鉴认知神经研究范式,深入揭示GMA预测工作绩效的脑认知机制,同时进一步收集GMA的预测效度以及中国情境下的概化效度证据。

  16. The Use of "Literary Fiction" to Promote Mentalizing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.

  17. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After...

  18. Effects of mental practice on normal adult balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of mental practice on the balance abilities of normal individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group (n=15 each). Participants in both groups performed balance training in a seated position on a gym ball for 20 minutes per session, five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. Members of the experimental group also performed mental practice for 10 minutes before the balance training. After the intervention, balance measuring equipment (Good Balance, Metitur, Finland) was used to quantitatively measure balance ability. [Results] Significant post-training gains were observed in the mediolateral, index of balance function, and time variables of participants of the experimental group. [Conclusion] The application of mental practice with balance training positively affected balance ability.

  19. Why Teen Mental Ability Surges While Brain Shrinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166310.html Why Teen Mental Ability Surges While Brain Shrinks Researchers say they may have answer to ... behavior keep scaling up," he said. So while teens lose brain volume and girls have lower brain volume than ...

  20. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  1. Arithmetic after School: How Do Adults' Mental Arithmetic Abilities Evolve with Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Camilo; Fischer, Jean-Paul; Meljac, Claire

    2008-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the evolution of problem solving and general numeracy abilities during adulthood: skills that have obvious social importance. In this research, evolutions in adults' mental arithmetic skills were investigated using data from the IVQ 2004 French national survey, which tested 9,185 adults aged between 18 and…

  2. Sex Differences in Mental Abilities: "g" Masks the Dimensions on Which They Lie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical data suggest that there is at most a very small sex difference in general mental ability, but men clearly perform better on visuospatial tasks while women clearly perform better on tests of verbal usage and perceptual speed. In this study, we integrated these overall findings with predictions based on the Verbal-Perceptual-Rotation (VPR)…

  3. Executive dysfunction in schizophrenia and its association with mentalizing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, José M; García-Albea, José E

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been found impaired in important aspects of their basic and social cognition. Our aim in this study is to explore the relationship between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) deficiencies in patients that suffer the illness. Twenty-two Spanish-speaking inpatients and 22 healthy controls matched in age, sex, education, language dominance, and premorbid IQ were assessed in EF and ToM abilities. The former were assessed using 10 tasks that covered 5 cognitive dimensions and the latter using 3 different tasks. Correlation analyses were used to explore the level of association between executive and mentalizing abilities. A series of discriminant function analyses were carried out to examine the relative contribution of each executive and mentalizing task to discriminate between patients and controls. Patients showed impairments in both, executive and ToM abilities. The correlation analyses showed a virtual absence of association between EF and ToM abilities within the group of patients, and an almost opposite pattern within the healthy group. ToM performance was more accurate than executive performance to discriminate patients from controls. Although EFs and ToM deficits come into view together in schizophrenia, they appear to belong to different and relatively independent cognitive domains. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced mental rotation ability in time-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Miller, Luke E; McQuire, Marguerite; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2013-11-01

    Time-space synesthesia is a variant of sequence-space synesthesia and involves the involuntary association of months of the year with 2D and 3D spatial forms, such as arcs, circles, and ellipses. Previous studies have revealed conflicting results regarding the association between time-space synesthesia and enhanced spatial processing ability. Here, we tested 15 time-space synesthetes, and 15 non-synesthetic controls matched for age, education, and gender on standard tests of mental rotation ability, spatial working memory, and verbal working memory. Synesthetes performed better than controls on our test of mental rotation, but similarly to controls on tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Results support a dissociation between visuo-spatial imagery and spatial working memory capacity, and suggest time-space synesthesia is associated only with enhanced visuo-spatial imagery. These data are consistent with the time-space connectivity thesis that time-space synesthesia results from enhanced connectivity in the parietal lobe between regions supporting the representation of temporal sequences and those underlying visuo-spatial imagery.

  5. Influence of mental disorders on working ability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is an increasing need for evaluation of working ability due to lower level of social protection of workers and growing number of patients with mental diseases in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of mental diseases on the occurrence of disability of I and III categories in B&H during the period from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2006. Methods. This study involved 1 792 examinees with the complete loss of working ability (I disability category (n = 921. Disability category III consisted of persons with limited working ability (n = 871. The instruments of research in this multricentric and retrospective study were the forms P-6 and D-2 for the years of service in B&H, and the form IN for persons with years of service abroad and personal features questionnaire (EPQ. Results. The study included 1 494 men (78.5% and 298 women (21.5%. Univariant analysis represented very high statistical significance (p = 0.001 concerning: age (χ2 = 65.428, years of service (χ2=28.438, drinking (χ2 = 33.234, smoking (χ2=70.880, father’s education (χ2 = 58.124, migrations (χ2 = 14.874, sick leave (χ2 = 29.190, medical treatment (χ2 = 95.073 and rehabilitation (χ2 = 29.453. Multivariant analysis represented the influence on disability category I by parameters such as: years of service, sick leave, psychoticism and depression (p = 0.001. Hospital treatment and fatigation had influence on disability in both groups. Mental diseases are the leading cause in disability category I in 14.98% and in disability category III in 9.3% persons. Leading diseases in both disability categories were depression and schizophrenia followed by alcoholism, anxiety, brain organ psychosyndrome (BOPS and other diseases. Conclusion. The following parameters have highest influence on the disability category: the years of service, sick leave, psychoticism, depression, and long-lasting disease, medical treatments

  6. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  7. The Role of Home Literacy Environment, Mentalizing, Expressive Verbal Ability, and Print Exposure in Third and Fourth Graders' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Children with a rich home literacy environment generally show better reading comprehension. For children in the higher grades of primary school, this relation is thought to be indirect. We propose a model in which this relation ran via children's higher order language and cognitive skills (i.e., expressive verbal ability and mentalizing ability)…

  8. Consultations for mental problems in general practices with and without mental health nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health

  9. Consultations for mental problems in general practices with and without mental health nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health

  10. Clinical Competence: General Ability or Case-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was concluded that problem solving abilities are…

  11. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  12. Childhood Mental Ability and Lifetime Psychiatric Contact: A 66-Year Follow-Up Study of the 1932 Scottish Mental Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nicholas P.; McConville, Pauline M; Hunter, David; Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that intelligence is related to the risk of mental illness by linking childhood mental ability data to registers of psychiatric contact in a stable population of 4,199 adults in Scotland. Findings show intelligence to be an independent predictor of psychiatric contact, with each standard deviation decrease in IQ resulting in…

  13. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    , problem solving strategies, and study methods. Students with different levels of spatial ability visualize and think about anatomy in qualitatively different ways, which is reflected by the features of their mental models. Low spatial ability students thought about and used two-dimensional images from the textbook. They possessed basic two-dimensional models of anatomical structures; they placed emphasis on diagrams and drawings in their studies; and they re-read anatomical problems many times before answering. High spatial ability students thought fully in three-dimensional and imagined rotation and movement of the structures; they made use of many types of images and text as they studied and solved problems. They possessed elaborate three-dimensional models of anatomical structures which they were able to manipulate to solve problems; and they integrated diagrams, drawings, and written text in their studies. Middle spatial ability students were a mix between both low and high spatial ability students. They imagined two-dimensional images popping out of the flat paper to become more three-dimensional, but still relied on drawings and diagrams. Additionally, high spatial ability students used a higher proportion of anatomical terminology than low spatial ability or middle spatial ability students. This provides additional support to the premise that high spatial students' mental models are a complex mixture of imagistic representations and propositional representations that incorporate correct anatomical terminology. Low spatial ability students focused on the function of structures and ways to group information primarily for the purpose of recall. This supports the theory that low spatial students' mental models will be characterized by more on imagistic representations that are general in nature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Mental Time Travel Ability: Uncovering a Hidden Relationship in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, it was to explore the profiles of student teachers' mental time travel ability; second, it was to examine the relationship between student teachers' mental time travel ability and self-efficacy beliefs; and third, it was to investigate the role of self-efficacy beliefs in relationship between the past…

  15. Clinical competence : General ability or case-specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmers, Paul F.; Splinter, Ted A. W.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before the 1970s, research into the development of clinical competence was mainly focused on general problem-solving abilities. The scope of research changed when Elstein and colleagues discovered that individual ability to solve clinical problems varies considerably across cases. It was

  16. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  17. An exploration of the uncertainty relation satisfied by BP network learning ability and generalization ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zuoyong; PENG Lihong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the intrinsic relationship between the BP network learning ability and generalization ability and other influencing factors when the overfit occurs, and introduces the multiple correlation coefficient to describe the complexity of samples; it follows the calculation uncertainty principle and the minimum principle of neural network structural design, provides an analogy of the general uncertainty relation in the information transfer process, and ascertains the uncertainty relation between the training relative error of the training sample set, which reflects the network learning ability,and the test relative error of the test sample set, which represents the network generalization ability; through the simulation of BP network overfit numerical modeling test with different types of functions, it is ascertained that the overfit parameter q in the relation generally has a span of 7×10-3 to 7 × 10-2; the uncertainty relation then helps to obtain the formula for calculating the number of hidden nodes of a network with good generalization ability under the condition that multiple correlation coefficient is used to describe sample complexity and the given approximation error requirement is satisfied;the rationality of this formula is verified; this paper also points out that applying the BP network to the training process of the given sample set is the best method for stopping training that improves the generalization ability.

  18. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.

  19. Preparedness of Lithuanian general practitioners to provide mental healthcare services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Sauliune, Skirmante; Jarusevicius, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large unmet need for mental healthcare in Lithuania is partially attributable to a lack of primary care providers with skills in this area. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs) experience in mental healthcare and their perceptions about how to increase...... their involvement in the field. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 797 Lithuanian GPs in order to investigate current practices in their provision of mental healthcare as well as their suggestions for the improvement of mental healthcare services...... specialists with whom 32% of the respondents discuss the management of their patients with a mental disorder. Collaboration with psychologists and social workers was almost threefold lower (11.6% and 12.5%). Capacity-building of GPs was found to be among the most promising initiatives to improve mental health...

  20. Integration of pediatric mental health in general pediatrics in eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integration of pediatric mental health in general pediatrics in eritrea: improving ... where integration of such services within the primary health care framework has not ... and 10% had behaviour disorders predominantly attention deficit disorder.

  1. Effects of gender, imagery ability, and sports practice on the performance of a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Molinaro, Corinne; Dosseville, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is one of the main spatial abilities necessary in the spatial transformation of mental images and the manipulation of spatial parameters. Researchers have shown that mental rotation abilities differ between populations depending on several variables. This study uses a mental rotation task to investigate effects of several factors on the spatial abilities of 277 volunteers. The results demonstrate that high and low imagers performed equally well on this tasks. Athletes outperformed nonathletes regardless of their discipline, and athletes with greater expertise outperformed those with less experience. The results replicate the previously reported finding that men exhibit better spatial abilities than women. However, with high amounts of practice, the women in the current study were able to perform as well as men.

  2. Inferential reading abilities of mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C S; Tierney, R J

    1984-07-01

    The inferential operations of mildly mentally retarded students reading at the intermediate level were investigated using methods based on discourse comprehension theory. We hypothesized that problems encountered in reading by these students are related to difficulties in generating logical inferences. Mildly retarded junior-high students and nonretarded third-grade students of the same reading comprehension level read and recalled a descriptive expository and a narrative passage. On the expository passage mildly retarded students generated the same quantity of inferences as did nonretarded students, but the inferences were qualitatively inferior. On the narrative passage the differences between the two groups were not significant. These findings were discussed in relation to the cognitive functioning of mildly retarded students.

  3. Using recruiter assessments of applicants' resume information to predict applicant mental ability and big five personality dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Michael; Feild, H.S.; Giles, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    Information provided on applicants' resumes provides a convenient, cost-effective means for applicant screening. We sought to determine if recruiters' assessments of the presence of certain types of information on job applicants' resumes was related to applicants' general mental ability and personality traits. Forty recruiters from 35 organizations assessed the extent to which specified items were present on the resumes of job applicants. Results indicated relationships between recruiters' ju...

  4. Crawling is Associated with Mental Rotation Ability by 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Freitag, Claudia; Buckel, Rebecca; Lofruthe, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether 9-month-old infants' mental rotation ability was related to their crawling ability. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them crawled for 7.1 weeks on average. Infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240 degree angle around…

  5. General practitioners are bearing an increasing burden of the care of common mental disorders in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Norton

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In France, general practice is playing an increasing role in the management of common mental disorders. This is due to a variety of factors, among which the way general practice and specialised mental health services have evolved over time. Methods: A description of the status quo in France, with a comparison between France, the UK and the Netherlands. A review of reasons for the present position. Results: The general practitioner (GP is often the only medical carer to be contacted in cases of psychological distress and over 80% of psychotropic medications are prescribed in this setting. Although most common forms of mental disorder can be managed at the primary care level, GPs need to be able to refer patients rapidly to specialised mental health services. Yet there are delays for consultations with both private and public psychiatrists along with difficulties in finding beds for full-time hospitalisation. The situation is predicted to get worse with the reduction in the number of psychiatrists and GPs forecasted for the coming years. 'Psychiatric sectorisation' has led to a substantial development of community mental health care services, yet this has not compensated fully for the reduction in full-time hospital beds. Furthermore, community mental health care services remain relatively isolated from other community health services with very limited exchanges with general practice. Conclusion: GPs report an urgent need for training in mental health. Along with improving their ability to accurately detect and treat mental disorders, it is crucial also to improve communication between GPs and psychiatrists and increase shared case-management. Structural changes are also necessary to ensure a quicker and easier access to specialised mental health care services.

  6. Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

    CERN Document Server

    Malarz, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    We read newspapers and watch TV every day. There are many issues and many controversies. Since media are free, we can hear arguments from every possible side. How do we decide what is wrong or right? The first condition to accept a message is to understand it; messages that are too sophisticated are ignored. So it seems reasonable to assume that our understanding depends on our ability and our current knowledge. Here we show that the consequences of this statement are surprising and funny.

  7. High functioning individuals with schizophrenia have preserved social perception but not mentalizing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Alden, Eva C; Reilly, James L; Smith, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Social perception and mentalizing are fundamental social cognitive abilities that are related to functioning and are impaired in schizophrenia. A novel approach to examine the relationship between social cognition and community functioning is to first functionally categorize individuals with schizophrenia and then evaluate social cognitive performance. We evaluated differences in social perception and mentalizing among controls (CON, n=45), high functioning individuals with schizophrenia (HF-SCZ, n=36), and individuals with low functioning schizophrenia (LF-SCZ, n=24). Analyses revealed that HF-SCZ had preserved social perceptual abilities compared to LF-SCZ. Both schizophrenia groups had impaired mentalizing abilities compared to CON, but did not differ from each other. These results suggest that HF-SCZ and LF-SCZ are characterized by differences in the perceptual aspects of social cognition and encourage future research to evaluate the neural basis underlying this preserved ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose.

  9. The Use of “Literary Fiction” to Promote Mentalizing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people’s emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner’ s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164

  10. Group play therapy for improving mental coping ability in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n=25 and control group (n=19. All children received two tests. The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI. Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the experimental group were provided with counseling for 3 months, once every two weeks for a total of 6 times, while during this period the members of the control group had not any experimental intervention.After intervention, the two groups received posttest. Five patients dropped out, and 39 went through this research (20 in experimental group and 19 in control group. The effects of group play therapy on behavior problems and coping strategy of children with asthma were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant differences in the general information (age, sex, education, parents' marriage status and family structure and basic score of CBCL and CODI between the two groups (P > 0.05. After intervention, the scores of social problems, social withdrawal, depression, compulsive behavior, aggressive behavior and immature and total behavior problem score dropped significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. And the scores of acceptance, avoidance and emotional reaction increased significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. Conclusions Group play therapy can improve the children's confidence and interpersonal adaptability and emotion management capacity, thus correcting deviant behavior, ameliorate coping strategy, improving mental coping capability, and promote the development of mental health in children with asthma.

  11. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population : results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general

  12. The biologist as psychologist: Henry Fairfield Osborn's early mental ability investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1880s, biologist Henry Fairfield Osborn conducted some of the first questionnaire research in American psychology. This article details how he came to distribute Francis Galton's questionnaire on mental imagery in the United States, as well as how he altered it to suit his own burgeoning psychological research interests. The development and circulation of questionnaires at the very beginning of American scientific psychology, first by Osborn and later by G. Stanley Hall, is discussed in terms of the new psychology's often-overlooked methodological plurality. Further, Osborn's late nineteenth century interest in individual variation and group differences in mental imagery ability are discussed in relation to his pervasive educational and social concerns, as well as his eventual status as a prominent eugenicist in the twentieth century United States. This research into mental imagery ability foreshadows the eugenic-oriented intelligence testing that developed in the early twentieth century.

  13. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  14. Pseudoscience and Mental Ability: The Origins and Fallacies of the IQ Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jeffrey M.

    Pseudoscience, or the process of persuasion by establishing a pretense of scientific discovery, is examined in this book in an effort to dispel false notions about the validity of various measures of intelligence and the correlations of genetics to mental ability. The history and development of concepts related to hereditary intelligence and…

  15. Examining mentalizing ability in the process of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Dejko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the problem of examining ability to mentalize in the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic diagnosis process. It is proved by the research results indicating significance of mentalization in the psychosocial functioning of an individual, the relation between the level of this ability and the appearance of the specific mental disorders and problems, and its role in the treatment process. The paper describes and analyses the classic tool for studying mentalization – Reflective Functioning Scale. The present paper points to the advantages of this tool – good reliability, high criterion and theoretical validity, enabling studying complexity of a phenomenon, and introduction of non-specific therapeutic factors into the diagnostic process. The limitations of the tool are also mentioned – high cost borne by a researcher and an examined person, the complexity of the interview collection and analysis procedure and the inability of repeated application of the tool to evaluate treatment effects. The paper also presents an alternative method of studying mentalization that uses questionnaire tools. The text describes the advantages of the questionnaire in assessing a reflective function: first and foremost, its low cost and an easy repeatability of the test. The paper also shows the limitations of this tool in describing the subject phenomenon: inability to describe the complexity of the phenomenon, simplified results and low theoretical validity.

  16. Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGue, Matt; Gottesman, Irving I

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, no psychological variable has received more attention from behavioral geneticists than what has been called "general cognitive ability" (as well as "general intelligence" or "g"), and for good reason. GCA has a rich correlational network, implying that it may play an important role in multiple domains of functioning. GCA is highly correlated with various indicators of educational attainment, yet its predictive utility is not limited to academic achievement. It is also correlated with work performance, navigating the complexities of everyday life, the absence of various social pathologies (such as criminal convictions), and even health and mortality. Although the causal basis for these associations is not always known, it is nonetheless the case that research on GCA has the potential to provide insights into the origins of a wide range of important social outcomes. In this essay, our discussion of why GCA is considered a fundamentally important dimension of behavior on which humans differ is followed by a look at behavioral genetics research on CGA. We summarize behavioral genetics research that has sought to identify and quantify the total contributions of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in GCA as well as molecular genetic research that has sought to identify genetic variants that underlie inherited effects. © 2015 The Hastings Center.

  17. Cognitive Aging in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Within-Person Associations of Primary Mental Abilities with Psychomotor Speed and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Hülür

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been proposed that cognitive aging in fluid abilities is driven by age-related declines of processing speed. Although study of between-person associations generally supports this view, accumulating longitudinal between-person and within-person evidence indicates less strong associations between speed and fluid cognitive performance. Initial evidence also suggests that cognitive flexibility may explain within-person variability in cognitive performance. In the present study, we used up to nine waves of data over 56 years from a subsample of 582 participants of the Seattle Longitudinal Study to examine (a within-person associations of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility with cognitive aging in primary mental abilities (including inductive reasoning, number ability, verbal meaning, spatial orientation, and word fluency; and (b how these within-person associations change with age. In line with the processing speed theory, results revealed that within persons, primary mental abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and visualization measures were indeed associated with psychomotor speed. We also observed age-related increases in within-person couplings between primary mental abilities and psychomotor speed. While the processing speed theory focuses primarily on associations with fluid abilities, age-related increases in coupling were found for a variety of ability domains. Within-person associations between primary mental abilities and cognitive flexibility were weaker and relatively stable with age. We discuss the role of speed and flexibility for cognitive aging.

  18. [General principles of effective communication between physician and patient with selected mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Justyna; Bobińska, Kinga; Filip, Maria; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the growing frequency of mental disorders occurrence and considering the necessity of improving the patient care, it is particularly important that physicians of different specialties knew the general principles of effective communication with patients who are mentally ill. Equally important is to spread the knowledge of the symptomatology of various mental illnesses. Studies published by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology involving persons between 18 and 64 years old, show that 8 millions Poles suffers or suffered from mental disorders. This represents almost 25% of Polish society. The above data confirm, that basic knowledge of criteria for diagnosing mental disorders and their treatment by primary care physicians, determines the success of the entire health care system. It must be taken into consideration that frequently patients seeing general practitioner (GP) are suffering from more than one mental illness or it is accompanied by somatic disease. Adequate communication determines effective treatment. Simple yet exact message, ability to adapt it to patient and problems reported by him, is a valuable means in daily medical practice. It reduces the risk of iatrogenic disorder, encourages the efficiency of the entire therapeutic process. Good cooperation with the patient is also determined by patience, empathy, understanding, and competence. The aim of this study is to present the principles of effective communication between doctor and patient suffering from selected mental disorders. The article defines the concept of communication. It shows symptomatology of primary psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the most common difficulties in relationship between the doctor and the patient had been pointed. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Genetic copy number variation and general cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K MacLeod

    Full Text Available Differences in genomic structure between individuals are ubiquitous features of human genetic variation. Specific copy number variants (CNVs have been associated with susceptibility to numerous complex psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism-spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. These disorders often display co-morbidity with low intelligence. Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications are associated with these disorders, so it has been suggested that these deletions or duplications may be associated with differences in intelligence. Here we investigate associations between large (≥500kb, rare (<1% population frequency CNVs and both fluid and crystallized intelligence in community-dwelling older people. We observe no significant associations between intelligence and total CNV load. Examining individual CNV regions previously implicated in neuropsychological disorders, we find suggestive evidence that CNV regions around SHANK3 are associated with fluid intelligence as derived from a battery of cognitive tests. This is the first study to examine the effects of rare CNVs as called by multiple algorithms on cognition in a large non-clinical sample, and finds no effects of such variants on general cognitive ability.

  20. Effect of adaptive abilities on utilities, direct or mediated by mental health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vliet Vlieland Thea PM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cost-utility analyses gain in health can be measured using health state utilities. Health state utilities can be elicited from members of the public or from patients. Utilities given by patients tend to be higher than utilities given by members of the public. This difference is often suggested to be explained by adaptation, but this has not yet been investigated in patients. Here, we investigate if, besides health related quality of life (HRQL, persons' ability to adapt can explain health state utilities. Both the direct effect of persons' adaptive abilities on health state utilities and the indirect effect, where HRQL mediates the effect of ability to adapt, are examined. Methods In total 125 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis were interviewed. Participants gave valuations of their own health on a visual analogue scale (VAS and time trade-off (TTO. To estimate persons' ability to adapt, patients filled in questionnaires measuring Self-esteem, Mastery, and Optimism. Finally they completed the SF-36 measuring HRQL. Regression analyses were used to investigate the direct and mediated effect of ability to adapt on health state utilities. Results Persons' ability to adapt did not add considerably to the explanation of health state utilities above HRQL. In the TTO no additional variance was explained by adaptive abilities (Δ R2 = .00, β = .02, in the VAS a minor proportion of the variance was explained by adaptive abilities (Δ R2 = .05, β = .33. The effect of adaptation on health state utilities seems to be mediated by the mental health domain of quality of life. Conclusions Patients with stronger adaptive abilities, based on their optimism, mastery and self-esteem, may more easily enhance their mental health after being diagnosed with a chronic illness, which leads to higher health state utilities.

  1. Greater perceived ability to form vivid mental images in individuals with high compared to low BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Shamah, Daniel; Small, Dana M

    2015-08-01

    Obese individuals report more frequent food cravings than their lean counterparts. Since mental imagery plays a role in eliciting and maintaining craving we hypothesized that one's ability to image may be associated with body mass index (BMI) and account, at least in part, for the association between BMI and craving. Twenty-five participants (BMI range: 17.7 kg/m(2)-34.2 kg/m(2)) completed three measures of perceived mental imagery ability (The Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Olfactory Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Food Imagery Questionnaire), and one measure of craving (Food-Craving Inventory). As predicted, correlation analyses revealed positive associations between BMI and perceived ability to image odors and foods, but not visual objects. Olfactory imagery was singled out as the best predictor of BMI in a hierarchical regression analysis. A second experiment with 57 participants (BMI range: 19.1 kg/m(2)-38.7 kg/m(2)) then confirmed the significant positive association between BMI and perceived ability to image odors. These results raise the possibility that imagery ability may play a role in the heightened food cue reactivity observed in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mental health care as delivered by Dutch general practitioners between 2004 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van Dijk, Christel E.; Nuijen, Jasper; Verheij, Robert A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. In the field of mental health care, a major role for general practice is advocated. However, not much is known about the treatment and referral of mental health problems in general practice. This study aims at the volume and nature of treatment of mental health problems in general practic

  3. Mental health care as delivered by Dutch general practitioners between 2004 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van Dijk, Christel E.; Nuijen, Jasper; Verheij, Robert A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    Objective. In the field of mental health care, a major role for general practice is advocated. However, not much is known about the treatment and referral of mental health problems in general practice. This study aims at the volume and nature of treatment of mental health problems in general

  4. The Contribution of General Reading Ability to Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the reading ability and science achievement of students in grades 5, 8, and 9. Reading ability was assessed with four measures: word recognition, vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and comprehension (23% of all passages were on science topics). Science achievement was assessed with state…

  5. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.

  6. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, H.; Zamzam, R; Midin, M; Cohen, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours...

  7. Mental representations derived from spatial descriptions: the influence of orientation specificity and visuospatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the orientation dependence effect and the role of visuospatial abilities in mental representations derived from spatial descriptions. The analysis focused on how the orientation effect and the involvement of visuospatial abilities change when survey and route descriptions are used, and the initial and main orientation of an imaginary tour. In Experiment 1, 48 participants listened to survey or route descriptions in which information was mainly north-oriented (matching the initial heading and main direction of travel expressed in the description). In Experiment 2, 40 participants listened to route descriptions in which the initial orientation (north-oriented) was mismatched with the main direction of travel (east-oriented). Participants performed pointing task while facing north vs south (Exp. 1 and 2), and while facing east vs west (Exp. 2), as well as a map drawing task and several visuospatial measures. In both experiments, the results showed that pointing was easier while facing north than while facing south, and map drawings were arranged with a north-up orientation (with no difference between survey and route descriptions). In Experiment 2, pointing while facing east was easier than in the other pointing conditions. The results obtained with the visuospatial tasks showed that perspective-taking (PT) skill was the main predictor of the ability to imagine positions misaligned with the direction expressed in the descriptions (i.e., pointing while facing south in Experiment 1; pointing while facing north, south or west in Experiment 2). Overall, these findings indicate that mental representations derived from spatial descriptions are specifically oriented and their orientation is influenced by the main direction of travel and by the initial orientation. These mental representations, and the adoption of counter-aligned imaginary orientations, demand visuospatial skills and PT ability in particular.

  8. Development of Spatial Ability According to Mental Rotation Test at SKF and YBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács András Zsolt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Rotation Test (MRT is one of the tests to survey the spatial ability. In this article we make an attempt to measure the spatial abilities of the students of wood industrial engineering and industrial design engineering of the Simonyi Károly Faculty of Engineering, Wood Sciences and Applied Arts (SKF for short of the University of West Hungary and compare the results with the architects students of the Ybl Miklós Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering of the Szent István University. The paper aims to compare the results with respect to the scores and mainly the improvement based on new examination aspects. The article concludes that the small differences in the students’ developments of spatial ability in the two institutions can be caused by the difference in Descriptive Geometry courses

  9. A social work study on the effect of gender on mental ability and depression among institutionalized elderly versus nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the level of depression and mental ability among elderly people who live in institutional elderly versus nursing home residents. The investigation designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 345 elderly people who are residences of both places. The study implements Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS test where mental ability includes seven factors including “general information”, “orientation”, “mind control”, “logical memory” and “repeated figures”, “visual memory” and “learn association”. The study performs some statistical tests and the results show that gender has no impact on two groups of elderly people in terms of mental utilization as well as depression level when the level of significance is five percent.

  10. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  11. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  12. [The practice of the mental health in the general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 2011 a new reform bill concerning the Labor Safety and Hygiene law was presented to parliament. The bill states that all companies and businesses regardless of size are obliged to have all employees take a stress test once a year in addition to the regular health check. In September 2010 the employees fo Toho University Sakura Hospital were given this new stress. The test included categories for occupation and the various departments in the hospital. There were 40 employees found to test high for stress and to have depressive tendencies. We interviewed about 16 of these employees. One employee started to receive medicine to help reduce the stress and 4 employees received counseling only. The other 11 employees did not need to receive counseling or medicine. From April 2005 to September 2011, we conducted another study. The subjects this time were 92 employees of the hospital who have received treatment at other facilities for mental problems from occupational physicians. We categorized the subjects by sex, age occupation, length of time employed at the hospital, department and period of time from the onset of symptoms to the time they sought treatment. In this paper I will present my findings and suggestions for improving mental health care for employees of general hospital throughout Japan.

  13. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  14. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  15. The neural correlates of childhood maltreatment and the ability to understand mental states of others

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Charlotte C.; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Hauber, Kirsten; Boon, Albert; Crone, Eveline A.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Emotional abuse and emotional neglect are related to impaired interpersonal functioning. One underlying mechanism could be a developmental delay in mentalizing, the ability to understand other people’s thoughts and emotions. Objective: This study investigates the neural correlates of mentalizing and the specific relationship with emotional abuse and neglect whilst taking into account the level of sexual abuse, physical abuse and physical neglect. Method: The RMET was performed in an fMRI scanner by 46 adolescents (Age: M = 18.70, SD = 1.46) who reported a large range of emotional abuse and/or emotional neglect. CM was measured using a self-report questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Neither severity of emotional abuse nor neglect related to RMET accuracy or reaction time. The severity of sexual abuse was related to an increased activation of the left IFG during mentalization even when controlled for psychopathology and other important covariates. This increased activation was only found in a group reporting both sexual abuse and emotional maltreatment and not when reporting isolated emotional abuse or neglect or no maltreatment. Functional connectivity analysis showed that activation in the left IFG was associated with increased activation in the right insula and right STG, indicating that the IFG activation occurs in a network relevant for mentalizing. Conclusions: Being sexually abused in the context of emotional abuse and neglect is related to an increase in activation of the left IFG, which may indicate a delayed development of mirroring other people’s thoughts and emotions. Even though thoughts and emotions were correctly decoded from faces, the heightened activity of the left IFG could be an underlying mechanism for impaired interpersonal functioning when social situations are more complex or more related to maltreatment experiences. PMID:28326160

  16. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  17. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-08-12

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Integration of Pediatric Mental Health in General Pediatrics in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes the way in which his/her parents or others ... treatment of many mental disorders has been deemed ... relationships, pediatricians can and should deliver mental ... anxiety disorders, and substance use. ... Methods: prospective descriptive study on policies, practices and interventions targeted at improvement of.

  19. Case Studies of Mental Health in General practice(28)---HIV and Mood Disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiona Judd; Leon Piterman; Grant Blashki; Hui Yang

    2014-01-01

    The Journal presents the Column of Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice;with aca-demic support from Australian eXperts in general practice,psychology and psychiatry from Monash University and the University of Mel-bourne. The Columnˊs purpose is to respond to the increasing need for the development of mental health services in China. Through study and analysis of mental health cases,we hope to improve understanding of mental illnesses in Chinese primary health settings,and to build capaci-ty amongst community health professionals in managing mental illnesses and psychological problems in general practice. A patient - centred whole - person approach in general practice is the best way to maintain and improve the physical and mental health of residents. Our hope is that these case studies will lead the new wave of general practice and mental health service development both in practice and research. A num-ber of Australian eXperts from the disciplines of general practice,mental health and psychiatry will contribute to the Column. Professor Blash-ki,Professor Judd and Professor Piterman are authors of the teXt General Practice Psychiatry;the Chinese version of the book to be published in 2014. The Journal cases are helping to prepare for the translation and publication of a Chinese version of the book in China. We believe Chi-nese mental health in primary health care will reach new heights under this international cooperation.

  20. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midin Marhani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented

  1. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Sahar Amiri Baghni; Maryam Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were an...

  2. Child and adolescent mental health care in Dutch general practice: time trend analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health

  3. Health problems presented in general practice by survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: associations with mental health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, D.J. den; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health

  4. Can work ability explain the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löve Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the reasons for the social gradient in sickness absence might provide an opportunity to reduce the general rates of sickness absence. The complete explanation for this social gradient still remains unclear and there is a need for studies using randomized working population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if self-reported work ability could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. Methods The two study samples consisted of a randomized working population (n = 2,763 and a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees (n = 3,044, 19-64 years old. Both samples were drawn from the same randomized general population. Socioeconomic status was measured with occupational position and physical and mental work ability was measured with two items extracted from the work ability index. Results There was an association between lower socioeconomic status and belonging to the sick-listed sample among both women and men. In men the crude Odds ratios increased for each downwards step in socioeconomic status, OR 1.32 (95% CI 0.98-1.78, OR 1.53 (1.05-2.24, OR 2.80 (2.11-3.72, and OR 2.98 (2.27-3.90. Among women this gradient was not as pronounced. Physical work ability constituted the strongest explanatory factor explaining the total association between socioeconomic status and being sick-listed in women. However, among men, the association between skilled non-manual, OR 2.07 (1.54-2.78, and non-skilled manual, OR 2.03 (1.53-2.71 positions in relation to being sick-listed remained. The explanatory effect of mental work ability was small. Surprisingly, even in the sick-listed sample most respondents had high mental and physical work ability. Conclusions These results suggest that physical work ability may be an important key in explaining the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Hence, it is possible

  5. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  6. Context, ability, and performance: comparison of competitive athletics among mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H G; Langness, L L

    1983-03-01

    Setting demands and performance characteristics were compared for mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded basketball players similar in age, playing experience, and general skill level. Observational research was used to study organizational and interactional aspects of competitive games and to record individual and team playing statistics. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess levels of anxiety. Results show that even though the retarded adults studied were ostensibly playing under "normal" conditions, the games were demonstrably different from those played by nonretarded players in terms of physical setting, rules, coaching, and officiating. Retarded players performed under these conditions with significantly higher levels of anxiety and diminished team effectiveness. The broader consequences of competition in the lives of retarded players was examined.

  7. Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition.

  8. The Efficacy of Positive Psychology Interventions to Increase Well-Being and the Role of Mental Imagery Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odou, Natasha; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mental imagery ability (MIA) on the efficacy of two positive psychology interventions (PPIs) to enhance well-being. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned to either: Three Good Things (TGT), Best Possible Selves (BPS), or a control group and completed well-being questionnaires pre and post intervention.…

  9. Constructive Replication of the Visual-Perceptual-Image Rotation Model in Thurstone's (1941) Battery of 60 Tests of Mental Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Bouchard, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relative statistical performance of the Cattell-Horn fluid-crystallized model and the Vernon verbal-perceptual model of the structure of human intelligence in a sample of 436 adults heterogeneous for age, place of origin, and educational background who completed 42 separate tests of mental ability from three test…

  10. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  11. The Efficacy of Positive Psychology Interventions to Increase Well-Being and the Role of Mental Imagery Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odou, Natasha; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mental imagery ability (MIA) on the efficacy of two positive psychology interventions (PPIs) to enhance well-being. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned to either: Three Good Things (TGT), Best Possible Selves (BPS), or a control group and completed well-being questionnaires pre and post intervention.…

  12. Infant mental health screening in the general child health surveilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by Rasch item response analyses; the predictive validity was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The Rasch analyses showed that CIMHS had high construct validity and identified patterns of infant mental health problems without differential item function for gender, age...

  13. The course of mental health problems in children presenting with abdominal pain in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Marieke J.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvone; Passchier, Jan; Koes, Bart W.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Leuwen, Y.L.V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the course of mental health problems in children presenting to general practice with abdominal pain and to evaluate the extent to which abdominal pain characteristics during follow-up predict the presence of mental health problems at 12 months' follow-up. Design. A prospect

  14. Young People's Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health in the Context of General Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…

  15. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  16. Telemental Health Technology in Deaf and General Mental-Health Services: Access and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or…

  17. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  19. Annotation: New research into general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, R

    2009-03-01

    There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either model with research being often of a poor quality, lacking replication, and outcome measures were often inappropriate or varied between studies. This review aims assess differences in outcome for patients with ID and mental disorders treated in general or specialised ID mental health services. A literature review was conducted using electronic databases and websites of ID and mental health organisations to locate all references where people with ID receive mental health care in general psychiatric services from 2003. No meta-analysis was attempted because of the divergent nature of the studies. People with ID (especially severe ID) have reduced access to general psychiatric services. General psychiatric inpatient care is unpopular especially with carers but can be improved by providing specially trained staff and in-reach from community ID teams. Opportunities may exist to enhance the care of people with borderline intellectual functioning within general psychiatric services. Although no new randomised controlled trials have been published, the weight of research is accumulating to suggest that provision of general psychiatric services without extra help is not sufficient to meet the needs of people with ID.

  20. Facial affect perception and mentalizing abilities in female patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberg, M; Mares, L; Smolka, R; Jusyte, A; Zipfel, S; Hautzinger, M

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a robust link between alexithymic traits and somatic complaints in patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders, while less is known about disease-related impairments in the processing of affective social information. Deficits in emotion recognition can lead to misinterpretations of social signals and induce distress in interpersonal interactions. This, in turn, might contribute to somatoform symptomatology in affected individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate basal facial affect recognition as well as higher-order cognitive mind-reading skills in order to further clarify the association between alexithymia and the processing of social affective information in a homogenous sample of patients suffering from somatoform pain. We employed a series of animated morph clips that gradually displayed the onset and development of the six basic emotional expressions to investigate facial affect perception in a female sample of patients diagnosed with persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) and matched healthy controls. In addition, all participants were presented with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition to explore mind-reading abilities. Specifically impaired mentalizing skills and increased alexithymic traits were observed in PSPD, while emotional facial expression recognition appeared to be intact in these patients. PSPD subjects tend to overattribute inappropriate affective states to others, which could be the consequence of the inability to adequately experience and express their own emotional reactions. This cognitive bias might lead to the experience of poor psychosocial functioning and has the potential to negatively impact the course and outcome of this psychopathology. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  1. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  2. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities.

  3. Collaboration between general practitioners and mental health care professionals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavet Ole R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between general practice and mental health care has been recognised as necessary to provide good quality healthcare services to people with mental health problems. Several studies indicate that collaboration often is poor, with the result that patient' needs for coordinated services are not sufficiently met, and that resources are inefficiently used. An increasing number of mental health care workers should improve mental health services, but may complicate collaboration and coordination between mental health workers and other professionals in the treatment chain. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate strengths and weaknesses in today's collaboration, and to suggest improvements in the interaction between General Practitioners (GPs and specialised mental health service. Methods This paper presents a qualitative focus group study with data drawn from six groups and eight group sessions with 28 health professionals (10 GPs, 12 nurses, and 6 physicians doing post-doctoral training in psychiatry, all working in the same region and assumed to make professional contact with each other. Results GPs and mental health professionals shared each others expressions of strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement in today's collaboration. Strengths in today's collaboration were related to common consultations between GPs and mental health professionals, and when GPs were able to receive advice about diagnostic treatment dilemmas. Weaknesses were related to the GPs' possibility to meet mental health professionals, and lack of mutual knowledge in mental health services. The results describe experiences and importance of interpersonal knowledge, mutual accessibility and familiarity with existing systems and resources. There is an agreement between GPs and mental health professionals that services will improve with shared knowledge about patients through systematic collaborative services, direct cell

  4. How Crawling and Manual Object Exploration are Related to the Mental Rotation Abilities of 9-Month-Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gudrun eSchwarzer; Claudia eFreitag; Nina eSchum

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating th...

  5. Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple studies have noted the positive effect of fasting on mental health improvement. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this analytical research, one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the evaluation of 110 residents of Kermanshah city. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ with four subscales was utilized in order to assess the subjects’ mental health. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and paired t-test. Results: There was a significant difference between pre- and post-test results in terms of general health score (t= 3.138, P= 0.002, i.e., fasting could increase the population’s general health. There was a significant positive relationship between fasting and four subscales of general health including somatic symptoms (t=2.138, P=0.035, insomnia/anxiety (t=2.587, P=0.011, and social dysfunction (t=2.627, P=0.010. However, fasting had no significant effect on severe depression and suicidal tendencies (t=1.700, P=0.092. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that fasting has a positive effect on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah. Thus, more attention should be paid to fasting and its impact on people’s mental health.

  6. The domain-specific and domain-general relationships of visuospatial working memory to reasoning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Yonehiro, Jade

    2016-10-01

    The degree to which visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is separable from working memory in general is an open question. On one hand, the construct is often researched as a unitary, domain-specific system. On the other, there is evidence that VWSM shares a common processing component with verbal memory. One might interpret this shared component as domain-general attention. We used confirmatory factor analysis to demonstrate that VSWM shares a domain-general component with verbal memory tasks and has a domain-specific component that is independent of verbal memory. Furthermore, the domain-general component was found to correlate with reasoning ability in both the visuospatial and verbal domains. The domain-specific component only correlated with reasoning ability when the tests had a strong visuospatial component. We argue that theories of VSWM need to place greater emphasis on its multiply determined nature.

  7. Age-Related Declines in General Cognitive Abilities of Balb/C Mice and General Activity Are Associated with Disparities in Working Memory, Body Weight, and General Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D.; Grossman, Henya; Light, Kenneth; Townsend, David; Kolata, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A defining characteristic of age-related cognitive decline is a deficit in general cognitive performance. Here we use a testing and analysis regimen that allows us to characterize the general learning abilities of young (3-5 mo old) and aged (19-21 mo old) male and female Balb/C mice. Animals' performance was assessed on a battery of seven diverse…

  8. [General systems theory, a mental frame for geriatric psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, A C

    1984-12-01

    Though psychogeriatrics is becoming a word of common usage, it is not a word of common meaning. This is a consequence of the lack of a generally accepted theoretical model regarding the complex and multiple pathology of the psychiatric disturbances of older people. On epistemological grounds the author stresses the necessity of a common theoretical concept and as such introduces the General System Theory. The systems approach then shows that the word 'psychogeriatrics' is rooted in a reductionistic concept of man. In order to avoid this the author prefers 'psychiatry of old age' to cover the broad field of the psychiatric disturbances of the elderly.

  9. Correlation Between Critical Thinking Disposition and Mental Self-Supporting Ability in Nursing Undergraduates: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Defang; Luo, Yang; Liao, Xinyu

    2017-02-01

    There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a convenience sample from four nursing schools. Four hundred six Chinese nursing undergraduates completed two questionnaires including (a) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (Chinese version) and (b) the Mental Self-Supporting Questionnaire for University Students. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between these two variables and the predicted positive psychological qualities for the critical thinking disposition of participants. Average participant scores for critical thinking disposition and mental self-supporting were 280.91 ± 28.43 and 76.40 ± 8.47, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between these two variables (r = .583, p thinking disposition (R = .435, p thinking and mental self-supporting abilities.The four factors that had a major influence on critical thinking disposition included self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility. Nursing educators should focus on improving the critical thinking ability of their students in these four aspects.

  10. The general practitioner and mental health problems: challenges and strategies for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinarte Alexandre Ballester

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Within the context of primary health care and mental disorders, our aim was to study the opinions of general practitioners regarding attendance of people with mental health problems. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative focal group study among primary care services in the cities of Porto Alegre and Parobé, State of Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: A deliberately selected sample of 41 general practitioners who were working in basic health services met in focal groups. Two videos were presented, which simulated consultations for patients with depression and psychoses. The discussions about the identification and handling of mental health problems were recorded and assessed via content analysis. RESULTS: The opinions related to the difficulties of diagnosing and treating mental problems, the involvement of relatives in caring for patients, the difficulty of compliance with the treatment, the uncertainty experienced by physicians and the difficulty of referring patients to specialized services. CONCLUSIONS: The general practitioners indicated that they perceived the mental health problems among their clientele, but the diagnosis and treatment of these problems are still seen as a task for specialists. The challenge of continuing education on mental health requires methods of interactive and critical teaching, such as the problem-based approach.

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Utility Scores in People with Mental Disorders: A Comparison with the Non-Mentally Ill General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Prigent

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of comparable health-related quality of life (HRQoL and utility data across all mental disorders and all inpatient and outpatient settings. Our objective was to investigate the HRQoL and utility scores of people with mental disorders in France, treated in outpatient and inpatient settings, and to identify the HRQoL and utility score losses attributable to mental disorders compared to the non-mentally ill general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess HRQoL (SF-12 and utility scores of patients with mental disorders and followed in four psychiatric sectors in France. Scores were described by demographic and clinical characteristics and were then adjusted on age and gender and compared with those of the non-mentally ill general population. Median HRQoL and utility scores were significantly lower in patients with mental disorders than in the non-mentally ill general population; median differences amounted to 5.4 for the HRQoL physical score, to 11.8 for the HRQoL mental score and to 0.125 for the utility score. Our findings underscore the negative impact of mental disorders on HRQoL in France and provide a baseline to assess the global impact of current and future organizational changes in the mental health care system.

  12. An Investigation of the General Abilities Index in a Group of Diagnostically Mixed Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; DeLisle, Michelle M.; Parker, Kevin C. H.

    2008-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) was compared with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) from the WAIS-III in data obtained from 381 adults assessed for reported learning or attention problems between 1998 and 2005. Not only did clients with more neurocognitively based disorders (i.e.,…

  13. Teachers' Ability to Identify and Explain Students' Actions in Near and Far Figural Pattern Generalization Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih Raif; Jurdak, Murad Eid

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore middle school in-service mathematics teachers' ability (1) to identify and explain students' actions in pattern generalization and (2) to account for the variation in teachers' explanations of students' actions in terms of task and teachers' factors. Two questionnaires were developed: (1) a questionnaire to…

  14. A Longitudinal Twin Study of General Cognitive Ability over Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Liu, Weijian; McKenzie, Ruth; Bluestone, Noah J.; Grant, Michael D.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero P.; Toomey, Rosemary; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kremen, William S.; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of general cognitive ability (GCA), as well as heterogeneity and genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in change. We investigated GCA from young adulthood through late midlife in 1,288 Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging participants at ages ~20, ~56, and ~62 years.…

  15. Overweight and obesity are progressively associated with lower work ability in the general working population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with many diseases and functional limitations. Workplaces are not always designed to accommodate this challenge. This study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and work ability in the general working population. METHODS: Currently employed wage...

  16. [Relationship Between General Cognitive Abilities and School Achievement: The Mediation Role of Learning Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H M; Rücker, S; Büttner, P; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    General cognitive abilities are still considered as the most important predictor of school achievement and success. Whether the high correlation (r=0.50) can be explained by other variables has not yet been studied. Learning behavior can be discussed as one factor that influences the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school achievement. This study examined the relationship between intelligence, school achievement and learning behavior. Mediator analyses were conducted to check whether learning behavior would mediate the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school grades in mathematics and German. Statistical analyses confirmed that the relationship between general cognitive abilities and school achievement was fully mediated by learning behavior for German, whereas intelligence seemed to be the only predictor for achievement in mathematics. These results could be confirmed by non-parametric bootstrapping procedures. RESULTS indicate that special training of learning behavior may have a positive impact on school success, even for children and adolescents with low IQ. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Training General Practitioners to Detect Probable Mental Disorders in Young People During Health Risk Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Otjes, Christiaan P; Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Thuraisingam, Sharmala; English, Dallas R; Haller, Dagmar M; Sanci, Lena A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether a training intervention increases general practitioners' (GPs) detection sensitivity for probable mental disorders in young people. Forty general practices were randomized to an intervention (29 GPs) or comparison arm (49 GPs). Intervention GPs participated in 9 hours of interactive training on youth-friendly care, psychosocial health risk screening, and responding to risk-taking behavior with motivational interviewing approaches, followed by practice visits assisting with integration of screening processes and tools. Youth aged 14-24 years attending GPs underwent a computer-assisted telephone interview about their consultation and psychosocial health risks. Having a "probable mental disorder" was defined as either scoring high on Kessler's scale of psychological distress (K10) or self-perceived mental illness. Other definitions tested were high K10; self-perceived mental illness; and high K10 and self-perceived mental illness. Psychosocial health risk screening rates, detection sensitivity, and other accuracy parameters (specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value) were estimated. GPs' detection sensitivity improved after the intervention if having probable mental disorder was defined as high K10 score and self-perceived mental illness (odds ratio: 2.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-6.42). There was no significant difference in sensitivity of GPs' detection for our preferred definition, high K10 or self-perceived mental illness (.37 in both; odds ratio: .93; 95% confidence interval: .47-1.83), and detection accuracy was comparable (specificity: .84 vs. .87, positive predictive values: .54 vs. .60, and negative predictive values: .72 vs. .72). Improving recognition of mental disorder among young people attending primary care is likely to require a multifaceted approach targeting young people and GPs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. The Influence of Mathematical Ability and Morning Nutrition on Mental Arithmetic in Preadolescents: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of eating or skipping breakfast on ERP correlates of mental arithmetic were studied in preadolescents differing in experience (age) and mathematical skills. Participants, randomly assigned to treatment [eat (B) or skip (SB) breakfast (each, n = 41)], were sub-grouped by age [8.8 yrs (B: ...

  19. Mental function and morbidity after acute hip surgery during spinal and general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, D; Adelhøj, B; Petring, O U; Pederson, N O; Busch, P; Kalhke, P

    1985-07-01

    Forty elderly patients (mean age 78.9 years) undergoing acute surgery for hip fracture were given at random either spinal analgesia with bupivacaine 0.75% or general anaesthesia with diazepam, fentanly and N2O/O2. Mental function was studied pre-operatively with an abbreviated mental test and 1 week and 3 months postoperatively in both groups. Mortality and number of complications was similar in the two groups, but a shorter time of ambulation was seen in the spinal group compared to the general anaesthetic group. No persistent impairment in mental function was found after acute hip surgery under spinal or general anaesthesia and the only advantage of regional technique was a shorter time of ambulation.

  20. Effect of Musical Expertise on Visuospatial Abilities: Evidence from Reaction Times and Mental Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, Renaud; Dufour, Andre; Despres, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the relationship between music and nonmusical cognitive abilities has been highly debated. It has been documented that formal music training would improve verbal, mathematical or visuospatial performance in children. In the experiments described here, we tested if visual perception and imagery abilities were enhanced in adult musicians…

  1. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eriksen Benros

    Full Text Available Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population.Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.00 and with a standard deviation (SD of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression.Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD. The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P<0.001 and by the severity of infection measured by days of admission (P<0.001. The number of infections were associated with decreased cognitive ability in a dose-response relationship, and highest mean differences were found for ≥10 hospital contacts for infections (Mean: -5.54; 95%CI: -7.20 to -3.89; corresponding to 0.37 SD, and for ≥5 different types of infections (Mean: -9.44; 95%CI: -13.2 to -5.69; corresponding to 0.63 SD. Hospital contacts with infections had occurred in 35% of the individuals prior to conscription.Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were observed. Infections or related immune responses might directly affect the cognitive ability; however, associated heritable and environmental factors might also account for the lowered cognitive

  2. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Rising; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population. Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.00 and with a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression. Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P<0.001) and by the severity of infection measured by days of admission (P<0.001). The number of infections were associated with decreased cognitive ability in a dose-response relationship, and highest mean differences were found for ≥10 hospital contacts for infections (Mean: -5.54; 95%CI: -7.20 to -3.89; corresponding to 0.37 SD), and for ≥5 different types of infections (Mean: -9.44; 95%CI: -13.2 to -5.69; corresponding to 0.63 SD). Hospital contacts with infections had occurred in 35% of the individuals prior to conscription. Independent of a wide range of possible confounders, significant associations between infections and cognitive ability were observed. Infections or related immune responses might directly affect the cognitive ability; however, associated heritable and environmental factors might also account for the lowered cognitive ability.

  3. Comparing neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population: research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Metraux, Stephen; Salzer, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health emphasizes the importance of assessing the impact of environmental factors on functioning and disability. Drawing on this emphasis, this study used a set of objective measures to compare the characteristics of neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population. It also examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. The sample comprised 15,246 adults who were treated for serious mental illness in Philadelphia between 1997 and 2000. Principal-components analysis of 22 neighborhood characteristics resulted in an ideal-factor solution of six components. The mean values of each component in neighborhoods of persons with serious mental illness were compared with values in an equally sized group of neighborhoods created by randomly generated addresses representative of the city's general population. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to assess the association between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. Neighborhoods in which adults with serious mental illness resided had higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, drug-related activity, and crime than comparison neighborhoods. Higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, crime, drug-related activity, social instability, and social isolation were associated with higher concentration of persons with serious mental illness in the neighborhood's adult population. The differences in neighborhood characteristics identified in this study point to factors that merit closer attention as potential barriers or facilitators in the functioning, participation, and community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

  4. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  5. Cerebral specialization. [greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes by one cerebral hemisphere over another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robin D.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes in one cerebral hemisphere rather than the other is referred to as 'cerebral lateralization'. The experimental paradigm for lateralization research involves the study of patients with one damaged hemisphere, which prevents their performance of a certain task or function; this approach, however, presents many difficulties in extrapolating to brain function in normal patients. Attention is presently given to gender differences in lateralization, cerebral asymmetries in other species, and the evolutionary bases of hemispheric specialization.

  6. Interconnection of Theoretical Thinking Development and General Intellectual Abilities in Gifted Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov S.S.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the development of the theoretical foundations of the way of thinking in gifted primary school students and its relationship with intellectual ability. We provide the analysis of connection of theoretical thinking development and general intellectual abilities during studying in primary school in gifted students. We assume that the result of solving problems in theoretical thought is linked with the level of intelligence in gifted children. Based on the results of this study, we obtained an idea of the extent to which theoretical thinking diagnostic techniques can be used to identify gifted students in elementary school. Analysis of the study results also showed that the results obtained by the methods of diagnosis of the theoretical level of thinking can be the basis for the implementation of the indicative forecast of the intellectual abilities of gifted students in the next few years.

  7. Working memory capacity and mental rotation: evidence for a domain-general view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L; Fernandez-Rey, Jose

    2012-11-01

    Despite the existence of numerous studies that examined the relationship between working memory capacity and performance in complex cognitive tasks, it remains unclear whether this capacity is domain specific or domain general. In addition, the available empirical evidence is somewhat contradictory. In this work we have studied the role of verbal working memory capacity in a non-verbal task--mental image rotation. If this capacity were domain specific it would be expected that high and low verbal span participants would obtain similar results in the mental rotation task. We have found that this is not the case as the high span participants performed better in terms of both speed and accuracy. Moreover, these differences depended on the processing component of the mental rotation task: the higher the processing requirements the higher the differences as a function of the working memory capacity. Therefore, the evidence presented here supports the domain general hypothesis.

  8. The impact of development o f the special coordination abilities on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Gaber Radwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicates each of Muhama d Allawi (2002, Essam Abdul Khaliq (2003, and Walf Droge (2002 that the coordination abilities are closely related to the development of technical motor skills, and that pra ctitioner athletic activity which determines the quality of this abilities should be developed, where the player can not master the technical skills in the special activity in case lack of special coordination abilities for this activity. Both Manf red Must er (1986, Jürgen Schmicker (2000, Wolfgang and others (2000 and Wohlgefahrt, Karlheinz (2004 refers that the special coordination abilities for table tennis include each of: 1 - The motor adaptation and adjustment ability, 2 - The ability to differentiat e , 3 - reaction speed ability, 4 - orientation ability, 5 - balance ability, 6 - coupling ability, 7 - The ability to sense the rhythm. The aim of this study is design training program to development the special coordination abilities of table tennis and identi fies the impact of this program on the general skill ability for table tennis juniors under 12 years old. The researcher used the experimental method into two groups one experimental and the other control group the strength of each of them is 8 of table te nnis juniors in Ismailia city in Egypt. The duration of the program is three months, three training units a week the duration of each training unit is 90 minutes. The most important results of this study was the training program led to improvement the spec ial coordination abilities of table tennis for the experimental group, which led to high level of the general skill ability in table tennis for the experimental group more than the control group .

  9. General versus executive cognitive ability in pupils with ADHD and with milder attention problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek U

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Ek,1 Joakim Westerlund,2 Elisabeth Fernell31Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 3Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to analyze two main types of cognitive domains in school children with different types and severities of attention-related problems. The cognitive domains examined were general cognitive ability and executive abilities.Methods: Three different clinical samples of pupils with school problems were analyzed to assess their cognitive Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children profiles. In particular, the general cognitive ability index and the executive markers (ie, verbal memory index and processing speed index were of interest. Of the total sample (n = 198, two main groups were contrasted; one met the full criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD, and one was comprised of those with milder attention problems, insufficient to meet the criteria for ADHD/subthreshold ADHD.Results: It could be demonstrated that both groups had a significantly higher score on the general cognitive ability index than on measures of working memory and processing speed. This difference was more pronounced for boys.Conclusion: These types of cognitive differences need to be considered in children with different kinds of learning, behavior, and attention problems; this is also true for children presenting with an average general intelligence quotient and with milder attention problems. Current educational expectations are demanding for children with mild difficulties, and such cognitive information will add to the understanding of the child's learning problems, hopefully leading to a better adapted education than that conventionally available.Keywords: working memory, processing speed, children, learning and

  10. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie eRuffing; F.- Sophie eWach; Frank M. eSpinath; Roland eBrünken; Julia eKarbach

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by ...

  11. The mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability, literacy attainment and 'resilience' of 'looked after children': a multidimensional, multiple-rater population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Existing research studies suggest that children who are looked after by the State experience high levels of mental health difficulties and underachieve in many other domains. Few studies, however, aim to reflect the heterogeneity of these children and those who are performing well may be under-represented in the findings. This study aims to provide a more representative picture, offering novel data on resilience. A multidimensional, multiple-rater population-based study of looked after children. The entire population of looked after children aged 7-15 years (n = 193) in one local authority was assessed in core domains; mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability and literacy attainment. Measures included the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire, Emotional Literacy Assessment and Intervention Inventory, and the British Ability Scales. The children's data were compared with general population norms and existing research studies. The incidence of resilience, defined by the fulfilment of positive exception criteria, was recorded. Children fulfilling positive exception criteria were then compared to the remaining children on key factors. The looked after children performed less well in all domains compared with general population norms. Sixteen per cent of children met the positive exception criteria. Positive performance on individual measures varied from 34% to 76%. A statistically significant association was found between positive exception classification and two factors; parental contact and mainstream schooling. In general terms, this study supports the findings of previous research studies. However, evidence of positive exceptions across and within all domains cautions against overgeneralization of findings. The findings also implicate parental contact and mainstream education in the promotion of resilience. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  13. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRuffing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modelling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students’ academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age=21.2 years, SD=3.2. Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10% over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  14. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, C M A; Wright, M J; Luciano, M; Martin, N G; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D I; Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Corley, R P; Defries, J C; Hewitt, J K; Olson, R K; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, S J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Thompson, L A; Hart, S A; Petrill, S A; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

    2010-11-01

    Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life's 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune', do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype-environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities.

  15. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  16. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual dissati

  17. General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness may use general or specialist psychiatric services. This review aims to assess if there is evidence for a difference in outcome between them. A literature review was conducted using a variety of electronic databases and hand-search strategies to identify all studies evaluating the outcome…

  18. Habituation and Generalization of Habituation by Nonambulatory, Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, William P.; Whiteley, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Generalization of habituation along a form dimension was investigated with 12 nonambulatory, profoundly mentally retarded children. Fixation times decreased over habituation trials and increased during test trials. No differences in fixation times to test stimuli were found in the group data, and analyses of individual subject data indicated that…

  19. Serious Mental Illness and Arrest: The Generalized Mediating Effect of Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, James A.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    2007-01-01

    Past studies of the mediating effects of substance use on the criminal justice involvement of the mentally ill have tended to focus on a single disorder, schizophrenia, and on violent crimes. This study examined the generality of the relationships among psychiatric disorders, substance use, and arrests for violent, nonviolent, and drug-related…

  20. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1 and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  1. [Long-term dental interventions in mentally retarded children under general anesthesia with sevoflurane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkin, S I; Gasparian, A L; Ivanova, T Iu; Nesterova, E Iu; Drozdova, N I

    2015-01-01

    Dental procedures in mentally retarded children is challenging for both dentist and for anesthesiologist. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dental care procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane by means of laryngeal mask in mentally retarded children. The randomized controlled study included 65 mentally retarded children with ASA 2-3 who underwent dental treatment. All patients had multiple caries. The children were divided into two groups. The first group included 35 children with normal body weigh while the second one - 30 obese children. All patients received a rapid induction with sevoflurane with the subsequent installation of the laryngeal mask. In the second group the signs of hypoventilation recorded an average of 10 ± 4 minutes after induction of anesthesia, which was manifested in increasing Pсо₂greater than 50 mm Hg. In the first group, the signs of hypoventilation marked an average of 18 ± 3.5 minutes from the start of induction of anesthesia. All patients were transferred to the artificial lung ventilation through the LMA. By dental treatment under general anesthesia with sevoflurane and laryngeal mask all mentally retarded children had respiratory depression with increased levels of carbon dioxide greater than 50 mmHg, but obese children developed these signs of hypoventilation twice as fast. Conducting long dental treatment in mentally retarded children require artificial lung ventilation.

  2. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

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    Gudrun eSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  3. How Crawling and Manual Object Exploration are Related to the Mental Rotation Abilities of 9-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Freitag, Claudia; Schum, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored five toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror) object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  4. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.

  5. Access to general health care services by a New Zealand population with serious mental illness.

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    Wheeler A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.

  6. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and approximate number system to early mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-12-01

    Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there is no agreement about the recruitment of the different memory components or of intelligence. In relation to specific factors, great debate subsists regarding the role of the approximate number system (ANS). Starting from these considerations, we wanted to conduct a wide assessment of memory components and ANS, by controlling for the effects associated with intelligence and also exploring possible relationships between all precursors. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 157 children was tested at both beginning and end of their Grade 1. Both general (memory and intelligence) and specific (ANS) precursors were evaluated by a wide battery of tests and put in relation to concurrent and subsequent math skills. Memory was explored in passive and active aspects involving both verbal and visuo-spatial components. Path analysis results demonstrated that memory, and especially the more active processes, and intelligence were the strongest precursors in both assessment times. ANS had a milder role which lost significance by the end of the school year. Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently. Both general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

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    Ruitenburg Martijn M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.

  8. Variables associated with general practitioners taking on serious mental disorder patients

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    Tremblay Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of community-based initiatives to strengthen integrated care and promote patient recovery, GPs are asked to play a greater part in treating serious mental disorder (SMD patients. All current healthcare reforms favour the reinforcement of primary care. More information on enhancing the role of GPs in mental health would benefit policymakers, especially as regards SMD patients, where little research has been published as yet. This article assesses variables associated with GPs taking on SMD patients. Methods The study, encompassing multiple sites, is based on a sample of 398 GPs, representative of the GP population in the Canadian province of Quebec. GPs were asked to answer a 143-item questionnaire on their socio-demographic and clinical practice profiles, patient characteristics, perceived inter-professional relationships and quality of care. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Our data highlighted that GPs currently followed up only a minority of SMD patients on a continuous basis and far fewer for both physical and mental health problems. A linear regression model that accounts for 43% of the variance was generated. The best variables associated positively with GPs taking on SMD patients were: frequency of referrals for joint follow-up with other resources, and involvement in post-hospitalization follow-up. Conversely, lack of expertise in mental health (related in our model to frequency of mental disorder patient transfer due to insufficient mental health training is associated with a lower incidence of GPs taking on patients. Conclusion As advocated in current healthcare reforms, our study confirms the need to promote greater GP involvement in integrated care models and enhance their training in mental health – thereby helping to reverse the trend among GPs of transferring SMD patients to specialized care. Patients with stable SMDs ought to have the same care access as the

  9. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  10. Differential effects of mental and physical health and coping style on work ability: a 1-year follow-up study among aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijke, H. van de; Leijten, F.R.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Robroek, S.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Burdorf, A.; Taris, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether mental and physical health relate differently to work ability and whether these associations vary with coping style. METHODS: A 1-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8842 employees aged 45 to 64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability

  11. Differential effects of mental and physical health and coping style on work ability: a 1-year follow-up study among aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijke, H. van de; Leijten, F.R.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Robroek, S.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Burdorf, A.; Taris, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether mental and physical health relate differently to work ability and whether these associations vary with coping style. METHODS: A 1-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8842 employees aged 45 to 64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability

  12. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozikiewicz Przemyslaw M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette and SLC (solute carrier transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1. Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB

  13. [From the Principle of Beneficence to the Principle of Autonomy. Assessment of Patients' Mental Competency in the General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Restrepo B; Carlos, Cardeño C; Marle, Duque G; Santiago, Jaramillo

    2012-06-01

    Refusing a medical procedure is a valid way of exercising every patient's right to autonomy. From the legal point of view, autonomy is based on the right to privacy. In recent decades the legal right to self-determination has gradually expanded and today patients in full possession of their mental faculties, have the moral and legal right to make their own decisions and these decisions take precedence over physician and family. Often liaison psychiatrists are called in to assess the mental competence of patients in the general hospital. To determine the psychiatrist's role in evaluating these patients. The assessment of a patient's ability to decide and self-determine is a common clinical problem in general hospitals. Evaluation of these patients requires a proper understanding of the philosophical, ethical, and legal issues that guide the appropriate treatment of these complex clinical problems. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Subpopulation Differences in Performance on Tests of Mental Ability: Historical Review and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    and white (N-142, 545) job applicants, in 80 occupations throughout the country, on the Wonderlic Personnel Test (a fifty-item measure of general...22.29; (2) Among college graduates, the mean scores for blacks and whites of both sexes were 23.26 and 29.96, respectively. (The Wonderlic Test results

  15. Footedness is associated with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  16. Analysis of General and Specific Combining Ability in Canola Using Biplot Method

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    B Roostabaghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To study combining ability and genetic parameters of seed yield trait in rapeseed, eight lines of rapeseed were evaluated by a design of half diallel cross. Seeds of F1 generation and their parents were grown in a 6 × 6 simple lattice design with two replications. According to the analysis of variance, general combining ability (GCA, specific combining ability (SCA and mean squares of genotypes were significant for seed yield at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level, respectively. We used GGE biplot approach for graphical diallel cross analysis. The biplot displays the most important entry by tester patterns of the data and allows the information to be extracted visually. The biplot analysis indicated that the first two principal components explained 74.3% (47.7 and 26.6% by PC1 and PC2, respectively of the variation for seed yield. GGE biplot graphical procedure results indicated that one parent, Opera, had the highest positive GCA and parents of Fornax had the highest negative GCA. The largest SCA obtained from ORIENT and the smallest SCA came from TALAYE. Also, the SCA mostly came from OPERA and TALAYE, ORIENT and TALAYE. Overall, the results of this study suggest that, within individual hybrid crosses, sufficient heterosis for yield exists to justify hybrid development in rapeseed.

  17. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  18. General practitioners' management of mental disorders: A rewarding practice with considerable obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Marie-Josée

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care improvement is the cornerstone of current reforms. Mental disorders (MDs are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide and widespread in industrialised countries. MDs are treated mainly in primary care by general practitioners (GPs, even though the latter ability to detect, diagnose, and treat patients with MDs is often considered unsatisfactory. This article examines GPs' management of MDs in an effort to acquire more information regarding means by which GPs deal with MD cases, impact of such cases on their practices, factors that enable or hinder MD management, and patient-management strategies. Methods This study employs a mixed-method approach with emphasis on qualitative investigation. Based on a previous survey of 398 GPs in Quebec, Canada, 60 GPs representing a variety of practice settings were selected for further study. A 10-minute-long questionnaire comprising 27 items was administered, and 70-minute-long interviews were conducted. Quantitative (SPSS and qualitative (NVivo analyses were performed. Results At least 20% of GP visits were MD-related. GPs were comfortable managing common MDs, but not serious MDs. GPs' based their treatment of MDs on pharmacotherapy, support therapy, and psycho-education. They used clinical intuition with few clinical tools, and closely followed their patients with MDs. Practice features (salary or hourly fees payment; psycho-social teams on-site; strong informal networks, and GPs' individual characteristics (continuing medical education; exposure and interest in MDs; traits like empathy favoured MD management. Collaboration with psychologists and psychiatrists was considered key to good MD management. Limited access to specialists, system fragmentation, and underdeveloped group practice and shared-care models were impediments. MD management was seen as burdensome because it required more time, flexibility, and emotional investment. Strategies exist to reduce the burden (one

  19. Analysis of Generalization Ability for Different AdaBoost Variants Based on Classification and Regression Trees

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    Shuqiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a machine learning method, AdaBoost is widely applied to data classification and object detection because of its robustness and efficiency. AdaBoost constructs a global and optimal combination of weak classifiers based on a sample reweighting. It is known that this kind of combination improves the classification performance tremendously. As the popularity of AdaBoost increases, many variants have been proposed to improve the performance of AdaBoost. Then, a lot of comparison and review studies for AdaBoost variants have also been published. Some researchers compared different AdaBoost variants by experiments in their own fields, and others reviewed various AdaBoost variants by basically introducing these algorithms. However, there is a lack of mathematical analysis of the generalization abilities for different AdaBoost variants. In this paper, we analyze the generalization abilities of six AdaBoost variants in terms of classification margins. The six compared variants are Real AdaBoost, Gentle AdaBoost, Modest AdaBoost, Parameterized AdaBoost, Margin-pruning Boost, and Penalized AdaBoost. Finally, we use experiments to verify our analyses.

  20. Enhanced Timing Abilities in Percussionists Generalize to Rhythms Without a Musical Beat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played, continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously, and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second. The metres of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals. In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists’ superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  1. Enhanced timing abilities in percussionists generalize to rhythms without a musical beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played), continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously), and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second). The meters of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals). In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists' superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  2. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Shi, Yuanyu; Niu, Binbin; Shi, Zhangyan; Li, Junlin; Ma, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Fuchang; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Kejin

    2016-03-23

    The choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene has been associated with various human disorders that involve cognitive impairment or deficiency. However, the influence of disease-associated variants of CHAT on normal individuals remains dubious. Here we demonstrated the impact of CHAT sequence variants (G-120A) on general human cognitive ability in a cohort of 750 Chinese undergraduate students. A multiple choice questionnaire was used to obtain basic demographic information, such as parents' occupations and education levels. We also administered and scored the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) revealed a significant association between sequence polymorphisms of G-120A and individuals' Raven score (p=0.031 for ANOVA and p=0.026 for K-W tests). Moreover, further hierarchical analysis showed a similar trend in the association between G-120A variants and Raven scores only in the female subjects (p=0.008 for ANOVA and p=0.024 for K-W tests) but not in the male subjects. The results of a multiple linear regression confirmed that after we controlled gender, age, birthplace and other non-genetic factors, CHAT G-120A polymorphisms still significantly influenced individual Raven scores (B=-0.70, SE=0.28, t=-2.50, p=0.013). Our results demonstrated that sequence variants of CHAT were associated with human cognitive ability in not only patients with psychiatric disorders but also normal healthy individuals. However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required.

  3. Identification of common mental disorders by general medical doctors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen-Ing; Mann, Anthony; Cheng, Andrew; Tjung, Jin-Jin; Hwang, Lee-Ching

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine the detection rate of common mental disorders (CMD) by general medical doctors and which patient-related factors associated with increased chances of detection in Taiwan. A two-phase case-identification using the Chinese Health Questionnaire and the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) was carried out among a sample of consecutive new attenders (n=990) in community and hospital-based clinics. Physicians completed a checklist of the problems that they identified during each consultation. General medical doctors missed more than 85% of the CIS-R cases of defined mental disorder. Physicians performed better identification of CMD among attenders with a higher socioeconomic status, without physical illness, having psychological presentation or attribution, suffering from more serious common mental disorders, or having a longer duration of illness. The very low identification rate of CMD has strongly implied the need to improve postgraduate training in psychiatry for general medical doctors in Taiwan. Simply adding one or two questions about mood and attributions of presenting symptoms might help physicians to identify CMD.

  4. Rearing Styles, Parents' Attachment Mental State,and Children's Social Abilities: The Link to Peer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Attili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.

  5. Is the association between general cognitive ability and violent crime caused by family-level confounders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frisell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding. METHODS: We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980-1993 with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973-2009, among all men born in Sweden 1961-1975 (N = 700,514. Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register to adjust for shared familial characteristics. RESULTS: Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.19; -0.18, the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.17. The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.14, within half-brothers raised together (β = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.15; -0.11, and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.09. The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by factors shared by

  6. General combining ability for volume growth of open-pollinated progenies of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic quality of plus trees selected phenotypically is generally determined by progeny tests in a breeding program. For the progeny test, there are a few limitations; all plus trees are not selected in the same year, seed collection does not occur in the same year due to flowering irregularity, unequal availability of progenies among families, and so on. Such limitations reflect spatial and temporal variation in the establishment of progeny test trials. Thus, one should develop a method of standardization in order to apply genetic information (i.e., general combining ability from the progeny tests into genetic thinning or establishment of improved seed orchard. In this study, we developed a method for standardization to estimate general combining ability (GCA based on the standard-site adjustment system. The method developed took the age of progeny and the number of test sites into account, which was based on the standard deviation of volume index (Height x DBH2 among different ages, sites and replications. Also, we used different weight values depending on the number of test sites and replications, and the age of trials. This method might give a general base on which to generalize the spatial and temporal variation in progeny tests. On the basis of the method, we estimated theGCA of 244 open-pollinated families of Pinus koraiensis that were tested at four sites (Gunpo, Chuncheon, Kangryuong and Chungwonestablished from 1975 to 1994. Among 244 families, KW15 (0115 family showed the highest GCA value, while KW28 (0128 familyrevealed the lowest GCA value. Each family had different GCA values depending on the age of progenies as well as sites. Although there are some needs to consider on gene-ecology for accurate results, the method we reported could be useful to estimate the GCA values of progenies tested under different ages and sites.

  7. General combining ability for volume growth of open-pollinated progenies of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic quality of plus trees selected phenotypically is generally determined by progeny tests in a breeding program. For the progeny test, there are a few limitations; all plus trees are not selected in the same year, seed collection does not occur in the same year due to flowering irregularity, unequal availability of progenies among families, and so on. Such limitations reflect spatial and temporal variation in the establishment of progeny test trials. Thus, one should develop a method of standardization in order to apply genetic information (i.e., general combining ability from the progeny tests into genetic thinning or establishment of improved seed orchard. In this study, we developed a method for standardization to estimate general combining ability (GCA based on the standard-site adjustment system. The method developed took the age of progeny and the number of test sites into account, which was based on the standard deviation of volume index (Height x DBH2 among different ages, sites and replications. Also, we used different weight values depending on the number of test sites and replications, and the age of trials. This method might give a general base on which to generalize the spatial and temporal variation in progeny tests. On the basis of the method, we estimated theGCA of 244 open-pollinated families of Pinus koraiensis that were tested at four sites (Gunpo, Chuncheon, Kangryuong and Chungwonestablished from 1975 to 1994. Among 244 families, KW15 (0115 family showed the highest GCA value, while KW28 (0128 familyrevealed the lowest GCA value. Each family had different GCA values depending on the age of progenies as well as sites. Although there are some needs to consider on gene-ecology for accurate results, the method we reported could be useful to estimate the GCA values of progenies tested under different ages and sites.

  8. Communication and mental health in general practice: physicians' self-perceived learning needs and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Tonje L; Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein

    2012-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) often see patients presenting with mental health problems, but their training regarding mental health treatment varies. GPs' communication skills are of particular importance in these consultations, and communication skills training of GPs has been found to improve patients' mental health. To tailor a communication skills training by basing it on GPs' learning needs and self-efficacy, thereby maximising learning, we conducted a questionnaire study.

  9. Care for patients with severe mental illness: the general practitioner's role perspective

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    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.

  10. Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Forester, Brent P; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Yanhua; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-05-01

    There is little information on gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly. We examined the gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and a number of chronic diseases in a large Chinese old population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people (2198 women; 1917 men) aged between 60 and 79 years were included and their general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were recorded with standardized assessment tools. Multivariate analyses revealed that women were less likely to be current smokers and frequent drinkers, but had higher prevalence of poor mental health compared with their male counterparts. In addition, the prevalence rate of chronic diseases and multi-morbidities were higher in women than that in men (both p values diseases and poor mental health in older women and higher prevalence of smoking and drinking in men.

  11. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents

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    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.

  12. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France, Ge

  13. A Comparative Study of Campus Experiences of College Students with Mental Illnesses versus a General College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine campus experiences and relationships of college students with mental illnesses compared to general student norms using the College Student Experiences Questionnaire to understand potential sources of distress and retention issues. Participants: Responses were obtained from 449 former and current students with mental illnesses…

  14. El trabajador con problemas de salud mental: Pautas generales de detección, intervención y prevención Workers with mental health problems: General guidelines for detection, intervention and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Mingote Adán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han demostrado las relaciones entre condiciones psicosociales del trabajo y la salud mental de los empleados, y especialmente cómo la combinación de bajo control percibido y altas demandas laborales predicen determinados problemas de salud mental. Trastornos mentales tales como los de ansiedad y depresión tienen un efecto muy negativo sobre la calidad de vida y la capacidad funcional en el trabajo. Además, la salud mental del trabajador puede afectar a la percepción de las características del trabajo. Como consecuencia, es fundamental diseñar trabajos saludables, programas de reducción de estrés para los empleados y para la reincorporación laboral de empleados con trastornos mentales. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar las principales líneas de prevención, detección e intervención en las organizaciones, que pueden promover políticas saludables para la atención e integración de los trabajadores con trastorno mental.Numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between psychosocial work conditions and the mental health of employees, and especially the combination of low perceived control and high labor demands predicts mental health problems. Mental health disorders such us anxiety or depression have a big detrimental effect on the individual's quality of life and the ability to function in the workplace. Mental health may also affect the perception of work characteristics. As a consequence, it is essential to design healthy jobs, stress reduction programs and return to work programs for employees with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to review the main lines of prevention, detection and intervention in organizations that can promote healthy policies for the care and integration of workers with mental disorder.

  15. 精神科及综合医院护理人员心理健康状况及人格特征调查%A Study on Mental Health Status and Personality Characteristics of Nurses in Mental and General Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛亨; 王耀华; 程庭静; 童芳

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine mental health status and personality characteristics in hospital nurses. Methods:166 nurses in mental hospital and 344 nurses in general hospital were assessed by SCL-90 and MMPI. Results: Scaled scores on SCL-90 and MMPI of the two groups were found to be higher than the Chinese norms. Conclusion:The study revealed poorer mental health among nurses in mental and general hospitals when compared to the general population.

  16. Professional nurses' perception of nursing mentally ill people in a general hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavundla, T R

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore professional nurses' perception of nursing mentally ill patients in a tertiary hospital in Durban. An explorative, qualitative, descriptive and contextual design was followed as the basis for conducting the study. The above-mentioned research design was achieved through field work conducted in an urban-based general hospital. A sample of 12 professional nurses was selected from a population of 800 professional nurses employed in this setting using a purposive sampling technique. This sample size was determined by saturation of data as reflected in repeating themes. Both individual phenomenological semistructured interviews and field notes in the form of observations were used as methods of data collection. The field work was conducted without any preset theoretical framework of reference by using bracketing and intuiting. During interviews, participants were asked only one research question, namely: 'How do you perceive nursing mentally ill patients in your unit or ward?' Communication skills were employed to encourage participants to verbalize their perception of nursing mentally ill patients in a general hospital setting. A tape recorder was used to collect data and the data was transcribed verbatim. Data collected was analysed following the descriptive method of Giorgi (1986). Coding was carried out by the researcher and an independent expert who is a psychiatric nursing specialist and a qualitative research expert. After data analysis, the results were reflected within universal categories of the Nursing for the Whole Person Theory in order to give them structure. The four themes that emerged from the findings are: perception of self, perception of a patient, perception of feelings that hinder nursing the mentally ill, and perception of the environment. The measures for ensuring trustworthiness proposed by Guba (Lincoln Y.S. & Guba E.G. (1985) Naturalistic Inquiry. Sage, Beverly Hills) were used as the basis for ensuring

  17. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and mistakes…

  18. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and mistakes…

  19. How do general practitioners experience providing care to refugees with mental health problems? A qualitative study from Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen Natasja Koitzsch; Norredam Marie; Priebe Stefan; Krasnik Allan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Refugees are a particularly vulnerable group in relation to the development of mental illness and many may have been subjected to torture or other traumatic experiences. General practitioners are gatekeepers for access to several parts of the psychiatric system and knowledge of their patients’ refugee background is crucial to secure adequate care. The aim of this study is to investigate how general practitioners experience providing care to refugees with mental health prob...

  20. Addressing the general medical needs of a patient with an altered mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jenny L; Ginzburg, Harold M; Shah, Parind; Ardoin, Stan

    2008-12-01

    Patients presenting to an Emergency Department with an altered mental state, whether from a psychiatric, medical or surgical condition or a combination of psychiatric and medical or surgical conditions, require more than the usual amount of diagnostic acumen. General medical conditions often appear in the guise of dysfunctional emotions and/or behaviors. Acute and chronic psychosis may mask underlying acute and chronic medical and surgical conditions. As the case of Esmin Green of Brooklyn, New York, illustrates, the failure to identify underlying medical and surgical conditions in delirious, demented, or psychotic patients can prove fatal to the patient and economically costly to the medical center and its employees.

  1. Joint Action: Mental Representations, Shared Information and General Mechanisms for Coordinating with Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Cordula; Abramova, Ekaterina; Bütepage, Judith; Ciardo, Francesca; Crossey, Benjamin; Effenberg, Alfred; Hristova, Dayana; Karlinsky, April; McEllin, Luke; Nijssen, Sari R. R.; Schmitz, Laura; Wahn, Basil

    2017-01-01

    In joint action, multiple people coordinate their actions to perform a task together. This often requires precise temporal and spatial coordination. How do co-actors achieve this? How do they coordinate their actions toward a shared task goal? Here, we provide an overview of the mental representations involved in joint action, discuss how co-actors share sensorimotor information and what general mechanisms support coordination with others. By deliberately extending the review to aspects such as the cultural context in which a joint action takes place, we pay tribute to the complex and variable nature of this social phenomenon. PMID:28101077

  2. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromso Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  3. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

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    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  4. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. How to improve mental health competency in general practice training?--a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marwijk, Harm

    2004-06-01

    It is quite evident there is room for improvement in the primary care management of common mental health problems. Patients respond positively when GPs adopt a more proactive role in this respect. The Dutch general practice curriculum is currently being renewed. The topics discussed here include the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of present primary mental healthcare teaching. What works well and what needs improving? Integrated teaching packages are needed to help general practice trainees manage various presentations of psychological distress. Such packages comprise training videotapes, in which models such as problem-solving treatment (PST) are demonstrated, as well as roleplaying material for new skills, self-report questionnaires for patients, and small-group video feedback of consultations. While GP trainees can effectively master such skills, it is important to query the level of proficiency required by registrars. Are these skills of use only to connoisseur GPs, or to all? More room for specialisation and differentiation among trainees may be the way forward. We have just developed a new curriculum for the obligatory three-month psychiatry housemanship. It is competency oriented, self-directed and assignment driven. This new curriculum will be evaluated in due course.

  6. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Performance of children with social communication disorder on the Happé Strange Stories: Physical and mental state responses and relationship to language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; McBean, Kirsty; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Nash, Marysia; Law, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a modified scoring method was useful for examining the ability of children with social communication disorder (CwSCD) to understand non-literal language and use mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories (HSS) task. CwSCD and a control group of children with typical language development (CwTLD) completed 10 of the original HSS. CwSCD scored significantly lower on the HSS task than did CwTLD and were much less likely to produce mental state responses. There was a high level of inter-rater reliability (Weighted Kappa=0.907) across data from both groups. HSS performance and language ability correlated significantly for CwSCD. A regression model with age, nonverbal intelligence, receptive and expressive language as predictors explained 55.2% of the variance in HSS ability for CwSCD. The results suggest that the HSS have potential to be used as a clinical assessment to investigate high-level language and ability to infer intent in CwSCD. Readers will be able to describe a modified scoring method for the Happé Strange Stories task. Readers will be able to identify areas of impairment for children with social communication disorder. Readers will identify how these areas of impairment have an effect on ability to understand non-literal language and produce mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Peer and Teacher-Selected Peer Buddies for Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social, Emotional, and Mentalizing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Federico, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mentalizing abilities, social behavior, and social impact of adolescents who expressed the willingness to become peer buddies for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and adolescents selected by their teachers and peers. Twenty-seven teachers and 395 adolescents from public high schools completed mentalizing abilities, social status, behavioral, and peer buddy nomination measures. Findings suggest that social status and preference play a significant role in the selection of peer buddies by both teachers and classmates. Furthermore, more advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and the engagement in prosocial behaviors differentiated peers selected as buddies from other classmates. When compared with nonparticipating students, adolescents who expressed willingness to participate were more often girls, and were more prosocial. Agreement between teacher and peer nominations of best peer was moderate.

  9. 浅谈中度智障儿童语言交往能力的训练%Discussion on Moderate Mental Retardation Children Language Communicative Ability Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱燕妮

    2015-01-01

    语言交往能力对智障儿童的身心发展有着重要作用,是智障儿童今后立足社会的必要工具。文章结合中度智障儿童的语言发展特点,从语言交往训练的形式、训练的途径和方法等几个方面,阐述了怎样训练中度智障儿童的语言交往能力。%Language communication plays an important role in language communication ability of mentally retarded children’s physical and psychological development of mentally retarded children. It is a necessary tool in the future for the mentally retarded children. Combining with the characteristics of moderate mental retarded children’s language development, the paper expounds how to train moderate mental retardation children’s language communicative ability from the form of training approaches and methods and so on several aspects.

  10. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100...... ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P

  11. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  12. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  13. Common mental health disorders in children and adolescents in primary care: A survey of knowledge, skills and attitudes among general practitioners in a newly developed European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Buhagiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: General Practitioners (GPs are generally the first point of contact for children and adolescents with mental health problems. This study investigates the confidence, beliefs, and knowledge of GPs regarding common mental health problems in youngsters. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was distributed to nearly all registered GPs in a middle-income European country in order to address the aims of the study. Results: Response rate was 58%. Many GPs reported relatively low confidence on a number of issues, including diagnosis (70.0%, initiating management (86.6%, assessing the child-caregiver relationship (72.0% and the ability to distinguish between normal and pathological behavioural problems (75.1%. However, GPs showed greater inclination to conduct follow-up care after assessment by specialist services (53.5%. Few GPs considered psychosocial interventions to play a role in the treatment of anxiety disorders (18.5%, hyperkinetic disorders (24.2%, depression (22.9% and disruptive behaviour disorders (18.5% and this largely came from younger GPs (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Confidence of GPs in the management of youngsters with mental health problems is generally low. They may require significant back-up from specialist services in the form of both training and clinical collaboration.

  14. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…

  15. Measuring Mentalizing Ability: A Within-Subject Comparison between an Explicit and Implicit Version of a Ball Detection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D.; Brass, Marcel; Bardi, Lara; Wiersema, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has been widely studied, but almost exclusively through tasks with explicit instructions. Recent studies suggest that people also mentalize on a more implicit level. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has directly contrasted the effects of implicit and explicit mentalizing processes on an implicit dependent measure within-subjects. We implemented this by using two versions of an object detection task, differing only on secondary catch questions. We hypothesized that if explicit mentalizing relies on complementary processes beyond those underlying implicit mentalizing, this would be reflected in enhanced belief effects in the explicit version. Twenty-eight healthy adults watched movies in which, during the first phase, both they themselves and another agent formed a belief about the location of a ball, and although irrelevant, these beliefs could influence their ball detection reaction times in the second phase. After this response phase, there were occasional catch questions that were different for the explicit and implicit task version. Finally, self-report measures of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were included, as the literature suggests that ASD is related to a specific deficit in implicit mentalizing. Both in the explicit and implicit version, belief conditions had a significant effect on reaction times, with responses being slower when neither the participant nor the other agent expected the ball to be present compared to all other conditions. Importantly, after the implicit version, participants reported no explicit mentalizing awareness. In our neurotypical sample, ASD symptoms were not found to correlate with either explicit or implicit mentalizing. In conclusion, the reaction time patterns in the explicit and implicit version of the task show strikingly similar effects of mentalizing, indicating that participants processed beliefs to the same extent regardless of whether they mentalized explicitly or

  16. The use of a brief mental health screener to enhance the ability of police officers to identify persons with serious mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ron; Hirdes, John; Brown, Gregory P; Dubin, Joel A; Barbaree, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Police agencies in Canada and elsewhere have received much criticism over how they respond to persons with serious mental disorders. The adequacy of training provided to police officers on mental health issues and in particular on recognizing indicators of serious mental disorders has been a major concern. This paper describes the process that led to the development of a new brief mental health screener (interRAI Brief Mental Health Screener, BMHS) designed to assist police officers to better identify persons with serious mental disorders. The interRAI BMHS was developed in collaboration with interRAI, an international, not-for-profit consortium of researchers. The government of Ontario had previously partnered with interRAI to develop and implement the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health (RAI-MH), the assessment system mandated for use on all persons admitted into inpatient psychiatric care in the province. Core items on the interRAI BMHS were obtained through analysis (N=41,019) of RAI-MH data together with input from representatives from health care, police services, and patient groups. Two police services in southwestern Ontario completed forms (N=235) on persons thought to have a mental disorder. Patient records were later accessed to determine patient disposition. The use of summary and inferential statistics revealed that the variables significantly associated with being taken to hospital by police included performing a self-injurious act in the past 30days, and others being concerned over the person's risk for self-injury. Variables significantly associated with being admitted included abnormal thought process, delusions, and hallucinations. The results of the study indicate that the 14-variable algorithm used to construct the interRAI BMHS is a good predictor of who was most likely to be taken to hospital by police officers and who was most likely to be admitted. The instrument is an effective means of capturing and standardizing police

  17. [The general intelligence factor: psychometric study. Approach to the problem of mental deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatagliata, G; Albano, C; Torres, S; Cocito, L; Ivaldi, M

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured the correlation coefficient between W.B. and P.M. scores in 80 normal subjects, comparable for age and school. A mutual relationship between the two tests, connected by the hypothetical general intelligence factor "g", was really demonstrated. Correlation coefficient was positive and significative between W.B. total scores, excepted verbal scores, and P.M., the highest one between subtests 8, 9 and P.M. The intra-tests correlation between W.B. total scores and each subtest score was also evaluated: between sub-tests 8, 9 and W.B. total scores the highest one again. A new qualitative interpretation of mental deterioration in clinical neurology and psychiatry is suggested on the base of these results.

  18. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  19. Personal stigma and use of mental health services among people with depression in a general population in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulari Jyrki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minority of people suffering from depression seek professional help for themselves. Stigmatizing attitudes are assumed to be one of the major barriers to help seeking but there is only limited evidence of this in large general population data sets. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between mental health attitude statements and depression and their links to actual use of mental health services among those with depression. Methods We used a large cross-sectional data set from a Finnish population survey (N = 5160. Attitudes were measured by scales which measured the belief that people with depression are responsible for their illness and their recovery and attitudes towards antidepressants. Desire for social distance was measured by a scale and depression with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF instrument. Use of mental health services was measured by self-report. Results On the social discrimination scale, people with depression showed more social tolerance towards people with mental problems. They also carried more positive views about antidepressants. Among those with depression, users of mental health services, as compared to non-users, carried less desire for social distance to people with mental health problems and more positive views about the effects of antidepressants. More severe depression predicted more active use of services. Conclusions Although stronger discriminative intentions can reduce the use of mental health services, this does not necessarily prevent professional service use if depression is serious and views about antidepressant medication are realistic.

  20. Disability and functional burden of disease because of mental in comparison to somatic disorders in general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Linden, U; Schwantes, U

    2015-09-01

    Severity of illness is not only depending on the symptom load, but also on the burden in life. Mental disorders are among those illnesses, which in particular cause suffering to the individual and society. To study burden of disease for mental in comparison to somatic disorders, 2099 patients from 40 general practitioners filled in (a) the Burvill scale which measures acute and chronic illnesses in ten different body systems and (b) the IMET scale which measures impairment in ten different areas of life. Patients were suffering on average from acute and/or chronic illness in 3.5 (SD: 2.0) body systems and 56.6% of patients complained about acute and/or chronic mental disorders. The most significant negative impact on the IMET total score have acute and chronic mental disorders, followed by chronic neurological and musculoskeletal and acute respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, while cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital, haematological and ear/eye disorders have no greater impact. Acute as well as chronic mental disorders cause impairment across all areas of life and most burden of disease (functional burden of disease 1.69), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (1.62). Mental disorders are among the most frequent health problems with high negative impact across all areas of life. When combining frequency and impairment mental disorders cause most burden of disease in comparison to other illnesses. This should be reflected in the organization of medical care including family medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental Involvement and General Cognitive Ability as Predictors of Domain-Specific Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Gottschling, Juliana; Spengler, Marion; Hegewald, Katrin; Spinath, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies showed that general cognitive ability (GCA) is a reliable predictor of academic achievement. In addition, parental involvement in their children's academic development is of major importance in early adolescence. This study investigated the incremental validity of parental involvement over GCA in the prediction of academic…

  2. Dopamine D1 Sensitivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts General Cognitive Abilities and is Modulated by Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…

  3. Interaction of Spatial Visualization and General Reasoning Abilities with Instructional Treatment in Quadratic Inequalities: A Further Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Phillip M.; Carry, L. Ray

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were randomly assigned to a deductively structured verbal-symbolic-numeric treatment or an inductively structured verbal-spatial-numeric treatment for a unit on quadratic inequalities. Success on the deductive symbolic approach was associated with general reasoning ability; success on the inductive spatial approach was associated with…

  4. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four composites,…

  5. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  6. Chequeos de Referencias, Habilidad Mental General y Experiencia: Un Estudio de Validez de Constructo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El término "referencias" hace alusión a la información sobre ciertas características personales relacionadas con el comportamiento laboral de una persona y que otra persona (normalmente un jefe directo aporta sobre la primera. Las referencias se basan en el supuesto de que "el mejor modo de averiguar algo sobre alguien es preguntándole a alguien que lo conozca" y son un método ampliamente utilizado y potencialmente eficaz para la selección de personal. El objetivo general de este artículo es responder a la siguiente pregunta: ¿qué miden realmente las referencias? Para ello se han recogido los estudios primarios existentes en la literatura sobre esta materia y se han aplicado diversas técnicas meta-analíticas. Los resultados indican que las referencias miden principalmente Habilidad Mental General y Experiencia. Asimismo, se hacen sugerencias de estudio para averiguar otros constructos que pudieran estar integrados en las referencias.

  7. [General cognitive functioning and psycholinguistic abilities in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Lens Villaverde, María; Moruno López, Esther; Conde Magro, Tatiana; Moura, Luis Felipe; Fernández, Montserrat; Sampaio, Adriana

    2011-11-01

    This study is a neuropsycholinguistic research of a rare genetic syndrome with microdeletion that co-occurs with intellectual disabilities and relatively good language abilities, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS). Nevertheless, there are no cognitive and psycholinguistic profile analyses performed with Spanish population. In this sense, we characterized the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile of a sample with 9 participants with SMS (7 to 11 years of age). The cognitive and psychological profile was assessed with diverse standardized tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV version, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Results suggest a specific cognitive and psychological profile characterized by a low IQ and relative good abilities in integrating information, whereas attention problems and hyperactive behaviors were displayed when interacting with the child during the assessment. This work is the first evidence of the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile characterization in patients with SMS in Spain, and will help to guide a more accurate diagnosis and differential intervention in rare genetic diseases with similar cognitive and psycholinguistic profiles.

  8. Improving the Generalization Ability of RBNN Using a Selective Strategy Based on the Gaussian Kernel Function

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Radial Basis Neural Networks have been successfully used in many applications due, mainly, to their fast convergence properties. However, the level of generalization is heavily dependent on the quality of the training data. It has been shown that with careful dynamic selection of training patterns, better generalization performance may be obtained. In this paper, a learning method is presented, that automatically selects the training patterns more appropriate to the new test sample. The metho...

  9. Problemas de salud mental y actitudes sociales en la ciudad de Sevilla. Resultados generales del estudio “Salud mental: imágenes y realidades”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se presentan los resultados generales del estudio “Salud Mental: imágenes y realidades”, realizado en la población general de la ciudad de Sevilla y referido tanto a la prevalencia de problemas de salud mental como a las imágenes sociales hacia los mismos. El estudio reproduce la metodología desarrollada por el Centro Colaborador de la OMS de Lille (Francia y aplicada en un número importante de estudios locales en paises de habla francesa. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre una muestra de 920 personas mayores de 18 años, con dos instrumentos básicos: una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada (MINI y un cuestionario socio-antropológico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se obtiene una prevalencia general de salud mental del 19,4 %, con las variaciones esperables en función de los distintos problemas concretos y de las variables sociodemográficas clásicas. Y, en lo que respecta a las actitudes sociales, la población sevillana muestra perfiles similares a los de los estudios habituales sobre el tema, incorporando contendidos arcaicos derivados de la imagen tradicional de la “locura” a nociones formalmente más modernas como las de la “enfermedad mental” y la “depresión.” En conjunto, parece que el estudio puede ser una alternativa razonable para obtener información local, utilizable en el trabajo contra el estigma y la discriminación en salud mental.

  10. The approximate number system and domain-general abilities as predictors of math ability in children with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Marshark, Marc; Nordmann, Emily; Sapere, Patricia; Skene, Wendy A

    2017-08-29

    Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH. ANS acuity, mathematical reasoning, WM, and STM of CHL were significantly poorer compared to CNH. Group differences in math ability were no longer significant when ANS acuity, WM, or STM was controlled. For CNH, WM and STM fully mediated the relationship of ANS acuity to math ability; for CHL, WM and STM only partially mediated this relationship. ANS acuity, WM, and STM are significant contributors to hearing status differences in math achievement, and to individual differences within the group of CHL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with hearing loss often perform poorly on measures of math achievement, although there have been few studies focusing on basic numerical cognition in these children. In typically developing children, the approximate number system predicts math skills concurrently and longitudinally, although there have been some contradictory findings. Recent studies suggest that domain-general skills, such as inhibition, may account for the relationship found between the approximate number system and math achievement. What does this study adds? This is the first robust examination of the approximate number system in children with hearing loss, and the findings suggest poorer acuity of the approximate number system in these children compared to hearing children. The study addresses recent issues regarding the contradictory findings of the relationship of the approximate number system to math ability

  11. Consultations in general practices with and without mental health nurses : an observational study from 2010 to 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnee, Tessa; de Beurs, Derek P.; de Bakker, Dinny H.; Verhaak, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate care for patients with psychological or social problems provided by mental health nurses ( MHNs), and by general practitioners ( GPs) with and without MHNs. Design: An observational study with consultations recorded by GPs and MHNs. Setting: Data were routinely recorded in

  12. Stability of Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Factors and Their Relation to General Mental Health Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…

  13. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-17

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. General Acid Catalysis: A Flexible Experiment, Adaptable to Student Ability and Various Teaching Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-vinyl pyrrolidone provides a simple spectrophotometric kinetic experiment to introduce general acid catalysis, solvent isotope effects, and other aspects of ionic reactions in solution in advanced courses. The Bronsted equation and concept of linear free-energy changes is also covered. (SK)

  15. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.

  16. The generalization ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Yan Tang, Yuan; Zou, Bin; Xu, Zongben; Li, Luoqing; Lu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider online support vector machine (SVM) classification learning algorithms with uniformly ergodic Markov chain (u.e.M.c.) samples. We establish the bound on the misclassification error of an online SVM classification algorithm with u.e.M.c. samples based on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and obtain a satisfactory convergence rate. We also introduce a novel online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling, and present the numerical studies on the learning ability of online SVM classification based on Markov sampling for benchmark repository. The numerical studies show that the learning performance of the online SVM classification algorithm based on Markov sampling is better than that of classical online SVM classification based on random sampling as the size of training samples is larger.

  17. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  18. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...

  19. Professional nurses' experience of violence when nursing mentally ill people in general hospital settings: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Poggenpoel

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to a lack of the knowledge and skills required for nursing mentally ill people, professional nurses in general hospital settings tend to not apply appropriate techniques when dealing with mentally ill people.

    Opsomming
    Weens die gebrek aan kennis en vaardighede benodig vir die verpleging van geestesversteurde persone, hanteer professionele verpleegkundiges in algemene hospitale geestesversteurde persone sonder bogenoemde kennis en vaardighede. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Common polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with cognitive ability in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, T-K; Lupton, M K; Fernandez-Pujals, A M; Starr, J; Davies, G; Cox, S; Pattie, A; Liewald, D C; Hall, L S; MacIntyre, D J; Smith, B H; Hocking, L J; Padmanabhan, S; Thomson, P A; Hayward, C; Hansell, N K; Montgomery, G W; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Porteous, D J; Deary, I J; McIntosh, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that some aspects of intelligence are preserved or even superior in people with ASD compared with controls, but consistent evidence is lacking. Few studies have examined the genetic overlap between cognitive ability and ASD/ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the polygenic overlap between ASD/ADHD and cognitive ability in individuals from the general population. Polygenic risk for ADHD and ASD was calculated from genome-wide association studies of ASD and ADHD conducted by the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Risk scores were created in three independent cohorts: Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n=9863), the Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 (n=1522), and the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Sample (BATS) (n=921). We report that polygenic risk for ASD is positively correlated with general cognitive ability (beta=0.07, P=6 × 10(-7), r(2)=0.003), logical memory and verbal intelligence in GS:SFHS. This was replicated in BATS as a positive association with full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) (beta=0.07, P=0.03, r(2)=0.005). We did not find consistent evidence that polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with cognitive function; however, a negative correlation with IQ at age 11 years (beta=-0.08, Z=-3.3, P=0.001) was observed in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. These findings are in individuals from the general population, suggesting that the relationship between genetic risk for ASD and intelligence is partly independent of clinical state. These data suggest that common genetic variation relevant for ASD influences general cognitive ability.

  1. A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.

  2. [Mental Health in the General Hospital: Results of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in Four Hospital Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Delgado-Barrera, Lucía; Aparicio-Turbay, Soraya; Molano, Juan Carlos; Noguera, Efraín

    2012-03-01

    Few individuals have access to mental health services due in part to underdetection. As it is more likely to consult for medical conditions, primary care may be a useful gateway for early detection of mental health problems. Detection of the frequency of mental health problems in four hospital services at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá: Outpatient unit, hospitalization, emergency department, and primary care through a brief detection questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Cross-sectional study of patients seen at the four services who answered a Demographic Data Questionnaire and the PHQ together with information gathered about current medical diagnosis, history of visits, and hospitalizations during the last year. 1094 patients seen at the four hospital services between September 2010 and May 2011 were selected at random. A mental health problem was detected in 36.7% of the total sample. Major depressive disorder (7.3%), alcohol abuse (14.4%), and any anxiety disorder (7.7%) showed the highest prevalence with the emergency department showing the highest frequency of detection. The usefulness of a brief detection questionnaire such as the PHQ in hospital settings is demonstrated and implications in the design of mental health programs in the general hospital are discussed. The need to replicate this study in other settings and to undertake further research is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. The ability to induce microtubule acetylation is a general feature of formin proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Thurston

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic microtubules exist as distinct dynamic and stable populations within the cell. Stable microtubules direct and maintain cell polarity and it is thought that their stabilization is dependent on coordinative organization between the microtubule network and the actin cytoskeleton. A growing body of work suggests that some members of the formin family of actin remodeling proteins also regulate microtubule organization and stability. For example, we showed previously that expression of the novel formin INF1 is sufficient to induce microtubule stabilization and tubulin acetylation, but not tubulin detyrosination. An important issue with respect to the relationship between formins and microtubules is the determination of which formin domains mediate microtubule stabilization. INF1 has a distinct microtubule-binding domain at its C-terminus and the endogenous INF1 protein is associated with the microtubule network. Surprisingly, the INF1 microtubule-binding domain is not essential for INF1-induced microtubule acetylation. We show here that expression of the isolated FH1 + FH2 functional unit of INF1 is sufficient to induce microtubule acetylation independent of the INF1 microtubule-binding domain. It is not yet clear whether or not microtubule stabilization is a general property of all mammalian formins; therefore we expressed constitutively active derivatives of thirteen of the fifteen mammalian formin proteins in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells and measured their effects on stress fiber formation, MT organization and MT acetylation. We found that expression of the FH1 + FH2 unit of the majority of mammalian formins is sufficient to induce microtubule acetylation. Our results suggest that the regulation of microtubule acetylation is likely a general formin activity and that the FH2 should be thought of as a dual-function domain capable of regulating both actin and microtubule networks.

  4. (KAP) of mental illness among staff in general medical facilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tendency to cause injury or harm to others and to property.8-11. This is mainly towards .... dentistry, occupational therapy, rehabilitation, physiotherapy and laboratory ...... knowledge in the treatment and prevention of mental health disorders in ...

  5. Association Among Sociodemograhic Factors, Work Ability, Health Behavior, and Mental Health Status for Young People After Prolonged Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Kirsi; Manninen, Pirjo; Räsänen, Kimmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of prolonged unemployment, health, and work ability among young workers using data from the 2008-2010 Occupational Health Counselling project in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The total sample for this study was 190 young unemployed adults. The questionnaire included the Work Ability Index (WAI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the Occupational Health Counselling Survey. Multivariate analyses revealed that men had a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment than women. Using drugs for purposes other than treatment was associated independently with an increased prevalence of prolonged unemployment. Low WAI scores were associated with a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment. This study showed that attention should be paid to male workers, those who have poor or moderate work ability and workers who use drugs. Young unemployed workers should be recognized at an early stage. A comprehensive, flexible network of community resources is essential to support young unemployed adults.

  6. The dyslexia candidate locus on 2p12 is associated with general cognitive ability and white matter structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    Full Text Available Independent studies have shown that candidate genes for dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI impact upon reading/language-specific traits in the general population. To further explore the effect of disorder-associated genes on cognitive functions, we investigated whether they play a role in broader cognitive traits. We tested a panel of dyslexia and SLI genetic risk factors for association with two measures of general cognitive abilities, or IQ, (verbal and non-verbal in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC cohort (N>5,000. Only the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus showed statistically significant association (minimum P = 0.00009 which was further supported by independent replications following analysis in four other cohorts. In addition, a fifth independent sample showed association between the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus and white matter structure in the posterior part of the corpus callosum and cingulum, connecting large parts of the cortex in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that this locus, originally identified as being associated with dyslexia, is likely to harbour genetic variants associated with general cognitive abilities by influencing white matter structure in localised neuronal regions.

  7. Deceptively simple … The "deception-general" ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gordon R T; Berry, Christopher J; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-08-29

    This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can't kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87). In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT), and used it to measure individuals' ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a "deception general" ability) and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ) and emotional (EQ) intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically-by bringing the liar into the "spotlight" which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector-we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  8. Deceptively simple… The deception-general ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can’t kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87. In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT, and used it to measure individuals’ ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a deception general ability and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ and emotional (EQ intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically - by bringing the liar into the ‘spotlight’ which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector – we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  9. An exploratory study of role transition from student to registered nurse (general, mental health and intellectual disability) in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Deasy, Christine; Doody, Owen; Tuohy, Dympna

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed 3rd International Nurse Education Conference Nursing Education in a Global Community Ireland has seen much change in nurse education resulting in four year degree programmes since 2002. A unique aspect of these programmes was the incorporation of rostered internship. This study explored role transition for a cohort of students at pre and post-registration. The sample consisted of fourth year students registered on BSc nursing programmes (general, mental health and intellec...

  10. [Mental Health in General Family Medicine - obstacles and expectations perceived by Family Physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Basílio, Nuno; Figueira, Sofia; Nunes, José Mendes

    2017-03-01

    This study seeks to understand the difficulties experienced by family physicians (FP) in the management of mental disorders (MD) and their proposals to improve the quality of care. It is qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with ten family physicians. These were recorded, transcribed and their content analyzed. Eight thematic categories were identified: perceived working conditions and available resources; perceived level of training in mental health; therapies used for treatment of MD; mental health instruments used in consultation; MD addressed in Primary Health Care (PHC) and referral to hospitals; patient's reaction to referral; articulation of PHC with hospitals; proposals to improve mental health care in PHC. Articulation with the Mental Health Services suffers from lack of accessibility, one-way communication and delayed response. The FP propose creation of consultancies; multidisciplinary teams in the community; creating a two-way communication platform; continuous learning through discussion of cases. The FP have responsibilities in providing MHC. This requires working in a multidisciplinary team. Services should be organized to function as a learning system that allows the progressive improvement of the professionals and the improvement of the interfaces between them.

  11. DIFFERENCES IN GENERAL POPULATION ON KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO MENTAL HEALTH STIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Moreno Herrero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.

  12. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E.; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J.; Neale, Michael C.; Rinker, Daniel A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical–GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations. PMID:24554725

  13. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical-GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations.

  14. A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability Through Effects on Prefrontal Cortex Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Zheng, Fengyu; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n=531) demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or “g.” Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher “g” independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n=236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes inter-individual variation in “g.” PMID:25961639

  15. Evaluating elementary-aged students' abilities to generalize and maintain fluency gains of a performance feedback writing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Bridget O; Eckert, Tanya L

    2014-12-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined the generalization and maintenance of writing fluency improvements developed through these interventions. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether elementary-aged students assigned to a performance feedback intervention condition demonstrated evidence of greater immediate treatment effects, generalization, and maintenance than students assigned to a practice-only condition. Results revealed that in comparison with the practice-only condition (n = 52), students assigned to the performance feedback condition (n = 51) demonstrated significantly greater immediate and generalized writing fluency improvements. However, evidence of maintenance of intervention effects was limited. These findings suggest that, in isolation, performance feedback may produce short-term desired effects on students' writing fluency growth, but that explicit programming of generality may be required to produce long-term achievement gains.

  16. The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuria Mary W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,770 male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1% subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Conclusion The 4.1% clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries.

  17. Stroke Is Predicted by Low Visuospatial in Relation to Other Intellectual Abilities and Coronary Heart Disease by Low General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka T.; Forsén, Tom; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders. Methods We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices) and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers. Results 281 men (10.1%) had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7%) a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD) lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46). Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46), adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79). This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication. Conclusions Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:23144789

  18. Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Kajantie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders. METHODS: We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers. RESULTS: 281 men (10.1% had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7% a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46. Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46, adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79. This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  19. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  20. Stress-related mental disorders with sick leave: a minimal intervention in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. Introduction As stated in chapter 1, this study is carried out because patients and their care-givers have much to gain by the development and implementation of effective care for patients on sick leave having stress-related mental disorders (SMDs). Most people having SMDs with sick leave consult

  1. The Mediating Role of Mental Health in the Relations between Dietary Behaviors and General Health: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to find a pathway to explaining the relations between dietary behaviors with mental health and psychological functioning. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study contains 4763 participants from the employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this study, four questionnaires were administered which were provided as follows: demographic characteristics, 21-item dietary behaviors questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire, and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We started the analysis with the structural equation modeling (SEM) model with 4 unobserved latent and 16 observed variables. Results: The results show that the regression coefficient (standard error) of diet behavior on mental health and mental health on GHQ were − 1 (0.37) and 0.02 (0.01) with their P values as 0.007 and 0.01, respectively. For this model, the estimated root mean square error of approximation is 0.062 with 90% confidence interval of (0.060–0.065). In addition, the comparative fit indices (CFIs) were as 0.866 for incremental fit index and 0.866 for CFI. All these indices represent fairly good fit of the model to the data. Conclusion: We can conclude that “lower scores on diet behavior – higher scores on mental health problems” and “higher mean scores in depression and/or anxiety – higher scores in GHQ domains.” The SEM results showed that dietary behaviors have significance related to depression and/or anxiety and general health status. PMID:28349024

  2. Alcohol use, mental well-being, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among final-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Mei-Ling; Connor, Jennie; Gray, Andrew; Tustin, Karen

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to quantify associations between drinking and mental well-being, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among New Zealand university students approaching graduation. A web-based survey was conducted across all eight New Zealand universities in 2011. Participants were enrolled in their final year of a bachelor degree or a higher qualification and were aged 25 years and under (n = 5082, response level 65 %). Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and items from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between the psychological measures and (1) drinking patterns for all participants (abstention/moderate/hazardous); and (2) consumption indicators for non-abstaining participants (frequency/quantity/heavy drinking frequency), adjusting for a range of individual, social and personality characteristics, separately for men and women. Lower mental well-being was associated with a moderate or hazardous drinking pattern for men, and a hazardous pattern for women, compared to abstaining participants. Higher self-esteem was associated with any level of heavy drinking frequency for men, while the heaviest drinking women had a pattern of lower self-esteem. There was a general pattern of higher general self-efficacy for men and women who drank alcohol. We observed that higher levels of drinking were associated with small, yet statistically significant, differences in psychological outcomes for men and women. Our findings are of uncertain clinical significance; however, they underscore the importance of investigating a fuller range of social and personality factors that may confound the association of drinking and psychological outcomes.

  3. The Effect of Individual Motivation and Cognitive Ability on Student Performance Outcomes in a Distance Education Environment

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    Logan, James W.; Lundberg, Olof H.; Roth, Lawrence; Walsh, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors explored the effects of general mental ability and motivation (operationalized as conscientiousness) on performance in an online distance education course. The results supported the hypotheses that both higher levels of motivation and higher general mental ability are positively associated with academic performance in a distance…

  4. Manejo de pacientes con trastornos mentales en servicios ambulatorios de Medicina General en tres hospitales de Lima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De la Grecca Prevoo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La literatura mundial describe diversos estudios sobre el manejo de trastornos mentales (TM en servicios no psiquiátricos; sin embargo, en el Perú los estudios están básicamente dirigidos a determinar la prevalencia de trastornos mentales en población general o en población hospitalaria no-psiquiátrica. Objetivo: Obtener información sobre las características y actitudes de los médicos generales (MGs y los patrones de manejo de pacientes con probables TM. Materiales y métodos: Se administró una encuesta a 73 médicos que trabajaban en servicios ambulatorios de medicina general en tres hospitales de Lima - Perú. Resultados: El 23% de los MGs recibieron algún curso de salud mental luego de haber concluido los estudios universitarios, 56% se siente confiado en su propia habilidad para diagnosticar un TM, 82% reporta interés en manejar médicamente a pacientes con TM y 66% de siente capaz de ayudarlos. Como práctica usual, 37% reporta realizar evaluación del estado mental (EEM, 48% dice preguntar sobre conducta sexual y 37% sobre historia personal y familiar de TM. La confianza en hacer un diagnóstico fue significativamente más elevada en MGs varones y en asistentes, pero el interés para manejarlos médicamente fue mayor en MGs mujeres. La actualización en salud mental en post-grado se asoció significativamente con la confianza en diagnosticar TM, preguntar sobre historia psiquiátrica y salud sexual, y realizar EEM. Los TM listados como más frecuentemente vistos fueron: depresión, trastornos somáticos sin explicación y trastornos de ansiedad. Los psicotrópicos listados como más utilizados fueron: hipnóticos/sedantes; tónicos, vitaminas y hierbas; y antidepresivos, particularmente tricíclicos. Diagnosticado un TM, 93% dice referirlo a un psiquiatra. Conclusiones: Factores relacionados a los MGs pueden influenciar los patrones de tratamiento de pacientes psiquiátricos en atención primaria. (Rev Med Hered 2005;16:246-252.

  5. Does a short-term intervention promote mental and general health among young adults? – An evaluation of counselling

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    Brucefors Agneta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1988, self-reported mental health problems in Sweden have increased more among young people than in any other age group. Young adults aged 18 – 29 with minor mental health problems were welcomed to four (at most counselling sessions led by psychotherapists. The present study aimed to evaluate the method's appropriateness and usefulness. Methods The study population was recruited consecutively during six months (N = 74 and consisted of 59 women and 15 men. Fifty-one, 46 women and five men, met the criterion for a personal semi-structured interview three months post intervention. Self-assessed health data were collected on three occasions using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Pearlin's Personal Mastery Scale and two items from the Swedish Living Conditions Surveys. Thirteen women and six men were not statistically assessed due to incomplete data, but were interviewed by telephone. Four men refused to be interviewed and became dropouts. Results The largest group of the study population had long been troubled by their problem(s: 43 percent for over three years and 28 percent for over one year. Among those personally interviewed, 76 percent reported psychological distress (> 3 GHQ points before the counselling. After the counselling, GHQ-12 distress decreased by 50 percent while mastery and perceived health status increased significantly. A majority experienced an improved life situation, found out something new about themselves and could make use of the sessions afterwards. Personal participant session contentment was about 70 percent and all counsellees would recommend the intervention to a friend. Those interviewed by telephone were not statistically assessed due to incomplete health data. Their personal contentment was just under 50 percent, though all except one would recommend the counselling to a friend. Their expectations of the intervention were more result-orientated compared to the more process

  6. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

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    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  7. A United Nations General Assembly Special Session for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: the time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Judith K; Bornemann, Thomas H; Burkey, Matthew; Chehil, Sonia; Chen, Lenis; Copeland, John R M; Eaton, William W; Ganju, Vijay; Hayward, Erin; Hock, Rebecca S; Kidwai, Rubeena; Kolappa, Kavitha; Lee, Patrick T; Minas, Harry; Or, Flora; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Saraceno, Benedetto; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are leading causes of the global burden of disease and profoundly impact the social and economic well-being of individuals and communities. The majority of people affected by MNS disorders globally do not have access to evidence-based interventions and many experience discrimination and abuses of their human rights. A United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) is needed to focus global attention on MNS disorders as a core development issue requiring commitments to improve access to care, promote human rights, and strengthen the evidence on effective prevention and treatment.

  8. Alcoholism and Conditional Reasoning: Difficulties in Specific Mental Domains or in the General Use of Heuristics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Astorga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent study states that alcoholics manifest conditional reasoning problems in certain specific mental domains, particularly in the domain of social interactions and in the domain in charge of precautions in hazardous situations. Nonetheless, given that the existence of such domains is questioned in different papers, a reinterpretation of the results of said study, in the light of a theoretical framework more widely accepted, might be needed. That is the aim of this paper, which will be based mainly on the dual-process theory and which will offer a critical review of both the Social contracts theory and the hazard management theory.

  9. The ability of general circulation models to simulate tropical cyclones and their precursors over the North Atlantic main development region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daloz, Anne Sophie; Chauvin, Fabrice [Groupe de Modelisation Grande Echelle et Climat, CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Walsh, Kevin [University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lavender, Sally; Abbs, Deborah [CSIRO Atmospheric and Marine Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Roux, Frank [Universite de Toulouse and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d' Aerologie, Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    The ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to generate Tropical Cyclones (TCs) over the North Atlantic Main Development Region (MDR; 10-20 N, 20-80 W; Goldenberg and Shapiro in J Clim 9:1169-1187, 1996) is examined through a subset of ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations from the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multimodel data set and a high-resolution (0.5 ) Sea Surface Temperature (SST)-forced simulation from the Australian Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model GCM. The results are compared with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-2) and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) reanalyses over a common period from 1980 to 1998. Important biases in the representation of the TC activity are encountered over the MDR. This study emphasizes the strong link in the GCMs between African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and TC activity in this region. However, the generation of AEWs is not a sufficient condition alone for the models to produce TCs. Precipitation over the Sahel, especially rainfall over the Fouta Djallon highlands (cf. Fig. 1), is playing a role in the generation of TCs over the MDR. The influence of large-scale fields such as SST, vertical wind shear and tropospheric humidity on TC genesis is also examined. The ability of TC genesis indices, such as the Genesis Potential Index and the Convective Yearly Genesis Potential, to represent TC activity over the MDR in simulations at low to high spatial resolutions is analysed. These indices are found to be a reasonable method for comparing cyclogenesis in different models, even though other factors such as AEW activity should also be considered. (orig.)

  10. Developmental Change in the Influence of Domain-General Abilities and Domain-Specific Knowledge on Mathematics Achievement: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C; Nicholas, Alan; Li, Yaoran; Sun, Jianguo

    2017-07-01

    The contributions of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge to subsequent mathematics achievement were longitudinally assessed (n = 167) through 8(th) grade. First grade intelligence and working memory and prior grade reading achievement indexed domain-general effects and domain-specific effects were indexed by prior grade mathematics achievement and mathematical cognition measures of prior grade number knowledge, addition skills, and fraction knowledge. Use of functional data analysis enabled grade-by-grade estimation of overall domain-general and domain-specific effects on subsequent mathematics achievement, the relative importance of individual domain-general and domain-specific variables on this achievement, and linear and non-linear across-grade estimates of these effects. The overall importance of domain-general abilities for subsequent achievement was stable across grades, with working memory emerging as the most important domain-general ability in later grades. The importance of prior mathematical competencies on subsequent mathematics achievement increased across grades, with number knowledge and arithmetic skills critical in all grades and fraction knowledge in later grades. Overall, domain-general abilities were more important than domain-specific knowledge for mathematics learning in early grades but general abilities and domain-specific knowledge were equally important in later grades.

  11. How do general practitioners experience providing care to refugees with mental health problems? A qualitative study from Denmark

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    Jensen Natasja Koitzsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees are a particularly vulnerable group in relation to the development of mental illness and many may have been subjected to torture or other traumatic experiences. General practitioners are gatekeepers for access to several parts of the psychiatric system and knowledge of their patients’ refugee background is crucial to secure adequate care. The aim of this study is to investigate how general practitioners experience providing care to refugees with mental health problems. Methods The study was conducted as part of an EU project on European Best Practices in Access, Quality and Appropriateness of Health Services for Immigrants in Europe (EUGATE. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine general practitioners in the vicinity of Copenhagen purposively selected from areas with a high proportion of immigrants. The analysis of the interviews is inspired by qualitative content analysis. Results One of the main themes identified in the analysis is communication. This includes the use of professional interpreters and that communication entails more than sharing a common language. Quality of care is another theme that emerges and includes awareness of possible trauma history, limited possibilities for refugees to participate in certain treatments due to language barriers and feelings of hopelessness in the general practitioners. The general practitioners may also choose different referral pathways for refugees and they report that their patients lack understanding regarding the differences between psychological problems and physical symptoms. Conclusion General practitioners experience that providing care to refugees differs from providing care for patients from the majority population. The different strategies employed by the general practitioners in the health care treatment of refugees may be the result of the great diversity in the organisation of general practice in Denmark and the lack of a national strategy

  12. Inclusive growth between mental department in general hospital and special mental hospital%综合医院精神科与精神病专科医院的包容性增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈育庆

    2011-01-01

    在综合医院就诊的患者中,不少患者同时伴有精神障碍.介绍了综合医院精神医学服务的现状,从社会偏见导致患者不愿到精神专科医院求治、对伴有躯体疾病精神患者的非精神疾病的综合救治能力和设施不足、资源有限导致无法满足不同层次需求等方面指出精神病专科医院的服务局限,从而提出综合医院开设精神科的必要性.认为在收治对象、人才培养、服务宗旨等方面,综合医院精神科与精神病专科医院是互为补充的,是可以通过合作竞争来达到和谐共存,实现包容性增长的局面的.%Some of patients visiting doctors in general hospital often accompany with mental disease. Status of mental service in general is introduced. Shortages in special mental hospital are discussed. First, social prejudice makes patient do not willing to see a doctor in special mental hospital. Second, lack of capacity and equipment to treat mental patients those who accompany with physiological disease. Third, limited resource makes special mental hospital not matching patient demands at all levels. So it is necessary to run mental department in general hospital. Special mental hospital and mental department in general hospital is complementary in parts of patient population, human resource training and service mission. Cooperative competition relation makes reconciliation between special mental hospital and mental department in general hospital and achieves inclusive growth.

  13. Association between self-reported general and mental health and adverse outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of 19,625 Scottish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Ul-Haq

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. RESULTS: Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2% participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55, coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84 and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56. There was evidence of dose relationships and the associations remained significant after adjustment for mental health. 3172 (16% participants had poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4. After adjustment for general health, the associations between poor mental health and coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13, 1.63 and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23, 1.55 became non-significant, but mental health remained associated with psychiatric hospitalisations (fully adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48, 2.75. CONCLUSION: Self-reported general health is a significant predictor of a range of clinical outcomes independent of mental health. The association between mental health and non-psychiatric outcomes is mediated by general health but it is an independent predictor of psychiatric outcome. Individuals with poor general health or mental health warrant close attention.

  14. Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) in French psychiatric and general populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, Marion; Steiler, Dominique; Dutheil, Frédéric; Claverie, Damien; Canini, Frédéric; Fenouillet, Fabien; Naughton, Geraldine; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-30

    The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) has been validated in general population samples in many countries. Interest in using this measure in clinical populations is growing, particularly for tertiary prevention and mental health promotion. This paper reports validation of the French WEMWBS in healthy and chronic remitted schizophrenia populations. The French WEMWBS was administered to 319 workers, 75 students and 121 patients. For non-patients, self-reported Trait- and State-Anxiety, Mindfulness, Positive and Negative Affect and the General Health Questionnaire were completed. For patients, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale, Birchwood Insight Scale, Social Adjustment Scale, and Global Assessment of Functioning scale were completed. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness to intervention was assessed at 6 months. Whatever the sample, response frequencies showed normal distributions, and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α). Scree plots of eigenvalues suggested a single factor in the samples. The one-dimensional solution yielded suboptimal fit indices. Construct validity was confirmed. Significant improvement in scores was observed before and after intervention. Test-retest variation was non-significant. Impairment of insight and cognition in the assessed patients implies that attention must be paid before applying WEMWBS to all patients. Nevertheless, WEMWBS proved valid and reliable in a further European population, suggesting transcultural validity for both monitoring and evaluation of interventions in healthy as well as chronic remitted schizophrenia populations.

  15. An Evaluation of Shared Mental Models and Mutual Trust on General Medical Units: Implications for Collaboration, Teamwork, and Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Sara A; Lemaster, Matthew; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Hinchey, Kevin T

    2015-02-24

    This study examines nurse-physician teamwork and collaboration, a critical component in the delivery of safe patient care, on general medical units. To that end, we assess shared mental models and mutual trust, 2 coordinating mechanisms that help facilitate teamwork, among nurses and physicians working on general medical units. Data were collected from 37 nurses and 42 physicians at an urban teaching medical center in the Northeastern United States. Shared mental model questionnaire items were iteratively developed with experts' input to ensure content validity. Mutual trust items were adapted from an existing scale; items were reliable. Data were analyzed using χ and independent 2-tailed t tests. Physicians and nurses reported significant differences in their perceptions of the professional responsible for a variety of roles (e.g., advocating for the patient [P = 0.0007], identifying a near miss/error [P = 0.003]). Medication reconciliation is only role for which nurses perceive less responsibility than physicians perceive nurses have. Regarding mutual trust, both groups reported significantly more trust within their own professions; both groups reported similar levels of trust in physicians, with physicians reporting significantly less trust in their nursing colleagues than nurses perceive (P collaboration, more work is needed. To that end, we propose increasing knowledge about their respective roles, providing opportunities for nurse and physician collaboration through rounding or committee work and enhancing the preparedness and professionalism of interactions.

  16. Towards a model for understanding the development of post-traumatic stress and general distress in mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P; Martin, Trish

    2015-02-01

    In their daily work, mental health nurses (MHN) are often exposed to stressful events, including patient-perpetrated aggression and violence. Personal safety and health concerns, as well as concern for the physical and psychological well-being of patients, dominate; these concerns have a profound impact on nurses. This cross-sectional study explored and compared the psychological well-being of 196 hospital-based MHN (97 forensic and 99 mainstream registered psychiatric nurses or psychiatric state enrolled nurses). The aim was to examine exposure to inpatient aggression and work stress, and identify factors contributing to the development of post-traumatic stress reactions and general distress. Multiple regression analyses indicated that working in a mainstream setting is associated with increased work stress; however, mainstream and forensic nurses experienced similar psychological well-being. As a group, 14-17% of mainstream and forensic nurses met the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 36% scored above the threshold for psychiatric caseness. A tentative model of post-traumatic stress and general distress in nurses was developed, illustrating the impact of aggression and stress on well-being. The present study affirms that mental health nursing is a challenging and stressful occupation. Implications for organizations, managers, and individual nurses are discussed.

  17. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  18. Genetic performance and general combining ability of oil palm Deli dura x AVROS pisifera tested on inland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Saleh, G; Kushairi, A; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹ with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem.

  19. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  20. The Nature of Mental Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    DC 2033 0 Research Bran ch AFMPC/DFMYF Randolph AF E , TX 78 1 11 8 Dr. Marty R ockway ( A F H R L / T T ) Lowry AFB Colora do 80230 Major W ayn e S...ero erra B lvd . Amherst , t~A 01332 St--rord , CA 911305 1 Dr. Bar bara Hayes -Roth ERIC Facili ty—Acquisitions The Rand Ccrp oratic n 4833 Rug by...HORNO Y K E 600 Mountain Avenue THE RAND C O R F O R A T 1 O N Murray Hill , NJ 079711 1700 MAIN STREET SANTA MO N ICA , CA 901106 PROF. FUMIKO £M-~E

  1. Adolescents' wellbeing and functioning: relationships with parents' subjective general physical and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at examining the relationship between parental subjective health status and adolescents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL as well as the role of gender, socioeconomic status, presence of chronic health care needs and social support on the above interaction. Methods Questionnaires were administered to a Greek nation-wide random sample of adolescents (N = 1 194 aged 11-18 years and their parents (N = 973 in 2003. Adolescents' and parents' status was assessed, together with reports of socio-economic status and level of social support. Various statistical tests were used to determine the extent to which these variables were related to each other. Results and Discussion Parental subjective mental health status was significantly correlated with adolescents' better physical and psychological wellbeing, moods and emotions, parent-child relationships, school environment and financial resources. Parental subjective physical health status was strongly associated with more positive adolescents' self-perception. Adolescents' male gender, younger age, absence of chronic health care needs, high social support, and higher family income were positively associated with better HRQoL. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of parental subjective health status, along with other variables, as a significant factor for the adolescents' HRQoL.

  2. Adolescents' wellbeing and functioning: relationships with parents' subjective general physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, George; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Pedeli, Xanthi; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Rotsika, Vasiliki; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulricke; Tountas, Yannis

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at examining the relationship between parental subjective health status and adolescents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as well as the role of gender, socioeconomic status, presence of chronic health care needs and social support on the above interaction. Questionnaires were administered to a Greek nation-wide random sample of adolescents (N = 1,194) aged 11-18 years and their parents (N = 973) in 2003. Adolescents' and parents' status was assessed, together with reports of socio-economic status and level of social support. Various statistical tests were used to determine the extent to which these variables were related to each other. Parental subjective mental health status was significantly correlated with adolescents' better physical and psychological wellbeing, moods and emotions, parent-child relationships, school environment and financial resources. Parental subjective physical health status was strongly associated with more positive adolescents' self-perception. Adolescents' male gender, younger age, absence of chronic health care needs, high social support, and higher family income were positively associated with better HRQoL. This study reinforces the importance of parental subjective health status, along with other variables, as a significant factor for the adolescents' HRQoL.

  3. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  4. Migraine life-time prevalence in mental disorders: concurrent comparisons with first-degree relatives and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Arapé, Yinet; Serrano, Ana; Mazzarella, Xiorella; Quiroz, Segundo; Ramirez, Clara Isabel; Padrón de Freytez, Alix

    2012-03-01

    The authors quantified the prevalence of migraine in subjects with mental disorders, first-degree relatives and the adult general population (GP) in Mérida, Venezuela. After validation, a modified, short version of the Lipton's diagnostic scale was administered to consecutively admitted in- and out-patients (n = 1059), their first-degree relatives (n = 445) and a probabilistic sample of the GP (n = 516). In the GP, the frequency of migraine (percentage and 95% confidence interval) was 14.9 (11.8-17.9). The migraine frequencies were (percentage and odd ratio probability against the GP: bipolar disorder (15.7%, p = 0.5), schizophrenia (8.3%, p = 0.08), depression and dysthimia (24.4%, p = 0.2), anxiety disorders (10.0%, p = 0.02), personality disorders (11.4%, p = 0.15), all other disorders (15.5%, p = 0.4), relatives of bipolar patients (4.4%, p < 0.001), relatives of schizophrenia patients (3.5%, p = 0.003), and relatives of patients with all other mental disorders (12.8%, p = 0.4). Migraine was more common in women (p < 0.001), and the bipolar patients presented the highest female to male ratio (8:1). A high variability was observed in migraine prevalence among the diagnostic categories, but it was particularly high in subjects with affective disorders, mainly in women, who thus deserve special attention from clinicians.

  5. The Influence of General Discrimination and Social Context on Young Urban Expecting Couples' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Campbell, Christina; Washington, Keahnan; Albritton, Tashuna; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Young expecting parents face a great deal of challenges as they transition into parenthood. This paper sought to identify racial and gender differences in the relationship between general discrimination, neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, and social support on the depressive and stress symptoms among young expecting couples. Results indicated perceived general discrimination and less social support was associated with increased stress and depression. More neighborhood problems were related to increased depression and more neighborhood cohesion was related to less stress. Moderator analyses showed that the influence of general discrimination and stress was stronger for women than men. In addition, neighborhood cohesion was protective on stress for Blacks and Whites but not for Hispanics. These results indicate the need to address the broader social context for young expectant couples.

  6. An evidence synthesis of care models to improve general medical outcomes for individuals with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Daniel W; Cunningham, Natasha T; Slubicki, Monica N; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Kilbourne, Amy M; Nagi, Avishek; Williams, John W

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies of interventions that integrated medical and mental health care to improve general medical outcomes in individuals with serious mental illness. English-language publications in MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library, from database inception through January 18, 2013, were searched using terms for our diagnoses of interest, a broad set of terms for care models, and a set of terms for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental design. Bibliographies of included articles were examined for additional sources. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched using the terms for our diagnoses of interest (serious mental illness,SMI,bipolar disorder,schizophrenia,orschizoaffective disorder) to assess for evidence of publication bias and ongoing studies. 4 RCTs were included from 1,729 articles reviewed. Inclusion criteria were RCT or quasi-experimental design; adult outpatient population with 25% or greater carrying a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder; intervention with a stated goal to improve medical outcomes through integration of care, using a comparator of usual care or other quality improvement strategy; and outcomes assessing process of care, clinical outcomes, or physical functioning. A trained researcher abstracted the following data from the included articles: study design, funding source, setting, population characteristics, eligibility and exclusion criteria, number of subjects and providers, intervention(s), comparison(s), length of follow-up, and outcome(s). These abstracted data were then overread by a second reviewer. Of the 4 studies reviewed, 2 good-quality studies (according to the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) that evaluated processes of preventive and chronic disease care demonstrated positive effects of integrated care. Specifically, integrated care interventions were associated with increased rates of immunization

  7. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, A.O.M.

    1993-09-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The role of common mental and physical disorders in days out of role in the Iraqi general population: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Rosellini, Anthony J; Lindberg, Marrena; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to support mental health policy planning efforts in conjunction with the reconstruction of Iraq, a nationally representative face-to-face household survey was carried out that assessed the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in the Iraqi population. A total of 4332 adult (ages 18+) respondents were interviewed (95.2% response rate). The current report presents data on the role impairments (number of days out-of-role in the past 30 days) associated with the nine mental disorders assessed in the survey in comparison to the impairments associated with ten chronic physical disorders also assessed in the survey. These disorders were all assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Days out-of-role were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Both individual-level and societal-level effects of the disorders were estimated. Strongest individual-level predictors were bipolar and drug abuse disorders (176-195 days per year), with mental disorders making up five of the seven strongest predictors. The strongest population-level predictors were headache/migraine and arthritis (22-12% population proportions). Overall population proportions were 57% of days out-of-role due to the chronic physical disorders considered here and 18% for the mental disorders. Despite commonly-occurring mental disorders accounting for more individual-level days out-of-role than the physical disorders, mental disorders are much less likely to receive treatment in Iraq (e.g., due to stigma). These results highlight the need for culturally tailored mental health prevention and treatment programs in Iraq.

  9. Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness--general paralysis of the insane vs. frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Trimble, M R

    2006-12-01

    For a long time it was thought that Nietzsche suffered from general paralysis of the insane (GPI). However, this diagnosis has been questioned recently, and alternative diagnoses have been proposed. We have charted Friedrich Nietzsche's final fatal illness, and viewed the differential diagnosis in the light of recent neurological understandings of dementia syndromes. It is unclear that Nietzsche ever had syphilis. He lacked progressive motor and other neurological features of a progressive syphilitic central nervous system (CNS) infection and lived at least 12 years following the onset of his CNS signs, which would be extremely rare for patients with untreated GPI. Finally, his flourish of productivity in 1888 would be quite uncharacteristic of GPI, but in keeping with reports of burgeoning creativity at some point in the progression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We suggest that Nietzsche did not have GPI, but died from a chronic dementia, namely FTD.

  10. Attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members and the general population in a large city in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stigma towards people with mental illness is believed to be widespread in low and middle income countries. Methods This study assessed the attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members of patients in a psychiatric facility and the general public using a standard 43-item survey (N = 535). Exploratory factor analysis identified four distinctive attitudes which were then compared using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) among the four groups, all with ties to the largest psychiatric facility in Guangzhou, China, adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Results Four uncorrelated factors expressed preferences for 1) community-based treatment, social integration and a biopsychosocial model of causation, 2) direct personal relationships with people with mental illness, 3) a lack of fear and positive views of personal interactions with people with mental illness, 4) disbelief in superstitious explanations of mental illness. Statistically significant differences favored community-based treatment and biopsychosocial causation (factor 1) among professional groups (psychiatrists and nurses) as compared with family members and the general public (p < 0.001); while family members, unexpectedly, showed far weaker personal preferences for direct personal relationships with people with mental illness than all three other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion Both psychiatrists and nurses showed greater support for social integration and biopsychosocial understandings of mental illness than the lay public, most likely because of their training and experience, while family members showed the least positive attitudes towards direct personal relationships with people with mental illness. These findings suggest support for a more extensive, formal system of care that gives family members some distance from the problems of their relatives and support in their care. PMID:25053975

  11. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations.

  12. 走跑交替运动对智力障碍学生平衡能力的影响%Effects of alternate walk run exercise on balance ability of students with mental retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德荣; 刘泽媚; 刘珊珊

    2014-01-01

    通过对20名智力障碍学生进行为期9周的走、跑交替训练,对智力障碍学生的平衡能力进行训练前后的对照,探讨了走、跑交替运动对智力障碍学生的平衡能力影响。结果显示,训练后受试者的睁眼单腿站立能力有所提高,且显示出统计学差异;闭眼单腿站立能力和走直线能力有所提高但未呈现统计学差异。%The 20 students’mental disorder during the nine weeks walk and run alternate training,balance ability of students with mental retardation were compared before and after the training,to balance the ability to walk and run alternating motion of students with mental retardation effect.The results showed that,after the training subjects eyes opened,single leg standing ability improved and showed significant difference;eye closed and single leg standing ability and walk the line capacity improved but did not show significant difference.

  13. Umbilical cord androgens and estrogens in relation to verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 10 in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Hickey, Martha; Maybery, Murray T.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities are a contentious area of research. Prenatal steroids have been shown to have masculinizing effects on the brain that may affect the development of nonverbal and verbal abilities in later life. The current study examined a wide range of biologically active sex steroids (both androgens and estrogens) in umbilical cord blood at birth in a large pregnancy cohort in relation to performance on nonverbal (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices) and verbal (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) measures at age 10 years. Overall, Androgen and Estrogen composites in cord blood were not found to be predictive of performance on verbal and nonverbal measures at age 10. These data suggest that late gestation sex steroids do not exert a major effect on nonverbal and verbal abilities in middle childhood. PMID:28278304

  14. DIFFERENTIAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, ELEANOR E.; RAU, LUCY

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNS OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND PERSONALITY TRAITS WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY OF 6 GROUPS OF CHILDREN (120) IN GRADE 5. SCORES ON THE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES TEST, IOWA ACHIEVEMENT TEST, AND CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY WERE USED AS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES. (JK)

  15. The Effect of Using an Explicit General Problem Solving Teaching Approach on Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Ability to Solve Heat Transfer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataka, Lloyd M.; Cobern, William W.; Grunert, Megan L.; Mutambuki, Jacinta; Akom, George

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the effectiveness of adding an "explicit general problem solving teaching strategy" (EGPS) to guided inquiry (GI) on pre-service elementary school teachers' ability to solve heat transfer problems. The pre-service elementary teachers in this study were enrolled in two sections of a chemistry course for pre-service…

  16. Contributions of a Child’s Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology of a child’s cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negati...

  17. The Effect of Block-Word Diagrams on the Structuring of Science Concepts as a Function of General Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of block-word diagrams in science instruction for ninth graders using directed graphs that express content structure as key concepts joined by arrows. Results include the finding that the effect of text-plus-diagram treatment compared to text-only treatment was different for learners of different ability. (CS)

  18. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  19. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognmo Kamilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well.

  20. Combined effect of mental disorder and low social support on care service use for mental health problems in the Dutch general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, M; Vollebergh, W; Bijl, R; Ormel, J

    2002-01-01

    Background. People with a mental disorder have high rates of service utilization for emotional or addiction problems. Little is known about the role of functional impairments and low social support in such service use. This article investigates: (1) whether the presence of multiple functional impair

  1. Baseline Assessment of Campus-Wide General Health Status and Mental Health: Opportunity for Tailored Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Awareness Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lisa D.; MacDonald, Michael G.; Wallace, Erica H.; Smith, Julia; Wummel, Brian; Wren, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A campus-wide assessment examined the physical and mental health status of a midsize midwestern public university. Participants: Two thousand and forty-nine students, faculty, and staff on a single college campus were assessed in March-April 2013. Methods: Participants completed an online survey with sections devoted to demographics,…

  2. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey a

  3. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population : results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; Nolen, Willem A.; Speckens, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey a

  4. Specific fears and phobias in the general population: results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depla, Marja F I A; ten Have, Margreet L; van Balkom, Anton J L M; de Graaf, Ron

    2008-03-01

    To examine the prevalence rate, impairment, comorbidity, course of illness and determinants of eight specific phobia variants: animals (animal subtype); heights, water, storms (natural environment subtype); flying, enclosed spaces, being alone (situational subtype); and blood/injury (blood/injury subtype). Data were obtained from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a prospective study in the Dutch general population aged 18-65 (N = 7,076). The most prevalent condition was specific phobia with a fear of heights (4.9%). On all parameters except duration, specific phobia with a fear of being alone emerged as the most severe condition. Phobias with fear of enclosed spaces and phobias with fear of blood showed a slightly greater likelihood of impairment, comorbidity and personality problems than phobias with fear of animals, heights, water or storms. The situational and blood/injury phobia subtypes appear to be a more significant index for impairments and for comorbid psychiatric disorders than the animal and natural environment phobia subtypes.

  5. Doctor, can you spare some time? The role of workload in general practitioners' involvement in patients' mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangtinge, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological

  6. Doctor, can you spare some time? The role of workload in general practitioners' involvement in patients' mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangtinge, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    GPs have an important position in the identification of patients’ mental health problems. As generalists, GPs are often the first health professionals contacted by patients with mental health problems and they are assigned to provide integrated care for both patients’ somatic and psychological probl

  7. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers") have an advantage in executive functions (inhibition of irrelevant information, problem solving, planning efficiency, generative fluency and self-monitoring) compared to those bilinguals showing weaker language control abilities ("switchers"). Methods 29 late bilinguals (21 women) were evaluated using various cognitive control neuropsychological tests [e.g., Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Task, Divided Attention, Go/noGo] tapping executive functions as well as four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The analysis involved t-tests (two independent samples). Non-switchers (n = 16) were distinguished from switchers (n = 13) by their performance observed in a bilingual picture-naming task. Results The non-switcher group demonstrated a better performance on the Tower of Hanoi and Ruff Figural Fluency task, faster reaction time in a Go/noGo and Divided Attention task, and produced significantly fewer errors in the Tower of Hanoi, Go/noGo, and Divided Attention tasks when compared to the switchers. Non-switchers performed significantly better on two verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Information and Similarity), but not on the Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Block Design). Conclusions The present results suggest that bilinguals with stronger language control have indeed a cognitive advantage in the administered tests involving executive functions, in particular inhibition, self-monitoring, problem solving, and generative fluency, and in two of the intelligence tests. What

  8. Strategic use of reminders: Influence of both domain-general and task-specific metacognitive confidence, independent of objective memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J

    2015-05-01

    How do we decide whether to use external artifacts and reminders to remember delayed intentions, versus relying on unaided memory? Experiment 1 (N=400) showed that participants' choice to forgo reminders in an experimental task was independently predicted by subjective confidence and objective ability, even when the two measures were themselves uncorrelated. Use of reminders improved performance, explaining significant variance in intention fulfilment even after controlling for unaided ability. Experiment 2 (N=303) additionally investigated a pair of unrelated perceptual discrimination tasks, where the confidence and sensitivity of metacognitive judgments was decorrelated from objective performance using a staircase procedure. Participants with lower confidence in their perceptual judgments set more reminders in the delayed-intention task, even though confidence was unrelated to objective accuracy. However, memory confidence was a better predictor of reminder setting. Thus, propensity to set reminders was independently influenced by (a) domain-general metacognitive confidence; (b) task-specific confidence; and (c) objective ability.

  9. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat. Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and ...

  10. 湖北省综合医院偿债能力分析%Study on Debt Paying Ability of General Hospital in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 龚勋; 张文斌

    2012-01-01

    To understand general hospital debt paying ability from 2007 to 2009 in Hubei Province. Methods: Using quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as descriptive and comparative methods, to study the status and development trend of debt paying ability. Results: General hospital has high debt level. The short-term debt paying ability develops well, but the long-term one gets into trouble. Conclusion: The general hospital should properly control the liabilities, improve the utilization rate of liquidity, and strengthen the profitability of fixed assets to improve the whole level of debt paying ability and at last promote the sustainable development of the general hospital.%目的:了解湖北省2007年到2010年4年间的综合医院偿债能力情况.方法:采用定性与定量、描述性分析与对比分析的方法,研究偿债能力的现状及变化发展趋势.结果:湖北省综合性医院的负债水平偏高,短期偿债能力发展良好,长期偿债能力陷入困境.结论:应该适当控制负债资产,提高流动资金利用率并提示固定资产的收益能力,以提高整体偿债水平,促进综合医院的可持续发展.

  11. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Tr?ndelag health study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamilla Rognmo; Fartein Ask Torvik; Helga Ask; Espen Røysamb; Kristian Tambs

    2012-01-01

    .... One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome...

  12. Art promoting mental health literacy and a positive attitude towards people with experience of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.

  13. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAltweck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL – the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders – tends to be higher in Asian and African cultures, compared to European and North American cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: a to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, b to examine the MHL model quantitatively, c to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and d to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  14. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  15. Comparing stigmatising attitudes towards people with substance use disorders between the general public, GPs, mental health and addiction specialists and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, Leonieke C; Brouwers, Evelien Pm; van Weeghel, Jaap; Garretsen, Henk Fl

    2015-09-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most severely stigmatised conditions; however, little is known about the nature of these stigmatising attitudes. To assess and compare stigmatising attitudes towards persons with SUDs among different stakeholders: general public, general practitioners (GPs), mental health and addiction specialists, and clients in treatment for substance abuse. Cross-sectional study (N = 3,326) in which stereotypical beliefs, attribution beliefs (e.g. perceptions about controllability and responsibility for having an addiction), social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities for individuals with substance use disorders were assessed and compared between stakeholders. Individuals with substance use disorders elicited great social distance across all stakeholders. Stereotypical beliefs were not different between stakeholders, whereas attribution beliefs were more diverse. Considering social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, the general public was most pessimistic, followed by GPs, mental health and addiction specialists, and clients. Stereotypical and attribution beliefs, as well as age, gender and socially desirable answering, were not associated with social distance across all stakeholders. The general public and GPs expressed more social distance and were more negative in their expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, compared to mental health and addiction specialists and clients. Although stigmatising attitudes were prevalent across all groups, no striking differences were found between stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Comparison of the Ability of Domestic and Foreign Community Mental Health Service%中外社区心理卫生服务能力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯露; 吴均林; 陈晶

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health services determine the degree of improvement of mental health of community residents. However, there are few independent service providers in China yet the services providing are simple with few professional workers and there is a lack of human resource management. In foreign countries there are more organizations engaged in community mental health service with more avail-able services and trained workers. To broaden the service content, enhance human resources development, establish a continuous mechanism and integrate social resources into community mental health services are problems need to solve urgently.%社区心理卫生服务的能力决定了社区居民的心理健康水平的提高程度,我国目前几乎没有独立的服务场所、服务内容简单、人员少、专业能力不足、缺乏人力规划.国外的社区心理卫生服务参与的组织多,提供的内容丰富,人员有严格的培训.扩大心理卫生服务内容、制定社区心理卫生人力发展规划、建立连续性服务机制和整合社会资源参与社区心理卫生服务是亟待解决的问题.

  17. A General Theoretical Integrative Model of Individual Differences in Interests, Abilities, Personality Traits, and Academic and Occupational Achievement: A Commentary on Four Recent Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    This commentary integrates the contents of four recent articles on individual differences (Nye, Su, Rounds, & Drasgow, 2012; Schmidt, 2011; Valla & Ceci, 2011; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011) in a causal theoretical model. In this model, introversion and fluid intelligence cause interest in general learning (intellectual curiosity), which in turn is a major cause of crystallized intelligence. Certain specific interests and fluid intelligence also contribute to crystallized intelligence. Prenatal testosterone hormone conditioning is postulated to cause sex differences in certain specific interests but not in others. Crystallized intelligence, specific interests, and the personality trait of conscientiousness cause adult academic and occupational performance, whereas crystallized intelligence is the main cause of good mental functioning at older ages. Research is presented supporting each link in the model.

  18. 个案管理培训对乡村精神卫生服务能力的影响%Effect of Case Management Training on Rural Mental Health Service Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丰菊; 吕路线; 秦志华; 王志敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of case management training model on mental health service ability of rural areas. Methods By means of simple random sampling,41 village doctors from Hehe township and Dazhaoying township of XinXiang County in April 2011 to April 2012 who became general practitioners after provincial training were selected and divided into 21 in research group and 20 in control group. Similarly,82 schizophrenic patients under the follow - up management of town-ship hospitals were selected and divided into 42 in research group and 40 in control group;116 family members were divided into 56 in research group and 60 in control group accordingly. The village doctors in the two groups all received basic training and the doctors in research group also received eXtra case management training. All the patients received mental health education and the patients in research group also received comprehensive intervention. All family members received nursing education and the family members in research group also took part in the case management plan designed for their own relatives only. Case test questionnaire was used to evaluate mental obstacle recognition ability of the village doctors in the two groups;social disability screening sched-ule(SDSS)was used to evaluate patientsˊ social ability;mental health and psychological health knowledge questionnaire was used to investigate the family membersˊ awareness rate. Results The recurrence rate of the patients in research group 2. 4% (1 /42)was lower than that in control group 7. 5% (3 / 40)and the difference was significant(χ2 = 4. 046,P é 0. 05). For schiz-ophrenia and mania disorder mainly with positive symptoms and schizophrenia with negative symptoms,the diagnostic accurate rate of the village doctors,the recognition rate and the correct rate of treatment suggestion in the research group were all higher than those in the control group(P é 0. 05). After intervention,the scores of profession work

  19. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Excessive heart rate increase during mild mental stress in preparation for exercise predicts sudden death in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouven, Xavier; Schwartz, Peter J; Escolano, Sylvie; Straczek, Céline; Tafflet, Muriel; Desnos, Michel; Empana, Jean Philippe; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study involves the early identification, among apparently healthy individuals, of those at high risk for sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that individuals who respond to mild mental stress in preparation for exercise test with the largest heart rate increases might be at highest risk. Data from 7746 civil servants participating in the Paris Prospective Study I, followed-up for 23 years, allowed to compare heart rate changes between rest and mild mental stress (preparation prior to an exercise test) between subjects who suffered sudden cardiac death (n = 81), non-sudden (n = 129) coronary death, or death from any cause (n = 1306). The mean heart rate increase during mild mental stress was 8.9 +/- 10.8 b.p.m. Risk of sudden cardiac death increased progressively with heart rate increase during mental stress and the relative risk of the third vs. the first tertile was 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.86) after adjustment for confounders. This relationship was not observed for non-sudden coronary death. An important heart rate increase produced by a mild mental stress predicts long-term risk for sudden cardiac death. Heart rate changes before an exercise test may provide a simple tool for risk stratification.

  1. General and specific combining abilities in a maize (Zea mays L.) test-cross hybrid panel: relative importance of population structure and genetic divergence between parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larièpe, A; Moreau, L; Laborde, J; Bauland, C; Mezmouk, S; Décousset, L; Mary-Huard, T; Fiévet, J B; Gallais, A; Dubreuil, P; Charcosset, A

    2017-02-01

    General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.

  2. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: The contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHornung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.

  3. Association, characterisation and meta-analysis of SNPs linked to general reading ability in a German dyslexia case-control cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bent; Wilcke, Arndt; Czepezauer, Ivonne; Ahnert, Peter; Boltze, Johannes; Kirsten, Holger; Friederici, Angela D.; Emmrich, Frank; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Neef, Nicole; Boltze, Johannes; Skeide, Michael; Kirsten, Holger; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Kraft, Indra; Czepezauer, Ivonne; Dörr, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a severe disorder in the acquisition of reading and writing. Several studies investigated the role of genetics for reading, writing and spelling ability in the general population. However, many of the identified SNPs were not analysed in case-control cohorts. Here, we investigated SNPs previously linked to reading or spelling ability in the general population in a German case-control cohort. Furthermore, we characterised these SNPs for functional relevance with in silico methods and meta-analysed them with previous studies. A total of 16 SNPs within five genes were included. The total number of risk alleles was higher in cases than in controls. Three SNPs were nominally associated with dyslexia: rs7765678 within DCDC2, and rs2038137 and rs6935076 within KIAA0319. The relevance of rs2038137 and rs6935076 was further supported by the meta-analysis. Functional profiling included analysis of tissue-specific expression, annotations for regulatory elements and effects on gene expression levels (eQTLs). Thereby, we found molecular mechanistical implications for 13 of all 16 included SNPs. SNPs associated in our cohort showed stronger gene-specific eQTL effects than non-associated SNPs. In summary, our results validate SNPs previously linked to reading and spelling in the general population in dyslexics and provide insights into their putative molecular pathomechanisms. PMID:27312598

  4. Training and Exploration of Mental health Service Capacity of Rural General Practitioners%基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力的培训及探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱少娟(通讯作者); 李华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Discuss the training path on the all -around doctor mental health service ability of teaching practice .Methods:On the base of general practitioners self -rating symptom scale (SCL-90 scale), chronic psychological guidance , psychological, mental health problems , clinical features , treatment and prevention and control principle of training .Results:Chronic psychological guidance , psychological , mental health problems , clinical characteristics , treatment and control principle of the project , the teacher evaluation and student evaluation results were 67.5%, 70.2%, self-rating symptom scale (SCL-90 scale) student self -assessment results for 25. 9%.Conclusion:(1)The all-around doctor mental health services and improve their ability;(2) The weak psychological measurement knowledge , strengthening medical psychology , psychological measurement knowledge training .%目的:探讨对基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力的教学实践培训路径。方法:对基层全科医生进行症状自评量表( SCL~90量表)、慢性病心理指导、常见心理、精神卫生问题临床特征、处理及防控原则的培训。结果:慢性病心理指导、常见心理、精神卫生问题临床特征、处理及防控原则项目,老师考核和学员自评结果分别为67.5%、70.2%,症状自评量表( SCL~90量表)学员自评结果为25.9%。结论:(1)基层全科医生心理卫生服务能力有所提高;(2)心理测量知识薄弱,应加强医学心理学、心理测量知识培训。

  5. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  6. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  7. Variants in doublecortin- and calmodulin kinase like 1, a gene up-regulated by BDNF, are associated with memory and general cognitive abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Le Hellard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human memory and general cognitive abilities are complex functions of high heritability and wide variability in the population. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in mammalian memory formation. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDING: Based on the identification of genes markedly up-regulated during BDNF-induced synaptic consolidation in the hippocampus, we selected genetic variants that were tested in three independent samples, from Norway and Scotland, of adult individuals examined for cognitive abilities. In all samples, we show that markers in the doublecortin- and calmodulin kinase like 1 (DCLK1 gene, are significantly associated with general cognition (IQ scores and verbal memory function, resisting multiple testing. DCLK1 is a complex gene with multiple transcripts which vary in expression and function. We show that the short variants are all up-regulated after BDNF treatment in the rat hippocampus, and that they are expressed in the adult human brain (mostly in cortices and hippocampus. We demonstrate that several of the associated variants are located in potential alternative promoter- and cis-regulatory elements of the gene and that they affect BDNF-mediated expression of short DCLK1 transcripts in a reporter system. CONCLUSION: These data present DCLK1 as a functionally pertinent gene involved in human memory and cognitive functions.

  8. Conceptions of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  9. Cognitive Correlates of Different Mentalizing Abilities in Individuals with High and Low Trait Schizotypy: Findings from an Extreme-Group Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It

  10. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  11. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  12. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  13. Hostility/anger as a mediator between college students' emotion regulation abilities and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.

  14. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity.

  15. General rule antielisive chartered the National Tax Code confrontation between the principle of ability to pay and the rule of closed typicality and the alleged tax by analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Robert Nahra Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Check the possibility of the general standard employment antielisiva the parental right, ouseja, taxation by analogy legal fact extratípico effects econômicosequivalentes the typical legal fact, based on the abuse of rights doctrine and noprincípio of ability. Analysis in the face of the principles of legalidadeestrita and closed typicality, the principle of security developments jurídica.Conclui the impossibility of taxation by analogy for the offense to dasegurança legal principle that stands for certainty and predictability in entreEstado relations and taxpayers. The breach of the principle of strict legality because deexigência specific and qualified law to detributos institution. The offense aoprincípio closed typicality that prevents the tax nãodescrito legal fact with all its details by law. These principles not passíveissequer limitation, since they are immutable clauses. Inability to restriçãoda full effectiveness of the rule of the principle of typicality contributiva.Impossibilidade ability to taxation by the integrative method of analogy, therefore existecerta charge, even if relative, creativity inherent in the method and dependent inexistirlacunas fill in relevant matters to detributos institution , existing in reality free of the right spaces.

  16. The well-being and mental health of male and female hospital doctors in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between subjective well-being and mental health. In addition, gender differences are evaluated. The research was conducted as a cross-sectional online survey using a standardized questionnaire to assess physicians' mental health and well-being. Results have shown moderate scores for mental health and well-being in physicians. In general, male physicians perceive a better well-being and higher mental health score than female physicians. Well-being and mental health should be improved to increase physicians' work ability and subsequently, the quality of treatment and patient satisfaction. Mental health prevention should be more widely implemented in hospitals, and its awareness and early treatment should be encouraged. Mental health interventions might include modifying physicians' daily work schedules, providing curricula on mental health and offering training on the awareness of distress and well-being.

  17. Group play therapy for improving mental coping ability in children with asthma%团体游戏治疗改善哮喘儿童心理应对能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 张际; 梅其霞; 黄英; 刘玉琳; 袁小平; 胡平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨团体游戏治疗对改善哮喘儿童心理应对能力的作用.方法 将有行为问题的44例哮喘儿童随机分为干预组(n=25)和对照组(n=19).两组均采用Achenbach儿童行为评定量表(CBCL)和慢性病儿童应对方式量表(CODI)分别对患儿进行试验前后测试,所有成员均于干预前后接受2次量表测试.试验处理前,两组均接受前测.试验过程中,干预组成员接受为期3个月、两周1次、共6次的团体游戏治疗,对照组在此期间不接受任何试验干预.试验结束后,两组都接受后测.试验结束后评价团体游戏治疗对改善哮喘儿童行为问题和应对方式的作用.结果 44例患儿中脱落5例,实际完成研究39例(干预组20例,对照组19例).两组患者的一般情况(年龄、性别、文化程度、父母婚姻、家庭结构等)和基线CBCL和CODI量表得分的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),具有可比性.经过团体游戏治疗,干预组CBCL量表中交往不良、社交退缩、抑郁、强迫行为、攻击性、不成熟等因子分和行为问题总分有显著降低(P<0.05),对照组则无明显变化;干预组CODI量表中接受、逃避、负性情绪反应因子分及应对方式总分均显著提高(P<0.05),对照组则无明显变化.结论 团体游戏治疗可通过提高自信心、增强人际适应能力及情绪管理能力,可矫正行为偏差,改善应对方式,提高哮喘儿童心理应对能力,促进患儿心理健康发展.%Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n-25) and control group (n=19). All children received two tests- The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI). Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the

  18. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective: To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method: This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone. The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10. Results: Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%, childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%, and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%. All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations. Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10 associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001. All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations. Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions: Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence

  19. A pilot study of the sensitivity and specificity analysis of the standard-Spanish version of the Culture-Fair Assessment of Neurocognitive Abilities and the Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Amin, Kiran; Virden, Thomas B; Baca, Louise; Uribe, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study purports to address the need for culturally validated, evidence-based assessments and to serve as a springboard for future culturally sensitive research. This study was conducted in the Dominican Republic. It entailed counterbalanced administration of a standard Spanish translation of the Culture-Fair Assessment of Neurocognitive Abilities (S-S CANA) and the standard Spanish translation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental; ECM-M). The sample was composed of 30 Spanish-speaking Dominican adults who met the inclusion criteria for the normative and clinical groups. In an effort to initiate the validation process for the S-S CANA, as well as norm it to the given population, the efficacy of the S-S CANA in determining neuropathology was then compared to that of the ECM-M. Analyses of variance and covariance and t-tests were conducted, and a receiver-operating characteristic curve was computed. Results indicated significantly greater sensitivity and specificity of the S-S CANA relative to the ECM-M.

  20. Study on correlation between mental health of nursing undergraduates and their critical thinking ability%护理本科生心理健康状况与其评判性思维能力相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽; 陈亚飞; 邢蓓蓓; 肖归; 张秀英

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨护理本科生心理健康状况和评判性思维能力之间的关系,为促进护生的心理健康进而提高护生的评判性思维能力提供可靠的理论依据。[方法]采用评判性思维量表、SCL 90症状自评量表对63名护理本科生进行调查分析。[结果]护理本科生评判性思维总分为(278.35±33.14)分,其中评判性思维<280分者37人(58.73%),280分~349分者23人(36.51%),≥350分者3人(4.76%);SCL 90显示,护理本科生躯体化、强迫症状、焦虑、恐怖、精神病性评分与国内青年组常模比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);评判性思维总分与 SCL 90总均分呈负相关(P<0.01)。[结论]护生的心理健康状况与评判性思维密切相关,护生的心理健康状况对其评判性思维能力有一定的预见性,培养护生良好的心理健康状况有利于提高其评判性思维的水平。%Obj ective:To probe into the relationship between mental health and their critical thinking ability of nursing undergraduates,pro-vide a reliable theoretical basis for promotion of mental health of nurs-ing students and to improve nursing students’critical thinking ability. Methods:Critical thinking scale and SCL 90 symptom self rating scale were used to investigate and analyze 6 3 nursing undergraduates.Re-sults:The total score of nursing undergraduates’critical thinking was (278.35±33.14),in which 37 students with critical thinking score <280(58.73%),23 students with 280 to 349 score(36.51%),≥350 in 3 students(4.76%);SCL 90 showed that there was statistically signifi-cant difference in somatization,obsessive compulsive symptoms,anxi-ety,phobia,psychosis scores between nursing students and domestic youth group norm(P<0.05);the total score of critical thinking was negatively related to total average score of SCL 90(P<0.01).Con-clusion:The mental health of nursing undergraduate is closely related to their critical thinking ability,and it has a certain predictability

  1. Global mental health: Global strengths and strategies Task-shifting in a shifting health economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Melvin G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2011-09-01

    Global mental health challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mental health disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the global burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mental health care globally. The knowledge of what mental health and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek appropriate care. Limited training and experience among primary providers dilutes the capacity of systems for adequate care, support, and intervention. There are limited numbers of medical personnel worldwide to attend to individuals afflicted by mental health disorders. The challenges of global mental health are the capacity of the global systems to enhance knowledge and literacy surrounding mental health disorders, enhance and expand ways of identifying and treating mental health disorders effectively at an early stage in its course. Much has been written about the epidemiology of mental health disorders globally followed by discussions of the need for improvements in programs that will improve the lot of the mentally ill. Task shifting involves the engaging of human resources, generally nonprofessional, in the care of mental health disorders. Engaging traditional healers and community health workers in the identification and management of mental health disorders is a very strong potential opportunity for task shifting care in mental health. In doing so it will be necessary to study the concept of mental health literacy of traditional healers and health workers in a process of mutual alignment of purpose founded on evidence based research.

  2. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population : results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J; De Graaf, R; Bijl, RV; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  3. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: results from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; Bijl, R.V.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background Data on the duration of major depressive episodes (MDE) in the general population are sparse. Aims To assess the duration of MDE and its clinical and socio-demographic determinants in a study group drawn from the general population with newly originated episodes of major depression. Metho

  4. 某省级综合医院护士心理健康状况分析%A Provincial General Hospital Nurses, in Mental Health Situation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志英

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation of a provincial general hospital mental health nurses for the care managers provide the basis for decision-making. Methods The full census manner consistent with the standard of 668 nurses, the use of SCL-90 questionnaire conducted a questionnaire survey. The results of a provincial general hospital mental health nurses survey compared with the norm, SCL-90 questionnaire 9 symptoms factor in five, including somatization, compulsion, depression, anxiety and sleep eating, scores higher than the norm;survey divided equally between the total score and the total is also higher than the norm. Conclusion heart nurses poor health, and nursing profession on the particularity and complexity. Care managers need to focus on the mental health nurses and reasonable with human resources, to strengthen professional standards, improving the level of mental health nurses.%目的 调查某省级综合医院护士心理健康状况,为护理管理者决策提供依据.方法 采用全员普查方式对符合纳入标准的668名护士,采用SCL-90的调查表进行问卷调查.结果 某省级综合医院护士心理健康状况调查与国内常模比较,SCL-90调查表的9个症状因子中有5个包括躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑和饮食睡眠,分值高于常模;调查总分和总均分也高于常模.结论 护士的心里健康状况欠佳,与护理职业的特殊性及复杂性有关.护理管理者需要重视护士的心理健康,合理配备人力资源,强化专业水平,改善护士心理健康水平.

  5. General and Specific Effects on Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composites: Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Cattell-Horn-Carroll Factor Clusters across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Barry, Amberly; Rafael, Fawziya; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Many school psychologists focus their interpretation on composite scores from intelligence test batteries designed to measure the broad abilities from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the broad ability composite scores from one such intelligence test…

  6. Dopamine receptor blockade attenuates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingently delivered rewards and reward-paired cues without affecting their ability to bias action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Maidment, Nigel T

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cues affect our behavior in a variety of ways. Despite playing an invaluable role in guiding our daily activities, such cues also appear to trigger the harmful, compulsive behaviors that characterize addiction and other disorders of behavioral control. In instrumental conditioning, rewards and reward-paired cues bias action selection and invigorate reward-seeking behaviors, and appear to do so through distinct neurobehavioral processes. Although reward-paired cues are known to invigorate performance through a dopamine-dependent incentive motivational process, it is not known if dopamine also mediates the influence of rewards and reward-paired cues over action selection. The current study contrasted the effects of systemic administration of the nonspecific dopamine receptor antagonist flupentixol on response invigoration and action bias in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, a test of cue-elicited responding, and in instrumental reinstatement, a test of noncontingent reward-elicited responding. Hungry rats were trained on two different stimulus-outcome relationships (eg, tone-grain pellets and noise-sucrose solution) and two different action-outcome relationships (eg, left press-grain and right press-sucrose). At test, we found that flupentixol pretreatment blocked the response invigoration generated by the cues but spared their ability to bias action selection to favor the action whose outcome was signaled by the cue being presented. The response-biasing influence of noncontingent reward deliveries was also unaffected by flupentixol. Interestingly, although flupentixol had a modest effect on the immediate response invigoration produced by those rewards, it was particularly potent in countering the lingering enhancement of responding produced by multiple reward deliveries. These findings indicate that dopamine mediates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingent rewards and reward-paired cues but does not support their ability to bias

  7. Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention for Stress-related mental disorders with Sick leave (MISS; study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice [ISRCTN43779641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Marwijk Harm WJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aims of this paper are to describe the setting and design of a Minimal Intervention in general practice for Stress-related mental disorders in patients on Sick leave (MISS, as well as to ascertain the study complies with the requirements for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT. The potential adverse consequences of sick leave due to Stress-related Mental Disorders (SMDs are extensive, but often not recognised. Since most people having SMDs with sick leave consult their general practitioner (GP at an early stage, a tailored intervention given by GPs is justified. We provide a detailed description of the MISS; that is more accurate assessment, education, advice and monitoring to treat SMDs in patients on sick leave. Our hypothesis is that the MISS will be more effective compared to the usual care, in reducing days of sick leave of these patients. Methods The design is a pragmatic RCT. Randomisation is at the level of GPs. They received the MISS-training versus no training, in order to compare the MISS vs. usual care at patient level. Enrolment of patients took place after screening in the source population, that comprised 20–60 year old primary care attendees. Inclusion criteria were: moderately elevated distress levels, having a paid job and sick leave for no longer than three months. There is a one year follow up. The primary outcome measure is lasting full return to work. Reduction of SMD- symptoms is one of the secondary outcome measures. Forty-six GPs and 433 patients agreed to participate. Discussion In our study design, attention is given to the practical application of the requirements for a pragmatic trial. The results of this cluster RCT will add to the evidence about treatment options in general practice for SMDs in patients on sick leave, and might contribute to a new and appropriate guideline. These results will be available at the end of 2006.

  8. Replication of a gene-environment interaction Via Multimodel inference: additive-genetic variance in adolescents' general cognitive ability increases with family-of-origin socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-03-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES-an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research.

  9. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  10. The ideal role of the nurse teacher in the clinical area: a comparison of the perspectives of mental health, learning difficulties and general nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N; Forrest, S; Pollock, L C

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a study that explored trained nurses' and student nurses' perceptions of the nurse teachers' ideal role in the clinical area. Findings demonstrate a dichotomy of opinion regarding the ideal role of the nurse teacher in the clinical area that relates to the nursing specialties in which trained nurses work. Trained nurses working in general nursing areas favoured a product-focused, inspectorate supervisory role for nurse teachers. Conversely, trained nurses working in mental health and learning difficulties areas favoured a supportive, supervisory role for the nurse teacher that emphasized the learning process and encouraged reflection. The consequence of the different models used for student nurses' experience of supervision are discussed and the issue of nurse teachers' clinical credibility is explored. It is suggested that trained nurses, nurse teachers and student nurses should be involved in negotiating and constructing the role that nurse teachers play in the clinical area.

  11. [The implementation of integrated networks of mental health services in Quebec: context of introduction, state of implementation and the views of general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the emerging context of integrated service networks (ISN), clarifies the concept of ISN, and highlights some of the key factors in the successful implementation of ISNs. The Quebec healthcare reform illustrates the current state of development of integrated care. The main targets of the reform are the consolidation of primary care and the development of collaborative models of mental health care (or shared care). Since they are very complex to operate (insofar as they require major system changes), ISNs are not widely developed. General practitioners are at the heart of the current reforms since they have a key role to play in the successful implementation of integrated care models, including ISN models.

  12. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  13. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health.

  14. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced abil

  15. Is cognitive impairment following early life stress in severe mental disorders based on specific or general cognitive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Steen, Nils E; Agartz, Ingrid; Aminoff, Sofie R; Lorentzen, Steinar; Sundet, Kjetil; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2012-08-15

    Schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorder are characterized by high levels of childhood trauma as well as of cognitive dysfunction. Our aim is to investigate the association between these two factors in the largest study in the literature so far. A total of 406 patients with schizophrenia spectrum- or bipolar disorders were recruited from a catchment area based organization in Oslo, Norway. Information about early life stress was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardized neuropsychological test battery. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and physical neglect were significantly associated with reduced scores on working memory and executive function scales (p=0.04 to pIntelligence (WASI) (p=0.059 to pdisorders, in particular working memory and executive function as well as general cognition. Moreover, these dysfunctions seem to be driven by underlying deficits in general cognitive tasks as measured by the WASI.

  16. A Case Study of the Oral Narrative Abilities of a Child with Mildly Mental Retardation%轻度智力障碍儿童口语叙事能力个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曼; 马红英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral narrative abilities of a child with mildy mental disability on a macro level, in order to provide teachers and parents with references of rehabilitation and education. Methods The narrative language samples of an 11-year-old child with mental disability were collected and the narrative ability was analyzed on a macro level. Results (1) The subject failed to demonstrate his ability to complete the entire plot of the material studied. (2)The subject lacked an ability to depict the whole process of ‘initiating event, action and consequences’, but presented rather acceptable ‘person setting’ characteristics. (3) The correlation with the theme was noticeable, the narrative style simple, and the content rather concise yet limited; however, there was a lack of story logics within. Conclusion The subject showed little description of the ‘initiating event, action and consequences’ process, with limited logic skills that results in communication difficulties in daily life. Children’s narrative abilities must be taught together with cognition training, and should be improved on the basis of short-term memory and abstract thinking.%  目的从叙事的宏观层面研究轻度智力障碍儿童的口语叙事能力,以期为教师和家长实施康复教育提供参考。方法采用个案研究的方法,收集1名11岁轻度智力障碍儿童讲故事或重述故事的语言样本,以叙事的宏观层面为分析指标,研究轻度智力障碍儿童的口语叙事能力。结果①个案的叙事能力处于不完整情节水平;②个案叙事时引发事件、采取的行动和结果元素表现较差,故事背景元素中的人物元素表现良好;③个案叙事主题相关性高,叙说风格平淡无味,内容简短、流畅度差,叙事时能够把握一定的事件顺序,但逻辑关系不清。结论个案叙事缺乏引发事件、行动和结果要素,逻辑关系不清造成其在日常

  17. Paranormal experiences, mental health and mental boundaries, and psi

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Watt, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that paranormal beliefs and experiences are associated with thinner mental boundaries and traumas during childhood. This paper examines more thoroughly the relationship between paranormal experiences, mental health and boundaries, and psi abilities. One hundred and sixty two participants completed questionnaires about paranormal experiences (AEI), mental health (MHI-17), mental boundaries (BQ-Sh), traumas during childhood (CATS) and life-changing events (LES). ...

  18. Uncertainty and Climate Change and its effect on Generalization and Prediction abilities by creating Diverse Classifiers and Feature Section Methods using Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Kosta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The model forecast suggests a deterministic approach. Forecasting was traditionally done by a singlemodel - deterministic prediction, recent years has witnessed drastic changes. Today, with InformationFusion (Ensemble technique it is possible to improve the generalization ability of classifiers with highlevels of reliability. Through Information Fusion it is easily possible to combine diverse & independentoutcomes for decision-making. This approach adopts the idea of combining the results of multiplemethods (two-way interactions between them using appropriate model on the testset. Althoughuncertainties are often very significant, for the purpose of single prediction, especially at the initialstage, one dose not consider uncertainties in the model, the initial conditions, or the very nature of theclimate (environment or atmosphere itself using single model. If we make small changes in the initialparameter setting, it will result in change in predictive accuracy of the model. Similarly, uncertainty inmodel physics can result in large forecast differences and errors. So, instead of running one prediction,run a collection/package/bundle (ensemble of predictions, each one kick starting from a different initialstate or with different conditions and sequentially executing the next. The variations resulting due toexecution of different prediction package/model could be then used (independently combining oraggregating to estimate the uncertainty of the prediction, giving us better accuracy and reliability. Inthis paper the authors propose to use Information fusion technique that will provide insight of probablekey parameters that is necessary to purposefully evaluate the successes of new generation of productsand services, improving forecasting. Ensembles can be creatively applied to provide insight against thenew generation products yielding higher probabilities of success. Ensemble will yield critical features ofthe products and also provide insight to

  19. Influence of the course prescription of sodium succinate on functional state and general physical working ability of footballers organism during the training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Володимирович Чернєв

    2015-09-01

    intensity. There was ascertained that course use of succinate sodium had a positive effect for metabolism, cytoarchitecture and functional abilities of erythrocytes. Normalization of indicators of the mean size of aggregate, indicator of aggregation and percent of unaggregated erythrocytes indicated an improvement of the state aggregative activity of erythrocytes, and the changes of rigidity index of erythrocytes indicated an improvement of its ability to deformation. The decrease of erythrocytes aggregation and normalization of its ability to deformation have a positive effect on rheological properties of blood and therefore lead to an improvement of blood circulation in microvessels and normalization of tissue metabolism.High physical activity and low fatigability; normal sleep and appetite; absence of transient attacks of head ache, unmotivated changes of mood, irritation and so on indicated an improvement of the general state of sportsmen who underwent the course prescription of succinate sodium

  20. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  1. Function analysis of comprehensive ability of nurse in mental rehabilitation nursing%护士综合能力在精神康复护理中的作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士巧; 崔卫东; 张丽; 赵幸福

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察护士综合能力对精神康复护理的影响;方法将本院2012年1月~2013年9月收治的86例慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为两组。试验组44例经综合能力培训的护理人员进行康复护理。而对照组42例为经常规能力培训的护理人员。观察两组患者在康复护理后临床疗效PANSS评分的差异。同时评价患者及家属对护理满意度情况;结果护理后试验组患者PASS评分显著下降,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。同时其也明显低于同期对照组,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);试验组护理满意率为93.2%显著高于对照组73.8%,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论综合能力较好的护理人员对精神康复护理疗效显著。其能够显著减少患者症状的发生。同时患者对护理满意度也较高。进而减少患者发作时的痛苦折磨,提高其生活质量和治疗依从性,值得临床选择。%ObjectiveTo observe the influence of comprehensive ability of nurse on mental rehabilitation nursing.Methods 86 patients with chronic schizophrenia during January 2012 to September 2013 were randomly divided into 2 groups. 44 cases of experiment group were given rehabilitation nursing by nurses after comprehensive ability training. 42 cases of control group were given rehabilitation nursing by nurses after routine ability training. After rehabilitation treatment, difference between PANSS scores of the 2 groups was observed. Meanwhile, satisfaction rate of patient and their family towards nursing was evaluated.ResultsAfter nursing, PASS score of experiment group dropped obviously (P<0.05), and also obviously lower than control group in the corresponding period (P<0.05). Satisfaction rate towards nursing of experiment group was 93.2% obviously higher than control group 73.8% (P<0.05).Conclusion Nurses with comprehensive abilities can make significant clinical effects for mental rehabilitation nursing. They can

  2. A novel deletion in 2q24.1q24.2 in a girl with mental retardation and generalized hypotonia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Orazio; Palumbo, Pietro; Palladino, Teresa; Stallone, Raffaella; Zelante, Leopoldo; Carella, Massimo

    2012-01-03

    Chromosomal imbalances, recognized as the major cause of mental retardation, are often due to submicroscopic deletions or duplications not evidenced by conventional cytogenetic methods. To date, interstitial deletion of long arm of chromosome 2 have been reported for more than 100 cases, although studies reporting small interstitial deletions involving the 2q24.1q24.2 region are rare. With the widespread clinical use of comparative genomic hybridization chromosomal microarray technology, several cryptic chromosome imbalances have outlined new genotype-phenotype correlations and isolated a number of distinctive clinical conditions. here we report on a girl with mental retardation and generalized hypotonia. A genome-wide screen for copy number variations (CNVs) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array revealed a 7.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome region 2q24.1q24.2 encompassing 59 genes, which was absent in parents. The gene content analysis of the deleted region and review of the literature revealed the presence of some genes that may be indicated as good candidate in generating the main clinical features of the patient. the present case represents a further patient described in the literature with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q24.1q24.2. Our patient shares some clinical features with the previously reported patients carriers of overlapping 2q24 deletion. Although more cases are needed to delineate the full-blown phenotype of 2q24.1q24.2 deletion syndrome, published data and present observation suggest that hemizygosity of this region results in a clinically recognizable phenotype. Considering these clinical and cytogenetic similarities, we suggest the existence of an emerging syndrome associated to 2q24.1q24.2 region.

  3. A study of the effects that grouping laboratory partners based on logical thinking abilities have on their problem solving strategies in a general chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammouz, Minory Suhil

    2005-07-01

    The development of problem solving skills and strategies is generally of importance in science education and specifically in chemistry, and is usually assessed by traditional methods such as laboratories, homework, and examinations. However, for instructors, developing a deep understanding of how students solve the problems is difficult and very time consuming. One potential way to address this problem is an internet-based software package known as IMMEX (Interactive Multimedia Exercises). Originally developed at the UCLA Medical School, it has now been expanded to K-12 and college classrooms. IMMEX Problems are case-based and cover a wide range of subject areas. Using this software the students are able to navigate throughout the problem space by choosing the necessary items from a range given to them. The student is provided with immediate feedback; if the student chooses an incorrect answer, most problems will allow for a review of the problem space and submit a second. The IMMEX system tracks the strategies used through a search path map for each problem the student answers; then these data are collected and analyzed using artificial neural networks for pattern recognition. In the present study, students were allowed to stabilize on a problem solving strategy by working five problems before conclusions were drawn regarding their acquired strategies. The major difference now being that any changes in strategy that occurred during and after the intervention of group-work would be by a student that had previously settled on a preferred strategy. The effects of group composition on students' problem solving strategies were also studied. The results presented in this study support the use of collaborative learning as a method that improves students' problem solving strategies. It was found that a collaborative learning environment would not only improve students' problem solving strategies in the groups, but would also carry over their individual subsequent

  4. A model of facilitative communication for the support of general hospital nurses nursing mentally ill people. Part I: background, problem statement and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavundla, T R; Poggenpoel, M; Gmeiner, A

    2001-03-01

    The impressive growth in the extent and range of psychiatric services provided by general hospitals in South Africa creates stress among nurses employed in these settings who are not psychiatric trained. This manifests itself in negative attitudes displayed towards mentally ill people. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process followed in the development of the model of facilitative communication. A theory generative design was used. The research methods were dealt with in four steps of theory generation as set out below. Step 1 entailed concept analysis. This step was dealt with in two phases, namely concept identification and concept definition. During concept identification, a qualitative research strategy that is explorative, descriptive and contextual was used. This was achieved through field research conducted in an urban general hospital. A sample of twelve professional nurses was selected from a population of 800 professional nurses employed in a general hospital using the purposive sampling technique. This sample size was determined by saturation of data in themes. Both semi-structured individual phenomenological interviews and observations were used as methods of data collection. Giorgi's method of descriptive data analysis (1985) was used. Four themes emerged from the results of the study. The main concepts of the model were identified and classified using a survey list of Dickoff et al. (1968). Step 2 dealt with the creation of interrelationship statements between concepts identified in Step 1, while Step 3 dealt with the description of the model using strategies proposed by Chinn and Kramer (1991). In Step 4, the description of guidelines for operationalizing in practice was ensured. To ensure valid results, a model for trustworthiness proposed by Guba (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) was used. The following criteria for trustworthiness were applied in all the steps of theory generation: truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality.

  5. Analysis of Correlation between the Mental Health in Soldiers in Some Army in Chongqing and Physical Ability%重庆某部队战士心理健康与体能相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between the mental health in soldiers in some army in Chongqing and physi-cal ability. Methods The soldiers in some armed police forces in Chongqing were researched by the symptom self-check list (SCL-90), and all participants took 8 physical ability tests after filling out the symptom self-check list. Results There were obvious differences in the various scores in the symptom self-check list and military norm scores (P<0.001), the force had an obvious negative correlation with the sit-and-reach scores; somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, horror, psychoti-cism, total score had an obvious negative correlation with the 5-kilometer running score; force, paranoia, interpersonal sen-sitivity had an obvious positive correlation with the 5-kilometer running; depression, anxiety, somatization, total score had an obvious negative correlation with the 100-meter running score; force, anxiety, hostility, paranoia, depression had an ob-vious negative correlation with the chin score; anxiety, psychoticism, horror, total score had an obvious negative correlation with the holding power score;somatization, depression, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility had an obvious negative corre-lation with the sargent jump score; and the somatization and psychoticism had an obvious negative correlation with the push-up score. Conclusion The mental health in soldiers in the army has a certain correlation with the physical ability.%目的:是探讨部队战士的心理健康和体能的相关关系。方法该研究以重庆某武警总队战士为研究对象,研究工具为《症状自评量表(SCL-90)》,所有参与人员在填写症状自评量表之后,参加8项体能测试。结果该部队战士的症状自评量表各项得分与军队常模得分之间,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。强迫与坐位体前屈得分呈显著的负相关;躯体化、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、精神病性以及总分与五公里

  6. The impact of healthcare workers job environment on their mental-emotional health. Coping strategies: the case of a local general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis Koinis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals’ physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers’ mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%. Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital’s review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events, evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach’s α=0.862. Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals’ emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life -BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001 and quitting (t=−2.564, P=0.011 are predisposing factors. For the ‘mental health and spirituality’ regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000 and seeking social support (t=−1.991, P=0.048 are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0

  7. Inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1) in a man with mental retardation, short stature, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism: clinical study and mutation analysis of the NXF5 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frints, S.G.; Jun, L.; Fryns, J.P.; Devriendt, K.; Teulingkx, R.; Berghe, L. van den; Vos, B. de; Borghgraef, M.; Chelly, J.; Portes, V. des; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Hamel, B.C.J.; Ropers, H.H.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Raynaud, M.; Moraine, C.; Marynen, P.; Froyen, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a 59-year-old male (patient A059) with moderate to severe mental retardation (MR) and a pericentric inversion of the X-chromosome: inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1). He had short stature, pectus excavatum, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism. Until now, no other patients with similar clinic

  8. Feasibility Analysis of Carrying out the Mental Health Training Systematically for General Practitioners%对全科医生开展系统心理卫生知识与技能培训的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬莹

    2011-01-01

    So far the mental health prohlems have become the major public health and social prohlems. and the demand of the community residents for mental health service has been increasing day by day. In this study the current situation of community mental health service and the necessity to carry on this service are discussed ; the feasibility that the general practitioners serve as the primary force in the community mental health work is analyzed, the clinic knowledge and skills of mental health that the general practitioners should master are systematically summarized, meanwhile , some strategies and measures for carrying on the training are also proposed.%目前心理卫生问题已成为重大的公共卫生和社会问题,社区居民的心理卫生服务需求日益增加.本研究对社区心理卫生工作的现状及开展的必要性进行论述,对以全科医生为主力军开展社区心理卫生工作的可行性进行分析,系统归纳全科医生应掌握的心理卫生知识与技能,同时提出开展培训的措施与对策.

  9. The Role of Visual Perceptual Stress in Primary Mental Ability Aging%视知觉压力在基本心理能力老化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓飞; 彭华茂

    2015-01-01

    信息降格说认为,感觉功能老化使认知系统难以获得良好的信息输入,并必须牺牲有限的认知资源获得更好的刺激信息,使能用于认知加工的资源不足,造成认知老化。为探讨感觉功能对基本心理能力老化的作用,该研究采用2(年龄组:年轻、老年组)×4(视知觉压力水平:高、中、低、无噪音)的混合设计,考察年轻、老年组在相同视知觉压力下基本心理能力的年龄差异。结果发现和无噪音条件相比,相同视知觉压力下基本心理能力(数字能力、归纳推理能力)的年龄差异减小,甚至消失,一定程度上支持信息降格说。视觉功能衰退可能是影响基本心理能力老化的重要因素,但这种作用受认知资源的调节。%Sensory function is considered a basic resource for the aging of cognition. According to the information- degradation hypothesis (Schneider & Pichora-Fuller, 2000), the decline of sensory function reduces the input of peripheral stimulating information to the central neural system of older adults, and so more attention resources are demanded to process the limited quality sensory information. With the result of fewer resources being left for cognitive processing, older adults have worse cognitive performance than younger adults. The present study adopted a 2 (age: old and young) × 4 (visual perceptual stress: high, medium, low, no-noise) mixed design, with age as a between-subject variable and visual perceptual stress as a within-subject variable, to examine the role of visual function on cognitive aging. Three primary mental abilities (PMA), spatial orientation ability, numerical ability and inductive reasoning ability, were used as the indexes of cognitive functions. Allcognitive tests were displayed under four different levels of visual perceptual stress by standardized programs on the computer. The visual perceptual stress was created by covering stimuli with Gaussian

  10. Clinical Effectiveness of Family Therapeutic Interventions Embedded in General Pediatric Primary Care Settings for Parental Mental Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Riley, Anne W; Noazin, Sassan; Umoren, Mfon Valencia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the available evidence on embedded family therapy interventions in pediatrics and impacts on parental mental health and family functioning outcomes. The Cochrane Collaboration guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis were used for this study. Six electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized trials. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE system were used to rate the quality of evidence of the included studies. The primary outcomes included parental distress, parental depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction. Fixed effects models showed statistically significant reductions in parental distress at 6-month and 12-month post-intervention in favor of the intervention group. Family therapy model, intervention level, delivery modality, and dosage moderated intervention impacts on parental distress. Fixed effects models showed statistically significant reductions in parental depressive symptoms and in dysfunctional parent-child interaction in favor of the intervention group. Family therapy interventions can be successfully embedded in general pediatric primary care, and intended outcomes are achieved in this setting. Recommendations for future research and implications for policy development are discussed.

  11. 精神分裂症患者心理旋转能力的事件相关电位研究%The ERP study on mental rotation ability of schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玖; 杨来启; 赵瑾; 刘光雄; 张彦; 吴兴曲; 马文涛; 邓自和

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症患者心理旋转的脑电生理机制,完善与精神分裂症患者在空间能力方面的事件相关电位(event-related potentials,ERP)的功能联系.方法 对来自解放军第三医院的30例精神分裂症患者和28例正常健康人进行心理旋转任务的ERP测定.测量其P300家族成分中P500的潜伏期、波幅及其错误数和反应时.结果 与对照组P500[PZ:(493.39 ±54.00)ms,(5.63±4.22)μv;P3:(495.68±42.00)ms,(6.50±3.76)μv;P4:(478.89±43.42)ms,(4.93±3.67)μv;CZ:(487.11±45.21)ms,(5.34±4.10)μv]相比,患者组合计潜伏期均延迟[PZ:(573.37±45.01)ms,t=3.38;P3:(584.70±43.13)ms,t=2.92;P4:(578.30±41.71)ms,t=-2.30;CZ:(493.39±54.00)ms,t=-2.56],合计波幅均降低[PZ:(3.04±1.32)μv,t=3.26;P3:(4.02±1.52)μv,t=2.80;P4:"(2.73±2.00)μv,t=-2.20;CZ:(5.63±4.22)μv,t=-2.43],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);区分正镜像时,患者组正像和镜像潜伏期都延迟、波幅都降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精神分裂症患者心理旋转能力受损,正镜像受损程度不一致,正镜像加工的电生理机制可能不同,提示可作为临床辅助诊断指标.%Objective To explore the brain electrophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia mental rotation, and to improve the function relation of event-related potentials for schizophrenia in space ability. Methods Testing P500 of P300 family composition potentials when 30 patients with schizophrenia and 28 normal healthy people made the mental rotation tasks, Measuring the incubation period and amplitude of P500, and the wrong number and reaction time. Results Compared with control group P500 composition (PZ: (493.39 ± 54.00)ms, (5.63 ± 4.22)μv; P3 : (495.68 ± 42.00)ms, (6.50 ± 3.76)μv; P4: (478.89 ± 43.42)ms, (4.93 ± 3.67)μv; CZ: (487.11 ± 45.21)ms, (5.34 ± 4.10) μv) , when the determining results on normal and mirror image were combined, schizophrenia' incubation period was significantly later (PZ: (573.37

  12. 全科医学中的心理健康病案研究(十五)——一位老人的抑郁(第二部分)%Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice(15)--Depression in An Old Person(Part Two)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiona Judd; Grant Blashki; Leon Piterman; 杨辉

    2013-01-01

    The Journal presents the Column of Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice; with academic support from Australian experts in general practice, psychology and psychiatry from Monash University and the U-niversity of Melbourne. The Column's purpose is to respond to the increasing needs of mental health services in China. Through study and analysis of mental health cases, we hope to improve understanding of mental illnesses in Chinese primary health settings , and to build capacity of community health professional in managing of mental illnesses in general practice. Patient - centred and whole - person approach in general practice is the best way to maintain and improve the physical and mental health of residents. Our hope is that these case studies will lead new wave of general practice and mental health development both in practice and academic research. A number of Australian experts from the disciplines of general practice, mental health and psychiatry will contribute to the Column. You will find A/Professor Blashki, Professor Judd and Professor Piterman are authors of General Practice Psychiatry. The Journal cases are helping to prepare for the translation and publication of a Chinese version of the book in China. We believe Chinese mental health in primary health care will step up to a new level under this international cooperation.

  13. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  14. 特发性全面性癫痫患者的元记忆监测研究%Metamemory monitoring ability in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娇南; 蒋玉宝; 朱一鸣; 贾婷; 卫玲; 汪凯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the memory monitoring ability in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and explore the mechanism of the memory impairment.Methods The feeling of knowing (FOK) paradigm of episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) were established and subsequently administered in 31 patients with IGE (IGE group) and 30 healthy controls (HC group) participants who were matched in age,sex and educational level.Results Compared with HC group (feeling of knowing of episodic memory (FOK-EM) FOK accuracy (85.29± 16.84) %;feeling of knowing of sematic memory (FOK-SM) recall (76.61± 18.66) %),the FOK-EM FOK accuracy ((64.03± 22.10) %) and FOK-SM recall ((53.27±26.91) %) in IGE group were significantly decreased(t=-4.215,P<0.01;t=-3.677,P<0.01).The correct judgment and correct recognition of FOK-EM ((51.16±32.93) %) and the false judgment and correct recognition ((21.07±24.38) %) of FOK-EM in the IGE group were significantly different with the HC group (the correct judgment and correct recognition of FOK-EM:(79.34±27.26)% and the false judgment and correct recognition of FOK-EM:(2.45±5.38) %;t=-3.634,P<0.01;t=4.149,P<0.01).Most importantly,the false judgment and correct recognition of FOK-EM were correlated with the Digital Span Test,Vocabulary Fluency Test and the Stroop effect in IGE group (r=-0.309,P<0.05;r=-0.355,P<0.01;r=-0.354,P<0.05;r=0.602,P<0.01).Conclusion The results show that the IGE group made less accurate metamemory monitoring than the HC group by underestimating their memoU performance on FOK-EM,whereas the semantic metamemory monitoring is not impaired in IGE group.More importantly,the impairment of memory monitoring was correlated with the deficit of executive function,indicating that this mechanism can be an influential factor of memory disorder in IGE.It also indicates that the episodic and semantic metamemory monitoring depend on different neural networks.%目的 研

  15. International Students and Mental Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helen Forbes-Mewett; Anne-Maree Sawyer

    2016-01-01

    .... Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international...

  16. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  17. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Daniel FK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.

  18. The Investigation of the Influence of Group Calisthenics Teaching on College Students’ Mental Health and Society Adapt-ability%团体操教学对大学生心理健康及社会适应能力影响的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娜

    2013-01-01

    本文通过文献资料、实验和数理统计等方法对普通高校大学生心理健康和社会适应能力状况进行调查分析,旨在探讨团体操在体育教学中对大学生的心理健康和社会适应能力的影响作用。研究采用UPI量表和《社会适应能力诊断量表》作为测试标准,调查结果表明,团体操教学有利于大学生的心理健康和社会适应能力的促进。%With the combination of documentary analysis, experiment, statistics analysis and other methods, this thesis do some research and analysis on college students’ mental health and society adapt-ability, aiming at investigate in the physical education Group Calisthenics’ influence on college students’ mental health and society adapt-ability. The study adopts UPI Questionnaire and Society Adapt-ability diagnosis as the test standard. The result of research reflects that Group Calisthenics teaching is beneficial to promote the college students’ mental health and society adapt-ability.

  19. Genome arrays for the detection of copy number variations in idiopathic mental retardation, idiopathic generalized epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders: lessons for diagnostic workflow and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach, R; Buizer-Voskamp, J E; Vorstman, J A S; Ophoff, R A

    2011-01-01

    We review the contributions and limitations of genome-wide array-based identification of copy number variants (CNVs) in the clinical diagnostic evaluation of patients with mental retardation (MR) and other brain-related disorders. In unselected MR referrals a causative genomic gain or loss is detected in 14-18% of cases. Usually, such CNVs arise de novo, are not found in healthy subjects, and have a major impact on the phenotype by altering the dosage of multiple genes. This high diagnostic yield justifies array-based segmental aneuploidy screening as the initial genetic test in these patients. This also pertains to patients with autism (expected yield about 5-10% in nonsyndromic and 10-20% in syndromic patients) and schizophrenia (at least 5% yield). CNV studies in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder and Tourette syndrome indicate that patients have, on average, a larger CNV burden as compared to controls. Collectively, the CNV studies suggest that a wide spectrum of disease-susceptibility variants exists, most of which are rare (<0.1%) and of variable and usually small effect. Notwithstanding, a rare CNV can have a major impact on the phenotype. Exome sequencing in MR and autism patients revealed de novo mutations in protein coding genes in 60 and 20% of cases, respectively. Therefore, it is likely that arrays will be supplanted by next-generation sequencing methods as the initial and perhaps ultimate diagnostic tool in patients with brain-related disorders, revealing both CNVs and mutations in a single test. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gambling disorders, gambling type preferences, and psychiatric comorbidity among the Thai general population: Results of the 2013 National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; McNeil, Edward B; Tantirangsee, Nopporn; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence rates of pathological and problem gambling were 0.90% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-1.29] and 1.14% (95% CI: 0.58-1.70), respectively. The most popular type of gambling was playing lotteries [69.5%, standard error (SE) = 1.9], the prevalence of which was significantly higher among females and older age groups. The most common psychiatric disorders seen among pathological gamblers were alcohol abuse (57.4%), nicotine dependence (49.5%), and any drug use disorder (16.2%). Pathological gambling was highly prevalent among those who ever experienced major depressive episodes (5.5%), any drug dependence (5.1%), and intermittent explosive disorder (4.8%). The association between pathological gambling was strongest with a history of major depressive episode [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 10.4, 95% CI: 2.80-38.4]. Conclusion The study confirms the recognition of gambling disorders as a public health concern in Thailand and suggests a need for culturally specific preventive measures for pathological gamblers and those with a history of substance use disorders or major depression.

  1. FACTORES PROTECTORES DE LA SALUD MENTAL: UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO SOBRE VALORES, AUTOESTIMA E INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL EN POBLACIÓN CLÍNICA Y POBLACIÓN GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESA C. GÓNGORA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo que se informa fue realizar un estudio comparativo de tres factores protectores de la salud mental: inteligencia emocional, valores y autoestima entre 60 pacientes diagnosticados con trastornos de ansiedad y/o depresión y 60 sujetos de población normal. Así la muestra total quedó conformada por 120 sujetos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: la Escala de Valores de Schwartz (1992, la Escala de Inteligencia Emocional Bar-On (1997, la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (1965, la Escala de Ansiedad STAI-rasgo (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg & Jacobs, 1983 y la Escala de Depresión de Beck-II (Beck, Steer & Brown, 2006. Los resultados indicaron que Autoestima y un aspecto de la inteligencia emocional, Felicidad, fueron las variables que mejor distinguieron al grupo clínico del grupo de población general. Dos componentes de la inteligencia emocional, Manejo de Estrés y Estado de Animo, distinguieron claramente entre sujetos con alta y baja ansiedad. Ambas dimensiones permitieron identificar correctamente a un 91.7% de sujetos con alta ansiedad. Un bajo nivel de valores de Autotrascendencia, una alta Autoestima y una alta dimensión del Estado de Animo de la inteligencia emocional permitieron distinguir un 85.3% de los pacientes con alta y baja depresión. Los resultados están en consonancia con los principios de la Psicología Positiva, en tanto que aspectos positivos también contribuyen a las variables patológicas y por lo tanto pueden fortalecerse a través de intervenciones positivas.

  2. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Ask, Helga; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    .... One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome...

  3. Comparison of ability development between pervasive developmental disorder and mental retardation children%广泛性发育障碍与精神发育迟滞患儿能力发育比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大倩; 高鸿云; 来雍雍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the difference of neuropsychological development between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and mental retardation (MR) children. [Methods] All patients first diagnosed as PDD or MR in psychological counseling clinic of Children's Hospital of Fudan University during Jan 2003 to Jan 2009 without any intervention before were enrolled. The Psycho-educational Profile (PEP) test was administered to ail the children. According to the developmental age of PEP result, all the children were divided into three groups: 0 ~ 12 months. 13 ~ 36 months, 37 ~ 72 months. [Results] There were 341 PDD children and 209 MR children in the research. In the 0~12 months group, MR children got higher scores in imitation and cognitive (verbal) than PDD children. In the 13 ~ 36 months group, MR children got higher scores in all the fields than PDD children, including imitation, perception, gross motor, fine motor, eye-hand integration, cognitive (performance) and cognitive (verbal). In the 37 ~ 72 months group, MR children got higher scores than PDD children only in imitation. [Conclusion] 1)Without any treatment, the PDD children show totally delay in all the fields than the MR children in the 13 - 36 months developmental age. 2) The ability of imitation is always lower in PDD child than MR children in the developmental age 0~72 months without any intervention.%目的 比较广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorder,PDD)患儿与精神发育迟滞(mental retar dation,MR)患儿生长发育轨迹的差异 方法 使用《心理教育评定量表(中文版)》对2003年1月-2009年1月间所有首次诊断为PDD或MR,并未经任何干预的患儿进行评估 根据评估结果将两组患儿分别分为综合发育年龄达0~12个月、13~36个月、37~72个月三个年龄组段 比较两组患儿在三个年龄段中,在各分测验中的得分差异 结果 共有341例PDD和209例MR患儿 0~12月组别,MR组在模仿、表达分

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other mental disorders in the general population after Lorca’s earthquakes, 2011 (Murcia, Spain): A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Tormo, Mª José; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Koenen, Karestan C.; Navarro, Carmen; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 –May 2012). Methods The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia. Main outcome measures are prevalence and severity of anxiety, mood, impulse and substance disorders in the 12 months previous to the survey, assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Sociodemographic variables, prior history of any mental disorder and earthquake-related stressors were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. Findings A total number of 412 participants (response rate: 71%) were interviewed. Significant differences in 12-month prevalence of mental disorders were found in Lorca compared to the rest of Murcia for any (12.8% vs 16.8%), PTSD (3.6% vs 0.5%) and other anxiety disorders (5.3% vs 9.2%) (p≤ 0.05 for all). No differences were found for 12-month prevalence of any mood or any substance disorder. The two major predictors for developing a 12-month post-earthquake mental disorder were a prior mental disorder and the level of exposure. Other risk factors included female sex and low-average income. Conclusions PTSD and other mental disorders are commonly associated with earthquake disasters. Prior mental disorders and the level of exposure to the earthquakes are the most important for the development of a consequent mental disorder and this recognition may help to identify those individuals that may most benefit from specific therapeutic intervention. PMID:28723949

  5. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  6. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  7. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of me

  8. Sex Differences in the Mental Rotation of Chemistry Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieff, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Mental-rotation ability modestly predicts chemistry achievement. As such, sex differences in mental-rotation ability have been implicated as a causal factor that can explain sex differences in chemistry achievement and degree attainment. Although there is a correlation between mental-rotation ability and chemistry achievement, laboratory and field…

  9. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on mobility, balance ability and general health status in frail elderly patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Weng, Changshui; Liu, Miao; Wang, Qiuhua; Liu, Liming; He, Yao

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of whole-body vibration exercises on the mobility function, balance and general health status, and its feasibility as an intervention in frail elderly patients. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Forty-four frail older persons (85.27 ± 3.63 years) meeting the Fried Frailty Criteria. All eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group, who received a whole-body vibration exercise alone (vibration amplitude: 1-3 mm; frequency: 6-26 Hz; 4-5 bouts × 60 seconds; 3-5 times weekly), or a control group, who received usual care and exercises for eight weeks. The Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, lower extremities muscle strength, balance function, balance confidence and General Health Status were assessed at the beginning of the study, after four weeks and eight weeks of the intervention. Whole-body vibration exercise reduced the time of the Timed Up and Go Test (40.47 ± 15.94 s to 21.34 ± 4.42 s), improved the bilateral knees extensor strength (6.96 ± 1.70 kg to 11.26 ± 2.08 kg), the posture stability (surface area ellipse: 404.58 ± 177.05 to 255.95 ± 107.28) and General Health Status (Short-form Health Survey score: 24.51 ± 10.69 and 49.63 ± 9.85 to 45.03 ± 11.15 and 65.23 ± 9.39, respectively). The repeated-measures ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in the Timed Up and Go Test, 30-second chair stand test, bilateral knees extensor strength, activities-specific balance confidence score and general health status between the two groups (P balance and the general health status in the frail elderly.

  10. Discrepancies between survey and administrative data on the use of mental health services in the general population: findings from a study conducted in Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drapeau Aline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population surveys and health services registers are the main source of data for the management of public health. Yet, the validity of survey data on the use of mental health services has been questioned repeatedly due to the sensitive nature of mental illness and to the risk of recall bias. The main objectives of this study were to compare data on the use of mental health services from a large scale population survey and a national health services register and to identify the factors associated with the discrepancies observed between these two sources of data. Methods This study was based on the individual linkage of data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.2 and from the health services register of the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ. The RAMQ is the governmental agency managing the Quebec national health insurance program. The analyses mostly focused on the 637 Quebecer respondents who were recorded as users of mental health services in the RAMQ and who were self-reported users or non users of these services in the CCHS-1.2. Results Roughly 75%, of those recorded as users of mental health services users in the RAMQ's register did not report using mental health services in the CCHS-1.2. The odds of disagreement between survey and administrative data were higher in seniors, individuals with a lower level of education, legal or de facto spouses and mothers of young children. They were lower in individuals with a psychiatric disorder and in frequent and more recent users of mental health services according to the RAMQ's register. Conclusions These findings support the hypotheses that social desirability and recall bias are likely to affect the self-reported use of mental health services in a population survey. They stress the need to refine the investigation of mental health services in population surveys and to combine survey and administrative data, whenever possible, to obtain

  11. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  12. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  13. 精神分裂症患者心理推理能力损害与认知功能损害的关系%The Relationship Between Schizophrenia Mental Reasoning Ability in Patients With Damage and Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司丽华; 陈芳; 刘媛

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between schizophrenia mental reasoning ability in patients with damage and cognitive impairment. Method The 53 subjects divided the schizophrenia group (27 cases) and healthy control group (26 cases). Using the Hopki verbal learning test (HVLT-R), simple visual spatialmemory test (BVMT-R), the cognitive function of digital symbols evaluate Stroop color word test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test, faux pas detection task (TOM) to evaluate the ability of theory of mind, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (IQ) assessment of the level of intelligence.Result Between the two groups of cognitive test scores, IQ scores, TOM and the control showed significant differences with statistical significance in normal control group. TOM and cognitive function test and intelligence test scores. The schizophrenia group TOM and symbol coding score was negatively correlated with statistical signiifcance, control points were positively correlated with the total score of IQ. Through linear regression analysis, TOM in the difference between the two groups was statistically significant, no significant control points.Conclusion Psychological theory of damage is the core features of schizophrenia patients and is independent of cognitive impairment.%目的:探讨精神分裂症患者心理推理(TOM)能力损害与认知功能损害的关系。方法将53名被试分为精神分裂症组(27例)和健康对照组(26例)。采用霍普金斯词语学习测验(HVLT-R)、简易视觉空间记忆测验(BVMT-R)、Stroop色词测验、韦氏智力测验中的数字符号评估被试的认知功能;失言觉察任务评估心理理论能力(TOM);韦氏成人智力量表评估智力水平(IQ)。结果两组间认知测验分数、IQ总分、TOM分与控制分差异均有统计学意义;正常对照组的TOM与认知功能测验和智力测验得分具有统计学意义;精神分裂症组TOM与符号编码得分呈负相

  14. Simulation of Mental Disorders: II. Computer Models, Purposes and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Dudai, Yadin

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the human brain and the difficulties in identifying and dissecting the biological, social and contextual underpinnings of mental functions confound the study of the etiology and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Simulating mental disorders in animal models or in computer programs may contribute to the understanding of such disorders. In the companion paper (30), we discussed selected concepts and pragmatics pertaining to mental illness simulation in general, and then focused on issues pertaining to animal models of mental disease. In this paper, we focus on selected aspects of the merits and limitations of the use of large scale computer simulation in investigating mental disorders. We argue that at the current state of knowledge, the biological-phenomenological gap in understanding mental disorders markedly limits the ability to generate high-fidelity computational models of mental illness. We conclude that similarly to the animal model approach, brain simulation focusing on limited realistic objectives, such as mimicking the emergence of selected distinct attributes of specific mental symptoms in a virtual brain or parts thereof, may serve as a useful tool in exploring mental disorders.

  15. The mediating effect of affective stigma between face concern and general mental health - The case of Chinese caregivers of children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Marcus Yu Lung; Yang, Xue; Wong, Ho Ting; Li, Jin Hong

    2014-11-11

    An earlier study revealed that the mental health of caregivers of children with intellectual disability is related to the affective dimension of affiliated stigma, loss of face and anxiety level. However, how cultural values such as face concern interplay with stigma remains largely unknown. This extended study goes further to test the mediating role of affective stigma on two slightly different pathway models between the face concern and the mental health outcome of 211 caregivers in two Chinese cities, against the required standards and procedure of being a mediator. The mediating effect of affective stigma is confirmed by meeting Baron and Kenny's required standards. Two viable path models are worked out: one model with anxiety as a co-mediating variable successfully accounts for 17% more of the variance on the outcome than another model without anxiety, explaining a total of 56% of the variance. This provides empirical evidence for the first time that cultural values such as face value do not influence directly one's mental health; but works through the experience of real stigma or anticipated stigma situations, to induce anxiety and worsen mental health. Practitioners may need to employ anti-stigma and anxiety reduction strategy in promoting better mental health and to explore cultural elements that can be tapped on for better coping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  17. Mental rotation of faces in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A Adduri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.

  18. Understanding the acceptability of e-mental health--attitudes and expectations towards computerised self-help treatments for mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiat, Peter; Goldstone, Philip; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2014-04-11

    E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acceptability of e-mental health and m-mental health in the general population. An advisory group of service users identified dimensions that potentially influence an individual's decision to engage with a particular treatment for mental health problems. A large sample (N = 490) recruited through email, flyers and social media was asked to rate the acceptability of different treatment options for mental health problems on these domains. Results were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Participants rated the perceived helpfulness of an intervention, the ability to motivate users, intervention credibility, and immediate access without waiting time as most important dimensions with regard to engaging with a treatment for mental health problems. Participants expected face-to-face therapy to meet their needs on most of these dimensions. Computerised treatments and smartphone applications for mental health were reported to not meet participants' expectations on most domains. However, these interventions scored higher than face-to-face treatments on domains associated with the convenience of access. Overall, participants reported a very low likelihood of using computerised treatments for mental health in the future. Individuals in this study expressed negative views about computerised self-help intervention and low likelihood of use in the future. To improve the implementation and uptake, policy makers need to improve the public perception of such

  19. Understanding the acceptability of e-mental health - attitudes and expectations towards computerised self-help treatments for mental health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background E-mental health and m-mental health include the use of technology in the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental health problems. With the economical pressure on mental health services increasing, e-mental health and m-mental health could bridge treatment gaps, reduce waiting times for patients and deliver interventions at lower costs. However, despite the existence of numerous effective interventions, the transition of computerised interventions into care is slow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acceptability of e-mental health and m-mental health in the general population. Methods An advisory group of service users identified dimensions that potentially influence an individual’s decision to engage with a particular treatment for mental health problems. A large sample (N = 490) recruited through email, flyers and social media was asked to rate the acceptability of different treatment options for mental health problems on these domains. Results were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Results Participants rated the perceived helpfulness of an intervention, the ability to motivate users, intervention credibility, and immediate access without waiting time as most important dimensions with regard to engaging with a treatment for mental health problems. Participants expected face-to-face therapy to meet their needs on most of these dimensions. Computerised treatments and smartphone applications for mental health were reported to not meet participants’ expectations on most domains. However, these interventions scored higher than face-to-face treatments on domains associated with the convenience of access. Overall, participants reported a very low likelihood of using computerised treatments for mental health in the future. Conclusions Individuals in this study expressed negative views about computerised self-help intervention and low likelihood of use in the future. To improve the implementation and uptake, policy makers

  20. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  2. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  3. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  4. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. METHODS: In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. CONCLUSION: Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  5. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  6. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  7. Neural mechanisms of mental fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is defined as a decline in the ability and efficiency of mental and/or physical activities that is caused by excessive mental and/or physical activities. Fatigue can be classified as physical or mental. Mental fatigue manifests as potentially impaired cognitive function and is one of the most significant causes of accidents in modern society. Recently, it has been shown that the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue related to cognitive task performance are more complex than previously thought and that mental fatigue is not caused only by impaired activity in task-related brain regions. There is accumulating evidence supporting the existence of mental facilitation and inhibition systems. These systems are involved in the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue, modulating the activity of task-related brain regions to regulate cognitive task performance. In this review, we propose a new conceptual model: the dual regulation system of mental fatigue. This model contributes to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mental fatigue and the regulatory mechanisms of cognitive task performance in the presence of mental fatigue.

  8. How to flourish in everyday life? Enhancing flourishing mental health in the general population as a new strategy for the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    In psychology research and clinical practice the focus has long been predominantly on how to repair subclinical complaints and mental disorders. Since the introduction of positive psychology in 2000, many researchers and psychologists today not only help people to repair the negative and focus on

  9. COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS AND DISABILITY ACROSS CULTURES - RESULTS FROM THE WHO COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL-PROBLEMS IN GENERAL HEALTH-CARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ORMEL, J; VONKORFF, M; USTUN, TB; PINI, S; KORTEN, A; OLDEHINKEL, T

    1994-01-01

    Objective.-To examine the impact of common mental illness on functional disability and the cross-cultural consistency of this relationship while controlling for physical illness. A secondary objective was to determine the level of disability associated with specific psychiatric disorders. Design.-A

  10. COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS AND DISABILITY ACROSS CULTURES - RESULTS FROM THE WHO COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL-PROBLEMS IN GENERAL HEALTH-CARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ORMEL, J; VONKORFF, M; USTUN, TB; PINI, S; KORTEN, A; OLDEHINKEL, T

    1994-01-01

    Objective.-To examine the impact of common mental illness on functional disability and the cross-cultural consistency of this relationship while controlling for physical illness. A secondary objective was to determine the level of disability associated with specific psychiatric disorders. Design.-A

  11. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  12. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  13. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh; Fariba kiani; Soliman Ahmedbookani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls) of Boukan's hi...

  14. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    .... Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  15. X linked mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2009-05-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions. There are more than 900 genetic disorders associated with MR and it affects around 3% of the general population. Many MR conditions described are syndromic, fragile X syndrome being the most common clinical entity among them. X linked mental retardation (XLMR) is subdivided in two categories: syndromic XLMR (MRXS) when MR is associated with clinical features and non-syndromic XLMR (MRX) when MR is isolated. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to join together the results of several studies related to X linked mental retardation and to present various genes implicated in this disease. In this review, focus has been given on genes implicated in mental retardation, the clinical data and on phenotype-genotype correlations. An exhaustive electronic and library research of the recent literature was carried out on the Web sites "Science Direct" and "Interscience Wiley". The key words used were "mental retardation", "X chromosome", "gene", "syndromic mental retardation", "non-syndromic mental retardation". In this review a number of X linked genes, the clinical features associated with the gene abnormality, and the prevalence of the disease gene are discussed. We classified these genes by order of their first implication in MR. A table presented on the XLMR Update Web site who list the 82 known XLMR genes is available as XLMR Genes and corresponding proteins.

  16. Mental health in F-111 maintenance workers: the study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel (SHOAMP) general health and medical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, John R; D'Este, Catherine; Schofield, Peter W; Brown, Anthony M; Gibson, Richard; Tavener, Meredith; Horsley, Keith; Harrex, Warren; Ross, James

    2006-07-01

    We sought to contrast mood disorder symptoms in F-111 aircraft Deseal/Reseal maintenance personnel with appropriate comparisons. Participants completed a comprehensive health assessment, including measures of mood disorder, self-reported mood symptom questionnaire items, and review of anxiolytic and depression medication. Multiple logistic regression was conducted for each outcome using exposure group and potential confounders as explanatory variables. There was high agreement between self-reported mood disturbance and objective tests. The exposed group was more likely to self-report previous diagnoses of depression/anxiety, had higher use of antidepressant medications, and had increased risk of diagnosis of depression/anxiety. Results were consistently strong against both comparison groups, with the exposed more likely to have mental distress and social dysfunction when compared with the Australian population. There is robust evidence for an association between F-111 Deseal/Reseal exposure and impaired mental health.

  17. 对农业技术自组织推广能力提升问题的理论探讨%Theoretical Study on Promotion of Self-organizing Generalization Abilities in Agricultural Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄周

    2011-01-01

    The self-organizing generalization abilities in agricultural technology include the self-organizing raise of funds,the self-organizing promotion of people competence, the self-organizing transportation of information, the self-organizing management of risk, the self-organizing establishment of organizations and so on. With the advancing construction of modern agriculture, the transformation of the government's "other-organizing" generalization idea as well as the acquirement of perpetual developing motion in agriculture, there is practical requirement of the promotion of the self-organizing generalization abilities. Meanwhile, the characteristic of dissipative structure along with the co-existence of competition and cooperation among the components in this generalization system provides possibility for its formation.Therefore, we need to strengthen the characteristic of dissipative structure and develop the competition and cooperation among the internal components to promote the self-organizing generalization abilities in agricultural technology.%农业技术自组织推广能力包括推广的资金自组织筹运、人员素质自组织提升、信息自组织收送、风险自组织处理、组织自组织缔结等能力.现代农业建设的推进、政府"他组织"推广思路的转变和农业持久发展动力的获得,对自组织推广能力的提升提出了客观要求;而推广体系的耗散结构特征及其内部组分间竞争与协同的存在,为其形成提供了可能性.应从耗散结构特征的强化及内部组分间竞争与协同的促成等,提升农业技术自组织推广能力.

  18. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  19. Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra Sehkar; Angstadt, Mike; Banks, Sarah; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Liberzon, Israel; Luan Phan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder tend to make overly negative and distorted predictions about social events, which enhance perceptions of threat and contribute to excessive anxiety in social situations. Here, we coupled functional magnetic resonance imaging and a multiround economic exchange game (‘trust game’) to probe mentalizing, the social-cognitive ability to attribute mental states to others. Relative to interactions with a computer, those with human partners (‘mentalizing’) elicited less activation of medial prefrontal cortex in generalized social anxiety patients compared with matched healthy control participants. Diminished medial prefrontal cortex function may play a role in the social-cognitive pathophysiology of social anxiety. PMID:19521264

  20. 专科护生自我效能感与支持性沟通能力的相关性分析%STUDY ON CORRELATION BETWEEN GENERAL SELF-EFFICIENCY AND SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATTION ABILITY OF DIPLOMA NURSING STUDENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠亚娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the present status of general self‐efficacy and supportive communication ability of diploma nursing students ,and investigate the correlation of them to provide the relevant basis for nursing teaching reform .Methods By using stratified cluster sampling ,a descriptive cross‐sectional study was conducted on 545 diploma nursing students who are studying in Shandong Medical College .Results The overall score of self‐efficacy among participants was 24 .33 ± 5 .23 .The overall score of supportive communication ability was 68 .49 ± 11 .69 .The score of supporting communication dimension was the high‐est ,followed by negative feedback and consulting .Correlation analysis showed diploma nursing students ’ general self‐efficacy and supportive communication ability were significantly positive ( r = 0 .57 P < 0 . 001) .Conclusion The general self‐efficacy and supportive communication ability of diploma of students need to be improved in school .%目的:探讨专科护生自我效能感与支持性沟通能力的现状及关系,为护理教学改革提供依据。方法分层整群抽取山东医专2012、2013级护生545人作为研究对象,进行自我效能感与支持性沟通能力的现状以及相关性分析。结果专科护生的一般自我效能感水平不高(24.33±5.23),支持性沟通能力的总分评定等级为良(68.49±11.69),其中支持性沟通维度得分最高,其次是负面反馈和辅导与咨询;一般自我效能感与支持性沟通能力成显著正相关(r=0.57, P <0.001)。结论专科护生的自我效能感与支持性沟通能力有待于提高,教学过程中应提供锻炼机会促进学生自我效能感和沟通能力的提高。

  1. On What Ground Do We Mentalize? Characteristics of Current Tasks and Sources of Information that Contribute to Mentalizing Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M.; Guitton, Matthieu; Jackson, Philip L.; Boutin, Andree; Monetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mentalizing is an aspect of social cognition that is garnering increased interest. Although a wide variety of experimental tasks are available to measure mentalizing abilities in adults, the most widely used tasks typically focus on specific aspects of mentalizing, and mentalizing judgments are performed based on a limited set of information about…

  2. On What Ground Do We Mentalize? Characteristics of Current Tasks and Sources of Information that Contribute to Mentalizing Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M.; Guitton, Matthieu; Jackson, Philip L.; Boutin, Andree; Monetta, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mentalizing is an aspect of social cognition that is garnering increased interest. Although a wide variety of experimental tasks are available to measure mentalizing abilities in adults, the most widely used tasks typically focus on specific aspects of mentalizing, and mentalizing judgments are performed based on a limited set of information about…

  3. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  4. Implicit mentalizing persists beyond early childhood and is profoundly impaired in children with autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schuwerk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implicit mentalizing, a fast, unconscious and rigid way of processing other's mental states has recently received much interest in typical social cognitive development in early childhood and in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC. This research suggests that already infants implicitly mentalize, and that adults with ASC have a sustained implicit mentalizing deficit. Yet, we have only sparse empirical evidence on implicit mentalizing beyond early childhood, and deviations thereof in children with ASC. Here, we administered an implicit mentalizing eye tracking task to assess the sensitivity to false beliefs to a group of 8-year-old children with and without ASC, matched for chronological age, verbal and nonverbal IQ. As previous research suggested that presenting outcomes of belief-based actions leads to fast learning from experience and false belief-congruent looking behavior in adults with ASC, we were also interested in whether already children with ASC learn from such information. Our results provide support for a persistent implicit mentalizing ability in neurotypical development beyond early childhood. Further, they confirmed an implicit mentalizing deficit in children with ASC, even when they are closely matched to controls for explicit mentalizing skills. In contrast to previous findings with adults, no experience-based modulation of anticipatory looking was observed. It seems that children with ASC have not yet developed compensatory general purpose learning mechanisms. The observed intact explicit, but impaired implicit mentalizing in ASC, and correlation patterns between mentalizing tasks and executive function tasks, are in line with theories on two dissociable mentalizing systems.

  5. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  6. Submentalizing or Mentalizing in a Level 1 Perspective-Taking Task: A Cloak and Goggles Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that humans possess an automatic system to represent mental states (‘implicit mentalizing’). The existence of an implicit mentalizing system has generated considerable debate however, centered on the ability of various experimental paradigms to demonstrate unambiguously such mentalizing. Evidence for implicit mentalizing has previously been provided by the ‘dot perspective task,’ where participants are slower to verify the number of dots they can see when an avatar can see a different number of dots. However, recent evidence challenged a mentalizing interpretation of this effect by showing it was unaltered when the avatar was replaced with an inanimate arrow stimulus. Here we present an extension of the dot perspective task using an invisibility cloaking device to render the dots invisible on certain trials. This paradigm is capable of providing unambiguous evidence of automatic mentalizing, but no such evidence was found. Two further well-powered experiments used opaque and transparent goggles to manipulate visibility but found no evidence of automatic mentalizing, nor of individual differences in empathy or perspective-taking predicting performance, contradicting previous studies using the same design. The results cast doubt on the existence of an implicit mentalizing system, suggesting that previous effects were due to domain-general processes. PMID:27893269

  7. Neural correlates underlying mental calculation in abacus experts: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu; Okada, Tomohisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Experts of abacus operation demonstrate extraordinary ability in mental calculation. There is psychological evidence that abacus experts utilize a mental image of an abacus to remember and manipulate large numbers in solving problems; however, the neural correlates underlying this expertise are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the neural correlates associated with three mental-operation tasks (numeral, spatial, verbal) among six experts in abacus operations and eight nonexperts. In general, there was more involvement of neural correlates for visuospatial processing (e.g., right premotor and parietal areas) for abacus experts during the numeral mental-operation task. Activity of these areas and the fusiform cortex was correlated with the size of numerals used in the numeral mental-operation task. Particularly, the posterior superior parietal cortex revealed significantly enhanced activity for experts compared with controls during the numeral mental-operation task. Comparison with the other mental-operation tasks indicated that activity in the posterior superior parietal cortex was relatively specific to computation in 2-dimensional space. In conclusion, mental calculation of abacus experts is likely associated with enhanced involvement of the neural resources for visuospatial information processing in 2-dimensional space.

  8. Child welfare caseworkers as brokers of mental health services: a pilot evaluation of Project Focus Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Monica M; Torres, Marcela M; Shipman, Kimberly; Gorrono, Jessica; Kerns, Suzanne E U; Dorsey, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    Youth in the child welfare system (CWS) have substantially higher rates of mental health needs compared to the general population, yet they rarely receive targeted, evidence-based practices (EBPs). Caseworkers play the critically important role of "service broker" for CWS youth and families. This study examines preliminary caseworker-level outcomes of Project Focus Colorado (PF-C), a training and consultation program designed to improve access to EBPs for CWS youth. PF-C evaluation occurred in four child welfare offices (two intervention [n = 16 caseworkers] vs. two practice-as-usual, wait-list control [WLC; n = 12 caseworkers]). Receipt of PF-C was associated with significantly increased caseworker knowledge of (a) EBPs, (b) child mental health problems, (c) evidence-based treatment components targeting mental health problem areas, and (d) mental health screening instruments, compared to WLC. Dose of training and consultation was associated with greater ability to correctly classify mental health problems and match them to EBPs. These preliminary results suggest that targeted training and consultation help to improve caseworker knowledge of children's mental health needs, EBPs for mental health, and mental health screening instruments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. 呼唤普通中学心理健康教育%Calling for Mental Health Education in General Secondary School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚飞

    2012-01-01

    The cases of student suicide in recent years cause the attention of people. We not only focus on cultural studies education for students, but also to enhance student's psychological education. Based on analyzing the psychological crisis of rural high school teachers and students, the author called for the whole society should be concerned about their mental health.%对近几年学生自杀的案例引发现在社会不仅要注重学生的文化课教育,还要加强学生的心理教育.本文通过对农村高中学校的老师和学生心理危机的分析,呼吁全社会应关注他们的心理健康.

  10. On the pervasiveness of event-specific alcohol use, general substance use, and mental health problems as risk factors for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Jennings, Wesley G; Connell, Nadine M; Businelle, Michael S; Chartier, Karen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of demographic, mental health, and substance use as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were derived from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Eligible participants (N = 25,778) reported having an intimate partner 1 year before the survey. Clustered survey multivariate multinomial regression methods were used to assess risk factors for episodes of IPV. IPV victimization, perpetration, and both victims/perpetrators were assessed. Bivariate analyses indicated that African Americans, Hispanics, and women were more likely to be victims, perpetrators, or victim/perpetrators as compared with men and Whites. Multivariate analyses suggested that having a marijuana use disorder was strongly associated with IPV victimization (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61) and victim/perpetration (OR = 2.65). Post-traumatic stress disorder was consistently associated with all IPV typologies. Depression was associated with victimization (OR = 2.00) and IPV victim/perpetration (OR = 1.74). Antisocial Personality Disorder and Mania were both related to IPV perpetration (ORs = 2.53 and 2.32) and victim/perpetration (ORs = 3.15 and 2.31). Results also indicated that alcohol use during episodes of IPV is common (i.e., 35% of those who reported IPV also reported that alcohol was involved). Results indicate several substance- and mental health-related correlates of IPV. In addition, findings indicate that alcohol use by the victim and/or perpetrator is common during IPV events. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Cultivation of Students’ Speaking Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱倩

    2014-01-01

    <正>In general,Chinese high school students have been weak in communicating in English.They are too shy to speak in public.So they can’t speak English fluently.That’s a great problem.In class,we should improve students’abilities while learning English,such as listening ability,speaking ability,reading ability,writing ability and translating ability.But I think that students’speaking ability is the most important one in the five abilities.So how can we improve students’speaking ability?

  12. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  13. Mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke

    2013-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Kirschner, F. (2012). Mental effort. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, Volume 5 (pp. 2182-2184). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_226

  14. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... financial problems, a loved one's death or a divorce An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes ... years, but most begin earlier in life. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long ...

  15. The influence of contextual information on lay judgments of childhood mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jessecae K; De Los Reyes, Andres; Wallerstein, Alexa

    2014-12-01

    Decisions about whether a person is in need of mental health care are often made by laypeople with no training in the identification of mental health concerns. For example, the parent of a child displaying problematic behavior has to decide whether this behavior is likely related to mental health concerns and necessitates professional care. The process of identifying mental health concerns is made more complicated by the rich background of real-world environmental factors or contexts in which concerns can present-contexts that might or might not relate to the presence of mental health concerns. We investigated whether laypeople use contextual information to make judgments regarding childhood mental health disorder symptoms. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that laypeople's judgments of the likelihood of a mental disorder are influenced by non-diagnostic contextual information that surrounds symptoms of the disorder. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that providing a causal origin for such disorder symptoms accentuates the use of context, regardless of the nature of the causal process (i.e., environmental vs. biological). These findings indicate that contextual influences on judgments about mental health concerns may reflect a more general set of mental reasoning processes than indicated by previous work focused on clinicians' judgments. Consequently, these findings have important implications for how we think about the influence of contextual information on decision making more generally as well as for improving our ability to both reliably identify children in need of mental health care and increase children's access to such care. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Detecting dementia in patients with normal neuropsychological screening by Short Smell Test and Palmo-Mental Reflex Test: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Sven; Limacher, Andreas; Zeller, Andreas; Bürge, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) are in best position to suspect dementia. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) are widely used. Additional neurological tests may increase the accuracy of diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic ability to detect dementia with a Short Smell Test (SST) and Palmo-Mental Reflex (PMR) in patients whose MMSE and CDT are normal, but who show signs of cognitive dysfunction. Methods This was a 3.5-year cross-sectional observationa...

  17. Usefulness of an ability-based health model in work ability assessments provided by psychiatrists and psychology specialists writing social security certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Magnus; Barbosa da Silva, António; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether adding descriptions of the health factors "ability," "environment" and "intentions/goals" to the officially sanctioned biomedical disability model (BDM) would improve assessments of work ability for social security purposes. The study was based on a theoretical design consisting of textual analysis and interpretation. Two further work ability models were defined: the mixed health model (MHM), which describes health factors without assessing a person's abilities in context, and the ability-based health model (AHM), which assesses abilities in a concrete context of environment and intention. Eighty-six social security certificates, written by psychiatrists and psychology specialists in a Norwegian hospital-based mental health clinic, were analysed in relation to the three work ability/disability models. In certificates based on the BDM, a general pattern was found of "gradual work training". The MHM added health factors, but without linking them together in a concrete way. With the AHM, work ability was assessed in terms of a concrete unified evaluation of the claimant's abilities, environments and intentions/goals. Applying the AHM in work ability assessments, in comparison with the BDM and the MHM, is useful because this foregrounds claimants' abilities in a context of concrete goals and work-related opportunities, as a unity. Implications for Rehabilitation A concept of health should include ability, environment and intentions/goals as components. When all three of these components are described in concrete terms in a work ability assessment, an integrated picture of the individual's abilities in the context of his/her particular intentions/goals and work opportunities comes to the fore. This kind of assessment makes it possible to meet the individual's needs for individual follow-up in a work environment.

  18. New mental health indicators provide a snapshot on performance of the mental health system in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Carolyn; Couris, Chantal; Leeb, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Although the general hospital remains an important place for stabilizing crises, most services for mental illnesses are provided in outpatient/community settings. In the absence of comprehensive data at the community level, data that are routinely collected from general hospitals can provide insights on the performance of mental health services for people living with mental illness or poor mental health. This article describes three new indicators that provide a snapshot on the performance of the mental health system in Canada: self-injury hospitalization rate, 30-day readmission rate for mental illness and percentage of patients with repeat hospitalizations for mental illness. Findings suggest a need for the early detection and treatment of mental illnesses and for optimal transitions between general hospitals and community services.

  19. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen A Slagter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2 embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

  20. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Heleen A; Lutz, Antoine; Greischar, Lawrence L; Francis, Andrew D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Davis, James M; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

  1. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin's behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the UK National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73% respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (r(p) = -.26) and genetic correlation (r(A) = -.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r(p) = -.18; r(A) = -.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also be candidate risk factors for

  2. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trying to conceive, pregnancy, and mental health Menstruation, menopause, and mental health Women veterans and mental health When you need help Good mental ... in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health Sleep ...

  3. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup;

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  4. 空巢老人的心理健康与生活自理能力调查%The Mental Health of and Self-care Ability Investigation on the Empty-nest Elder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘孝富; 王鹏娟

    2012-01-01

    Using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), UCLA Loneliness Scale and Activities of Daily Living (ADL), we had done investigation and study about the stratified random extraction of Chongqing Beibei 500 empty-nest elder. After a series of investigation about the demography factors on empty-nest elder's loneliness, depression and self- care ability , the results show that: the rural empty nester depression significantly is greater than the city; Women empty-nest elder feel more loneliness and depression than the men; Along with the age increasing, empty-nest elder's self-ability significantly weakened, loneliness and depression significantly increase; Childless empty-nest elder's self-care ability is greater than who has children's, but, the loneliness and depression are more intense; The higher level of education, loneliness and depression level is lower, but the self-care ability is not significantly influenced.%采用老年人抑郁(GDS)、孤独(UCLA)和日常生活能力(ADL)等量表,对分层随机抽取重庆市北碚区500名空巢老人进行调查研究。考察人口统计学因素对空巢老人孤独、抑郁与生活自理能力影响作用,结果表明:农村空巢老人抑郁显著大于城市;女性空巢老人比男性更抑郁孤独和抑郁;随着年龄增大,空巢老人生活自理能力显著减弱、孤独和抑郁显著增强;无子女空巢老人相对于有子女的生活自理能力更差、孤独和抑郁更强烈;文化程度越高.孤独与抑郁水平越低,但对其生活自理能力影响不显著。

  5. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders - Findings in a general population sample of 13,057 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S

    2000-01-01

    Confusional arousals, or sleep drunkenness, occur upon awakening and remain un studied in the general population. We selected a representative sample from the United Kingdom. Germany, and Italy (N = 13,0.57) and conducted telephone interviews. Confusional arousals were reported by 2.9% of the sample

  6. Predictors of suicidality in depressive spectrum disorders in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Have, M. ten; Nolen, W.A.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess determinants of suicidality (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in a general population cohort with depressive spectrum disorders, and to compare determinants for suicidal ideation and determinants for suicide attempts in this cohort. METHOD: The Netherlands Men

  7. On the potential role of glutamate transport in mental fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Elisabeth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental fatigue, with decreased concentration capacity, is common in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, often appearing prior to other major mental or physical neurological symptoms. Mental fatigue also makes rehabilitation more difficult after a stroke, brain trauma, meningitis or encephalitis. As increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines are reported in these disorders, we wanted to explore whether or not proinflammatory cytokines could induce mental fatigue, and if so, by what mechanisms. It is well known that proinflammatory cytokines are increased in major depression, "sickness behavior" and sleep deprivation, which are all disorders associated with mental fatigue. Furthermore, an influence by specific proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-1, on learning and memory capacities has been observed in several experimental systems. As glutamate signaling is crucial for information intake and processing within the brain, and due to the pivotal role for glutamate in brain metabolism, dynamic alterations in glutamate transmission could be of pathophysiological importance in mental fatigue. Based on this literature and observations from our own laboratory and others on the role of astroglial cells in the fine-tuning of glutamate neurotransmission we present the hypothesis that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 could be involved in the pathophysiology of mental fatigue through their ability to attenuate the astroglial clearance of extracellular glutamate, their disintegration of the blood brain barrier, and effects on astroglial metabolism and metabolic supply for the neurons, thereby attenuating glutamate transmission. To test whether our hypothesis is valid or not, brain imaging techniques should be applied with the ability to register, over time and with increasing cognitive loading, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and potassium (K+ in humans suffering from

  8. Spatial Ability And Learning To Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results in introductory computer programming modules are often disappointing, and various individual differences have been found to be relevant. This paper reviews work in this area, with particular reference to the effect of a student's spatial ability. Data is presented on a cohort of 49 students enrolled on an MSc in Information Technology course at a university in the UK. A measure was taken of their mental rotation ability, and a questionnaire administered that focused on their previous academic experience, and expectations relating to the introductory computer programming module they were studying. The results showed a positive correlation between mental rotation ability and success in the module (r = 0.48. Other factors, such as confidence level, expected success, and programming experience, were also found to be important. These results are discussed in relation to the accessibility of programming to learners with low spatial ability.

  9. A dissociation between linguistic and communicative abilities in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Roel M.; Boer, de Miriam; Ruiter, de Jan Peter; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Although language is an effective vehicle for communication, it is unclear how linguistic and communicative abilities relate to each other. Some researchers have argued that communicative message generation involves perspective taking (mentalizing), and—crucially—that mentalizing depends on language

  10. 上海市规范化培训全科医生社区卫生服务能力评估研究%Assessment of community health service ability of general practitioners after standardized training in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 彭明辉; 傅士杰; 张向杰; 刘瑶; 江孙芳

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估上海市规范化培训后全科医生的社区卫生服务能力,并与未经规范化培训的全科医生进行比较,进而评价本市全科医生规范化培训效果.方法 2014年9-11月采用回顾性队列研究,建立经过规范化培训和未经规范化培训的社区全科医生队列(规培组和非规培组各102名),两组年龄、性别、教育背景、工作年限以及执业地点匹配,评估两组社区卫生服务(主要包括基本公共卫生服务和基本医疗服务)的能力.采用笔试评估全科医生基本公共卫生服务能力;采用客观结构化临床考核(OSCE)评估全科医生基本医疗服务能力,包括临床接诊和临床技能两部分.结果 规培组笔试成绩高于非规培组[(66±4)分比(62±7)分,P<0.01],OSCE总分高于非规培组[(494±78)分比(448 ±80)分,P<0.01],临床接诊和临床技能总分也均高于非规培组[分别为(245 ±44)分比(225 ±40)分;(252±59)分比(225 ±61)分,均P<0.01].OSCE评估中,规培组在病史采集、医患沟通、基本操作、心电图判读、心肺复苏5个站点的评分高于非规培组(均P <0.01);体格检查、病例分析和X线片判读站点评分两组比较差异无统计学意义(均P >0.05).结论 经过规范化培训的全科医生的基本医疗卫生服务和基本公共卫生服务的能力总体均优于未经规范化培训的全科医生,但在基本医疗能力的某些方面还需要在培训和实践中加强.%Objective To assess community health service ability of general practitioners (GPs) with the Standardized General Practitioner Training(SGPT) in Shanghai.Methods One hundred and four GPs receiving SGPT and matched 102 GPs without SGPT were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study from September to November in 2014.Community health service ability,including abilities in basic medical service and public health service were assessed and compared between two groups.Written examination was applied in

  11. Could be some day a classless society? The complex relationship between general cognitive ability and socioeconomic level [¿Habrá algún día una sociedad sin clases? La compleja relación entre habilidad cognitiva general y nivel socioeconómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ardila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between socio-economic level (SEL and general cognitive ability have been complex and multifaceted. Research findings are presented in the context of societies that are in the transition period from a traditional model to a contemporary globalized model. Problems associated with so- cial climbing, the search for opportunities and the philosophy of equality are analized from the psychological perspective. Cases are presented from developing world societies. The role of education, social stratification, and the development of specific aptituds, are analized in detail.

  12. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  13. Depression, physical activity and mental health: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of general practitioners’ experiences of exercise referral schemes in the North West

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Rachel Louise; Miller, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is compelling evidence which demonstrates that physical exercise can have beneficial impacts on mild-to-moderate cases of depression, and strong beneficial impacts on subthreshold depressive symptoms, rates of referral to exercise-based programmes in the UK remains low, particularly when compared to the use of other avenues of treatment. This paper reports findings from an interpretative phenomenological study of semi-structured interviews with a small sample (N=4) of General Prac...

  14. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Rowan H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Whittamore, Kathy H; Russell, Catherine; Gladman, John Rf; Jones, Rob G; Porock, Davina; Lewis, Sarah A; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Elliot, Rachel A

    2011-05-13

    Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home), or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home). Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of life, cognitive function, disability, behavioural and

  15. Evaluation of a Medical and Mental Health Unit compared with standard care for older people whose emergency admission to an acute general hospital is complicated by concurrent 'confusion': a controlled clinical trial. Acronym: TEAM: Trial of an Elderly Acute care Medical and mental health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladman John RF

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with delirium and dementia admitted to general hospitals have poor outcomes, and their carers report poor experiences. We developed an acute geriatric medical ward into a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit over an eighteen month period. Additional specialist mental health staff were employed, other staff were trained in the 'person-centred' dementia care approach, a programme of meaningful activity was devised, the environment adapted to the needs of people with cognitive impairment, and attention given to communication with family carers. We hypothesise that patients managed on this ward will have better outcomes than those receiving standard care, and that such care will be cost-effective. Methods/design We will perform a controlled clinical trial comparing in-patient management on a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit with standard care. Study participants are patients over the age of 65, admitted as an emergency to a single general hospital, and identified on the Acute Medical Admissions Unit as being 'confused'. Sample size is 300 per group. The evaluation design has been adapted to accommodate pressures on bed management and patient flows. If beds are available on the specialist Unit, the clinical service allocates patients at random between the Unit and standard care on general or geriatric medical wards. Once admitted, randomised patients and their carers are invited to take part in a follow up study, and baseline data are collected. Quality of care and patient experience are assessed in a non-participant observer study. Outcomes are ascertained at a follow up home visit 90 days after randomisation, by a researcher blind to allocation. The primary outcome is days spent at home (for those admitted from home, or days spent in the same care home (if admitted from a care home. Secondary outcomes include mortality, institutionalisation, resource use, and scaled outcome measures, including quality of

  16. A Comparative Study of Quantitative Ability Measure in GRE General Test and GMAT%GRE一般测验与GMAT定量能力考查之比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈睿; 陈昂

    2011-01-01

    GRE一般测验与GMAT定量能力的考查内容均为初等数学,主要强调解决日常生活工作中的数量问题.但因二者的适用范围有所不同,其能力考查存在一定差异,GMAT数学逻辑思维的考查比较深入,而GRE一般测验对数学概念的准确性以及思维的全面性有较多考查。在我国硕士研究生入学考试中设置一般能力测试数学部分的考查应根据就读研究生学科专业对数学的不同。要求及考生的实际能力和水平设置相应考试内容,试题情境设置应联系实际,贴近生活,试题难度不宜太大,以60%的考生通过资格线来控制试题难度。%Both GRE General Test and GMAT test elementary mathematics in quantitative section, which emphasize solving quantitative problems in daily life. But there are differences between GRE General Test and GMAT in testing quantitative ability because of their

  17. Estimating the employment and earnings costs of mental illness: recent developments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, D E; Wilcox-Gök, V

    2001-07-01

    Substantial attention has recently been focused on both the prevalence and consequences of mental illness. Generally, public interest in the costs of mental illness has been limited to the direct costs of treating the mentally ill. In this paper, we consider the magnitude and importance of a major component of the indirect costs of mental illness: employment and earnings losses. We first describe the technical difficulties involved in estimating these costs. We then describe new data and recent advances in the United States that have improved our ability to make such estimates. Our conclusions from the recent research are that each year in the United States 5-6 million workers between the ages of 16 and 54 lose, fail to seek, or cannot find employment as a consequence of mental illness. Among those who do work, we estimate that mental illness decreases annual income by an amount between $3,500 and $6,000. We then discuss an emerging challenge to the traditional method for arriving at such estimates: the friction cost approach. We describe both the conceptual and technical differences between the friction cost method and the traditional human capital approach. We conclude that while economic context has much to do with whether one relies on human capital or friction cost estimates, each can offer useful information about labor market losses due to mental illness.

  18. Time Is Not Space: Core Computations and Domain-Specific Networks for Mental Travels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-11-23

    Humans can consciously project themselves in the future and imagine themselves at different places. Do mental time travel and mental space navigation abilities share common cognitive and neural mechanisms? To test this, we recorded fMRI while participants mentally projected themselves in time or in space (e.g., 9 years ago, in Paris) and ordered historical events from their mental perspective. Behavioral patterns were comparable for mental time and space and shaped by self-projection and by the distance of historical events to the mental position of the self, suggesting the existence of egocentric mapping in both dimensions. Nonetheless, self-projection in space engaged the medial and lateral parietal cortices, whereas self-projection in time engaged a widespread parietofrontal network. Moreover, while a large distributed network was found for spatial distances, temporal distances specifically engaged the right inferior parietal cortex and the anterior insula. Across these networks, a robust overlap was only found in a small region of the inferior parietal lobe, adding evidence for its role in domain-general egocentric mapping. Our findings suggest that mental travel in time or space capitalizes on egocentric remapping and on distance computation, which are implemented in distinct dimension-specific cortical networks converging in inferior parietal lobe.

  19. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  20. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  1. International Observatory on Mental Health Systems: a mental health research and development network

    OpenAIRE

    Minas Harry

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While the mental health situation for most people in low and middle-income countries is unsatisfactory, there is a renewed commitment to focus attention on the mental health of populations and on the scaling up of mental health services that have the capacity to respond to mental health service needs. There is general agreement that scaling up activities must be evidence-based and that the effectiveness of such activities must be evaluated. If these requirements are to be ...

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF MENTAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the states – mental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images

  3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  4. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  5. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  6. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  7. 综合干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者心理状态的影响%Effect of general nursing intervention on the mental state of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧美; 陈春贤; 林克如; 汪红霞; 范晓兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of general nursing intervention on the mental state of the patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.Methods Forty-eight breast cancer patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy received nursing general interventions including healthy education,psychological nursing care,pantosomatous,relaxation therapy and rehabilitative exercise. All patients were evaluated by self-rating depression scale (SDS) and depression status inventory (DSI) before and after the general intervention.Result The scores of SDS and DSI after intervention were significantly lower than those before intervention (bothP<0.05).Conclusion The general nursing intervention could significantly improve patients’ psychological state and life quality,promote rehabilitation and improve their quality of life.%目的:探讨综合干预对乳腺癌术后化疗患者心理状态的影响。方法对48例乳腺癌术后化疗患者实施综合干预,包括疾病知识教育、心理护理、放松疗法、康复锻炼等。干预前后采用抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)及抑郁状态问卷(depression status inventory,DSI)对患者进行测评。结果干预后患者SDS和DSI得分均较干预前低,干预前后比较,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论综合干预可改善乳腺癌术后化疗患者心理状态,促进患者康复,提高患者生命质量。

  8. 综合医院全科医疗门诊中精神心理障碍的患病率及诊疗情况研究%Prevalence and Management of Mental Disorders in General Practice Clinic of General Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仲华; 黄文娟; 金世红; 郭敬柱; 陈仕银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and management of mental disorders in a general practice ( GP ) clinic affiliated to a general hospital, so as to provide a reference for GP educators to design training curriculums in mental health. Methods The data of health records of all the patients who paid visits to the GP clinic affiliated to Haikou Municipal Hospital from June 2011 to May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, and thus the patients with mental disorders were selected as the subjects. The patients' reasons for encounter ( RFEs ), diagnoses, and treatments were coded according to International Classification of Primary Care -2 ( ICPC -2 ) . Results There were totally 416 encounters with diagnosis of mental disorders, accounting for 14. 4% of all the encounters. The top 10 RFEs of the patients for the initial visit were in order of weakness, sleep disorder, abdominal pain, chest distress, dizziness, chest pain, headache, anxiety, depression, and cough, which respectively accounting for 9. 4% , 9. 0% , 5. 6% , 4. 7% , 4. 3% , 3. 8% , 3. 4% , 3. 0% , 3. 0% , and 2. 6% of RFEs for the initial visit. The top 10 diagnoses of mental disorders were in order of depressive disorder, anxiety or anxiety state, sleep disorder, tobacco abuse, somatization disorder and compulsive disorder, bipolar depression, acute stress reaction, problem as stage of adult life, and anomaly in children's behavior. And among all these the depressive disorder was the commonest, at a rate of 4. 7 per 100 encounters, accounting for 27. 7% of all the mental disorders. The top 10 diagnoses accounted for 90. 4% of all the mental disorders diagnosis recorded. Conclusion The prevalence of mental disorders is higher in general practice clinic of general hospital. With adequate training, general practitioners could work competently in screening, diagnosing and treating most of the mental disorders.%目的 了解综合医院全科医疗门诊中精神心理障碍的患病率及诊疗情况,为制

  9. Surveys of mental health status in middle-aged patients from medical dept. of general hospital%综合医院内科门诊中年患者人群心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙本栋; 区丽梅; 冯小佩; 温添娣; 钟玉莲; 钟凤英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the mental health status in middle-aged patients from medical dept. of general hospital. Methods 240 middle-aged patients selected from medical dept. of our hospital were assigned to observation group and 80 middle-aged healthy examinees to control group. Questionnaire investigations were conducted with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale(HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD),and the mental health status of the 2 groups compared. Results Prevances of psychological disorders were respectively 40.0% in the observation and 10.0% in the control group,which showed a significant difference(P<0.01); those of anxiety and depression were respectively 24.2% and 20.8%. Conclusion The mental health status of middle-aged patients in medical clinic is worse and needs social recognition.%目的 了解综合医院内科门诊中年患者的心理健康状况. 方法 选取我院内科门诊中年患者240例为观察组及中年健康体检者80例为对照组.采用综合性医院焦虑抑郁量表、汉密顿焦虑量表、汉密顿抑郁量表进行问卷调查,并比较两组的心理健康状况. 结果 内科门诊中年患者心理障碍患病率为40.0%,对照组心理障碍患病率为10.0%,两组比较差异有极显著性(P<0.01);其中焦虑、抑郁患病率分别为24.2%、20.8%. 结论 综合医院内科门诊中年患者心理健康状况较差,需引起社会的重视.

  10. Sex and Training Differences in Mental Rotation: A Behavioral and Neurophysiological Comparison of Gifted Achievers, Gifted Underachievers and Average Intelligent Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Sabine; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage in spatial abilities is assumed to underlie their superior performance in complex mathematical problems. In this study we investigated whether sex differences in mental rotation (MR) tasks are related to female underachievement and whether training effects of a MR training can be generalized across achievers and underachievers.…

  11. Quality of life, work ability and other important indicators of women's occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli-Fard, Negah; Mortazavi, Seyed-Alireza; Kuhpayehzadeh, Jalil; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Work ability may be considered as an important aspect of well-being and health status. One of the most important factors in association with work ability is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study has been to determine the association between work ability, individual characteristics and HRQoL of female workers. The design of this study has been cross-sectional. The work ability index (WAI) and Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaires were used to collect data. Three hundred and twenty female workers were selected from food supplier factories in Karaj. One-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze data. Mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of the WAI stood at 35.02 and 5.57, respectively. The categories of the WAI for women being as follows: 8.8% poor, 62% moderate, 25.4% good and 3.7% excellent. Mean±SD for the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of quality of life was 58.84±11.12 and 57.45±9.94, respectively. There was a positive significant association between the PCS and MCS with the WAI (p = 0.0001). Workers with higher education had a better work ability (p = 0.002) and shift-work workers had a worse work ability (p = 0.03). Work ability of majority of women was moderate. Considering mean age of studied women (27.6 years old), this work ability is not satisfactory. Physical and mental components of the HRQoL were the important factors associated with work ability. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  13. Developing communicative competence: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in four-year-olds, but full understanding had not been reached even at five years old. Furthermore, although ToM predicted both IR and MST when linguistic ability was not taken into account, this relationship was no longer significant once the language measures were added. Linguistic ability thus seems to play an important role in the development of both IR and MST. Additional analyses revealed that whereas syntactic ability was the primary predictor of IR, spatial language was the best predictor of MST, suggesting that IR relies primarily on general linguistic skills, but that more specific aspects of language may bootstrap MST.

  14. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion.

  15. Role-taking, moral development, and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J E; Krebs, D

    1980-03-01

    Role-taking ability and level of moral development were measured in three groups of boys and girls including 16 moderately retarded adolescents (mean chronological age 15; mean mental age 9), 16 nonretarded adolescents matched for chronological age, and 16 nonretarded children matched for mental age. The mentally retarded adolescents scored significantly lower on role-taking ability and moral development than the adolescents matched for chronological age. They did not differ from children of their same mental age in role-taking ability; and they tended to score lower in moral development. The results supplied qualified support for Kohlberg's theory of moral development.

  16. Sex differences moderate the relationship between adolescent language and mentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Helena J V; Wareham, Justin D; Vrouva, Ioanna; Mayes, Linda C; Fonagy, Peter; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-10-01

    Mentalization refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others, and this capacity facilitates social interactions. Advances in mentalization theory have proposed that there are both explicit and implicit mentalizing capacities and language may be identified as being an important factor in differentiating these two components of mentalization. Moreover, given apparent sex differences in language and mentalization, we hypothesized that sex may moderate the relationship between language and mentalization. In this study, measures assessing implicit and explicit mentalization as well as language were examined in 49 adolescents (25 girls and 24 boys) aged 14 to 18 years. Participants were administered the Mentalizing Stories for Adolescents to assess explicit mentalization, and the Reading Mind in the Eyes Task to assess implicit mentalization. Language was assessed using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Sex was found to moderate the relationship between language and explicit mentalization; while language and explicit mentalization were related in boys, these domains were unrelated in girls. There was no moderation of language and implicit mentalization by sex, and these two domains were also uncorrelated. These findings suggest an important role for language development in the capacity for explicit mentalization in boys, and we interpret this as a benefit in girls who may be more socially motivated and less limited by language in their efforts to mentalize. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.

  18. From Tesla to Tetris: Mental Rotation, Vocation, and Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Károlyi, Catya

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation ability is important for success in a number of academic and career fields, especially the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Individual differences in intelligence, spatial ability, strategy selection biases, and gender are all associated with proficiency in mental rotation. Interventions and…

  19. From Tesla to Tetris: Mental Rotation, Vocation, and Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Károlyi, Catya

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation ability is important for success in a number of academic and career fields, especially the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Individual differences in intelligence, spatial ability, strategy selection biases, and gender are all associated with proficiency in mental rotation. Interventions and…

  20. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America. ... attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental ... Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language ...

  1. 空巢老人心理健康自助能力量表的编制及信效度检验%Eevelopment of Empty - nest Elderly Mental Health Self - help Ability Scale and Testing of Its Reliability and Validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 苏红; 李莎莎; 姚金兰; 周郁秋

    2016-01-01

    目的:开发适用于评价空巢老人心理健康自助能力的量表,并进行信效度检验。方法2013年6月—2015年4月,预测及正式测试对象均选取内蒙古赤峰地区两个社区的老年居民。阅读马斯洛需求动机理论和健康相关行为多因素影响等相关理论,结合文献分析,在对20例空巢老人进行开放式问卷调查及对15例空巢老人进行半结构式访谈的基础上,收集关于空巢老人心理健康自助能力的条目,得到31个条目;咨询专家对条目内容、语言表述等方面进行评价,确定初始量表25个条目。预测共发放量表230份,回收有效量表218份,有效回收率为94.78%;正式测试共发放量表230份,回收有效量表214份,有效回收率为93.04%。采用 SPSS 17.0统计学软件进行数据处理,以受试者总分最高的27%及最低的27%分别作为高分组和低分组,比较各条目得分;效度检验采用探索性因子分析和主成分分析法提取主成分;采用 Cronbach′s α系数、组成信度(CR)、变异数萃取量评价量表信度。结果初始量表25个条目,高分组与低分组受试者条目9、12、23得分比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),删除该3个条目,剩余22个条目。主成分分析法共提取4个主成分,累积方差贡献率为60.76%,4个主成分分别命名为寻求心理支持的能力、解决心理问题的能力、促进心理健康的能力及自我实现的能力。量表总体 Cronbach′s α系数为0.890,验证性因子分析结果显示,各条目临界比率差异有统计学意义( P 0. 05),we deleted these 3 items,and 22 items left. There were four principal components exacted by principal component analysis,namely,the ability of seeking mental support,effectively solving mental problem skills,the ability to participate in mental health promotion activities and the ability of self - realization. The cumulative variance

  2. 综合医院心理门诊青少年心理问题分析%The analysis of adolescents' mental problems of psychological clinic in general hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易利人; 周丹; 陈娟婷; 李艳嫦; 钟建新

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨青少年的心理健康状况及个性特点,为心理治疗和干预提供依据.方法 采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)和艾森克个性问卷(EPQ中国简版)对219名心理门诊就诊青少年进行测评,分为A组(16~20岁)、B组(21~25岁)、C组(26~30岁)进行分析.结果:青少年咨询者SCL-90各因子均数显著高于常模(P<0.01).女性抑郁因子均分显著高于男性(P<0.05).三个年龄组轻度以上心理障碍发生率差异有统计学意义.B组、C组心理障碍发生率高于A组(P<0.01).SCL-90的强迫症状均分与E分量表均分呈负相关,F1~F9各因子均分与P量表呈正相关,与L量表皇负相关.结论 心理门诊青少年心理健康状况明显低于一般人群.21~30岁年龄段很值得关注,应针对不同特点开展心理咨询和心理卫生保健服务.%Objective To investigate the mental health status and related personality type of psychological clinic adoleScent in general hospital and provide data for psychology treatment and intervention.Methods 219 adolescence consulters in 2006 were tested by symptom checklist(SCL-90) and eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ).The caseswere separatedthree age groups,A group(16~20 years old),B group(21~25 years old),C group(26~30 years old)and disposed by SPSS 13.0.Results All factor scores of SCL-90 in psychological clinic adolescents were higher than those of youth norm in China(P<0.01).The scores of female consulters were significant higher than those of male in depression(P<0.05).The incident rate of mild mental obstacle(factor score>2)in 3 age groups were significant different.The incidence rate of B and C groups were higher A group(P<0.01).The factor scores were positive associated with P in EPQ and negative associated with L in EPQ.The obsession score of SCL-90 was negative associated with E in EPQ.Conclusions The mental health status of psychological clinic adolescents was not as good as norm adolescents

  3. Optimism and mental imagery: a possible cognitive marker to promote well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Simon E; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Middelkoop, Victor D; Zitman, Frans G; Spinhoven, Philip; Holmes, Emily A; Giltay, Erik J

    2013-03-30

    Optimism is associated with a range of benefits not only for general well-being, but also for mental and physical health. The development of psychological interventions to boost optimism derived from cognitive science would have the potential to provide significant public health benefits, yet cognitive markers of optimism are little understood. The current study aimed to take a first step in this direction by identifying a cognitive marker for optimism that could provide a modifiable target for innovative interventions. In particular we predicted that the ability to generate vivid positive mental imagery of the future would be associated with dispositional optimism. A community sample of 237 participants completed a survey comprising measures of mental imagery and optimism, and socio-demographic information. Vividness of positive future imagery was significantly associated with optimism, even when adjusting for socio-demographic factors and everyday imagery use. The ability to generate vivid mental imagery of positive future events may provide a modifiable cognitive marker of optimism. Boosting positive future imagery could provide a cognitive target for treatment innovations to promote optimism, with implications for mental health and even physical well-being.

  4. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  5. What is mental health? Evidence towards a new definition from a mixed methods multidisciplinary international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Laurie A; Barbic, Skye P; Roberts, Karen; Durisko, Zachary; Lee, Cheolsoon; Ware, Emma; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-06-02

    Lack of consensus on the definition of mental health has implications for research, policy and practice. This study aims to start an international, interdisciplinary and inclusive dialogue to answer the question: What are the core concepts of mental health? 50 people with expertise in the field of mental health from 8 countries completed an online survey. They identified the extent to which 4 current definitions were adequate and what the core concepts of mental health were. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted of their responses. The results were validated at a consensus meeting of 58 clinicians, researchers and people with lived experience. 46% of respondents rated the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, 2006) definition as the most preferred, 30% stated that none of the 4 definitions were satisfactory and only 20% said the WHO (2001) definition was their preferred choice. The least preferred definition of mental health was the general definition of health adapted from Huber et al (2011). The core concepts of mental health were highly varied and reflected different processes people used to answer the question. These processes included the overarching perspective or point of reference of respondents (positionality), the frameworks used to describe the core concepts (paradigms, theories and models), and the way social and environmental factors were considered to act. The core concepts of mental health identified were mainly individual and functional, in that they related to the ability or capacity of a person to effectively deal with or change his/her environment. A preliminary model for the processes used to conceptualise mental health is presented. Answers to the question, 'What are the core concepts of mental health?' are highly dependent on the empirical frame used. Understanding these empirical frames is key to developing a useful consensus definition for diverse populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  6. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R (2) = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R (2) = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R (2) = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.

  7. 综合医院心理咨询门诊中学生心理健康调查%Mental Health of Middle School Students from Psychological Consultation in General Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启媛; 金平; 汪凯

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the mental health status and characteristics of the middle school students from the psychological consultation in the general hospital .Methods:Mental health test (MHT)was used in 104 cases of middle school students ,and compared with the different gender ,grade ,urban and rural ,and only child and non only children .Results:The positive rate of M HT of middle school students in the psychological consultation room was 9 6.2% ,and there were 73 cases (70 1.9% )with non medical problems .Girls had higher horror propensity score than boys(t=‐2 0.45 ;P0 0.5) .Conclusion:In psychological counseling in general hospital outpatients of middle school students ,different gender ,different grades , urban and rural origin and whether of only child ,the mental health status have some differences and we need to pay more attention to the characteristics of the groups ,to take more effective intervention measures .%目的:调查研究综合医院心理咨询门诊中学生心理健康状况及其特点。方法:对104例中学生来访者采用心理健康诊断测验(MHT),对不同性别、年级、城乡及独生子女非独生子女分别进行比较。结果:走进心理咨询室的中学生MHT总量表分有明显心理障碍的检出率为9.62%,咨询问题以非医学问题为主共计73例(701.9%)。女生在恐怖倾向得分高于男生(t=‐20.45;P<00.5),初中生在身体症状及冲动倾向上高于高中生(t=20.66,26.60;P<00.5),农村学生在学习焦虑上高于城市学生(t=‐20.32;P<00.5),独生子女在孤独倾向上高于非独生子女(t=22.30;P<00.5),总分及其他分量表得分差异均无统计学意义(P>00.5)。结论:来综合医院心理咨询门诊的中学生,性别、年级、城乡来源及是否独生子女,其心理健康状况呈现一定的差异。

  8. Our Sedation Experience on Mentally Retarded Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Alkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The majority of dental treatments can be performed under local anesthesia. However, sedation or general anesthesia are often required for mentally retarded patients presenting a lack of cooperation. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of mentally retarded patients treated under sedation. Material and Method: The records of the 214 mentally retarded patients that were treated under sedation between 2010-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The retrospective ...

  9. Inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1) in a man with mental retardation, short stature, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism: clinical study and mutation analysis of the NXF5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frints, Suzanna G M; Jun, Lin; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koen; Teulingkx, Rudi; Van den Berghe, Lut; De Vos, Bernice; Borghgraef, Martine; Chelly, Jamel; Des Portes, Vincent; Van Bokhoven, Hans; Hamel, Ben; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Kalscheuer, Vera; Raynaud, Martine; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2003-06-15

    We describe a 59-year-old male (patient A059) with moderate to severe mental retardation (MR) and a pericentric inversion of the X-chromosome: inv(X)(p21.1;q22.1). He had short stature, pectus excavatum, general muscle wasting, and facial dysmorphism. Until now, no other patients with similar clinical features have been described in the literature. Molecular analysis of both breakpoints led to the identification of a novel "Nuclear RNA export factor" (NXF) gene cluster on Xq22.1. Within this cluster, the NXF5 gene was interrupted with subsequent loss of gene expression. Hence, mutation analysis of the NXF5 and its neighboring homologue, the NXF2 gene was performed in 45 men with various forms of syndromic X-linked MR (XLMR) and in 70 patients with nonspecific XLMR. In the NXF5 gene four nucleotide changes: one intronic, two silent, and one missense (K23E), were identified. In the NXF2 gene two changes (one intronic and one silent) were found. Although none of these changes were causative mutations, we propose that NXF5 is a good candidate gene for this syndromic form of XLMR, given the suspected role of NXF proteins is within mRNA export/transport in neurons. Therefore, mutation screening of the NXF gene family in phenotypically identical patients is recommended.

  10. Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah S. Daar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps. There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

  11. Does personal intelligence exist? Evidence from a new ability-based measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D; Panter, A T; Caruso, David R

    2012-01-01

    Personal intelligence has been defined as the ability to reason about personality and personality-relevant information and to use that information to guide one's actions and more generally, one's life. We constructed an initial version of an ability-based measure to test whether personal intelligence can be measured and whether it exists as a unitary intelligence. In 3 studies (N = 241, 308, and 385), we administered this Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI), composed of 4 sections, to undergraduates along with criterion measures. Results suggested that a personal intelligence can be measured, that it might exist as a unified area of mental abilities, and that it represents psychological qualities that have intriguing predictive aspects.

  12. 偏置b对支持向量机分类问题泛化性能的影响%Influence of Bias b on Generalization Ability of SVM for Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓剑; 赵银亮

    2011-01-01

    Poggio指出支持向量机(Support vector machine,SVM)中偏置b项是为了保证核函数的正定性,当使用的核函数为正定核时,b就不需要存在.为了验证b对SVM分类问题泛化性能的影响,研究了无b SVM的优化问题并给出了相应的有效集求解算法.通过XOR分类问题的实验研究得出约束条件∑N1yiαi=0会影响SVM得到最佳分类超平面.实验中的基准数据集包括了中小数据集、大规模数据集、高维数据集和多类分类数据集,并使用高斯正定核和多项式正定核作为核函数.基于26个标准数据集的实验表明无b SVM在分类问题中的计算代价要低于SVM,泛化性能要好于SVM.参数敏感性测试表明无b SVM对代价参数变化不太敏感,这使得无b SVM能在较少的参数值对中得到最佳测试精度.%It has been pointed out by Poggio that the b term in support vector machine (SVM) is to guarantee the positive definitiveness of kernel and b is not needed if the used kernel is positive definite. To testify the role of b in the generalization ability of SVM for classification, optimization formulation of SVM without 6 is analyzed and the corresponding active set solution algorithm is proposed. By experiments on XOR classification problem, it can be concluded that SVM would fail to reach the optimum classification hyperplane due to the existence of constraint condition ∑1N yiαi=0. Small to medium data sets, large data sets, high-dimension data sets and mutli-class classification data sets are employed in the simulations as well as the Gaussian positive definite kernel and polynomial positive definite kernel are used. The experimental results on 26 benchmark data sets show that the computational cost of SVM without b is over that of SVM and the generalization performance is over SVM. SVM without b is less sensitive to cost parameter, and this makes SVM without b reaches the optimal testing rate with less parameters pair values.

  13. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  14. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and coping abilities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Willis, Kelly E; Shear, Paula K; Steffen, John J; Borkin, Joyce

    2002-06-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia [Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 16 (1993) 295; Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress, Raven Press, New York (1995) 1171; Clinical Neuropsychology, Oxford University Press, New York (1993) 449] and is related to psychosocial functioning in this population [Am. J. Psychiatry, 153 (1996) 321]. It is unclear whether cognitive dysfunction is related to specific areas of functioning in schizophrenia, such as coping abilities. Individuals with schizophrenia have deficient coping skills, which may contribute to their difficulties dealing with stressors [Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 62 (1992) 117; J. Abnorm. Psychol., 82 (1986) 189]. The current study examined the relationship between coping abilities and cognitive dysfunction in a community sample of individuals with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments would be positively related to deficiencies in active coping efforts involving problem solving and self-initiation (e.g. advocating for oneself and others with mental illness and becoming involved in meaningful activities, such as work), independent of the contributions of the general intellectual deficits associated with the disorder and psychiatric symptoms. The results indicated that both executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments were related to decreased usage of active coping mechanisms after controlling for general intellectual deficits. Further, recognition memory made independent contributions to the prediction of coping involving action and help seeking after controlling for the effects of negative symptoms. These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia may be less flexible in their use of coping strategies, which may in turn contribute to their difficulties in coping with mental illness and its consequences.

  15. Supplemental Security Income Benefits for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, James M; Houtrow, Amy; Kelleher, Kelly; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stein, Ruth E K; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    The Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI) provides financial support to low-income households with children and youth with severe disabilities. The program included children when it began in the early 1970s. The numbers of children receiving SSI benefits increased substantially in the early 1990s, in part through an expansion of the listings of mental health conditions with which children could become eligible. Over the past 20 years, larger numbers of children have received SSI benefits for mental disorders, and these increases have led to questions from the press and Congress regarding these numbers. Do they indicate more of an increase in mental disorders among SSI children than in the general population? The National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine) convened a study panel to examine what is known about mental disorders among the child SSI population and how that compares with evidence about mental disorders in children in general. The NAM report provides detailed information about how SSI works, about the changing numbers of children receiving SSI for mental disorders, and some comparisons with other evidence about rising rates of mental disorders in the general population and especially among children living in poverty. The report indicates that increasing numbers of children with mental disorders in SSI mirror similar increases in the population in general. This article summarizes key evidence from the NAM report and suggests the implications for pediatricians.

  16. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  17. Noradrenergic Stimulation Impairs Memory Generalization in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-03-02

    Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators, noradrenaline, and glucocorticoids is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, healthy men and women received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine that leads to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before they completed an associative learning task probing memory generalization. Drugs left learning performance intact. Yohimbine, however, led to a striking generalization impairment in women, but not in men. Hydrocortisone, in turn, had no effect on memory generalization, neither in men nor in women. The present findings indicate that increased noradrenergic activity, but not cortisol, is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization in a sex-specific manner, with relevant implications for stress-related mental disorders characterized by generalization deficits.

  18. Teen Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  19. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  20. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  1. Effect of extended care on stoma mental state and ability of self-care of colorectal cancer patients%延续护理对直肠癌造口患者心理状态及自我护理能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏华; 郭云萍; 应莲琴; 陈林红; 许剑民

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价延续护理对直肠癌造口患者心理状态及自我护理能力的影响。方法观察组56例Miles术患者,对照组30例Miles术患者,分别给予延续护理和常规护理,出院3个月对比两组患者抑郁、焦虑、自我护理能力、生活质量及并发症发生率。结果出院后3个月观察组的SDS评分和抑郁程度均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),观察组的SAS评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05),中度及轻度抑郁率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),观察组的ESCA量表总分、技能、责任感、自我概念及健康知识评分均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),观察组的SF-36量表生理职能、社会功能、情感功能、精神健康、精力、整体健康评分均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),观察组的造口并发症发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论延续护理有效改善直肠癌造口患者的心理状态,提高其造口自我护理能力,从而改善生活质量,降低造口并发症发生率。%Objective To evaluate the continuation of care for colorectal cancer patients with stoma mental state and a-bility of self-care. Methods Fifty-six cases Miles patients in the observation group and 30 patients Miles patients in the control group were treated with extended care and routine care respectively, the depression, anxiety, self-care, quality of life and the incidence of complications of patients in two groups were compared after discharging for three months. Results After discharging for three months, the SDS scores and depression levels in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05), SAS score the of observation group were significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05), moderate and mild depression were significantly lower in the control group (P <0.05), ESCA to-tal score, skill, responsibility, self-concept and health knowledge scores of the observation group were significantly higher

  2. Structural Peculiarities of Social Mental Abilities of Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermentayevaa, Ardakh Rizabekovna; Kenzhebayeva, Kundyz Serikovna; Umirbekova, Akerke Nurlanbekovna; Aubakirova, Zhanat Kanashovna; Iskakova, Akmaral Bakytbekovna

    2016-01-01

    The problem of social intelligence of researchers has attracted attention in recent years. Social intelligence is one of the most important characteristics of teachers. The aim of this research was to study features of structure of social intelligence of future teachers. The respondents in this study were selected 360 students of pedagogical…

  3. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  4. Hypothesis Generation, Evaluation, and Memory Abilities in Adult Human Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Studies were made between performance on tests of mental abilities and concept learning tasks; it is pointed out that the researcher is usually confronted with administering large batteries of tests of mental abilities and then analyzing his results with one of the factor analytic techniques. An information process analysis of tests of mental…

  5. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  6. Migrazione e salute mentale: un problema emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cimino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental health of migrants is nowadays one of the greatest individual and public health problems Italy and Europe are facing. The increasing number of migrants who access mental health services shows not only new typologies of psychic distress linked to specific cultural and ethnic dimensions of every population, but also the fact that migrants are a fragile group at risk of developing mental disorders. Scientific evidence accumulated in the past years about migrants’ increased risk of developing severe mental illnesses, such as psychosis, lead to a general review of interpretative models about the genesis of mental illness. This is because these models noted the importance of environmental stressors on the development of these disorders, showing that cultural characteristics and migrant backgrounds can have a big impact not only on the risk of developing a mental disorder, but also the response to treatments.

  7. 脉搏灌注指数变异监测机体容量状况的临床研究%The ability of pleth variability index to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients under general anaesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勤芳; 米卫东; 袁维秀

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of pleth variability index (PVI) in predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia. Methods From August to November 2009, 25 patients were enclosed in this study following anesthesia induction. PVI was continuously displayed by the Masimo Radical 7. All patients were also monitored with Vigileo/FloTrac system.Haemodynamic data such as cardiac index ( CI ), stroke volume variability(SVV), mean arterial pressure,heart rate,central venous pressure,PVI,perfusion index were recorded before and after volume expansion (hetastar 6% ,7 ml/kg). Fluid responsiveness was defined as an increase in CI ≥ 15% (△CI ≥ 15 ). Results SVV and PVI were significantly higher in the responders ( 16. 0% ±2. 6% and 20. 5% ±3.7% ) than those in non-responders ( 11.6% ± 1.4% and 13. 8% ± 2. 6% ) respectively ( P < 0. 05 ). The SVV threshold of 13.5% before volume expansion was able to discriminate the responders from the non-responders with a sensitivity of 88. 2% and a specificity of 87.5%. The threshold for PVI was 15.5% ,the same sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 87.5% were obtained. There was a significant relationship between PVI before volume expansion and change in CI after volume expansion( r =0. 683, P <0. 01 ) ,the same as the changes of SVV(r =0. 600, P <0. 01 ). Conclusion PVI as a new dynamic indices can predict fluid responsiveness non-invasively in mechanically ventilated patients during general anesthesia.%目的 评估脉搏灌注指数变异(PVI)在全身麻醉机械通气条件下预测患者容量治疗反应、评估容量状况的能力.方法 2009年8月至11月选择25例美国麻醉医师协会分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级拟在全身麻醉下行腹部手术的患者,年龄25~74岁,麻醉诱导后连续监测平均动脉压、心率、中心静脉压、心指数(CI)、每搏输出量变异度(SW)、PVI、灌注指数(PI)等血流动力学指标,以0.4 ml·kg-1·min-1

  8. The impact of mental illness on the risk of employment termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E; Kim, Jaewhan

    2011-03-01

    Mental illness can adversely impact labor market outcomes in a variety of ways, through education attainment, employment possibilities, and income. However, little is known about the impact of mental illness on an individual's ability to maintain employment. This paper examines the impact of mental health on the risk of employment termination. We also distinguish between voluntary and involuntary employment termination. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we used survival analysis techniques to examine the impact of a mental illness diagnosis on the risk of employment termination and propensity score matching techniques to construct similar comparison groups. Initially, we used Cox proportional-hazards models where the event of interest was termination of employment. We then used a competing risk framework to differentiate between voluntary and involuntary employment termination. We also stratified our analysis by gender and capture levels of severity, receipt of treatment, and specific type of mental illness. We found that individuals with mental illness have an increased risk of employment termination in general as well as both involuntary and voluntary job loss. These results were consistent across all regression specifications. This paper is the first to explore the association between mental illness and the risk of employment termination in a sample of employed individuals. Employment is closely linked with mental health. Evidence suggests that employment can improve an individual's mental well-being but that job loss can have a detrimental effect. Our results suggest that individuals that can greatly benefit from their jobs are precisely those who are at high risk of losing them. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND POLICIES: A greater effort must be made to provide support networks for employees within their work environments. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE RESEARCH: Future analysis should examine the impact of antidepressant therapy

  9. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  10. Examination of Bias in Mental Health Evaluation of Deaf Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert, Jeffery

    1988-01-01

    Examined mental health service providers' (N=80) evaluation of deaf patients in various programs. Found staff at specialized inpatient mental health programs for the deaf had more positive attitudes than staff serving the general population. Found mental health staff evaluated some deaf patients differently from hearing patients with respect to…

  11. Mental budgeting and the management of household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Groot, de I.M.; Raaij, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Mental budgeting and financial management were investigated in a large sample of the Dutch population. Mental budgeting was quite common, and was explained from general education, having saving goals, financial knowledge, time orientation, and financial situation. Also, mental budgeting, in addition

  12. Collaboration in the provision of mental health care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, L.; Valius, L.; Lazarus, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    Background. General practitioners (GPs) often become the first point of care for mental health issues. Improved collaboration between GPs and mental health teams can make a GP's mental health services more efficient. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the collaboration between GPs and...

  13. 综合医院医务人员心理健康状况调查%The investigation of mental health status of medical staffs in a general hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 黄雨兰; 汪瑾宇; 李兴红; 何影; 闵文蛟; 周波

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解综合医院医务人员的心理健康状况。方法采取系统抽样方法抽取四川省人民医院在职医务人员共609名,采用一般情况问卷、症状自评量表(SCL-90)对抽中的医务人员进行调查。结果医务人员SCL-90总分及各因子得分均低于常模,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。女性医务人员的躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系敏感、忧郁、焦虑及SCL-90总分均高于男性医务人员,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05),其他因子得分差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。护士SCL-90总分及各因子得分均高于医生和机关人员,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),医生组与机关人员比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。大专学历者的抑郁因子得分高于硕士及博士,敌对因子得分高于博士,其余因子得分及总分高于本科、硕士和博士,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);本科学历者的躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系敏感因子得分及总分高于博士,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不同年龄、职称、工作年限、婚姻状况的医务人员SCL-90总分及各因子得分均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论医护人员的心理健康状况相对良好,但不同性别、工作岗位、学历的医务人员的心理健康可能存在差异。%Objective To investigate the mental health status of medical staffs in a general hospital.Methods A total of 609 medical staffs from our hospital were selected by the systematic sampling method,and were tested by using general state questionnaire and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90).Results The total score of SCL-90 and subscales scores were lower than the national norm (P0.05 ) .The total score of SCL-90 and subscales scores in nurses were higher than that in doctors and office staffs ( P0.05).The depression factor score and hostile factor score in staffs with junior college degree was

  14. The Relationship between Sleep Quality,Mental Health and General Well-being of Medical Students%医学生睡眠质量与心理健康及总体幸福感的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉玲; 倪守建; 刘鹏飞; 吉峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between sleeping quality , mental health and general well-being of medical students.Methods A total of 348 medical students were assessed by PSQI ,SCL-90 and GWB.Results ①The total average PSQI score was(5.86 ±2.51),and 24.4% medical students had sleep disorder;There was significant difference on sleep latency between male and female students(t=-2.40,P<0.05);Lower grade and higher grade students had significant difference on sleep latency (t=2.13,P<0.05).②There were significant differences in total SCL -90 score,interpersonal relationship sensitivity,depression and para-noia between medical students and Chinese youth norm (t=-11.79,-4.79,-2.46,-5.59;P<0.05);There was no significant difference in SCL-90 between male and female students;Lower grade and higher grade students had significant differences in SCL -90 ( P<0.05).③There were significantly positive correlation between total PSQI score ,subjective sleep quality,sleep latency,sleep time,sleep disturbances,use of sleeping medication,daytime dysfunction and SCL -90(P<0.01),and all the facts of PSQI extept sleep efflcienty had significantly negative correlation with GWB (P<0.01).Conclusion The general sleeping quality is not good in medical students;Medical students have better mental health level than the youth norm ,and higher grade students are better than the lower grade;With the decreasing of the sleep quality their level of mental health and general well -being is also lower .%目的:了解医学生睡眠质量状况,探讨睡眠质量与心理健康和总体幸福感的关系。方法采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI),症状自评量表(SCL-90)和总体幸福感量表(GWB)对348名医学生进行问卷调查。结果①医学生PSQI总分为(5.86±2.51),有24.4%的医学生睡眠质量差;男生、女生在入睡时间因子上有显著差异(t=-2.40,P<0.05);低年级、高年级在入

  15. 精神病人刑事责任能力之认定%The Criminal Capacity Identification of the Patients with Mental Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵建

    2012-01-01

    一般来说,行为人达到刑事责任年龄即被推定为精神正常,具备相应的刑事责任能力,但可能基于精神疾病,行为人的刑事责任能力有所减弱乃至丧失。那么,如何认定精神状态对已达刑事责任年龄者刑事责任能力的影响及其程度呢?怎样的精神疾病属于影响行为人刑事责任能力的精神状态呢?就精神病人刑事责任能力的认定标准及具体运用进行了探讨。%Generally speaking,the actor of having reached criminal responsibility age,and namely be presumed as normal mental,have the corresponding criminal responsibility ability,but may be due to mental illness,the doer mental activity occurs when the obstacles to its ability to recognize or control decreased ability and even lost.How to recognize the mental state has reached the age of criminal responsibility of the effect and the ability How does mental disease belong to those of influencing ability of criminal responsibility of behavior person The determination standards of the mental patient criminal responsibility ability and the specific application were discussed.

  16. e mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Viviani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of Educational Biology (1933-1970 taking into account the development of this discipline in the Normal Schools in São Paulo (Brazil. The investigation is based on several kinds of documents, mainly teaching plans, programs, schoolbooks and testimonies from former teachers. It considers the projects for schools renovation developed since the 1920’s, as they produced certain kind of needs for the teacher education. It examines three periods of that history: the insertion of the discipline in the curriculum, its stability and decline. The focus is on the organization of the school subjects built by the pair heritage-environment. The conclusion is that the organization of this Educational Biology was based in the idea that the educators should act in a double productive way: in one side, to direct the students for the best physical and mental efficiency; in the other, to build ideal outlines for shape the children, women and teachers’s social behavior.

  17. The effects of continuity nursing on self-care ability and mental state of patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention%延续性护理对冠心病经皮冠状动脉介入治疗术后患者自护能力及心理状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of continuity nursing on self-care ability and mental state of patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods:Five hundred and six patients with coronary heart disease after PCI were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 253 cases in each. The control group patients were given routine nursing,the observation group patients were given continuity nursing on this basis. The rehabilitation knowledge,the self-care ability,the risk factors control compliance, the mental state and the life quality was compared between the two groups. Results:After nursing intervention 3,6 and 12 months,the rehabilitation knowledge score and the self-care ability score of the observation group patients were evidently higher than that in control group(P <0. 01). After nursing intervention 3,6 and 12 months,the compliance rates of the exercise,the low density lipoprotein,the quit smoking,the fasting blood glucose and the blood pressure control of the observation group patients were markedly higher than that in control group(P<0. 01). After nursing intervention 3,6 and 12 months,the anxiety score in the observation group patients was obviously lower than that of control group(P <0. 01). After nursing intervention 12 months,The score of each dimension in life quality in the observation group patients was observably higher than that of control group(P<0. 01). After nursing intervention 12 months,the diastolic blood pressure,the systolic blood pressure,the low density lipoprotein cholesterol,the triglyceride and the total cholesterol in the observation group patients were clearly lower than that of control group(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The continuity nursing can effectually improve the self-care ability,the mental state and the life quality of patients with coronary heart disease after PCI.%目的:探讨延续性护理对冠心病经皮冠状动脉介入治疗( PCI)术后患者自护

  18. The relationship of maternal mentalization and executive functioning to maternal recognition of infant cues and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jennifer M; Wittkowski, Anja; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2008-11-01

    The study examined associations between maternal mentalization ability, executive functioning, recognition of infant cues, and bonding in a non-clinical sample of mothers. It employed a correlational design. Sixty-four mothers of young infants completed assessments of mentalization ability, executive functioning, and bonding. Photographs of infant facial expressions were utilized to assess ability to recognize infant cues of emotion, but this was not found to correlate with either maternal mentalization or executive functioning ability. Whilst a trend towards a significant positive relationship between mothers' cued ability to attribute mental states and their ability to recognize infant facial expressions was observed, no significant relationships were found between bonding scores and performance on the executive functioning and mentalization measures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influence of maternal cognitive factors, specifically mentalization and executive functioning, on the development of the mother-infant relationship. Future research, methodological issues, and clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  19. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  20. Mental deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009261 Multicenter controlled randomized clinical trial of akatinol memantine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.CHENG Yan(程焱),et al.Dept Neurol,Tianjin Med Univ General Hosp,Tianjin 300052.Chin J Neurol,2009;42(4);268-272.